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Define:

An overflow of a large amount of water beyond its normal limits,


especially over what is normally dry land.
Type of flood :-

Coastal (Surge Flood)

A coastal flood, as the name suggests, occurs in areas that lie on


the coast of a sea, ocean, or other large body of open water. It is
typically the result of extreme tidal conditions caused by severe
weather. Storm surge produced when high winds from
hurricanes and other storms push water onshore is the leading
cause of coastal flooding and often the greatest threat associated
with a tropical storm. In this type of flood, water overwhelms low-
lying land and often causes devastating loss of life and property.

Coastal flooding is categorized in three levels:

Minor: A slight amount of beach erosion will occur but no


major damage is expected.
Moderate: A fair amount of beach erosion will occur as well
as damage to some homes and businesses.
Major: Serious threat to life and property. Large-scale beach
erosion will occur, numerous roads will be flooded, and
many structures will be damaged. Citizens should review
safety precautions and prepare to evacuate if necessary.
Fluvial (River) Flooding
Fluvial flooding occurs when rivers burst their banks as a
result of sustained or intense rainfall. The image below
shows fluvial flood risk for Dublin, created using our
Flowroute flood modelling software.

Pluvial (Surface Flood)


Define:
An overflow of a large amount of water beyond its normal limits,
especially over what is normally dry land.
Type of flood :-

Coastal (Surge Flood)

A coastal flood, as the name suggests, occurs in areas that lie on


the coast of a sea, ocean, or other large body of open water. It is
typically the result of extreme tidal conditions caused by severe
weather. Storm surge produced when high winds from
hurricanes and other storms push water onshore is the leading
cause of coastal flooding and often the greatest threat associated
with a tropical storm. In this type of flood, water overwhelms low-
lying land and often causes devastating loss of life and property.

Coastal flooding is categorized in three levels:

Minor: A slight amount of beach erosion will occur but no


major damage is expected.
Moderate: A fair amount of beach erosion will occur as well
as damage to some homes and businesses.
Major: Serious threat to life and property. Large-scale beach
erosion will occur, numerous roads will be flooded, and
many structures will be damaged. Citizens should review
safety precautions and prepare to evacuate if necessary.
Fluvial (River) Flooding
Fluvial flooding occurs when rivers burst their banks as a
result of sustained or intense rainfall. The image below
shows fluvial flood risk for Dublin, created using our
Flowroute flood modelling software.

Pluvial (Surface Flood)


A pluvial, or surface water flood, is caused when heavy rainfall
creates a flood event independent of an overflowing water body.
One of the most common misconceptions about flood risk is that
one must be located near a body of water to be at risk. Pluvial
flooding debunks that myth, as it can happen in any urban area
even higher elevation areas that lie above coastal and river
floodplains.

There are two common types of pluvial flooding:

Intense rain saturates an urban drainage system. The


system becomes overwhelmed and water flows out into
streets and nearby structures.
Run-off or flowing water from rain falling on hillsides that are
unable to absorb the water. Hillsides with recent forest fires
are notorious sources of pluvial floods, as are suburban
communities on hillsides.

A flash flood is a rapid flooding of geomorphic low-lying areas:


washes, rivers, dry lakes and basins. It may be caused by
heavy rainassociated with a severe
thunderstorm, hurricane, tropical storm, or meltwater from ice or
snow flowing over ice sheets or snowfields. Flash floods may
occur after the collapse of a natural ice or debris dam, or a human
structure such as a man-made dam, as occurred before
the Johnstown Flood of 1889. Flash floods are distinguished from
regular floods by a timescale of less than six hours.[1] The water
that is temporarily available is often used by plants with rapid
germination and short growth cycles and by specially adapted
animal life.[citation needed]

The Causes of Floods


Water may seem benign, but in huge quantities it can be an
enormously destructive force. When floods occur they bring with
them numerous problems, ranging from the physical impact of
water damage to the problems of disease and famine that can
follow such disasters. The causes of flooding are varied, but the
effects of most causes can be managed if not prevented.
HEAVY RAINFALL AT RIVER SOURCES
Unusually heavy weather at the source of a river can lead to vast
amounts of water draining into the water table. The water table of
a river is the area from which it gathers water, so if an unnaturally
high level of water is draining into this area, this will lead to
similarly high levels of water in the river. As more and more of the
rivers tributary streams join the river, this effect is amplified until
the amount of water reaches a critical level; the banks or the
natural flood plain cannot hold such a volume and it spills over.
This often occurs at lower reaches of a river in areas of habitation,
causing extensive damage.
SNOW MELT
Sudden thaws in mountainous areas can lead to dangerous
increases in water draining into the water table. A dramatic
temperature increase after a particularly cold winter causes the
ice and snow on mountaintops to melt and drain into valley rivers.
This effect can cause similar damage as heavy rainfall.
IRRESPONSIBLE DAMMING
Flooding is not always caused by natural occurrences; human
intervention in natural river courses can have a huge effect on the
likelihood of flooding. For example, landowners further up the
stretch of a river erecting illegal dams to protect their farmland
can have catastrophic effects farther down the river when this
unalleviated pressure is brought to bear on peoples homes in
more densely populated areas. In 2008, "Time" magazine ran an
article which pointed the finger at the Army Corps of Engineers'
incompetent damming policy increasing water pressure on the
Mississippi, stating, "500-year floods seem to be hitting the
Mississippi every 15 years."
NATURAL DISASTERS OUT AT SEA
Major trauma at sea, such as earthquakes or even heavy coastal
rock falls, cause enormous walls of water known as tsunamis,
which can sweep across huge expanses of ocean at over 600
miles per hour. These enormous waves cause an enormous
amount of destruction when they come into contact with a
landmass and cause catastrophic flooding. The sheer amount of
water contained in a tsunami, combined with the velocity of the
strike, means that these types of disasters cause enormous loss
of life. A tsunami was blamed for wiping out the ancient Minoan
civilization on the Greek Island of Crete, while the Southeast
Asian tsunami of 2004 left 150,000 people dead or homeless. In
2011 a tsunami struck Japan, leaving more than 10,000 people
unaccounted for in one coastal town alone.

Impact of flood:-
Massive flooding can often have a devastating impact on the
economy of a region and the livelihood of its people. Loss of
human life, property damage, destruction of crops, loss of
livestock, non-functioning infrastructure facilities, and the
possibility of waterborne diseases are just some of the ways a
flood can impact upon a community.
The personal safety risks, reduction in purchasing power, mass
migration, and loss of land value in a flood plain makes areas
prone to flooding extremely vulnerable on several levels. The
additional costs associated with rehabilitation, relocation of
displaced people and removal of property from flood-damaged
areas can also divert money that could be used in other sectors.
When it comes to floodwaters and their effects on the overall
economy, the consumer will wind up paying for it one way or
another smaller harvests mean food costs increase. Damaged
facilities mean it will cost more to process crops. Crippled
transportation means it will cost even more for food to make its
way into stores.
Man made flood:
As to whether human activities bear part of the responsibility, lay
opinion is of little value. The experts seem to be unanimous that they
do. Professor Paul B. Sears, in an article written for Science Service,
declares that the floods, like the Western dust storms, are Nature's
warning that we must mend our ways. He reports that "traveling
through the oldest agricultural states of the Union, the writer has
scarcely seen a place where the old top layer of soil is left It is this
dark, spongy top layer of soilwhich is our only effective protection
against flood." H. H. Bennett, director of the United States Soil
Conservation Service, makes the same point, as was mentioned in an
article by Harold Ward in The New Republic of March 18. Mr. Bennett
believes that in the present floods, at least the last 20 or 25 percent of
the excess volume of water results from bad agricultural methods and
needless to remark, it is this last fourth or fifth that does the worst
damage.
Result:

The summary of the natural science evidence base relevant to


catchment-based natural ood
managementintheUKisgivenintheappendix,withanannotatedbibliograp
hyprovidedasthe electronic supplementary material.

Protecting your home


Elevate the furnace, water heater, and electric panel if susceptible to flooding
Install check valves in sewer traps to prevent floodwater from backing up into your home.
Seal walls in basements with waterproofing compounds to avoid seepage.
Keep an adequate supply of food, candles and drinking water in case you are trapped inside
your home.

When a flood is imminent


Listen to designated radio/TV emergency alert systems for emergency instructions.
Secure/bring in outdoor furniture or other items that might float away and become a potential
hazard.
Move valuable items and papers/documents to upper floors.

During a flood
Seek higher ground. Do not wait for instructions.
Be aware of flash flood areas such as canals, streams, drainage channels.
Be ready to evacuate.
If instructed, turn off utilities at main switches and unplug appliances - do not touch electrical
equipment if wet.
If you must leave your home, do not walk through moving water. Six inches of moving water
can knock you off your feet. Use a stick to test depth.
Do not try to drive over a flooded road. If your car stalls, abandon it immediately and seek an
alternate route.

After a flood
Stay away from flood water - do not attempt to swim, walk or drive through the area
Be aware of areas where water has receded. Roadways may have weakened and could
collapse.
Avoid downed power lines and muddy waters where power lines may have fallen.
Do not drink tap water until advised by the Health Unit that the water is safe to drink.
Once flood waters have receded you must not live in your home until the water supply has
been declared safe for use, all flood-contaminated rooms have been thoroughly cleaned and
disinfected, adequate toilet facilities are available, all electrical appliances and
heating/cooling systems have been inspected, food, utensils and dishes have been
examined, cleaned or disposed of, and floor drains and sumps have been cleaned and
disinfected.

Flood Precautions
In any flooding or potential flooding event, the following actions should be taken:

Protecting your home


Elevate the furnace, water heater, and electric panel if susceptible to flooding
Install check valves in sewer traps to prevent floodwater from backing up into your home.
Seal walls in basements with waterproofing compounds to avoid seepage.
Keep an adequate supply of food, candles and drinking water in case you are trapped inside
your home.

When a flood is imminent


Listen to designated radio/TV emergency alert systems for emergency instructions.
Secure/bring in outdoor furniture or other items that might float away and become a potential
hazard.
Move valuable items and papers/documents to upper floors.

During a flood
Seek higher ground. Do not wait for instructions.
Be aware of flash flood areas such as canals, streams, drainage channels.
Be ready to evacuate.
If instructed, turn off utilities at main switches and unplug appliances - do not touch electrical
equipment if wet.
If you must leave your home, do not walk through moving water. Six inches of moving water
can knock you off your feet. Use a stick to test depth.
Do not try to drive over a flooded road. If your car stalls, abandon it immediately and seek an
alternate route.

After a flood
Stay away from flood water - do not attempt to swim, walk or drive through the area
Be aware of areas where water has receded. Roadways may have weakened and could
collapse.
Avoid downed power lines and muddy waters where power lines may have fallen.
Do not drink tap water until advised by the Health Unit that the water is safe to drink.
Once flood waters have receded you must not live in your home until the water supply has
been declared safe for use, all flood-contaminated rooms have been thoroughly cleaned and
disinfected, adequate toilet facilities are available, all electrical appliances and
heating/cooling systems have been inspected, food, utensils and dishes have been
examined, cleaned or disposed of, and floor drains and sumps have been cleaned and
disinfected.