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Palestine Polytechnic University Third International Conference on Energy and Environmental Protection in Sustainable

Development ( ICEEP III), October 9-10, 2013, Hebron, West bank, State of Palestine
Paper Code. ENV163

Effect of Rubber and Leather Wastes on Concrete Properties

Nabil M. A. Al-Joulani
College of Engineering and Technology
Palestine Polytechnic University
Hebron - Palestine
njoulani@ppu.edu

ABSTRACT

There are different types of rubber and leather wastes generated as byproduct material during
naufacturing processes. This research is an attempt to investigate the effect of shredded and crumb
rubber from car tyres and leather wastes on the properties of fresh and hardened concrete. The
variables of the research are the type and percentage of waste material and curing time of concrete.
Waste percentages used were 5%, 7% and 10% by weight of cement in the concrete mixture.
Several tests were conducted on the fresh and hardened concrete with rubber and leather wastes,
such as workability, compressive strength, indirect tensile strength, and natural absorption.
Results have shown that the compressive strength and indirect tensile strength of concrete
decreased with increasing the contents of rubber and leather waste. The workability of fresh
concrete increased by increasing leather waste with maximum value of 13.5 cm at 10% of leather
waste. At 5% of rubber the workability was higher than concrete alone, but with increaseing the
percentage to 10%, the workability decreased to about the same value as of concrete alone.

Keywords: Industrial waste, rubber, leather, concrete properties

1 INTRODUCTION

Ther are different types of rubber and leather waste generated around the world each year as
byproduct materials. Probably the biggest environmental concern of rubber waste is the disposal of
scrap tires. Scrap tires pose three environmental threats as follows:

a) Tire piles are a fire hazard and burn with an intense heat that gives off dense black smoke.
b) Tires trap rain water, which serves as a nesting ground for various insects such as
mosquitoes; areas where there are scrap piles tend to have severe insect problems.
c) The discarded tires are bulky, virtually indestructible, and when buried tend to work their
way back to the surface as casings compressed by the dirt slowly spring back into shape and
float the tire upward.

Siddique and Naik (2004) have reported that more than 270 million scrap-tires are produced
in the USA in the year 2000. In 2001, an estimated 78% of the 281 million tires scrapped annually
were utilized in a positive manner. The principle use of scrap tires is as a fuel and fuel supplement
in a variety of utility and industrial applications. Other major uses include ground rubber as an
additive to asphalt paving material, whole and processed tire uses in civil engineering, and
utilization of cut, split, and ground tires in new products. More than 115 million tires were used in
energy recovery, Civil engineering utilized nearly 20 million tires and paving utilized 15 million

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Palestine Polytechnic University Third International Conference on Energy and Environmental Protection in Sustainable
Development ( ICEEP III), October 9-10, 2013, Hebron, West bank, State of Palestine
Paper Code. ENV163
tires. The equivalent of 8 million tires was used in manufacturing various new products, (EPA,
2005).
Scrap tires are usually considered in concrete mixtures in three main categories, such
as chipped, crumb and ground rubber. The shredded or chipped rubber to replace the gravel,
the crumb rubber that replaces for sand, and the ground rubber that may replaces cement.
Goulias DG., Ali AH.(1998), have studied the effect of rubber strips on concrete
properties. They investigated the effect of rubber strips on compressive and tensile strength
of concrete. The results have shown that concrete specimens with rubber strips from scrap
tires exhibit higher compressive strength and stiffness than the specimens with fine and
shredded rubber aggregates.
Khatib and Bayomy.(1999), have used fine grounded and shredded rubber as
percentage of the aggregates to prepare rubberized concrete mixtures. They found that the
efficiency of rubberized concrete mixtures depends on the percentage of rubber in the
concrete mixture. They reported that there is a decrease in slump with increase in rubber
content as a percentage of total aggregate volume. They further noted that at rubber contents
of 40%, slump was almost zero. It was also observed that concrete mixtures made with fine
crumb rubber were more workable than those with coarse tire chips or a combination of tire
chips and crumb rubber. The results showed that the compressive strength decreased as the
percentage of rubber increased. The coarse rubber aggregates in concrete lowered the
compressive strength more than the addition of fine crumb rubber. They recommended that
the percentage of rubber should not be more than 20% of the aggregate weight in the
concrete mixture.
Kamil et al. (2005) presented result obtained over 5 years from several crumb rubber concrete
laboratory tests. Test results included comprerssive, flextural, and indirect tensile strength tests,
thermal coefficient of expansion and microscopic matrix analysis. The results indicated that the unit
weight of the crumb rubber concrete decreased approximately 6 pcf for every 50 lbs of crumb
rubber added. The comprressive and flexural strength also decreased as the rubber content
increased. The laboratory test results also showed that as the rubber content increased, the tensile
strength decreased, but the strain at failure increased, an indication of more ductile (energy
absorbent) mixes. In all the mechanical tests, the crumb rubber concrete specimens remained intact
after failuree compared to a conventional concrete mix. The study recommended the use of crumb
rubber concrete where high strength concrete is not required.
Albano et al. (2005) reported results on the influence of scrap rubber addition to
Portland I concrete composite. The results reported for destructive and non-destructive
testing have shown that, when weight proportion increased and particle size of scrap rubber
decreased, flow and density of composite in the fresh state decreased, as well as
compressive strength and splitting tensile strength in the dry state.
Batayneh M. K. et al. (2008), presented test results on using crumb rubber in concrete
production. The test results showed that even though the compressive strength is reduced
when using the crumb tires, it can meet the strength requirements of light weight concrete.
In addition, test results and observations indicated that the addition of crumb rubber to the
mix has a limited effect toward reducing workability of the mixtures. The mechanical test
results demonstrated that the tested specimens of the crumb rubber concrete remained
relatively intact after failure compared to the conventional concrete specimens. It is also
concluded that modified concrete would contribute to the disposal of the non decaying scrap
tires.

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Palestine Polytechnic University Third International Conference on Energy and Environmental Protection in Sustainable
Development ( ICEEP III), October 9-10, 2013, Hebron, West bank, State of Palestine
Paper Code. ENV163
Ganjian E. et al. (2009) have investigated the performance of concrete mixtures
incorporating 5%, 7.5% and 10% of discarded tyre rubber as aggregate and cement
replacements. Different percentages by weight of chipped rubber were replaced for coarse
aggregates. The results showed that with up to 5% replacement, no major changes on
concrete characteristics would occur, however, with further increase in replacement ratios
considerable changes were observed.
Aiello and Leuzzi (2010) investigated the properties of various concrete mixtures at
fresh and hardened state, obtained by partial substitution of coarse and fine aggregate with
different volume percentages of waste tires rubber particles, having the same dimensions of
the replaced aggregate. The results showed lower unit weight compared to plain concrete
and good workability. The results of compressive and flexural tests indicated a larger
reduction of mechanical properties of rubber concrete when replacing coarse aggregate
rather than fine aggregate.
In this research, tires crumbs and leather waste are utilized in concrete production. The tires
and leather were cut as fine and coarse aggregates and used as percentage by weight of the cement
in the production of concrete mixes.

2 MATERIALS & EXPERIMENTAL WORK

The quantities of concrete mixture ingredients were calculated to obtain a concrete with 250
kg/cm2. The rubber used in this study was obtained from car scrap tires. The rubber waste was
applied as chipped to replace coarse aggregates in concrete mixture, and also used as ground. The
leather waste was obtained from shoes factories and used as small shredded pieces and as ground.
Figures (1 to 3) shows the rubber and leather.

Figure 1: Fine and Coarse Rubber Waste

Figure 2: Fine Leather Waste Figure 3: Coarse Leather Waste

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Palestine Polytechnic University Third International Conference on Energy and Environmental Protection in Sustainable
Development ( ICEEP III), October 9-10, 2013, Hebron, West bank, State of Palestine
Paper Code. ENV163
The tests carried out on the concrete specimens are the workability (ASTM C143) of fresh concrete,
the compressive strength (ASTM D695) of the hardened concrete cubes (10x10x10 cm3), and the
indirect split tensile strength (ASTN D638) of concrete cylinders of 15 cm diameter and 30 cm
height. The natural absorption test of concrete (ASTM C642-82) is also used to identify the
absorption of rubberized concrete samples.

2.1 Experimental Results

The effect of rubber and leather wastes on the workability of fresh concrete is shown in table
(1) for both find and coarse waste aggregates. It is noticed that leather has increased fresh concrete
workability more than rubber. Using 10% of leather waste has increased workability significantly.

Table (1): Effect of rubber & leather waste on workability of fresh concrete
Type of Waste Slump (cm)
for Different Waste Percentage
5% 7% 10%
Fine/Coarse Fine/Coarse Fine/Coarse
Concrete only 2.0 2.0 2.0
Concrete + Rubber 6.5 / 1.5 3.0 / 1.5 1.5 / 1.0
Concrete + Leather 13.0 / 5.0 13.5 / 2.5 15 / 2.0

The effect of 5% of rubber and leather waste on compressive strength of concrete is presented in
table (2). It is noticed that using 5% of leather waste has decreased the compressive strength of
concrete about 50% after 28 days curing. Coarse rubber aggregates increased compressive strength
about 18.5% after 28 days curing.

Table (2): Effect of 5% of rubber & leather on compressive strength of concrete


Type of Waste Compressive Strength (Kg/cm2 )
for Different Curing Time
7 days 14 days 28 days
Fine / Coarse Fine / Coarse Fine / Coarse
Concrete only 165 240 276
Concrete + Rubber 128 / 179 179 / 255 225 / 327
Concrete + Leather 51 / 117 67 / 169 112 / 224

The effect of 7% of rubber and leather waste on compressive strength of concrete is presented in
table (3). It is noticed that using 7% of leather waste has decreased the compressive strength after
28 days about 63% and 30%, with fine and coarse aggregates respectively. Compressive strength of
concrete with coarse rubber aggregates is about the same as for concrete alone after 28 days.

Table (3): Effect of 7% of rubber & leather on compressive strength of concrete


Type of Waste Compressive Strength (Kg/cm2 )
for Different Curing Time
7 days 14 days 28 days
Fine / Coarse Fine / Coarse Fine / Coarse
Concrete only 165 240 276
Concrete + Rubber 123 / 158 171 / 227 206 / 277
Concrete + Leather 44 / 97 77 / 138 102 / 194

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Palestine Polytechnic University Third International Conference on Energy and Environmental Protection in Sustainable
Development ( ICEEP III), October 9-10, 2013, Hebron, West bank, State of Palestine
Paper Code. ENV163
The effect of 10% of rubber and leather waste on compressive strength of concrete is presented in
table (4). It is noticed that using 10% of leather waste has decreased the compressive strength after
28 days about 72% and 35%, with fine and coarse aggregates respectively. Compressive strength of
concrete with coarse rubber aggregates is about the same as for concrete alone after 28 days.

Table (4): Effect of 10% of rubber & leather on compressive strength of concrete
Type of Waste Compressive Strength (Kg/cm2 )
for Different Curing Time
7 days 14 days 28 days
Fine / Coarse Fine / Coarse Fine / Coarse
Concrete only 165 240 276
Concrete + Rubber 102 / 155 143 / 224 179 / 270
Concrete + Leather 29 / 83 41 / 102 77 / 179

Figures (4 &5) present the variation of compressive strength of concrete with curing time for
5% of rubber and leather waste (fine and coarse aggregates) compared to concrete without waste.

Figure 4: Effect of fine aggregates of rubber and leather waste on compressive


strength of concrete (at 5% by wieght)

Figure 5: Effect of coarse aggregates of rubber and leather waste on compressive


strength of concrete (at 5% by wieght)

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Palestine Polytechnic University Third International Conference on Energy and Environmental Protection in Sustainable
Development ( ICEEP III), October 9-10, 2013, Hebron, West bank, State of Palestine
Paper Code. ENV163
Figures (6 &7) present the variation of compressive strength of concrete with curing time for
7% of rubber and leather waste (fine and coarse aggregates) compared to concrete without waste.

Figure 6: Effect of fine aggregates of rubber and leather waste on compressive


strength of concrete (at 7% by wieght)

Figure 7: Effect of coarse aggregates of rubber and leather waste on compressive


strength of concrete (at 7% by wieght)

Figures (8 &9) present the variation of compressive strength of concrete with curing time for
10% of rubber and leather waste (fine and coarse aggregates) compared to concrete without waste.

ENV163-6
Palestine Polytechnic University Third International Conference on Energy and Environmental Protection in Sustainable
Development ( ICEEP III), October 9-10, 2013, Hebron, West bank, State of Palestine
Paper Code. ENV163

Figure 8: Effect of fine aggregates of rubber and leather waste on compressive


strength of concrete (at 10% by wieght)

Figure 9: Effect of coarse aggregates of rubber and leather waste on compressive


strength of concrete (at 10% by wieght)

Figures (10 &11) present the variation of compressive strength of concrete with curing time
for 10% of rubber and leather waste (fine and coarse aggregates) compared to concrete without
waste.

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Palestine Polytechnic University Third International Conference on Energy and Environmental Protection in Sustainable
Development ( ICEEP III), October 9-10, 2013, Hebron, West bank, State of Palestine
Paper Code. ENV163

Figure 10: Decrease of compressive strength of concrete with % increase of fine


aggregates of rubber and leather waste (After 28 Days Curing)

Figure 11: Decrease of compressive strength of concrete with % increase of coarse


aggregates of rubber and leather waste (After 28 Days Curing)

According to Kamil et al. (2005), the compressive strength decreased as the rubber content
increased. A polynomial model representing this relationship is given by:

fc = 0.0366(RC)2 24.72 (RC) + 4557.7

Where fc is the compressive strength at 28 days and RC is the rubber content per cubic yard of
concrete. The model coefficient of determination is 0.9721

The variation of indirect tensile strength of concrete with % of rubber and leather waste is
presented in table (5). The tensile strength decreases with increase of rubber and leather
percentages, with more declines with fine leather aggregates.

ENV163-8
Palestine Polytechnic University Third International Conference on Energy and Environmental Protection in Sustainable
Development ( ICEEP III), October 9-10, 2013, Hebron, West bank, State of Palestine
Paper Code. ENV163
Table 5: Variation of indirect tensile strength of concrete with % of rubber
and leather waste after 28 days curing (fine and coarse aggregates)
Type of Waste % of 7 Days Curing 28 Days Curing
Waste Fine / Coarse Fine / Coarse
Concrete only 0 7.20 9.40
Concrete + Rubber 5 6.20 / 6.00 10.0 / 13.9
7 4.76 / 7.70 9.10 / 11.8
10 4.60 / 8.1 8.70 / 10.8
Concrete + Leather 5 2.90 / 5.50 5.80 / 9.70
7 2.20 / 5.40 5.10 / 9.50
10 1.44 / 4.33 3.50 / 7.90

Table (6) presents the variation of natural absorption and density of concrete with % increase
of rubber and leather. Using 10% of fine aggregates rubber and leather waste has increased natural
absorption of concrete by 40% and 75% respectively.

Table 6: Variation of natural absorption and density with % of rubber


and leather waste after 28 days curing (fine and coarse aggregates)
Type of waste % of Natural absorption, )%) Density , (gm/cm3)
waste Fine / Coarse Fine / Coarse
Concrete 0 81.4 2.381
Concrete + Rubber 5 2155 / 4.42 2.352 / 2.362
7 21.2 / 4.46 2.327 / 2.343
10 2142 / 5.30 2.318 / 2.326
Concrete + Leather 5 .1.4 / 6.45 2.324 / 2.356
7 7.00 / 5.27 2.308 / 2.338
10 .1.. / 5.37 2.164 / 2.280

3 CONCLUSION

From this experimental study, it can be concluded generally, that at early ages, concrete with
rubber resulted in compressive strength close to the values for concrete only, and no significant
decrease in compressive strength was observed, but after 28 days the compressive strength
decreased. The indirect tensile strength decreased with increasing the percentage of the fine and
coarse rubber and leather aggregates. The following specific conclusions can be drawn from this
study for concrete with rubber and leather waste.

For Rubber Waste

- Fine and coarse aggregates of rubber increased workability of fresh concrete.


- Compressive strength of concrete with coarse rubber aggregate was more than the compressive
strength of concrete with fine aggregates. At 5% of coarse rubber aggregates the compressive
strength after 28 days curing, was 326.5 kg/cm2 compared to 226 kg/cm2 for concrete with fine
rubber aggregate.
- The compressive strength of concrete with rubber decreased with increase of curing time.
- In general, indirect tensile strength decreased with increase of rubber contents and curing time.

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Palestine Polytechnic University Third International Conference on Energy and Environmental Protection in Sustainable
Development ( ICEEP III), October 9-10, 2013, Hebron, West bank, State of Palestine
Paper Code. ENV163
For Leather Waste

- Fine and coarse aggregates of leather increased workability of fresh concrete. The workability was
higher than that for concrete with rubber waste.
- Using leather waste causes dramatic decrease in compressive strength of concrete after 28 days
curing, when used as fine and coarse aggregates. However, fine leather aggregates decrease
compressive strength more than coarse aggregates.
- The indirect tensile strength decreased with increase of leather contents and curing time.

4 RECOMMENDATIONS

It is not recommended to use rubber or leather in production of concrete structural members.


Rubber waste can be used with non structural concrete such as light weight concrete or fill concrete.
Leather will increase the workability and decrease concrete strength dramatically,

5 REFERENCES

[1] Aiello M. A. And Leuzzi F., (2010), Waste Tire Rubberized Concrete: Properties at
Fresh and Hardened State, Waste Management, Article Was in Press

[2] Albano C., Camacho N., Reyes J., Feliu J.L. and Hernandez M. (2005), Influence of
scrap rubber addition to Portland I concrete Composites: Destructive and non
Destructive testing, Composite Structures No. 71, Pp. 439-446

[3] Batayneh M. K, Maie Iqbal and Asi Ibrahim, (2008), Promoting the Use of Crumb
Rubber Concrete in Developing Countries, Waste Management No. 28, Pp. 2171-2176

[4] Environmental Protection Agency (EPA, 2005), Profile of the Rubber and Plastics
Industry, 2nd Edition, EPA/310-R-05-003

[5] Ganjian E., Khorami M. and Maghsoudi A. A., (2009), Scrap-Tyre-Rubber


Replacement for Aggregate and Filler in Concrete, Construction and Building
Materials, 23, Pp 1828-1836

[6] Goulias DG. ,Ali AH.(1998), "Evaluation of rubber-filled concrete and correlation
between destructive and non destructive testing results".CrossRef,CH2140X1.

[7] Kamil K. E., George W. B. and Zhu Han, (2005), Properties of Crumb Rubber
Concrete, Submitted for Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board.

[8] Khatib Z. K. and Bayomy F. M., (1999), " Rubberized portland cement concrete ",
Journal of materials in civil engineering, Pp. 206-213.

[9] Siddique R. and Naik R. T., (2004), Properties of Concrete Containing Scrap-Tires
Rubber An Overview, Waste Management No. 24, Pp. 563-569.

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