You are on page 1of 51

Kandahar University

Engineering Faculty
Samimulhaq samimi
First Year, 1st Semester [2017]
Samimulhaqsamimi@yahoo.com
0700678625 1
Tense

2
Tense

Tense
The Present
The Past
The Future

3
Tense

Tense shows the time of an action or event.

Examples: I studied biology for three hours.

The verb studied refers to simple past time.

There are three main tenses:

1. The Present
2. The Past
3. The Future

4
1. The Present Tense

1. The Present
1. The Simple Present Tense

2. Present Continuous Tense

3. Present Perfect Tense

4. Present Perfect Continuous Tense

5
The Present Tense (Contd.)

1.1. Simple Present Tense: Is used to describe an action that is


regular, true or normal.

Note:
The PRESENT TENSE uses the verb's base form (write, work), or, for
third-person singular subjects, the base form plus an -s ending (writes,
works).

6
The Present Tense (Contd.)

We use the present tense:

1. For repeated or regular actions in the present time period.

Examples:
I take the train to the office.
The train to Berlin leaves every hour.
John sleeps eight hours every night during the week.

7
The Present Tense (Contd.)

We use the present tense:

2. For facts.

Examples:
The President of The USA lives in The White House.
A dog has four legs.
We come from Switzerland.

8
The Present Tense (Contd.)

We use the present tense:

3. For habits.

Examples:
I get up early every day.
Kareem brushes his teeth twice a day.
They travel to their country house every weekend.

9
The Present Tense (Contd.)

We use the present tense:

4. For things that are always / generally true.

Examples:
It rains a lot in winter.
The Queen of England lives in Buckingham Palace.
They speak English at work.

10
The Present Tense (Contd.)

We form the present tense using the base form of the infinitive
(without the TO).

Infinitive is the verb before it is changed and it begins with TO. For example: to
have, to eat, to go, to live, to speak etc.

In general, we add 'S' for third person singular subjects.

Subject Verb The rest of the sentence


I / you / we / they speak / learn English at home
he / she / it speaks / learns English at home
11
The Present Tense (Contd.)

The spelling for the verb in the third person differs depending on
the ending of that verb:

1. For verbs that end in -O, -CH, -SH, -SS, -X, or -Z we add -ES in the third person.
Examples:
go goes
catch catches
wash washes
kiss kisses
fix fixes
buzz buzzes
12
The Present Tense (Contd.)

2. For verbs that end in a consonant + Y, we remove the Y and add -IES.
Examples:
marry marries
study studies
carry carries
worry worries

3. For verbs that end in a vowel + Y, we just add -S.


Examples:
play plays
enjoy enjoys
say says 13
The Present Tense (Contd.)

Negative Sentences in the Simple Present Tense:


To make a negative sentence, we normally use Don't or Doesn't with all verbs
EXCEPT To Be and Modal verbs (can, might, should etc.).

Examples:
Affirmative: You speak French.
Negative: You don't speak French.
Affirmative: He speaks German.
Negative: He doesn't speak German.

Notice that the letter S at the end of the verb in the affirmative sentence
disappears in the negative sentence.

14
The Present Tense (Contd.)
Negative Sentences in the Simple Present Tense:

Subject don't/doesn't Verb The Rest of the sentence


I / you / we / they don't have / buy
cereal for breakfast
he / she / it doesn't eat / like etc.

Examples:
You don't speak Arabic.
John doesn't speak Italian.
We don't have time for a rest.
It doesn't move.
They don't want to go to the party.
She doesn't like fish. 15
The Present Tense (Contd.)

Questions in the Simple Present Tense:


To make a question in English we normally use Do or Does. It has no translation
but it is essential to show we are making a question. It is normally put at the
beginning of the question.
Examples:
Affirmative: You speak English.
Question: Do you speak English?

Affirmative: He speaks German.


Question: Does he speak German?

We DON'T use Do or Does in questions that have the verb To Be or Modal


Verbs (can, must, might, should etc.)

16
The Present Tense (Contd.)
Questions in the Simple Present Tense:

Do/Does Subject Verb The Rest of the sentence


Do I / you / we / they have / need
a new bike?
Does he / she / it want etc.

Examples:
Do you need a dictionary?
Does Mary need a dictionary?
Do we have a meeting now?
Does it rain a lot in winter?
Do they want to go to the party?
Does he like pizza?
17
The Present Tense (Contd.)
Short Answers with Do and Does:

Short Answer Short Answer


Sample Questions
(Affirmative) (Negative)
Do you like chocolate? Yes, I do. No, I don't.
Do I need a pencil? Yes, you do. No, you don't.
Do you both like
Yes, we do. No, we don't.
chocolate?
Do they like chocolate? Yes, they do. No, they don't.
Does he like chocolate? Yes, he does. No, he doesn't.
Does she like chocolate? Yes, she does. No, she doesn't.
Does it have four wheels? Yes, it does. No, it doesn't.

If a question word such as who, when, where, why, which or how is used in the
question, you can not use the short answers above to respond to the question.
18
The Present Tense (Contd.)

1.2. Present Progressive Tense:


expresses the idea that something is happening now, at this very
moment. It can also be used to show that something is not happening
now.

Examples:
You are learning English now.
You are not swimming now.
Are you sleeping?
I am not standing.
They are reading their books.
What are you doing? 19
The Present Tense (Contd.)

We use the present progressive tense:

1. When somebody is doing something at this moment.

Examples:
Sarah is changing her clothes right now.
Her boyfriend is waiting for her.
We are learning the progressive tense in English.

20
The Present Tense (Contd.)

We use the present progressive tense:

2. When something is happening at this moment. When the action


has started but hasn't finished.

Examples:
It is snowing at the moment.
The economy is growing at an exponential rate.
The children are sleeping, so please be quiet.

21
The Present Tense (Contd.)

We use the present progressive tense:

3. To talk about something that is happening around the time of


speaking but not necessarily at that exact moment.

Examples:
Alfredo is studying a lot for his exam.
I'm reading a great book. (not necessary right at this moment)
We are planning a trip to Bamian.

22
The Present Tense (Contd.)
Negative Sentences in Present Progressive Tense:
To make a negative sentence, we use NOT after To Be (is, am, are) for all verbs.

Examples:
Affirmative: It is raining at the moment.
Negative: It is not raining at this moment.

Questions in the Present Continuous Tense:


For making questions we move TO BE to the beginning of the sentence.

Examples:
Affirmative: It is raining at the moment.
Question: Is it raining at this moment?
23
The Present Tense (Contd.)
Present vs. Progressive Tense:
A significant difference between these two tenses is we use the simple
present tense for things that are permanent or are in general and
the present progressive tense for things that may change or are
temporary.

Compare:

Permanent Temporary
Simon lives in Birmingham. Simon is living with his friends for now.
James smokes. James is smoking in the kitchen.
We walk to work. We're walking in the park.
I speak English. I am speaking English right now.

24
2. The Past Tense

2. The Past
1. The Simple Past Tense

2. Past Continuous Tense

3. Past Perfect Tense

4. Past Perfect Continuous Tense

25
The Past Tense (Contd.)

2.1. Simple Past Tense: Is used to talk about something that


started and finished at a definite time in the past.

Note:
The PAST TENSE uses the past form of the verb (wrote, worked) for all
subjects/pronouns.

26
The Past Tense (Contd.)

Past Tense Regular Verbs:


To change a regular verb into its past tense form, we normally add
ED to the end of the verb.

Examples:
play played
cook cooked
rain rained
wait waited

27
The Past Tense (Contd.)

Examples of sentences using regular verbs in the past tense:

Examples:
Last night I played my guitar loudly and the neighbors complained.
He bought an expensive car.
It rained yesterday.
John watched TV all night.
John wanted to go to the museum.

28
The Past Tense (Contd.)

Negative Sentences in the Simple Past Tense:


We use didnt (did not) to make a negative sentence in the past tense. This is for
regular AND irregular verbs in English. (Exception is To Be and Modal Verbs such
as Can)

Examples:
Compare the following:
Present: They dont live in Kandahar.
Past: They didnt live in Kandahar.

NOTICE: The only difference between a negative sentence in the present tense
and a negative sentence in the past tense is the change in the auxiliary verb.

29
The Past Tense (Contd.)

Negative Sentences in the Simple Past Tense:

Subject Didnt Verb The Rest of the sentence


I / you / we / they didnt have / buy
cereal for breakfast
he / she / it didn't eat / like etc.

Examples:
I didnt want to go to the dentist.
She didnt have time.
You didnt close the door.
He didnt come to my party.
They didnt study so they didnt pass the test.
We didnt sleep well last night. 30
The Past Tense (Contd.)

Questions in the Simple Past Tense:


We use did to make a question in the past tense. This is for regular AND irregular
verbs in English. (Exception is To Be and Modal Verbs such as Can)

Examples:
Affirmative: He closed the door.
Question: Did he close the door?

Affirmative: They studied for exam.


Question: Did they study for exam?
Compare:
Present: Does he live in Italy?
Past: Did he live in Italy?
31
The Past Tense (Contd.)

2.2. Past Progressive Tense:


Is used to indicate that a longer action in the past was interrupted.
Is used to indicate that something took place (in the simple past)
while something else was happening.

Examples:
I was watching TV when she called.
When the phone rang, she was writing a letter.
While we were having the picnic, it started to rain.
Carlos lost his watch while he was running.
32
The Past Tense (Contd.)

Important:
In the Simple Past, a specific time is used to show when an action began
or finished. In the Past Continuous, a specific time only interrupts the
action.

Examples:
Last night at 6 PM, I ate dinner.
I STARTED EATING AT 6 PM.
Last night at 6 PM, I was eating dinner.
I STARTED EARLIER; AND AT 6 PM, I WAS IN THE PROCESS OF EATING DINNER.

33
The Past Tense (Contd.)

We use the past progressive tense:

1. You can use a specific time as an interruption.

Examples:

Last night at 6 PM, I was eating dinner.


At midnight, we were still driving through the desert.
Yesterday at this time, I was sitting at my desk at work.

34
The Past Tense (Contd.)

We use the past progressive tense:

2. Is used with two actions in the same sentence, it expresses


the idea that both actions were happening at the same time.
The actions are parallel.

Examples:
I was studying while he was making dinner.
While Ellen was reading, Tim was watching television.
Were you listening while he was talking?
What were you doing while you were waiting?

35
The Past Tense (Contd.)

We use the past progressive tense:

3. In English, we often use a series of parallel actions to describe


the atmosphere at a particular time in the past.

Example:
When I walked into the office, several people were busily typing, some were
talking on the phones, the boss was yelling directions, and customers were
waiting to be helped. One customer was yelling at a secretary and waving his
hands. Others were complaining to each other about the bad service.

36
The Past Tense (Contd.)
We use the past progressive tense:

4. The Past Progressive with words such as "always" or "constantly"


expresses the idea that something irritating or shocking often
happened in the past.

Example:
She was always coming to class late.
He was constantly talking. He annoyed everyone.
I didn't like them because they were always complaining.

Remember to put the words "always" or "constantly" between to be" and "verb+ing.

37
The Past Tense (Contd.)

While vs. When:


Clauses are groups of words which have meaning, but are often not
complete sentences.
When you talk about things in the past, "when" is most often followed by
the verb tense Simple Past, whereas "while" is usually followed by Past
Continuous.
"While" expresses the idea of "during that time." Study the examples
below. They have similar meanings, but they emphasize different parts of
the sentence.
Examples:
I was studying when she called.
While I was studying, she called.

38
3. The Future Tense

3. The Future
1. The Simple Future Tense

2. Future Continuous Tense

3. Future Perfect Tense

4. Future Perfect Continuous Tense

39
The Future Tense (Contd.)

3.1. Simple Future Tense:


Indicates that an action is in the future.

Examples:
I will study hard for the final exams.
She is going to call her brother.

Note:
Simple Future has two different forms in English: "will" and "be going to.
FORM Will: [will + verb]
FORM Be Going To: [am/is/are + going to + verb]
40
The Future Tense (Contd.)

We use the Simple Future tense:

1. Used to Express a Voluntary Action:


"Will" often suggests that a speaker will do something voluntarily.
A voluntary action is one the speaker offers to do for someone else.

Examples:
I will send you the information when I get it.
Will you help me move this heavy table?
I will translate the email, so Mr. John can read it.

41
The Future Tense (Contd.)

We use the Simple Future tense:

2. Used for promises:


"Will" is usually used in promises.

Examples:
I promise I will not tell him about the surprise party.
Don't worry, I will be careful.
I won't tell anyone your secret.
I will call you when I arrive.

42
The Future Tense (Contd.)

We use the Simple Future tense:

3. Used for expressing a plan:


"Be going to" expresses that something is a plan. It expresses the idea that a person
intends to do something in the future.

Examples:
He is going to spend his vacation in Hawaii.
We are going to meet at 6 PM tonight.
I'm going to be an actor when I grow up.
Michelle is going to begin medical school next year.
43
The Future Tense (Contd.)

We use the Simple Future tense:

4. Used for prediction:


Both "will" and "be going to" can express the idea of a general prediction about the
future. Predictions are guesses about what might happen in the future.

Examples:
The movie "Zenith" will win several Academy Awards.
The movie "Zenith" is going to win several Academy Awards.

John Smith will be the next President.


John Smith is going to be the next President.
44
The Future Tense (Contd.)
Negative Sentences in Simple Future Tense:
To make a negative sentence, we use NOT after auxiliary Will or (is, am, are)
for all verbs.

Examples:
Affirmative: She will come tomorrow.
Negative: She will not come tomorrow.

Questions in the Future Continuous Tense:


For making questions we move the auxiliary verb to the beginning of the
sentence.

Examples:
Affirmative: She is going to come tomorrow.
Question: Is she going to come tomorrow?
45
The Future Tense (Contd.)
3.2. Future Continuous Tense:
Indicates continuing action, something that will be happening, going on,
at some point in the future.
Examples:
I will be walking.
They are going to be studying.
You will be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight.
He is going to be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight.

Note:
Future Continuous has two different forms: "will be doing " and "be going to be doing" usually
interchangeable.
FORM Will: [will be + Verb with ing]
FORM Be Going To: [am/is/are + going to be + Verb with ing]
46
The Future Tense (Contd.)

We use the Future Continuous Tense:

1. Used for Interrupted Action in the Future:


Used to indicate that a longer action in the future will be interrupted by a shorter
action in the future.

Examples:
I will be watching TV when she arrives tonight.
I will be waiting for you when your bus arrives.
I am going to be staying at the hotel, if you need to contact me.

47
The Future Tense (Contd.)

We use the Future Continuous Tense:

2. Used for Specific Time as an Interruption in the Future:


The Future Continuous is interrupted by a short action in the future. In addition to
using short actions as interruptions, you can also use a specific time as an
interruption.

Examples:
Tonight at 6 PM, I am going to be eating dinner.
I WILL BE IN THE PROCESS OF EATING DINNER.

At midnight tonight, we will still be driving through the desert.


WE WILL BE IN THE PROCESS OF DRIVING THROUGH THE DESERT.
48
The Future Tense (Contd.)

We use the Future Continuous Tense:

3. Used for Parallel Actions in the Future:


When you use the Future Continuous with two actions in the same sentence, it
expresses the idea that both actions will be happening at the same time. The actions
are parallel.

Examples:
I am going to be studying and he is going to be making dinner.
Tonight, they will be eating dinner and having a good time.
While Ellen is reading, Tim will be watching television.

49
The Future Tense (Contd.)

We use the Future Continuous Tense:

4. Atmosphere in the Future:


We often use a series of Parallel Actions to describe atmosphere at a specific point in
the future.

Example:
When I arrive at the party, everybody is going to be celebrating. Some will be
dancing. Others are going to be talking. A few people will be eating pizza,
and several people are going to be drinking beer. They always do the same
thing.

50
51