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1.

Convergence and Divergence Tests for Series

Test When to Use Conclusions



X
Divergence Test for any series an Diverges if lim |an | =
6 0.
n
n=0
Z
X X
Integral Test an with an 0 and an decreasing f (x)dx and an both converge/diverge
n=0 1 n=0
where f (n) = an .

X X X X
Comparison Test an and bn bn converges = an converges.
n=0 n=0 n=0 n=0
X X

if 0 an bn an diverges = bn diverges.
n=0 n=0

X X
Limiting Comparison Test an , (an > 0). Choose bn , (bn > 0)
n=0 n=0

an X X
if lim =L with 0 < L < an and bn both converge/diverge
n bn
n=0 n=0

an X X
if lim =0 bn converges = an converges.
n bn
n=0 n=0

an X X
if lim = bn diverges = an diverges.
n bn
n=0 n=0


X
Convergent test (1)n an (an > 0) converges if
n=0
for alternating Series lim an = 0 and an is decreasing
n

X X
X
Absolute Convergence for any series an If |an | converges, then an converges,
n=0 n=0 n=0
(definition of absolutely convergent series.)

X
X
X
Conditional Convergence for any series an if |an | diverges but an converges.
n=0 n=0 n=0
X

an conditionally converges
n=0

X
For any series an , there are 3 cases:
n=0

an+1
X
Ratio Test: Calculate lim =L if L < 1, then |an | converges ;
n an
n=0

p X
n
Root Test: Calculate lim |an | = L if L > 1, then |an | diverges;
n
n=0
if L = 1, no conclusion can be made.

2. Important Series to Remember

Series How do they look Conclusions



X a
Geometric Series arn Converges to if |r| < 1 and diverges if |r| 1
1r
n=0

X 1
p-series Converges if p > 1 and diverges if p 1
np
n=1