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Specification and approval of procedures for welding metallic materials
Part 1: General rules for fusion welding (includes Amendment A1 : 1997) English version of DIN EN 288-1 : 1992 + A1 : 1997 ICS 25.160.10 Descriptors: Welding, approval testing of welders. Anforderung und Anerkennung von Schweißverfahren für metallische Werkstoffe – Teil 1: Allgemeine Regeln für das Schmelzschweißen (enthält Änderung A1 : 1997)
Supersedes April 1992 edition.
European Standard EN 288-1 : 1992 + A1 : 1997 has the status of a DIN Standard.
This standard has been prepared by CEN/TC 121. The responsible German body involved in the preparation of this standard was the Normenausschuß Schweißtechnik (Welding Standards Committee). Welding procedure approval tests are intended to verify that a fabricator is adequately qualified to perform welding operations using a particular procedure (including weld preparation, preheating and any post-weld heat treatment). It shall be the fabricator’s responsibility to establish whether this procedure suits the particular application, and to document this. The aim of this series of standards is to introduce uniform documented procedures throughout Europe to facilitate quality management in welding. The aim of the DIN EN 288 series of standards is to establish certain criteria by which to assess fabricators and their work. The standards thus provide a basis for mutual recognition of welding procedure approval certificates by the bodies responsible for the various fields of application. Amendments In comparison with the April 1992 edition, the following amendments have been made: a) Some definitions have been amended. b) The specifications for welding procedure approval have been revised. c) The standard has been editorially revised. Previous edition EN 288-1: 1992-04.
EN comprises 7 pages.
© No part of this standard may be reproduced without the prior permission of DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung e. V., Berlin. Beuth Verlag GmbH, D-10772 Berlin, has the exclusive right of sale for German Standards (DIN-Normen).
Ref. No. DIN EN 288-1 : 1997-09
English price group 08 Sales No. 1108 03.98
EN 288-1 February 1992 + A1 June 1997 ICS 26. Portugal.160. No. CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. German). Ireland. France. Belgium. A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official versions. English version Specification and approval of welding procedures for metallic materials Part 1: General rules for fusion welding (includes Amendment A1 : 1997) Descriptif et qualification d’un mode opératoire de soudage pour les matériaux métalliques – Partie 1: Règles générales pour le soudage par fusion (amendement A1 : 1997 inclus) Anforderung und Anerkennung von Schweißverfahren für metallische Werkstoffe – Teil 1: Allgemeine Regeln für das Schmelzschweißen (enthält Änderung A1 : 1997) This European Standard was approved by CEN on 1992-02-21 and Amendment A1 on 1996-12-11. Greece. Denmark. Iceland. Supersedes EN 288-1 : 1992. French. ÈÉË European Committee for Standardization Comité Européen de Normalisation Europäisches Komitee für Normung Central Secretariat: rue de Stassart 36. CEN – All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national members. Sweden. the Netherlands. approval testing of welders. Spain. Switzerland. B-1050 Brussels © 1997.10 Descriptors: Welding. Finland. The European Standards exist in three official versions (English. Ref. the Czech Republic. CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria. Norway. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the Central Secretariat or to any CEN member. Germany. Italy. EN 288-1 : 1992 + A1 : 1997 E . and the United Kingdom. Luxembourg.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . Welding coordination personnel . . . . . . . . . . . and the United Kingdom. . . . .3 Approval by use of approved welding consumables . . . . . . . France. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Finland. . 3. . . the Czech Republic. . . . the Netherlands. . . . Greece. . . . . . . . . . Italy. . . .6 Approval by a pre-production welding test Annex A (informative) Guidelines for the application and the subsequent choice of method of approval . . . In accordance with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations.17 Test piece . . . . Netherlands. . . . . . . . . 7 Foreword to EN 288-1 : 1992 This standard has been prepared by Working Group 1 ‘Specification and approval of welding procedures for metallic materials’ of CEN/TC 121 ‘Welding’. . . France. 3. . . . .1 General . . . . . . .14 Welding variables .3 Preliminary Welding Procedure Specification (pWPS) . . . .28 3.32 3. . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . However. . . . . Denmark. . . . . . . . . . . . Foreword to EN 288-1 : 1992/A1 : 1997 This amendment to EN 288-1 : 1992 has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 121 ‘Welding’. . . .11 Standard welding procedure . . . either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement. . . . . . . .34 3. . . . . .27 3. . .8 Previous welding experience . . . . This standard consists of various Parts. . . . . . . . . . 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 3. 3. . . . . . . . . . Finland. . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Scope . . . Germany. . . . 3. . . . .18 Test specimen . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . .21 3. . . . . .31 3. . . . Denmark. . . . . . Partial penetration weld . . . . . Italy. . . . . . . . . Weld metal thickness . . . . . . . . . . Heat input . Belgium. . . . 5. . . . . . Iceland. . . . . . . . . . 3 Definitions . Greece. . . . . . . . 3. . . . .2 Approval by welding procedure tests . . .36 4 Heterogeneous assembly . . the national standards oraganizations of following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria. . . . . . . Imperfection . . . . . . . . These standards usually require that special processes be carried out in accordance with written procedure specifications. . . Spain. . . 5. . . .7 Welding Procedure Approval Record (WPAR) . 3. . .35 3. . . . . . . . . . . 0 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . Belgium. . . . . . The parts already finalized are listed under clause 2. . . 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 Specification of welding procedures . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . 3. . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . Iceland. . . . . . by December 1997 at the latest. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fillet weld throat thickness . .5 Approval by use of a standard welding procedure . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . Portugal.30 3. .1 Welding procedure . Sweden. 3. and conflicting national standards withdrawn. . and the United Kingdom. . . . . . . . . .20 Homogeneous assembly . . . . . .4 Approval by previous welding experience 5.16 Parent metal . .13 Welding consumables . . . . . . . . In accordance with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Metallurgical deviation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Welder .24 3. . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . 3. . . . .22 3. . . . . . . .15 Range of approval . .6 Approved Welding Procedure Specification . . 3. 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . Examiner or examining body . For this standard. . Supplier of consumables . . . . . . . Welding operator . . . . Germany. . . . 3. . . . . Ireland. . . . . . . . . . . Norway. . . . . Switzerland. . . . .25 3. Welding is considered a ‘special process’ within the meaning of the standards for quality systems. 5 Approval of welding procedure . 0 Introduction Welding procedure specifications are needed to provide a well-defined basis for planning welding operations and for quality control during welding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Work instruction . . . . . . . Parent metal thickness . . This amendment shall be given the status of a national standard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria. . . . . . . . . Dissimilar metal joint . . Norway. . Switzerland. .12 Pre-production welding test . . . . . . Manufacturer . . . . . . .9 Approved welding consumable . . . . . . . . . .23 3. . . . alterations were deemed necessary based on experience and current knowledge.10 Welding procedure test . . . Luxembourg. . . . . . Portugal. . . . . Spain. . . .26 3. . . document ISO/TC 44 SC10 N 175 was considered and used as a basis. 3. . 3. . 2 Normative references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Foreword to EN 288-1 : 1992/A1 : 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Welding processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 3. the Secretariat of which is held by DS. Luxembourg. .4 Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) . . . . Run-out length . . . Ireland. . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 3. . .Page 2 EN 288-1 : 1992 + A1 : 1997 Contents Page Page Foreword to EN 288-1 : 1992 . . . . . . Sweden. . .
1 Scope This standard defines general rules for the specification and approval of welding procedures for metallic materials.Page 3 EN 288-1 : 1992 + A1 : 1997 Part 2 of this standard defines a format for the welding procedure specifications for arc welding of metallic materials. EN 287-1 EN 287-2 EN 288-2 Approval testing of welders – Fusion welding – Part 1: Steels Approval testing of welders – Fusion welding – Part 2: Aluminium and aluminium alloys Specification and approval of welding procedures for meallic materials – Part 2: Welding procedure specification for arc welding EN 288-3 Specification and approval of welding procedures for metallic materials – Part 3: Welding procedure test for the arc welding of steels EN 288-4 Specification and approval of welding procedures for metallic materials – Part 4: Welding procedure tests for the arc welding of aluminium and its alloys EN 288-5 Specification and approval of welding procedures for metallic materials – Part 5: Approval by using approved welding consumables for arc welding EN 288-6 Specification and approval of welding procedures for metallic materials – Part 6: Approval related to previous experience EN 288-7 Specification and approval of welding procedures for metallic materials – Part 7: Approval by a standard welding procedure for arc welding EN 288-8 Specification and approval of welding procedures for metallic marerials – Part 8: Approval by a pre-production welding test prEN 1011 Recommendations for arc welding of ferritic steels prEN 12345 Welding – Pictorial representation of terms for welded joints EN 24063 Welding brazing. which is considered to fulfil the requirements specified in current standards for quality systems as regards procedure specifications. For undated references. Part 1 of this standard defines these rules. rules or legal requirements). including reference to materials.g. but does not in itself ensure that welds fulfil the requirements. subsequent amendments to or revisions of any of these publications apply to this standard only when incorporated in it by amendment or revision. It is assumed that welding procedure specifications are used in production by competent welders. the nomenclature and definitions given in ISO 857 are used in this standard.2 welding processes: For welding processes. The numbering system for welding processes in EN 24063 is adhered to. Preparation of a welding procedure specification provides the necessary basis. the latest edition of the publication referred to applies. preparation. by dated or undated reference.1 welding procedure: A specified course of action to be followed in making a weld. with explanations (ISO 6520 : 1982) ISO 857 : 1990 Welding brazing and soldering processes – Vocabulary 3 Definitions 3. Metallurgical deviations constitute a special problem. For dated references. because non-destructive evaluation of the mechanical properties is impossible at the present state of non-destructive testing technology. approved in accordance with the relevant Part of EN 287. can be evaluated by nondestructive testing on the finished product. Some deviations. . This has resulted in the establishment of a set of rules for approval of the welding procedure prior to the release of the specification to actual production. In the absence of such a requirement. These normative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text and the publications are listed hereafter. the method of approval shall be agreed between the contracting parties at the enquiry or ordering stage. standards. This standard also refers to several other standards as regards detailed rules for specific applications. by contract. and necessary equipment to be used. preheating (if necessary). 2 Normative references This standard incorporates. provisions from other publications. soldering and braze welding of metals – Nomenclature of processes and reference numbers for symbolic representation on drawings (ISO 4063 : 1990) EN 26520 Classification of imperfections in metallic fusion welds. however. The use of a particular method of approval of a welding procedure is often a mandatory requirement in an application standard. 3. This standard applies when approval of the welding procedure is required (e. notably imperfections and distortions. method and control of welding and post-weld heat treatment (if relevant).
etc. produced and delivered according to a standard or a similar comprehensive specification.16. mechanical properties.14. NOTE 1: One or more welding procedure approval records may be required in order to approve a particular welding procedure specification. 3.4 Welding Procedure Specification (WPS): A document providing in detail the required variables for a specific application to ensure repeatability. 3. 3.13 welding consumables: Materials consumed in the making of a weld. NOTE 2: WPQR was formerly used instead of WPAR. in order to prove the feasibility of a welding procedure.2 group of standard materials: A specific number of similar standard materials. 3. fluxes and gases.g.3 batch of standard materials: Parent metals of the same chemical composition. 3.. heat treatment condition. etc. 3. .16 Parent metal 3. 3. 3. mechanical properties. 3.3 preliminary Welding Procedure Specification (pWPS): A tentative welding procedure specification.16. 3. 3.8 previous welding experience: When it can be shown by authenticated test data that the manufacturer’s established production welding procedures have been capable of consistently producing welds of acceptable quality over a period of time. but based on a non-standard test piece. The batch is limited to a single charge. delivered as a unit from a single manufacturer (e. steel mill).10 welding procedure test: The making and testing of a welded joint representative of the one to be used in production. 3. provide approval for more than one welding procedure specifications. 3. as well as all results from the testing of the test weld.1 essential variable: A variable which influences the mechanical and/or metallurgical properties of a welded joint.6 approved Welding Procedure Specification: A specification by which the welding procedure has been approved in accordance with the specifications of this standard.7 Welding Procedure Approval Record (WPAR): A record comprising all relevant data from the welding of a test piece required for approval of a welding procedure specification.5 work instruction: Simplified specification (written or verbal) of the welding procedure. 3. in certain cases.11 standard welding procedure: A welding procedure tested and certified by an examiner or examining body which may then be made available to any manufacturer.1 standard material: Parent metal of a given chemical composition. 3.14.14 Welding variables 3. including filler metals. which is assumed by the manufacturer to be adequate. heat treatment condition. and one welding procedure approval record may.12 pre-production welding test: A welding test having the same function as a welding procedure test. but which has not been approved.15 range of approval: The extent of approval for an essential variable.16. 3. suitable for direct application in the workshop.Page 4 EN 288-1 : 1992 + A1 : 1997 3.9 approved welding consumable: A welding consumable combination tested and certified by an independent examiner or examining body.. simulating the production conditions.2 additional variable: A variable which does not influence the mechanical and/or metallurgical properties of a welded joint. Welding of test pieces required for approval of a welding procedure specification is to be carried out on the basis of a preliminary welding procedure specification.
3.36 partial penetration weld: See prEN 12345.29 supplier of consumables: The company which manufactures or supplies consumables.24 metallurgical deviation: Changes in the mechanical properties and/or metallurgical structure of the weld metal or heat-affected zones compared to the properties of the parent metal. 3.17 test piece: The welded assembly used in the approval test.34 weld metal thickness: See prEN 12345. etc. 3.Page 5 EN 288-1 : 1992 + A1 : 1997 3. 3.32 run-out length: The length of a run produced by melting a covered electrode. combined with the resulting chemical composition and structure of the weld metal. porosity. 3. 3. torch or blowpipe by hand.25 manufacturer: The person or organisation reponsible for the welding fabrication (in the welding workshop). The examiner/examining body shall be acceptable to any contracting parties. 3.28 examiner or examining body: A person or organisation who verifies compliance with the applicable standard. whose competence and knowledge has been demonstrated by training. NOTE: Metallurgical deviations include reduced strength. Imperfections include cracks. NOTE: See prEN 1011 for calculation of run-out length.21 heterogeneous assembly: An assembly in which the weld metal and parent metal show significant differences in mechanical properties and/or chemical composition. slag inclusions. for example. have responsibilities in the manufacturing operations for welding and related activities.19 test: A series of operations which will include the making of a welded test piece and subsequent nondestructive and/or destructive testing and reporting of results. 3. fracture toughness. 3. within a manufacturer’s works .20 homogeneous assembly: An assembly in which the weld metal and parent metal shows no significant differences in mechanical properties and/or chemical composition. NOTE: An assembly made of similar parent metals without filler metal is considered homogeneous. 3. 3.27 welding operator: A person who performs fully mechanized or automatic welding.35 fillet weld throat thickness: See prEN 12345. NOTE: See prEN 1011 for calculation of heat input. 3. .23 imperfection: A discontinuity in the weld or a deviation from the intended geometry. lack of penetration.31 heat input: The energy introduced into the weld zone per unit length of run when welding a run.30 welding coordination personnel: Personnel who. education and/or relevant manufacturing experience. 3. 3.22 dissimilar metal joint: An assembly in which the parent metals show significant differences in mechanical properties and/or chemical composition. ductility. welding gun. NOTE: EN 26520 contains a comprehensive list of imperfections.18 test specimen: Part or portion cut from the test piece in order to perform a specified destructive test. 3. They are caused by temperature variations during welding. 3.33 parent metal thickness: The nominal thickness of the materials to be welded. 3. 3. in the weld metal and heat-affected zones.26 welder: A welder who holds and manipulates the electrode holder. 3.
5. – approved welding consumables to EN 288-5 (see 5.1 Methods for approval This standard defines a number of methods for approval of welding procedures. provided there is a well-defined correspondence between machine settings and the values of the essential and additional variables defined in the WPS. The values may be given as machine settings. 5.4 Approval by previous welding experience A manufacturer may have a pWPS approved by referring to previous experience on condition that he can furnish proof. Approval shall be obtained by one of the following: – welding procedure tests to EN 288-3 or EN 288-4 (see 5. For such materials. the method of approval shall be agreed between the contracting parties at the enquiry or ordering stage. The examiner or examining body shall state the permitted range of approval with regards to essential variables for the approved welding consumables. In the absence of such a requirement. – define values for the welding process to be used by the welder for all essential variables under direct control by the welder. Annex A provides some guidelines for the application of approval methods. If the approval involves welding of test pieces.6).2). Limitations for the application of the various methods of approval are stated in this standard and in subsequent Parts of this standard. for which adequate experience can be documented. that he has previously welded satisfactorily the type of joint and materials in question. Each pWPS shall be approved by one method only. . A WPS shall be classified as pWPS until approved in accordance with the specifications of this standard. then these shall be welded in accordance with the pWPS. a pWPS shall be considered approved on condition that the welding consumables are approved and that all essential variables are within the range for which the approval is valid. on the basis of appropriate authentic documentation of an independent nature. Subsequently.4). The workshop shall ensure that the pWPS is applicable in the production.Page 6 EN 288-1 : 1992 + A1 : 1997 4 Specification of welding procedures Welding operations shall be adequately planned prior to production. consumable(s) and ranges of essential variables. approved by reference to previous experience.1.1.3). Each method of approval has certain limits of application as regards welding process.3 Approval by use of approved welding consumables Some materials do not deteriorate significantly in the heat-affected zones. taking into account any experience from previous productions and the state of welding technology.5). the planning shall provide WPS’s for all welded joints. – standard welding procedure to EN 288-7 (see 5. The permissible range for a WPS.2 Approval by welding procedure tests This method specifies how a pWPS can be approved by the welding and testing of a standardized test piece. provided that the heat input is kept within specified limits. If prepared.1. testing and examination of test pieces shall be the responsibility of an examiner or examining body. parent metal and consumables (if used). 5. The manufacturer may. etc. The specification level shall be compatible with the chosen method of approval. All activities related to welding. Welding procedures shall be approved prior to actual welding in production.1. shall be limited to the standard material(s). 5. The WPS shall comply with Part 2 of this standard. prepare detailed work instructions. The use of a particular method of approval of a welding procedure is often a mandatory requirement in an application standard. Work instructions are not mandatory unless required by the manufacturer. they shall: – be prepared on the basis of an approved WPS. 5 5. to be used in production. in addition to the WPS.2 Application The manufacturer shall prepare a pWPS in accordance with the rules set out in clause 4.1 Approval of welding procedures General 5. the pWPS shall be approved by one of the methods stated in 5. welding process(es). – previous welding experience to EN 288-6 (see 5. – pre-production welding test to EN 288-8 (see 5.
Approval by a pre-production test is the only reliable method of approval for some welding procedures. Approval of the welding consumables is carried out according to national schemes.g. those in subclause 6.2 of EN 288-3) do not adequately represent the joint to be welded (e. special restraint conditions. feasibility tests are performed prior to production even though the welding procedure is approved.. In such cases. A procedure test is required whenever the propeties of the material in the weld metal and heat-affected zones are critical for the application.g.5) is used to a rather limited extent. A reference to this standard should not be interpreted as a requirement for any feasibility testing and a requirement for approval of the welding procedure by a preproduction test. The present set of standards (Part 1 and subsequent Parts) provides a European. approval by reference to a standard welding procedure (see 5. EN 288-3 and EN 288-4. required for special welding procedures. The European system should comply with the principles of most of the national standards and should permit a gradual transfer to a truly European system. Approval by pre-production welding tests (see 5. Although of a similar nature. 5. Application of a standard welding procedure is also subject to conditions to be satisfied by the user. however. dimensions. NOTE 1: Testing of test pieces or complete products may be carried out during production as part of a statistical quality control programme based on destructive testing. it is covered only by few national rules. . which cannot be reproduced by standardized test pieces.2) is standardized in a large number of national standards and widely used in many countries. Examination and testing of the test piece shall be carried out. NOTE 2: In many cases.6 Approval by a pre-production welding test Approval by a pre-production welding test may be used where the shape and dimensions of standardized test pieces (e.6) is rarely mentioned in national standards. attachment weld to thin pipe). etc. standardized system for specification and approval of welding procedures. Approval by reference to welding experience (see 5.g. Approval by use of an approved welding consumable (see 5. National schemes for standard welding procedures are being developed in several countries. heat sink effects). It is. pending the establishment of European certification schemes. The present set of European Standards should be compatible with such national schemes. in compliance with this standard (e. where the resulting properties of the weld depend on certain conditions such as the component.5 Approval by use of a standard welding procedure A pWPS prepared by a manufacturer is deemed to be approved if the ranges for all variables are within the range permitted by a standard welding procedure. production. Currently. and under the conditions used in. A standard welding procedure shall be issued as a specification in the format of a WPS or WPAR based on an approval to the relevant part of EN 288 for welding procedure testing. The test shall be carried out prior to. heat sinks.4) has a number of applications. one or more special test pieces shall be made to simulate the production joint in all essential features (e.g. the requirements differ in many respects. but testing may need to be supplemented or replaced by special tests according to the nature of the joint in question and shall be subject to agreement by the examiner or examining body. Approval by welding procedure tests (see 5. Only welding procedures known from experience to be reliable should be used in such cases. Such testing should not be used instead of preproduction testing and a requirement for pre-production testing should not be taken to entail production testing. Annex A (informative) Guidelines for the application and the subsequent choice of method of approval There is a large number of national standards for specification and approval of welding procedures available. as far as possible. Test pieces welded during feasibility tests usually are examined and tested for imperfections only.3) has been used for many years by some branches of industry.Page 7 EN 288-1 : 1992 + A1 : 1997 5. restraint. Examples are run-in tests of new welding machines and tests of an established (and approved) welding procedure for an unusual joint or position. Issue and amendment of standard welding procedures shall be via the examiner or examining body taking responsibility for the initial approval.
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