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Examples References

a) A child who walks independently 1) Graham H.K., Harvey A., Rodda J.,

at home on all surfaces but uses Nattrass G.R., Pirpiris M. (2004).
crutches in the school playground and The Functional Mobility Scale (FMS).
a wheelchair for long family walks or JPO 24(5): 514520.
school outings would be scored as:
2) Palisano R.J., Tieman B.L., Walter S.D.,
6 3 1 Bartlett D.J., Rosenbaum P.L., Russell D.,
Hanna S.E. (2003). Effect of environ-
b) A child who uses crutches indoors mental setting on mobility methods
at home, a walker in the playground of children with cerebral palsy.
at school and a wheelchair to go Dev. Med. Child Neurol. 45: 113120. The Functional Mobility Scale
to the shopping centre would be (version 2)
scored as:

3 2 1 For further information or more

copies please contact: For children with cerebral palsy
c) A child who walks independently on Hugh Williamson Gait Laboratory aged 418 years
all surfaces at home including steps The Royal Childrens Hospital
without a rail but at school and for Flemington Road
longer distances tend to lose balance Parkville, 3052
on uneven ground or in crowds would Melbourne, Australia
be scored as:
6 5 5
phone: +61 3 9345 5354
d) A child who uses a walker at home
and in physiotherapy but in all other
settings uses a wheelchair would be
scored as:

2 1 1
e) A child who walks independently
without assistive devices at home on
level ground only and uses two single
point sticks at school in the classroom
and the playground and a walker for The Royal Childrens Hospital, Melbourne 2004
longer distances would be scored as: ERC: 061076 Developed by the

5 4 2 Hugh Williamson Gait Laboratory

The Royal Childrens Hospital
Melbourne, Australia
Part of the Gait CCRE
Introduction Rating Rating
The Functional Mobility Scale (FMS) has
been constructed to classify functional 6 3 To obtain answers that reflect perform-
ance, the manner in which the questions
mobility in children, taking into account are asked of the child/parent is impor-
the range of assistive devices a child Independent on all surfaces: Uses crutches: tant. The questions we use to obtain
might use. Does not use any walking aids Without help from another person. the appropriate responses are:
The scale can be used to classify childrens or need any help from another 1. How does your child move around
functional mobility, document change person when walking over all for short distances in the house? (5m)
over time in the same child and to surfaces including uneven ground,
document change seen following curbs etc. and in a crowded 2. How does your child move around
interventions, for example orthopaedic environment. in and between classes at school? (50m)
surgery or selective dorsal rhizotomy. 3. How does your child move around
The FMS rates walking ability at Rating Rating for long distances such as at the
three specific distances, 5, 50 and 500
metres, (or 5, 50, 500 yards). This repre-
5 2 shopping centre? (500m)

The distances are a guide. It is the

sents the childs mobility in the home,
Independent on level surfaces: Uses a walker or frame: environment that is most relevant.
at school and in the community setting.
It therefore accounts for different Does not use walking aids or need help from Without help from another person.
assistive devices used by the same child another person.* Requires a rail for stairs.
in different environments. *If uses furniture, walls, fences, shop fronts for support, The difference between 14 is self-
Assessment is by the clinician on the basis please use 4 as the appropriate description. explanatory, however the difference
of questions asked of the child/parent between 5 and 6 is less clear.
(not direct observation). The walking 5 metres: children who require a rail for
Rating Rating
ability of the child is rated at each of the
three distances according to the need
for assistive devices such as crutches,
4 1 stairs would be rated as 5 and children
who do not require a rail or help would
be rated as 6.
walkers or wheelchair. Orthotics which
Uses sticks (one or two): Uses wheelchair: 50 metres: children who can walk on all
are regularly used should be included
Without help from another person. surfaces including uneven surfaces and
for the rating. May stand for transfers, may
do some stepping supported by steps, particularly at school are rated as
The FMS is a performance measure. 6 and children that require help on these
another person or using a
It is important to rate what the child surfaces but can walk on level surfaces
actually does at this point in time, without help are rated as 5.
not what they can do or used to
500 metres: children who can walk
be able to do. Rating Crawling: on all surfaces including rough ground,
Rating: select the number
Walking distance (from 16) which best Child crawls for mobility at home (5m). curbs, steps and in crowded environ-
describes current function ments in the community without help
are rated as 6 and children who walk
5 metres (yards) long distances only on level surfaces
Rating N = does not apply: and have difficulty walking in crowds
Developed by the Hugh Williamson Gait Laboratory,
The Royal Childrens Hospital, Melbourne, Australia.
50 metres (yards)
N For example child does not complete
the distance (500 m).
are rated as 5.

Part of the Gait CCRE.

500 metres (yards)

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