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A method for computing acousticfields basedon the principle

of wave superposition
GaryH. Koopmann,Limin Song,andJohnB. Fahnline
NoiseControl
Laboratory,
1õ7Hammond
Building,ThePennsy/vania
StateUniversity,
University
Park,
Pennsylvania
16802

(Received19June1989;accepted
forpublication
18August1989)
A methodfor computing theacoustic fieldsof arbitrarilyshapedradiatorsisdescribed that
usestheprincipleof wavesuperposition. The superposition integral,whichisshownto be
equivalentto the Helmholtzintegral,isbasedon theideathatthecombined fieldsof an array
of sources
interiorto a radiatorcanbemadeto reproduce a velocityprescribed on thesurface
of theradiator.The strengthsof thesources thatproducethisconditioncan,in turn,beusedto
compute thecorresponding surface pressures.Theresults of severalnumerical experiments are
presentedthatdemonstrate thesimplicityof themethod.Also,theadvantages thatthe
superposition methodhasoverthemorecommonlyusedboundary-element methodsare
discussed.
Theseincludesimplicityof generating thematrixelements usedin thenumerical
formulation andimprovedaccuracy andspeed,thelattertwobeingdueto theavoidance of
uniqueness andsingularityproblemsinherentin theboundary-element formulation.
PACS numbers: 43.20.Rz

INTRODUCTION
solutionsexist.In this procedure, a simplesourceis sur-
During the past decade,computationalmethodsin rounded by a fictitioussurfacehaving thesamegeometryas
acoustics usingbothfiniteelements andboundaryelements that of the acoustic radiatorfor which the boundaryelement
haveprogressed to the point wherecommercialsoftwareis isbeingapplied.Next, a setof nodalpointscorresponding to
nowavailablefor modelingcomplexacousticfields.Of the those usedin the boundary-elementformulation is identi-
two,finite-element acoustics isat a morematurestage,and fied.The fieldof the enclosedpoint sourceis thenevaluated
numericalexperiments involvinginternalandexternalradi- at eachof the nodepointsfor both pressureand velocity
atedfieldscoupledwith thestructuralresponse of theradia- (normalto the surface).Althoughthe surfacepressureand
torsarebecoming morecommonplace. Boundaryelements velocity are dependenton the locationof the interior point
are emergingin a complementary modeto the finite ele- source, they do providean exactpairof calibrationvaluesat
mentsand are bettersuitedto problemsof infiniteextent, each point for a givensourcelocation.With the gridgeome-
e.g.,free-fieldradiation.Severalresearchers •4•havelaid the try alreadyprescribed, theboundary-element formulationis
groundworkto help make the boundary-element formula- calibrated simply by taking the computed velocitieson the
tioncompatible withthatof thefiniteelement,allowingboth fictitious surface asinputs and computing the corresponding
methods to share,for example,isoparametric, quadrilateral surfacepressures. A comparison of the "exact"andcomput-
elements, and,hence,gridgeometries, graphicpresentation, ed pressures at each nodal point indicates the extentof valid-
etc.Whiletheboundary-element methodwill undoubtably ity of the boundary-element formulation, e.g., whether or
continueto playan importantrolein computational acous- not the element size to wavelength ratio is adequate,the
tics,it isstillhampered withdifficulties
thatariseinapproxi- outward normals have been properly defined, andsoon.
matingtheHelmholtzintegralin numericalform.Whilethe It wasthecalibrationprocedure that triggeredthe idea
uniqueness problemalongwiththatof thesingularity of the that superposition couldbe usedto determinethe acoustic
Green function can be overcome with some resourceful fieldsof complexradiators.Sincethe fieldof a singlesource
mathematics, the end resultis alwaysto increasethe com- locatedwithin a surfaceboundarywas usedto providethe
plexity,andthustheextent,of thecomputations. For exam- exactsurfacepressure andvelocitydistributionof a radiator
ple, in computingacousticfields via the cmœv formula- for calibration purposes,by superimposingthe fieldsof an
tion3'9oftheboundary-element
method
using
isoparametric, array of sources(of the samenumberof nodepointson the
quadraticelements,
the timerequiredto computethematrix surface),within the prescribedsurface,couldvaluesfor the
coefficients
isa substantial
portionof theoverallcomputing magnitudeand phasefor the strengthof eachsourcebe de-
time. terminedto give the correctsurfacepressureand normal
Thesearch to finda simpler,morestraightforward
com- velocityat eachnodepointindependently of thesourceloca-
putationalmethodthat circumventsthe abovecomplica- tions?That this is possiblewill be demonstratedin the sec-
tionswasthe motivationbehindthis study.The ideafor a tionsto follow.A seriesof computationalexperiments were
superpositionmethodemerged asanoffspringof thecalibra- conductedthat providedguidelines for thedevelopment of a
tionprocedure that isoftenusedin boundary-elementstud- corresponding theory.Interestingly,the mathematicalsteps
iesto providebenchmarkdatafor caseswhereno analytical leadingto the theorythat validatedtheabovehypothesis are

2433 J. Acoust.Soc. Am. 86 (6). December1989 0001-4966/89/122433-06500.80 ¸ 1989 AcousticalSocietyof America 2433

theacoustic velocity atr canbecalculated by u(r) =f?(ro)Vg( [r--ro[ )dV(ro).Vg.p(r) integral[Eq.bylo. (8)] andthe superpositionintegral u(r.Thefree. (4) reducesto experiments on simplegeometries usingthe superposition --fiop(ro)+ poCo 2V'u(ro) = poCo2 q(ro). If themethodisa validformulation.vq(ro)g(]r--re])dV(ro).No. --jtopou(ro)g(Ir -. By lettingthe enclosedsourcesbe distributedcontinu.Thediagram forformulating thesuperposition integral.Eq. In theprecedinganalysis. I. thusproving thatthesu- perpositionmethod is a valid formulation. Then. (1) p(r) =. giventhesamedensityof rior medium. lentto theHelmholtz-integral formulation. superposition methodto the Helmholtz-integralformula- tion. Thenormal velocity onthesurface oftheradiator isgivenby 2434 d.The equivalency of the V.ro)d V( %)- fvV. ( 1) ] andtheHelmholtz •.the theorybehindsuperposition is shownto be equiva. (5) methodalongwith sometheoreticalconsiderations. (ug) = gV.canbedeveloped in thefollowing V.tel) = .74•rlr _ re[.thefollowingstepsarenecessary. ( 1)..rot)]dV(ro).neglecting to the boundary-element method.it medium contained withinthevolumeV leads totheequation appearsthat thesuperposition methodismoreaccuratethan the boundary-element formulation.(10)] areidentical. (9) ingthevolume Voftheradiator.k 2g]. rightsideof theaboveequationgives spaceGreen'sfunctionis definedas g(Ir .andhenceitsvalidity. the acoustic andthelinearizedEuler'sequation pressureat a fieldpointr is the integralof the contribution from all sources: fiOpoU (ro)=Vp(ro). This featuretogetherwith its increased computationalspeedshouldmakeit an attractivealternative wherep isthetotaldensity ofthemedium. Sec.Applyingthe law of massconservation to the nodesor computationalpointson an arbitrarysurface.From computa. (10) (V2+ k 2)g(lr _rol) ----6(r -.dkIt. (6) can be rewrittenas p(r) =JPoO.6. this.Acoust.Thisassumptionisvalidsince enormoussimplification computationally.:Computing acoustic fields 2434 .rol) wherepoisthemeandensityof themedium.[p(ro)u(ro) ] =p(ro)q(ro) .Vol.r.Thus the methodof superposition represents an or to theradiatorisidentical. 1. (6) superposition of fields generatedby an array of simple Next.However. Numerical formulation To reducethe superpositionintegralto a numerical form.applyingGauss'theoremto the secondtermon the simplesourcedistribution evaluated at reinsideV. theacoustic fieldsproduced by thesuperposition integral[Eq. q(ro)isthestrength ofthe Finally. (pVg)= VpVg+ pV2g= VpVg+ p[6(r -. Equation(10) is thewell-known Helmholtz-integral equa- tion for exteriorradiationproblems. (3) where n is the outward normal on the enclosed surface S.86. (4) highwavenumbers.?(ro)5(r-ro)dl/(ro)- •[p(ro)Vg([r re[) which satisfies -jtOpoU(ro)g([r . Fromthelinearized Eulerequation[Eq. Equation ( 1) istheequation based 6nwhichthesuperposi- sis.In thefinalanaly. where k is the wavenumber and • is the Dirac delta function.December 1989 Keepmann etal.u + u..ro) -. thenonlineartermsandusingthefamiliarexpression forthe This paperpresentsthe resultsof somecomputational ßsoundspeedco. theEq.ro). (8) Eq.especiallyat valuesof t•P(rø) Ot + V. theradiationfieldisindependent of thepropertyof theinte- tionsinvolvingsimplegeometries. 1. Analytical formulation The superposition methodis basedon the idea that the p(r) =f?k 2p(r o)+j•opoV'U(ro) 1 acousticfieldof a complexradiatbrcanbeconstructed asa Xg( Ir -rol )dV(ro).re])] 'n dS(re).closelyalignedto the Helmholtzintegral. METHOD OF WAVE SUPERPOSITION the pressurefieldbecomes A. theproblems beequivalent to theHelmholtz-integral equation. Then.bysubstituting theaboverelation forq(ro)inEq.beginby assuming that themediuminteriorandexteri- gether. ( 1) should caringsources internalto theradiatingsurface. tion method will be formulated. by usingthe vectoridentities sourcesenclosed withintheradiator.[p(to) Vg( {r.vp(rø)6(r .( 1) ].Am. (7) ouslyinsidethe radiatoras shownin Fig. (11 ) FIG. way.) S [Eq. (2) œ(r) =.To prove of uniqueness and singularkernelsare circumventedalto.toistheangular frequencyof the harmonicvibrationof the surfaceS enclos. B.

• n U•j FIG.r•.I). is simplygivenby areaof eachsegment isrepresented byai. However. December 1989 Keepmann eta/.:Computing acoustic fields 2435 .(rs) isknown.whichisgener.r. 2435 J. as Q = [D ] . reducethe errorscausedby bothapproximations. (15) to eachpoint accuracyof the method.. (12) becomes mation of the velocitydiscretizationcan be determined.the degreeof the approxi- sphere. as velocities at pointsotherthanat theU. and0•iareshownin Fig. (14).The first oneis that N theintegrationon therightsideofEq. The diagramof the fictitioussourcesphereinsideof a radiator.This Eachelementof the dipolematrix is determinedby the fol- effectwill be demonstrated by the numericalexperiments lowingequation: that follow.l)da(r.1•1dklr•_r. After findingthesourcestrengthvectorQ. where the coefficient M is defined as (13). Ob- location re. Physically.Am. (15). Therefore. Thediagramof thesimplesource array. (14) isreplacedby the U. Acoust.]- D•= . f•q(r•)V.onthesource sphere. i=1 (15) finite summationin Eq.r•. . Thisisillustrated byFig.•'srepresent thecontinuous velocity dis- thesimplesources areassumed to distributeoveron thesur.As the sourcesare locatedfarther from the surfaceS or as the radiusof the sourcespherebe- givesN equations for N unknownQ•'s. r•. (19) withr/. Sec.ThusEq.)• • Q. For convenience. For a fixed N.the error intro- whereD isanN X Ncoefficientmatrixcalleda dipolematrix.j pointsandcompar- shownin Fig.the locationsof the simple Supposethat the normalvelocityvaluesare prescribed sourcesinsidethe radiatorcan be adjustedto improvethe at NpointsonthesurfaceS.l)Q•. (14)replacingr in Eq. thepressure U.(rs) =5r•q(ra)V.Eq. thereis no singularityin Eq. Thesuperposition there is no restrictionon the locationof q(ro). i=1 (18) locationvectorera simplesourceona. viously.4rr ]r•. Numerical accuracy Eq.Ifai for all segmentsismadeto besufficiently small theintegrandin C. Sincere canbemade alwaysto be smallerthan rs. (19) the boundary-element formulationare avoidedaltogether.6.ra[)da(r•).s V. Equation (15) givesthe normalvelocityof thesurfaceof theradiator. the singularityproblemscommonto M(lr .. U.thesurface Two approximations havebeenintroducedinto thefor- velocityis approximatedby mulationof the superposition method. tizedvelocities U.In matrixform.r.the pressurevectorP corre- Next. the area of each segment. (16) measured by•Oi•.3.the sourcevectorQ is relatedwith the normal velocityU.by comes smaller. tribution on the surfaceS.(12) wherers is the locationvectorof a pointon S. By usingthe Q•'s to compute faceof a fictitioussphericalshellwith a thin thickness 5r. On the surfaceof the radiator.. FIG.86. the surfacerr is dividedinto N segmentsand the spondingto the velocityvectorU. (20) wheretheelementof themenupolematrixMis evaluatedby =&. ApplyingEq. the compactnessof the simple sources increases the relative contribution of each source to 1 jklrj --r•.'U.No. ducedby the secondapproximationbecomessmaller.([rs . becomes smaller.becomes smaller. 2. 2.. 3.Vol. methodhasa usefulfeatureto quantifyhowwell the discre- q(ro) canbeplacedanywhereinsideof S. (15) canbeusedto evaluateQ•.and the variationof the integrandin Eq.. The sphericalshell is called the source ing thesewith the specifiedvalues.g(lrs-r. (14) canbetakenasa constant.By doingso.increasingthenumberof thesimplesources N will atedby N simplesources distributedon the sourcesphere. and the secondone is that a whereQi is the volumevelocityof the simplesourceat the finitenumberof the normalvelocityvalueson thesurfaceof the radiatorare usedto determinethe sourcestrengths.•. As a resultof compactlugthe sources. 4.([rs .). (17) each discrete surface.V. Equation(13) can be rewritten as P = [M] [D] -'U. (13) fieldis a straightforward N calculationfrom the equation wherea is the surfaceof the sourcesphereand re is the p(r) = • M(lr-r•.r. SinceU. Consequently.re[ )dV(ro).a•. No approximations havebeenmadeupto thispoint. whereri.I). however.g( [rs ..(rs) •.(rs)=f?(ro)V.l) =jopog(]r .t cos 0.

Gen.Ref.For the rangeof ka's presented. Variation of normalizedsurfacepressurewith nondimensional wavenumber ka for a monopole.0 0 I.4.As expectedwith this typeof a referencesource. the numericallycomputedpressuresare nearly ment with theorycontinuedwell beyondthe rangeshownto the sameas predictedby theorywhen the ratio is lessthan exceedinglyhigh wavenumbers. monopole.this preferredratio shoulddecrease. NUMERICAL EXPERIMENTS in this caseis nearlyidenticalto that in the monopolecase. which givethe normalizedpressures as a pressures computedwith the superposition methodfor all functionof the ratioof theradiusof theinnersourcesphere practicalpurposes agreedexactlywith thetheory.by a dipoleve. above2000. For the positionmethodand comparedwith the exactvalues.e. the cube. Acoust. 5. ka (a isdefinedashalf of thelengthof onesideof thecube). times the radius of the radiator surface. (ka = 1). tor are shownin Fig.wherea istheradiusof thedipolesphere. For the wavenumber shown pointsare omittedfrom the graph. for a given For the dipolewith the sameradiusasthat of the above accuracy. 86. radiator influencesthe computational accuracy. 2436 J. sinceit isdeterminedby evaluatingthefieldof a spheri- The resultsfor the dipoleare shownin Fig. Variationof normalizedsurfacepressurewith nondimensional wavenumber ka for a dipole. The followingnumericalexperimentswere performed An agreementbetweentheory and this numericalexperi- on two simplegeometries.g.. tity.FIG.The relativepositionof the inner sourcesurfaceto that of the pressuresat the surfacenodeswerecalculatedby the super. casesof the monopoleand dipole. 7). facepressure for any arbitraryvelocitydistributionon the In thiscase. December 1989 Koopmannet al.wherea isthehalf-length ofonesideof sphere.andthus.the matricesD and M are the same. sphericalsurfacewasvariedfrom nearlyzero to nearlyone sureon thesurfaceofa monopoleasa functionof nondimen.for example. II. to that-of the radiator.Soc. Variation of normalized surfacepressurewith nondimensional FIG.2[ FIG. where the normalizedpressuresat locityvectorto givethecorresponding pressurevector.valuesfor the correspondingtheoretical as this ratio becomes smaller.Interestingly.As expected. 4. 7.4- 0. As thewavenumberincreases.wherea is the radiusof the monople wavenumber ka fora cubicradiator. 6. The firstwasa sphericalradiator ment at muchhigherwavenumbers reinforcesthe observa- having20 surfacenodesgivenboth monopoleand dipole tion that the superposition methodseemsto performsub- velocitydistributions. No. the radius of the inner Figure5 givesthe normalizedreal andimaginarypres. 6.the shownin Fig. velocitynodesgivenvaluescorresponding to the fieldof an The next set of tests was conducted to examine how the interiorsphericalradiatorevaluatedat eachnodepoint. 6. 8.: Computingacousticfields 2436 . Am.6- 0.the sameprocedurecanbeusedto determinethe sur. The accuracy cal sourceon the surfacesof a cube.the agree. approximately0.. 7.thedependence of thepressureon 00- 0. Vol. The secondwasa cuberadiatorwith stantiallybetterat high wavenumbers than the boundary- nine nodesevenlydistributedon eachsurfaceand with the elementformulation(see. the centernodeof a cuberadiatorare givenasa functionof erally. FIG.?hem•sureofthedeõfee ofvariation oftheintoBrand in•!. The resultsof thesuperpositionstudyon the cuberadia- (20) wasevaluatedsimplyby replacingU.the accuracyimproves to avoidconfusion.Thus Eq. The results are sionalwavenumber.thereference surfacevelocityisa complexquan- surface of a radiator once the matrices D and Mare available.( [4).

thusprovingthat the superposition matricesbecometoo diagonallydominantas the singulari. method has a valid formulation. of acousticfieldsgenerated by an arrayof simplesources can cellent..8 1. leaguesthat haveled to the developmentof this paper. b/a ACKNOWLEDGMENTS FIG. cal radiators.g.Vol.5.•.20 - o. termsof the surfacevelocities. Variationof normalized surfacepressure with relativesizeof the FIG.. matrix M in Eq.Re[P/pc0U•] ß lm[P/p%U•[ 0.In 2437 J. the com- putationsare immenselysimplifiedsincethe methodhas neitheruniquesness problemsnor singularities to dealwith. of the inner cube.9 and 10.O O.S 0.bothdipoleandmonopolematrices The acousticfieldgeneratedvia the superposition meth- becomeill-conditionedsince the matrix elementsall ap.the pressures ap. CONCLUSIONS in the monopoleanddipolestudies.This is achievedby enclosing Twotypesof internalsourcegeometrieswereusedin the an array of sourceswithin the radiator and computingthe cubicradiatorstudy:aninnercubeandaninnersphere.the procedureto generatethe matrix elementsis -.whereb is theradiusof the The authorsare grateful for discussions with the col- inner sphere.•. mathematicaloperationsin the boundary-element method (e.Consequently.6. Variation of normalizedsurfacepressurewith relativesizeof the innersourcespherefor thecubicradiatorcase.0 CI. 8.Sec. (20) to ometries are to be treated. for a wide range • 0ß2 of the inner sourcelocations.the innersphere)to the half-lengthof onesideof the radiator corresponding changein surfacepressurecanbe computed werebetween 0.Above0. December1989 KeepmannoraL:Computing acousticfields 2437 .As thisratioapproachesunity.Both sourcestrengthsnecessary to givethe specified velocitieson sourcearrangements predictedaccuratesurfacepressuresas the surfaceof the radiator. erationin the superposition method..n-.05and0.When easilywithouthavingto performa new matrixoperation. lengthof onesidefor theinnercubeandtheradiusfor the Shoulda new surface-velocity distributionbe specified.ß -. No. --'-. it appearsthat the Helmholtz formulation.. sincethe singularityin the dipole tion method has the following advantagesover the more commonlyusedboundary-element method.0 provementover a similarboundary-element computation usingthe densityof nodes. While this study indicatesthat the encevelocities asinputto thesuperposition equation(16) at geometryof the innersourcehaslittle effecton thecomputa- 54 nodalpoints. The sourcestrengthsare then longasthe ratiosof theircharacteristic lengths(the half. ties in the Green's function and its derivative are ap. Acoust. (20). matrix D is of a higher order than that in the monopole ka is similarto that of a sphericalradiator..6 O• --o--Im[P/PCoUr• ] b/a FIG. thisratioisbelow0.First. 9.e.the accuracyof the superposi- tion methodrepresents at leastan order of magnitudeim- 0.02%.Gaussintegrationroutine) are reducedto a singleop- 0. calculations that requireseveral 8 o.theagreement between theexactpressures computed witha singlereference source It hasbeenshownthata methodusingthesuperposition andthosecomputedwith thesuperposition methodwasex. givethesurface pressuresat eachof the54surfacenodes.Re[P/pcøUn] Numerical -.the corresponding Qi's werecomputedto tion accuracy.Usingthe refer. working guidelinesfor caseswhere more complicatedge- Their combinedfieldswerethen computedvia Eq. Numerical 0 30 0. -.whereb isthehalflengthofoneside of the innersphere. od has been shownto be mathematicallyequivalentto the proachnearlythesamevalue.05.Am.o -.g.. Variationof normalizedsurfacepressurewith relativesizeof the innersourcesphere forthemenopicanddipoleeases. in this later caseapproximatelyto within beusedto predictthepressures onthesurfaceof a radiatorin 0.Im[p/PcoU•] simplersincenodesand not elementsare the basisfor the formulation.4 n. ]0. used to compute the correspondingsurface pressures.it has beendemonstratedthat the superposi- proachzeroasexpected.Third.Re[ P/PcoU•I Second.86.asshownin Figs. In numericalexperimentsinvolvingsphericaland cubi- proached. additional studies are needed to provide givethestrengths of the 54 sources locatedwithinthecube.whereb istheradius innersourcecubefor thecubicradiator. :• o. As III.5.4.

39-48 (1989). Seybert. sW. Soenarko. SoundVib. Brod.L. Rengarajan. Koopmann. Also. Stromungsmechanik. Soc. No.Soc. ment. '•FheuseofCHIEF toobtainunique solutionsfor acousticradiationusingboundaryintegralequations.L. J. 85. J.B. Be!l. "Boundary integralsolutionsof threedimensional acousticradiationproblems. (3." 2A. Am."Numericaltechniques for three-dimensional steady-state rut fur TechnischeAkustik.B. computational methodfor radiationandscattering of acoustic wavesin OH.VoL86.F. 1317-1325 (1986). K. odsto thenumericalsolutionof someexteriorboundary-value problems. DFVLR. leagues DietrichBeehert of theInstitutfur Experimentelle Acoust. Acoust. Mathews. H. Meyer. J. F. A. December1989 Koopmannet al. Soc.Am. 3A. Zinn. Acoust. 2438 J. Am. 41. 65. T.106(3). "Application of method for acousticradiation valid for all wavenumbers. Seybert. Acoust. andK.P. 81. 79. London Ser.B.Acoust. Cunefare.F.Shippy. Seybert andT.Soenarko."A boundary element •A.W. 1299-1306 (1987). theBIE methodto soundradiation problems usinganisoparametric ele. Schenck. Stallybrass. 6W. A.A. J."J.particular.C. 363-367 ( 1985}..F. 6.P."J.Des." J. we wouldliketo acknowledge ourBerlincol. Rizzo. Am. Acoust.BurtonandG."J. Meyer.W. Acoust. Stallybrass.StressReliabil.T.Am."J."ASMETrans. 245-262 (1978). Miller. F. R. S9. A 323. problems. 44. fluid-structure interactions. 41-58 ( 1967}. "Improvedintegralformulation for acoustic radiation three dimensions. "Prediction of the soundfield radiatedby axisymmetricsurfaces.J. F. B."J. ?K.Soc. Rizzo. 201-210 ( 1971 )."J. Bell.andD. Soc. Shippy.andD.: Computingacousticfields 2438 .andM."Theapplication ofintegralequation meth- (1984). Soe.J. 77. Zinn. Acoust.andM."An advanced Proc.Am. andKlausBrodof theInsti. portof theNationalScience Foundation in thisproject. Vib. 414-420 aA. Am.Soc.A. we acknowledgethe sup. 631-638 (1979).