Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

In the Modern Hebrew Script Part One - The Alphabet
Introduction Introduction The Alephbet Lesson 1 Lesson 1 (Aleph, Beyt) Lesson 2 Lesson 2 (Mem, Yud) Lesson 3 Lesson 3 (Nun, Hey) Lesson 4 (Lamed, Vav) Lesson 5 (Resh, Shin) Lesson 6 (Ayin, Tet) Lesson 7 (Tav, Dalet) Lesson 8 (Tsade, Quph) Lesson 9 (Chet, Kaph) Lesson 10 (Zayin, Pey) Lesson 11 (Gimel, Samech) Lesson 12

Part Two - Basic Sentence Structure Structure

Part Three - Biblical Hebrew Word and Sentence Construction
Introduction Prefixes, suffixes and infixes Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5

Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew
Introduction WHY LEARN HEBREW?
There are many reasons to learn Hebrew such as to read the Tenach (the Old Testament of the Bible written in Hebrew) in its original language or simply to learn how to pronounce Hebrew words such as those in Strong's Concordance without having to use the transliterations. Probably the most advantageous reason to learn Hebrew is the ability to understand the original author's words, rather than through the translators opionion of the author's words. Learning the Hebrew language can be both fun and exciting. By simply studying the pages to follow for just a few minutes a day you will soon be reading Hebrew and be building a small vocabulary of Hebrew words and phrases.

THE HEBREW ALEPHBET
English uses the word "Alphabet" which is the first two letters of the Greek Alphabet; Alpha and Beta. Hebrew on the other hand uses "Alephbet" as they are the first two letters of the Hebrew Alephbet; Aleph and Bet. The Hebrew alephbet consists of 22 consonants and no vowels. The vowels are dots and dashes added above and below the consonants. One advantage to Hebrew is that the sound for each letter remains the same unlike English where one has to memorize many variations such as the word circus where one "c" is pronounced like an "S" and the other like a "K".

DIRECTION OF READING
Unlike English which is read from left to right, Hebrew is read from right to left just as many other semitic languages such as Arabic. This may sound difficult but in a very short time you will get used to it. When sounding out a word it will be easier if you remember the Consonant (C) and Vowel (V) patterns. In English the consonants and vowels may be arranged in any order such as in the word "circle" which has the following pattern; C-V-C-C-C-V. Hebrew on the other hand is very consistent in that a vowel always follows a consonant (except the final consonant which may or may not be followed by a vowel), such as in the following words "Melek" (king) C-V-C-V-C; "Meleko" (his king) C-V-C-V-C-V and "Hamelek" (the king) C-V-C-V-C-V-C. The Yud (Y) is another exception to this as it can be a consonant acting as a vowel, just as our English "Y".

MODERN AND ANCIENT HEBREW
The pronunciation of some of the consonants and vowels have changed over the centuries but this does not affect the meaning of words so we will learn to pronounce them according to the modern Hebrew. Modern Hebrew pronunciation is also divided into two parts, Ashkenazie and Sephardic. Since Sephardic is the pronunciation adopted by the State of Israel, we will also use this pronunciation.

THE LESSONS
Each lesson includes new consonants, vowels, a practice section, new vocabulary words and sentences. The practice session will allow you to practice the new letters and vowels and refresh yourself on old ones. The vocabulary section will consist of a few words using the new letters and vowels to begin building your Hebrew vocabulary. The Sentences will allow you to begin using your new words in sentences. To assist you in learning the letters and words, I recommend that you put the letters and words you are learning on flashcards so that you can study them at any time.

Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Alephbet .

Some common confusions between letters The alephbet in handwritten form .

Biblical Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Lesson 1 Consonants The "aleph" is the first letter of the Hebrew alephbet. A dagesh (a dot in the middle of the letter) indicates that the letter will have the "b" sound. this consonant/vowel combination would be pronounced as "a". The "beyt" is pronounced two ways. and as "v" as in visit. (Note: The aleph here is not part of the vowel.2 . a "b" as in ball. When the beyt is prefixed to a word it means "in".1 . it is simply used here to show the placement of the vowel only) This vowel is also pronounced "a" as in father. is pronounced "a" as in father. which is placed under the consonant. Vowels This vowel. Practice . while the abscence of the dagesh indicates the "v" sound. Since the aleph is silent. This consonant is silent.

1 .2 Sentences Father Came.Vocabulary Came Father . .1 .

This vowel is pronounced "e" as in grey. The pronunciation does not change.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Lesson 2 Consonants The "mem" is pronounced "m" as in mother. Vowels This vowel is pronounced "i" as in machine.1 . When the yud is added at the end of a word it means "of me" or "my".2 . The yud is pronounced "y" as in yes. Practice . The "final mem" is the form of the letter used when at the end of a word.

4 Sentences Who came? My father came.1 .1 .Vocabulary Mother Who My mother My father .3 . .2 .2 .

Practice . The pronunciation does not change. The "hey" is pronounced "h" as in hello. Notes 1. 4. is pronounced "a-niy" rather than an-iy. The "final nun" is the form of the letter used when at the end of a word. in the vocabulary list below. When it is prefixed to the front of a word it is the definite article meaning "the". The final syllable of most Hebrew words is accented by pronouncing the final Consonant-Vowel-Consonant as a syllable. For instance. The vocabulary word below "ba'ah" is the feminine form of the masculine verb "ba'" (came) which was introduced in lesson 1.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Lesson 3 Consonants The "nun" is pronounced "n" as in no. the word for "I". When the "hey" is suffixed to the end of a word it makes the word feminine. "a" and "an" which also do not exist in Hebrew and must be added in the translation. 2. English has two indefinite articles. The English verb "to be" and its various tenses such as "am". "is" and "are" do not exist in Hebrew and need to be added in the translation.1 . 3.

6 .1 . Who is she? The prophet came.4 .5 .3 .3 Vocabulary I Where Son She Prophet Came (f) What The .4 .7 .8 Sentences Where is my father? I am a father.2 .3 .2 . .1 ..2 .

.What is a prophet? My son came.6 .5 .

which. the pronunciation is "ah-y". This vowel is pronounced "e" as in elephant. all nouns are either masculine or feminine (there is no neuter). such as in the nun in the word for "Here [am] I" in the vocabulary list below. when said quickly sounds like "i" as in bike. similar to the the "s" ending for English plural nouns. When the vav is prefixed to a word it means "and". In some languages. When the dagesh (the dot in the middle of a letter) is placed within some letters. The "vav" is pronounced "v" as in visit. this letter would be pronounced "hin-ney-niy" rather than "hi-ney-niy". The "yud-mem" combination is the masculine plural ending. 4. . 2.Learn Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Lesson 4 Consonants The "lamed" is pronounced "l" as in long. such as Spanish. it doubles the letter. When the lamed is prefixed to a word it means "to" or "for". When it appears in the middle of a word it is used as a syllable break and is not pronounced. Therefore. Vowels When this vowel is placed under the first letter of a word it is pronounced as a soft "e" as in help. When one of the "a" vowels are followed by the consonant "yud". 3. feminine or neuter . Notes 1. nouns are masculine. Hebrew is much the same.

1 . .Practice .2 .8 Sentences Night came.1 .3 .3 Vocabulary Night God Water Amen Here Sea Here am I To me .1 .6 .4 .5 .2 .7 .

Mother came in the night.2 .4 .5 . .3 . Water is in the sea. My father and my mother are here.My son came to me.

In Hebrew. The "shin" is pronounced two ways. When this "vav" is suffixed to a word it means "to him" or "his". Notes 1. Practice . such as in sentence #5 below.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Lesson 5 Consonants The "resh" is pronounced "r" as in rain. When a dot is placed on the top right corner of the letter it takes the "sh" sound and when the dot is placed on the top left corner of the letter it takes the "s" sound. The "vav" becomes silent. "sh" as in sharp. and "s" as in sign.1 . Vowels The dot above the "vav" is pronounced "o" as in open. the verb usually appears before the subject of the verb.3 .2 .

Ruler of Peace.4 .9 .1 . What is his name? His name is Abraham.7 .Vocabulary Peace Skies Said (m) Created (m) Said (f) Ruler Day Light Rabbi Name .3 .2 .8 .5 .6 .1 . .2 .10 Sentences My name is Levi.3 .4 .

.5 .God created skies.

3 .1 . The "Tet" is pronounced "t" as in tune. Practice . Vowels The dot in the "vav" is pronounced "u" as in tune. Notes 1. The "vav" is silent. In Hebrew the adjectives come after the noun. When this vav is suffixed to a word.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Lesson 6 Consonants The "Ayin" is silent. it means "of them" or "they".2 . such as tov (good) in sentence #1 below.

4 . He came in the evening.6 .7 Sentences Good Evening.5 . On She He Keeping.5 .Vocabulary Evening Good Israel Over.2 . Who came in the evening? She came in the evening.1 . Guarding . .6 .7 .1 .3 . Peace over Israel.4 .3 .2 . What is his name? His name is Israel.

In this case the Hebrew word "et" would precede "the dinner" in Hebrew. the "et" would not precede it since "dinner" in this sentence is not a direct object. The aleph does not always require a vowel after it. 2. The dot over the right leg of the letter "Shin" and the vowel "o" are in the same place. the direct object is "the dinner" because "the" comes before "dinner". The "dalet" is pronounced "d" as in dig.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Lesson 7 Consonants The "Tav" is pronounced "t" as in tune. Notes 1. Since Hebrew requires a vowel after each consonant. . This vowel is a dot which appears at the top and just to the left of the letter instead of beneath it and is pronounced "o" as in open. A dagesh may appear in the letter but will not change the sound of the letter. An exception to the rule requiring the C-V-C-V pattern is the word "reshiyt" (Vocabulary word #8). If I said "I made a dinner". but it is pronounced very softly. if I said "I made the dinner". 3. For example. The "et" (Vocabulary word #3) precedes a direct object of the verb and is rarely translated into English. the vowel is the "o" placed above the letter "Shin". Vowels This vowel is pronounced "eh" as in elephant. The Hebrew word for Moses (Vocabulary word #1) appears to be missing a vowel after the "mem".

Practice . gods Precedes the direct object of the verb .5 .8 .3 Vocabulary Moses God.9 .10 .2 .4 .6 .2 .7 .1 .3 .11 Gave (m) Sabbath Teaching To us Beginning Student (m) Student (f) Study (m) .1 .

A student studies the Torah. And they will keep the Sabbath.6 .3 .2 . Moses gave to us the Torah. In [the] beginning God created.5 .12 Sentences Peaceful Sabbath. A student studies Torah. .Study (f) .1 .4 .

1 . The final "tsade" is the form used when the letter appears at the end of a word and is also pronounced "ts". The "quph" is pronounced "q" as in quiet.2 . The vowel works the same as the "sheva" with a pronunciation of "a" as in father. Vowels This vowel is a combination of the "sheva" vowel and the "a" vowel learned previously.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Lesson 8 Consonants The "tsade" is pronounced "ts" as in pots. when placed under the first consonant of the word.3 Vocabulary . Practice .

1 .Exist (m) Land .2 Sentences Genesis 1:14 .

This is unique only to this letter and vowel combination when it appears at the end of a word. The second word in line 2 of the practice section is pronounced "ko'ach" not "kocha". Practice .2 .Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Lesson 9 Consonants The "chet" is pronounced "ch" as in the German name Bach. When a dagesh does not appear in the letter it is pronounced "ck" as in the German name Bach. the two sounds trade places. When a dagesh appears in the "Kaph". The final "kaph" has the same pronunciations as the "kaph". While most words end with a consonant. When the "ah" vowel appears under the letter "chet". it is pronounced "k" as in kick. Notes 1. Vowels This vowel is pronounced "u" as in tune. the final "kaph" will usually be followed by a vowel.1 .

So Grass.3 Vocabulary Yes.1 ..2 . Wood .3 Sentences Genesis 1:5 . Herb Tree.

1 . The vowel works the same as the "sheva" with a pronunciation of "a" as in father.Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Lesson 10 Consonants The "zayin" is pronounced "z" as in zebra.3 Vocabulary . when placed under the first consonant of the word.2 . The pronunciation of the final "pey" is the same as the "pey". When a dagesh does not appear in the letter it is pronounced "ph" as in phone. When a dagesh appears in the "pey". it is pronounced "p" as in pet. Practice . Vowels This vowel is a combination of the "sheva" vowel and the "a" vowel learned previously.

Which. Who Make. Do (m) Face .1 .2 .3 Sentences Genesis 1:11 .

Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Lesson 11 Consonants The "gimel" is pronounced "g" as in game.2 .3 Vocabulary All Man .2 . Notes 1.1 . Practice .1 . The "a" vowel is pronounced "o" in this word only. The "samech" is pronounced "s" as in sand. Vocabulary word #1 is pronounced "Kol" (coal). not "Kal" as it appears.

Bird Fish .3 .4 Sentences Genesis 1:26 .

Hebrew Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew Lesson 12 Now that you have completed the previous lessons. you may begin putting what you have learned to use. Below are the first five verses of Genesis chapter one for your reading practice. Genesis 1:1-5 .

suffixes. build your vocabulary and begin learning word and sentence structure. At this point you have the ability to read the Bible in its original language. Analytical Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon: This lexicon will greatly assist the Hebrew student learn Hebrew prefixes. it is an excellent book for the non-Jew as well because of its ability to teach word and sentence structure. . Prayer Book Hebrew The Easy Way: While this book is written to aid the Jewish student in learning to read the Sidur (Prayerbook). We recommend four books. Your next step is to practice your reading skill. Hebrew Bible: With a Bible in the Hebrew language you can practice your reading and take the first steps to reading the Bible in its original language.Congratulations You have completed all twelve lessons. roots and vocabulary.

Hebrew vocabulary Lessons 2. The Ancient Hebrew Research Center Web Site has some resources that will assist you with your continued reading practices and vocabulary including an online Hebrew Bible (no vowel pointings) and a Dictionary which lists all the Hebrew words used twenty five times or more in the Bible. Hebrew Picture Dictionary 8. We hope that you will continue your Hebrew studies with enjoyment and satisfaction. Thank-you very much for your continued interest in the Hebrew language and allowing us to be a part of your studies. Hebrew vocabulary games 3. Bible Readings in Hebrew 6. Let us also recommend these sites for additional Hebrew studies. Did you find them easy to follow? Did you have any problems with the lessons? Do you have any suggestions that would make the lessons better for others? May we also invite you to sign our guestbook. Mechon Mamre Hebrew Bible 9. Audio Scriptures International It would help us greatly if you would E-Mail us to let us know what you think of the lessons.Learn Biblical Hebrew: Includes a revised version of the Hebrew lessons on this site as well as charts and dictionaries to assist the new Hebrew student in Biblical Reading. If we can be of service to you now or in the future. Downloadable Hebrew Bible 5. Hebrew for me activities 4. . Allon Ministries 10. Hebrew Dictionary 7. 1. please let us know.

play.Com. Many English words are not gender sensitive such as "child". designed by Crosswalk. thank you. A dash within the English transliterations indicate a syllable break.king. is required to be installed in your fonts folder to view the Hebrew letters.tune. About the Lessons Hebrew Fonts The "BSThebrew" font.father.fly. o . a . iy . Transliteration The vowels in the transliteration will be pronounced as follows.) for feminine words will be placed after the English words.Learn Hebrew Part 2 Introduction In these lessons we will begin to learn Hebrew sentence structure and vocabulary. that are added into the translation are in italics. copyright 1939.old. These lessons are adapted from "beyt siyphrenu" (our schoolhouse) by the Hebrew Publishing Company.king. ay . ey . Those entries in the vocabulary section which are prefixes will be followed by a dash (-).) for masculine words and (f. If you have any comments. questions or suggestions for these lessons please Email us. the symbols (m. New York. In order to convey the gender of the Hebrew. The writing of these lessons will take time and we hope to add an additional lesson every few weeks. Translation Words required in the translation that are not in the Hebrew. Vocabulary Hebrew words are gender sensitive as are some English words such as "boy" and "girl". u . e edge. i . .

Transliteration sheym hay-ye-led david sheym hay-yal-dah diynah Hebrew `diw'D d.h ~ev .) a-chat two (m.y vyia h'Via ~yiv:n]a ~yiv"n r.z taoz h.) sheym ye-led yal-dah children (m.) she-ta-yim or the what book o hamah sey-pher h.v Aa -'h -.v ~iy.m t.l.) zot these ey-leh one (m.Lea d'x.l.Y.l.pes Sentences Translation The name of the boy is David.l. iysh ish-shah a-na-shiym na-shiym mar ma-rat ~ev d.) she-na-yim two (f.a t.n. Mrs.Learn Hebrew Part 2 Lesson 1 Vocabulary Translation Transliteration Hebrew Translation Transliteration Hebrew name child (m.y h'D.y tAd.y ~yid.Y.x.l.h ~ev `h'nyiD h'D. The name of the girl is Dinah.r'm this (m.) e-chad one (f.T.) ye-le-dot man woman men women Mr.) child (f.h h'm h.) ye-le-diym children (f.l.a ~iy.) zeh this (f.m r.

v `t.l.x.l r.r''m h'Via'h ~ev `d. One man. she-na-yim a-na-shiym.The name of the man is Mr.a vyia `~yiv"n ~iy.m vyia'h ~ev `!yiw. ish-shah a-chat. Levin.l.z `h'D. This is a girl.l t. sheym ha-iysh mar leviyn sheym ha-ish-shah marat le-viyn zeh ye-led zot yal-dah zeh iysh zot ish-shah iysh e-chad.T.v `d'x. This is a man. Two women. Levin. This is a woman.z `h'Via taOz `~yiv"n]a ~iy:n. The name of the woman is Mrs.a h'Via . she-tayim na-shiym. This is a boy. `!yiw.y h. One woman.y taOz `vyia h. Two men.

j vey !.m.h'K r.l `tyiL. The name of the man is Mr.a vyia heNih `!.T leL.j. To Mr. Kahen there is tephiliyn. great (m.w big.G !'j'q h'N. le-mar ka-hen yeysh tephi-liyn ve-ta-liyt.P.m vyia'h ~ev `tyiL.w !yiLip.) small (m.j.l -'l there is/are yeysh and ve- Sentences Translation Here is one man.) to (belongs to) to the (belongs to the) ga-dol ge-do-lah qa-tan qa-tannah lela- lAd'G h'lAd. sheym ha-iysh mar kahen.q -. great (f.m.Learn Hebrew Part 2 Lesson 2 Vocabulary Translation Transliteration Hebrew Translation Transliteration Hebrew here/behold hin-neyh taliyt tephiliyn praying ta-liyt te-philiyn mit-paleyl heNih tyiL. le-mar ka-hen yeysh taliyt.) small (f. To Mr.) big. Kahen there is a taliyt. To Mr. Kahen.h'K r.h'K r. Kahen there are tephiliyn and Transliteration hin-neyh iysh e-chad.T vey !.tim vey -. le-mar ka-hen yeysh tephi-liyn.l `!yiLip.j !yiLip. Hebrew `d'x.T .

tim !.P.w d.G h'Via'h `~yilAd.j.h. la-a-na-shiym yeysh tephi-liyn. ha-ish-shah ge-do-lah ve-ha-yal-dah qe-ta-nah. .h Notes 1.l.l. A taliyt is a four cornered garment with the fringes tied at each corner (Numbers 15:37-41).w vyia'h `~yIN.w !yiLip.T vey ~yiv"n]a'l `~yil.v heNih `!yiLip. mar ka-hen mit-pa-leyl.w h'lAd. often called a prayer shawl. she-ney ha-a-na-shiym mit-pal-liym ha-iysh ga-dol ve-ha-yeled qa-tan.Y.v `!'j'q d.m `~yiv"n]a yen. Two of the men are praying. The boy and the girl are small.l:Y.j vey ~yiv"n]a'l `tAtyiL. la-a-na-shiym yeysh taliy-tot. To the men there are tephiliyn and taliytot.w lAd'G vyia'h `h"N. ha-iysh ve-ha-ish-shah ge-do-liym. vey !.l `leL.L.j.G h'Via'h. To the men there are tephiliyn To the men there are taliytot. hay-ye-led ve-hay-yaldah qe-ta-niym. la-a-na-shiym yeysh tephi-liyn ve-ta-liy-tot.h.h. The man is big and the boy is small.P.j.tim ~yiv"n]a'h yen.l:Y.taliyt. The woman is big and the girl is small. Kahen is praying.h'K r.T vey ~yiv"n]a'l `tAtyiL.Y.m.q h'D. The man and the woman are big. Here are two men. hin-neyh she-ney a-nashiym.h'K r. Mr.q h'D.

The participle verbs such as "leL. often called by the Greek name phylacteries. Many feminine words end with "h'-". Tephiliyn. 5.tim" (praying) use the same plural suffix when more than one are performing the action of the verb. When a group composed of both masculine and feminine are the subjects of the verb. 6. 3. Feminine plural words are identified with a "tA-" suffix.P. are leather boxes tied to the forehead and hand when praying (Deuteronomy 6:8). . Masculine plural words are idenitified with a "~yi-" suffix.2. Adjectives normally follow the noun. the masculine suffix is used for the participle. 4. Inside the boxes are parchment with specific Biblical passages written on them.

d.) o-meyd standing (f.[ demA[ t.a aeSiK table on.b.Learn Hebrew Part 2 Lesson 3 Vocabulary Trans.vAy tAb.mA[ Participle Verb Conjugations of dm[ (standing) Gender Masculine Feminine Singular Plural demA[ ~yid.mA[ Participle Verb Conjugations of bvy (sitting) Gender Masculine Feminine Singular Plural bevAy ~yib.luv l.d.Translation literation Hebrew Translation Transliteration Hebrew boy hand na-ar yad where ay-yeyh chair ki-sey r.) o-me-det !'x.mA[ tAd.vAy t.[.vAy Sentences .mA[ t. over shul-chan al standing (m.n d"y hEY.

a `aeSiK l.a `aeSiK.w d"Y.l. What is in the hand? A book.S.a d.a `!'x. na-ar ye-led ga-dol. Here is one girl.n `@esAy r. sheym hay-yal-dah sarah.a d. mah bay-yad? sey-pher.B h.[ ~'h'r.y hENih `~'h'r.a.b.b. sheym ha-na-ar yoseyph.h l..l:y hENih `h'r'f h'D.[ demA[ ~'h'r.h l.luV. ay-yeyh ha-se-phariym? e-chad ba-yad ve-echad al ha-shul-chan. Sarah is standing on .h ~ev ?~'h'r. ay-yeyh av-ra-ham? av-ra-ham al ki-sey.a `t. Where is Abraham? Abraham is on a chair.m ?~yir'p. Here is one boy. hin-neyh yal-dah achat.luV.[ d'x.Translation Here is a boy. What is on the table? A book. mah al ha-shul-chan? sey-pher.a `d'x.h ~ev `r.a h'D. The name of the boy is Abraham.Y.b.[.h l.h ~ev ?h'r'f hEY.pes ?d"Y.a `aeSiK l.[.a hEY.[. The name of the girl is Sarah.[ h'r'f `aeSiK.y r. sa-rah o-me-det al ha- Hebrew `r. Abraham is standing on the chair.[ One is in the hand and one is on the table. av-ra-ham o-meyd al ha-ki-sey.l. Where are the books? Transliteration hin-neyh na-ar.h l.n heNih `lAd'G d.B d'x. hi-neyh ye-led e-chad sheym hay-ye-led avra-ham. a-yeyh sa-rah? sa-rah al ki-sey.l.h hEY.x. Where is Sarah? Sarah is on a chair.l:Y. A boy is a large child.b.N. The name of the boy is Joseph.pes ?!'x.[ h'm `r.

w ~'h'r.B".[ ~yid.b. .a Notes 1. The first syllable "bay" is pronounced "bahee" (as in good "bye") not "bay" as in a bay of water.mA[ h'r'f.mA[ h'r'f `tAa. av-ra-ham ve-sa-rah om-diym al ha-ki-sot t. Remember that the "a" vowels are pronounced like the "a" in father.d.siK. The transliteration for this word is bay-yad.h l. Abraham and Sarah are standing on the chairs. ki-sey. In the above sentence is the word "d"Y.the chair.

Study Resources Hebrew/English dictionary of common Hebrew words Prefixes. suffixes and infixes added to Hebrew roots Hebrew Alphabet . prefix or suffix within the resources. You will need the BST Hebrew Font to view the Hebrew text in these lessons. The following is the first few verses of Genesis chapter one where we will examine each word. If you have any questions. The final lesson is Genesis chapter one for you to practice your translation on.Part 3 Introduction If you know the Hebrew alephbet.Learn Biblical Hebrew . explaining their construction and relationship within the sentence. one at a time. comments or suggestions on these lessons please e-mail us. your next step in Biblical Hebrew studies is to learn sentence and word structure. Below are a couple resources to assist you in your Biblical Reading. We are including a singular link below to these but do not make any specific links at each occurence within the lesson as you will learn quicker when you search for the word.

----------.----- Pronoun Suffixes .Learn Biblical Hebrew .Feminine Singular My hand Your hand Plural Our hand Your hand ¯ . Suffixes and Infixes Prefixes The -In -To Like ---¯ And -- Which -- Noun Derivatives ----.Masculine Singular My hand Your hand His hand Plural Our hand Your hand Their hand ¯ Pronoun Suffixes .Part 3 Hebrew Prefixes.

Her hand Their hand Perfect Tense .Feminine Singular I said You said She said Plural We said You said They said Imperfect Tense .Masculine Singular I said You said He said Plural We said You said They said Perfect Tense .Feminine Singular I say You say She says We say You say They say Plural .Masculine Singular I say You say He says Plural We say You say They say Imperfect Tense .

This letter is an abbreviated form of the Hebrew word " " (beyt) meaning "house". Each verb identifies gender (masculine or feminine). about half are used very infrequently in the Bible.500. The letters " --" are added to the root to form a new noun. Of these 1. The "he" is masculine singular and the word "did" indicates perfect tense. This verb would literally be translated as "he did fatten/fill". The Hebrews thought and communicated in concrete terms rather than abstracts as we do. Words related in meaning to the root are commonly formed by adding certain letters to the root and all of the words derived from the same root will be related in meaning. meaning "beginning" (The head of a time or space as in the beginning of an event or a river. one can easily see the root word within the word. The root word is " " meaning "head". This is a verb (word denoting action). The house is where the family resides "inside".Learn Biblical Hebrew . The word create is an abstract word while the word fatten or filled are concrete.Part 3 Lesson 1 Genesis 1:1 The is a prefix meaning "inside".000 different words in the Bible.500 root words. While this word is usually translated as "create" a better Hebraic translation would be "fatten" or "filled" as what is fattened is filled up. all of which are derived from only about 1.) By being able to recognize the prefixes and letters added to a root to form noun derivatives. There are approximately 8. . . number (singular or plural) and tense (perfect or imperfect). This means that with a good understanding of about 750 root words one can easily read the Biblical text without memorizing all 8.000 words used within it.

The first letter. is another prefix and is usually translated as "the". Only through context can it be determined if the plural noun is identifying quantity or quality. Imperfect tense is incomplete action and is similar to our present or future tense. English tenses are related to time while Hebrew is related to action. This word is used for anyone or anything which. The root word is " " and while usually translated as "name" is more literally "breath". In the . " ". an example of an indirect object would be. The suffix " --" denotes a plural for masculine nouns. The root word for this noun is " " meaning "power". this word is literally "the moving toward a mark". Conversely. the "he" in "he did fatten". In English we say "John ran fast. This can be the context within the passage or the sentence structure itself. "the book" and "his book" where the "book" is specically identified". This word literally a plow point which creates the furrows in the field and is guided by the driver of the plow. While English plurals denote quantity (more than one). "Bible". The word " " can be translated as "gods" (quantity) or "a great god" (quality). who you are. "to look at something". Notice the difference of tenses between Hebrew and English. This word is the subject of the verb.Perfect tense is completed action and is similar to our past tense. Some examples of a direct object are.000 times (and never translated into English as there is no equivelent) to point to the direct object of the verb. This prefix is the short form of the word " " meaning. "a book" where the book is not specifically identified. In order to keep the furrow straight. The word " " is used over 11. In Hebraic thought your breath is your character. The idea of "a great god" is generally written as "God". Hebrew plurals can also denote quality (very large or great). the driver heads for a mark in the distance. Therefore. Generally the subject of the verb will follow the verb rather than precede it as in English." but in Hebrew this would be written as "ran John fast". has "power" and is often translated as "God". In this verse the context of the sentence structure requires this word to be understood as qualitative since the verb was preceding it states "he (singular) did fatten" and not "they (plural) did fatten".

This is the abbreviated form of the word " " meaning. Because the " " (the) precedes the word " " (skies). hence. The word " meaning "land". peg or nail. or "breath". The letter " " is the prefix meaning "the". this prefix attaches two or more things together in a sentence. Again we find the suffix " --" indicating a plural . Added to this prefix is the word " " which was previously discussed. As a nail attaches two items together."breaths" or "winds" of the sky and best translated as "skies". usually translated as "and". Another very common prefix is the letter " ". in this case "the skies and the land". the reason for the word " " before it. " is a common word . this word is a direct object. Because of this word we know that the word which follows is also a definite object of the verb " ".Hebraic culture one's name was to reflect their character.

a very common root literally meaning "to exist" or "breath" as one who exists breathes but. The root word here is " " meaning "empty". In fact. This verb is made feminine. ". The first letter. When a " " is added to a root which ends with a " ". " ". This verb would be literally translated as "she did exist" where the "she" is the "land" from the previous word. is usually translated with a form of the English verb "to be". is the prefix meaning "and" and is used to connect the word . in other words bringing all of the words of one story together. as previously The root word of this verb is " ". and perfect tense because the " " is added at the end of the root.Part 3 Lesson 2 Genesis 1:2 As previously discussed the prefix " " is used to attach two parts of a sentence together but is also used to attach two or more sentences together. By adding the letter " " to the root. the entire chapter of Genesis chapter one is one long story as each sentence begins with a " ". The letter " " is the prefix meaning "the" and the word " discussed means "land". a noun derivative is formed meaning.Learn Biblical Hebrew . singular. "empty" or "void". the " " is changed to a " ".

the " " is dropped.". The first sentence we looked at said that "God filled the sky and the land" while this sentence says that "the land was unfilled (a void)".) The first letter is the prefix meaning "and". . Also. The root for this word is " " meaning.following it with the previous word. "to fill a void". The root word is " " meaning. A common Hebrew word also derived from this root is " " (bo') and is usually translated as "come" or "go". The English translations of this word imply movement in a certain direction but the Hebrew meaning of the word is to "fill a void" and can be either here (come) or there (go). when the masculine plural is added to a word that ends with the letter " ".. " means "dark" or This word is very common and means "over" or "on". the letter " " is always dropped. The " " added after the root forms a noun derivative meaning "void".. The word " "darkness". has the more specific meaning of "deep sea". The first is the use of similar sounding words together such as we see with this word and the previous word . A noun derived from the root " " meaning "sea". There are two styles of poetry seen in the passages we have looked at thus far. When a masculine plural noun is used in the construct state. This derivative. formed by adding the letter " ". face. This word is always used in the plural form " "."tohu v'vohu".. This word is in the construct state "faces OF. The other is called parallelism where one idea is expressed in two separate ways. (Hebrew does not write sentences in chronological order as we do.

"hover over" such as a bird does over the nest. While most consider the "Spirit" a "he". . the " " is dropped. When two nouns appear together they are in the construct state. This verb can literally be translated as "she did hover". This is the same word discussed previously. The root word is " " with the masculine plural suffix " ". another word used to discover an unknown. This is the same word previously discussed meaning "over" or "on". This word and the word " " would be translated as "wind OF powers". When a word ends with the letter " " as in this root word and the masculine plural suffix is added. "wind" is a more concrete word and closer to the meaning of the Hebrew. The letter " " is a type of verb conjugation to be discussed later. The first letter " " is the prefix meaning "the". This word was also previously discussed meaning "faces" and is in the construct state with the following word. The root to this verb is " " meaning. The letter " " indicates this verb is feminine singular (she) perfect tense. The "she" of this word is the " " which is a feminine word. The word " " is another Hebrew word meaning "wind".The first letter " " is the prefix meaning "and". Another form of this word is " " and is usually translated as "who". this is an abstract word whereas. it is a "she". This word is often translated as "spirit" but again. Biblically. The word " " means "unknown" and is commonly translated as "what" a word used to discover an unknown.

a common occurrence in Biblical Hebrew. the relationship between water and an unknown. . hence. The sea (a place of large water) is seen as an unknown place.When this word appears in the plural form it always refers to "water". Note that the previous sentence contains no verb.

most likely the verb has dropped the final " " or the beginning " ". All verbs are three-letter words. The " " identifies the verb as masculine singular imperfect tense. When a verb ends with a " ". If you come across a verb and remove the prefixes and suffixes and find only two letters remaining. The first use of the word "play" is a verb while the second is a noun. Hebrew root words can be used as a noun or a verb. it is often dropped when conjugated. As a noun this root would be "a word" while as a verb it is "to say". We see a similar occurrence in English as in the sentence. "He will play Moses in the play".Learn Biblical Hebrew .Part 3 Lesson 3 Genesis 1:3 The first letter " " is the prefix meaning "and". The root word is " ". the word is identified as a verb and can literally be translated as "he will say" (masculine singular perfect tense). since the letter " " is the prefixed the tense is reversed and becomes "and he did say". The context of the sentence as well as the type of prefixes and suffixes added to the word will tell you if the word is a verb or a noun. "he will exist". The root of this word is " " as discussed previously meaning "to exist". When the letter " " is added to the root " ". This word has been discussed previously and is the subject of the previous verb. . The same is true for a verb that begins with a " " which is also dropped when the verb is conjugted. But.

This is the same verb with the same conjugation as the previous verb but includes the " " which reverses the tense to perfect and becomes "and he did exist". light. . This word is the subject of the previous verb. The same word meaning. and again the subject of the previous verb.A root word meaning "light".

The lexicon will tell you that the letter " " is a prefix. such as the word " ". . One of the best lexicons is "Analytical Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon" by Benjamin Davidson. and that the root for this word is " ".5 At this point you should be able to translate verses 4 and 5.Part 3 Lesson 4 Genesis 1:4.Learn Biblical Hebrew . To see To separate Between Night Evening One To call Good That it is Day Morning To (prefix) ¯ One of the best resources to assist with Biblical reading in Hebrew is a lexicon that lists every word in the text. The lexicon will also define the word itself. You can also look up the root and see all of the other words derived from this root. Most of the words as well as the prefixes and suffixes have been covered above with the exception of those listed below. Once you have translated the verses you can use a translation to check your work. With type of lexicon you can look up any word found in the Bible. including all its prefixes and suffixes.

Under each line of Hebrew text is a blank line for you to enter your translation for Hebrew translation practice.Word .Learn Biblical Hebrew .Part 3 Lesson 5 Below are links to the Hebrew text of Genesis chapter one and the book of Ruth in MicroSoft Word Format and Rich Text Format.Word The Book of Ruth . You will also need to download the appropriate Hebrew font to view the Hebrew text of the document. Genesis Chapter One .

v{x.p.y'h #.m ~yih{l/a .P-l.[yiq'r'l l.w ____________________________________________ rAa-yih.m'V.h .h !yebW .y.h !yeB leD.w rAa yih.y.v{x.r.$At.x.Genesis Chapter One #.P-l.r.w 6 ____________________________________________ ~Iy'm'l ~Iy.w .M.Y.w ~Ay rAa'l ~yih{l/a a'r.v]a ____________________________________________ !ek-yih.xWr.r'a'h tea.y'l ____________________________________________ yihyiw ~Iy'M.w .w .y.qiY.h !yebW rAa'h !yeB ~yih{l/a ____________________________________________ a'r'q .$.ma{Y.w h'l.[ t.h yen.B 1 ____________________________________________ ~Ah.y ~yih{l/a r.[ .y ~yih{l/a r.B .b.w 7 ____________________________________________ r.[-yih.w 2 ____________________________________________ ~Iy'M.v{x.l.w 3 ____________________________________________ leD.$.M.r.q{b-yih.ma{Y.a ~yih{l/a a.m ____________________________________________ ~Iy.b.w ~Iy.[yiq'r'l ~yih{l/a a'r.[yiq'r yih.q{b-yih.[yiq'r'l t.h tea ~yih{l/a a'r'B tyivaer.[.b.$.a ~Ay r.Y.y.m !yeB lyiD.qiY.[em ____________________________________________ b.y.v]a ~Iy.w 4 ____________________________________________ .x.w 5 ____________________________________________ d'x.r.Y.t yen.[-yih.w ~Iy'm'v .r'a'h.Y.w Wh{b'w Wh{t h't.[yiq'r'h-t.w bAj-yiK rAa'h-t.w b.a ~yih{l/a f.w 8 ____________________________________________ yinev ~Ay r.Tim r.y.

w 10 ____________________________________________ bAj-yiK ~yih{l/a a.Tim ~Iy.Y.____________________________________________ ~Iy.w d'x.riB t{r{a.qiY.Y.M.w 11 ____________________________________________ r.y ~yih{l/a r.l yir.m'V.M.h .w h'v'B.w ~yiM.D #.v.w ~yim'y.l ____________________________________________ yivyil.m'V.z ____________________________________________ [.lW ____________________________________________ -l.z r.y.a'ret.a h'v'B.b.w 9 ____________________________________________ !ek-yih.r.h !yebW ~AY.fe[ a.w 13 ____________________________________________ ~Iy.r'a'h aev.y a'r'q ____________________________________________ b.mil Wy'h.r.w Whenyim.lW ~yid][A{m.riB t{rAa.m b.v]a Anyim.v.w h'l.[yiq.w 15 ____________________________________________ .h Ww'QIy ~yih{l/a r.m ____________________________________________ !ek-yih.P #e[ [.w 12 ____________________________________________ Ab-A[.r.y.f{[ #e[.P h.w Whenyim.r.Y.r.h hew.d.m'V.[yir.T ~yih{l/a r.w #.h.h h.m yih.a ____________________________________________ ~Iy.h t.h !yeB lyiD.q{b-yih.z .[ Ab-A[.[yiq.ma{Y.ma{Y.Y.[yir.l ~Iy.w b.y'L.r'a'h aecAT.l ____________________________________________ bAj-yiK ~yih{l/a a.r.[-yih.z.lW #.v ~Ay r.[ ryia'h.D #.w 14 ____________________________________________ t{t{a.f{[ yir.P-h.l ~yih{l/a a'r.fe[ a.h .z.r.v]a yir.l ____________________________________________ ~yin'v.y.y.ma{Y.a ~Aq'm-l.l Wy'h.r'a'h-l.z .r.qim.x.

w #.l @'n'K @A[-l'K tea.[.L.Y.P r{mael ~yih{l/a ~'t{a .G.G.r'a'h-l.w ____________________________________________ -l'K tea.h Wc.[ @epA[.[-yih.h tea.P-l.v-t.r.h .h t.m.v{x.w 20 ____________________________________________ ~Iy'm'V.r'v r.a.m{r'h h'Y.b.v]a t.n #.l l{d'G.[yiq.h-t.y @A[.l ~Iy'm'V.y.M.m.!ek-yih.h t.L.v.y.y.y.h ____________________________________________ ~yib'kAK.$.w 19 ____________________________________________ h'Y.h yen.w 21 ____________________________________________ ~.r yen.h ____________________________________________ ryia'h.biY.w b.B l{v.r'a'h ____________________________________________ -t.r.y.r ~Ay r.m.w 18 ____________________________________________ bAj-yiK ~yih{l/a a.vIy ~yih{l/a r.r.l !{j'Q.$.h Wc.w h'l.Y.m.w 16 ____________________________________________ rAa'M.[ #.h t{r{a.p.l.f.r'a'h-l.h]lW h'l.Y.v.henyim.x.h .a ~yih{l/a f.r.limW Wb.[yiq.mil.w ____________________________________________ Wa.h v.r'b.M.w ~yil{d.ma{Y.a ~yil{d.w ~AY.h-t.[ ____________________________________________ rAa'h !yeB lyiD.p.h rAa'M.bW ~AY.y.n ____________________________________________ bAj-yiK ~yih{l/a a.a ~yih{l/a a'r.r.w 22 .w .M.l.rW Wr.q{b-yih.w 17 ____________________________________________ #.v ~Iy.riB ~yih{l/a ~'t{a !eTiY.h !yebW ____________________________________________ yi[yib.T.x v.l ~Iy.w Whenyim.h ~inyiN.

nW r'k'z At{a a'r'B ~yih{l/a ____________________________________________ ~yih{l/a ~.bW h'meh.Y.w 23 ____________________________________________ H'nyim.r.a.h t.a-At.r-l'K tea.l h'meh.g.w H'nyim.bW #.dib WD.w WnetWm.a ~yih{l/a a'r.q{b-yih.y.m.y.a ____________________________________________ yivyim]x ~Ay r.n #.[.B.h ____________________________________________ bAj-yiK ~yih{l/a a.[-yih.l #.biY.B ____________________________________________ -t.r'b.c.ma{Y.r'a'B b.____________________________________________ #.l h'm'd]a'h f.w ~yiM.x v.r.$.w 27 ____________________________________________ ~'t{a a'r'B h'beq.a ~yih{l/a f.y.l.bW ~'Y.r.w f.l h'Y.B Am.p.Y.h'l r.Y.w 25 ____________________________________________ Whenyim.[ ____________________________________________ ~.w 24 ____________________________________________ !ek-yih.m.w b.w H'nyim.c.B ~Iy.f][.m.y.x-t.ma{Y.m'V.r'a'h t.B ~'d'a'h-t.r'w h'meh.r'a'h-l'k.l #.diK ____________________________________________ fem{r'h f.h @A[.w 28 ____________________________________________ .w ____________________________________________ Wnem.r'a'h-l.ma{Y.r'a'h aecAT ~yih{l/a r.Y.l.w ~yih{l/a ~'t{a .bW ____________________________________________ #.B ~'d'a h.B.rIy.w H'nyim.l.r'h-l'k.n ~yih{l/a r.h-t.w 26 ____________________________________________ ~Iy.x.c.rIy @A['h.y.M.

r.[er{z #e[-yir.hIy ~.k'l [.ma{Y.diB Wd.[ femAr ____________________________________________ !ek-yih.r.a ~.lW ~Iy.a Wa.r'a'h-l.P-l.m'V.w 29 ____________________________________________ #e['h-l'K-t.[ r.k'a.w 31 ____________________________________________ yiViV.m'V.t'n heNih ~yih{l/a r.r'z .f.[-yih.bik.lW #.l b.y.[ ____________________________________________ b.P ____________________________________________ t.w d{a.r'a'h t.p.g.x-l'k.m ____________________________________________ .v]a-l'K-t.p AB-r.w h'l.v]a #.w #.l h.x v.bW ~'Y.y-l'K-t.y.m{r'h h'Y.fe[ ____________________________________________ bAj-heNih.y.h ~Ay r.a.lW 30 ____________________________________________ q.k'a.t.w b.v]a [.r.x-l'k.a h'Y.limW Wb.bW ~Iy.r.h ____________________________________________ #.fe[-l'K-t.v]a ____________________________________________ l{k.h @A[.w h'f'[ r.q{b-yih.Y.rW 'hUv.[er{z ____________________________________________ h'l.h @A[-l'k.r'a'h-l'k yen.r'a'h-l.rW Wr.n AB-r.r'a'h-t.k'l yiT.z .y.w #.Y.a ~yih{l/a a.

YIw: 4 ________________________________________________ `~ynIv' rf. ~h. WaboY"w: hd'Why> ~x.m. wyn"b'-ynEv.YEw: #r.a.Voh.B rWgl' hd'Why> ~x.K.Bi h['m.h' ~ve tAYbia]mo ~yvin" ~h.aiw> aWh ba'Am ydef. !Ayl.l'y> ynEV.L{k.kiw> !Alx. ~vew> hP'r>[' tx.[.ylia/ tm'Y"w: 3 ________________________________________________ tWr tynIVeh.m.v' yKi ba'Am ydeF. jpov.i ________________________________________________ !Alx.-~g: WtWmY"w: 5 ________________________________________________ `Hv'yaimeW ________________________________________________ ba'Am hdef.l.ƒtyBemi ~ytir'p.mi hV'aih' raeV'Tiw: !Ayl.a'B' b['r' yhiy>w: ~yjip.YIw: ba'Am-ydef.m.a.W ATv.ai ~vew> %l.W ayhi raeV'Tiw: ymi[\n" vyai %l. ymeyBi yhiy>w: 1 ________________________________________________ `wyn"b' ynEv.w> ayhi ~q'T'w: 6 . ~v' Wbv.l' Waf.kiw> ________________________________________________ `h'yn<b' ynEv. ~vew> ymi[\n" ATv.mi bv'T'w: h'yt.ylia/ vyaih' ~vew> 2 ________________________________________________ `~v'-Wyh.Ruth Chapter One ƒtyBemi vyai %l.l.m.ynEv.YEw: ________________________________________________ h'yd.

z" yKi !"k.-ta. !"ac.nOb.Tiw: !l'Aq hn"aF.Tiw: ________________________________________________ `%Me[. hw"hy> dq.-!mi aceTew: 7 ________________________________________________ `hd'Why> #r.li ymi[\n" rm.a. hn"b.a' yKi vyail. bWvn" %T'ai-yKi HL'hn"r>m.b.te hM'l' yt.a]K ds. yTev.aTow: 8 ________________________________________________ `ydIM'[iw> ~ytiMeh.vo ymi[\n" rm.nOb.L{k.a] ~AqM'h.b. ________________________________________________ HM'ai tybel. ~k.meB.D.L{k.le yt. hV'ai hn"b.p'-yKi ________________________________________________ hn"k.Tew: HM'[i h'yt.le h'yt.W hM'v'-ht'y>h' rv. ~k.m.l' qV.l. yTev.Tiw: Hv'yai tyBe hV'ai hx'Wnm.l' hw"hy> !TeyI 9 ________________________________________________ `hn"yK.-la.l' Wyh'w> y[.M'[i hw"hy> Îf[.l.________________________________________________ `~x.aTow: 10 ________________________________________________ ~ynIb' yli-dA[h.l.l' ~h. hn"b.l' ttel' AM[. bWvl' %r. ________________________________________________ !h.x. yMi[i hn"k. tAyh.vo 12 .mi yTin>q.-~[i ~t.yfi[] rv.W ~k.aTow: 11 ________________________________________________ `~yvin"a]l. ________________________________________________ yli-vy< yTir>m.y:Ð ¿hf.[]y:À.Vo hn"k.

ytiyyIh' ~G: hw"q.a]-la. 17 ________________________________________________ .mi daom yli-rm. tWr rm.Tiw: !l'Aq hn"F.W %leae ykil. !hel'h] 13 ________________________________________________ `hw"hy>-dy: ybi ha'c.me bWvl' %bez>['l. ybiWv h'yh.y"-yKi ~K.h. %Me[.D' ________________________________________________ yrex]a. ybiy[iG>p.ti.aTow: 16 ________________________________________________ %yIh.-la.nOB.biy> hb'v' hNEhi rm.[]y: hKo rbeQ'a.l{a/-la.Ti-la. !ylia' ynIyliT' rv. vyail.a]B. ~v'w> tWma' ytiWmT' rv.b.Te rv.aTow: 15 ________________________________________________ `%Tem. ________________________________________________ tWrw> Ht'Amx]l.Tiw: dA[ hn"yK. hP'r>[' qV.T.________________________________________________ `~ynIb' yTid>l.biy> ________________________________________________ yKi %yIr'x]a. hn"gE['Te !hel'h] WlD'g>yI rv. ________________________________________________ `yh'l{a/ ________________________________________________ hkow> yli hw"hy> hf.a]b. %Tem.l{awE yMi[. la..y" ~g:w> vyail hl'y>L.bil. hn"r>Bef.w> HM'[.a] d[.-yKi yt.Tiw: 14 ________________________________________________ `HB' hq'b. ________________________________________________ tAyh/ yTil.

l.a. HM'[i Ht'L'k.he yD.T. tL.M. hY"bia]AMh.ti hM'l' hw"hy> ynIb.ƒtyBe hn"a'boK. yhiy>w: ~x.x.q.aTow: 20 ________________________________________________ `daom.yvih/ ~q'yrew> yTik. ynIa] 21 ________________________________________________ `yli [r.Tew: 18 ________________________________________________ ~x. ymi[\n" yli hn"ar.h' ha'lem. hn"k.ae rBed.l.l.l' ayhi tc.v.he-yKi ar'm' yli !"ar.q. tWrw> ymi[\n" bv'T'w: 22 ________________________________________________ `~yrI[of.l.ƒtyBe WaB' hM'hew> _______________________________________________ . yKi @ysiyO ________________________________________________ `h'yl.mi-yKi ar.Bi ~x.Ti-la. yli yD. !h.Tew: 19 ________________________________________________ `ymi[\n" tazOh] hn"r>m.`%nEybeW ynIyBe dyrIp.mi hb'V'h. ~h.v.ylea] rm.w> ybi hn"[' hw"hyw: ymi[\n" ________________________________________________ ba'Am ydeF.l.yTev.t.xit.l'ƒtyBe hn"a'Bo-d[.y: tw<M'h. lD.l.w: HT'ai tk. ryciq. ________________________________________________ yli hn"ar.q.aTow !h.yle[] ry[ih'-lK' ~hoTew:: ________________________________________________ rm.

z[.Mimi rv.aTow: 2 ________________________________________________ `yTibi ykil.F'B.a. ![.T.Mimi lyIx. hr'[]N:h. tWr rm. bC'NIh.aYOw: 5 ________________________________________________ ayhi hY"bia]Am hr'[]n: rm.W 1 ________________________________________________ `z[.P.x. Ar[]n:l. Hl' rm. rABGI vyai Hv'yail.m. ~yrIc. r[.ƒtyBemi aB' z[.AQh.v.Tew: 3 ________________________________________________ `%l.M'[i hw"hy> ~yrIc.ylia/ ________________________________________________ hj'q\l. rv.bo-hNEhiw> 4 ________________________________________________ `hw"hy> ^k.YIw: ~yrIc. Î[d.À ymi[\n"l.a] rx.AQh. jQel.aTow: wyn"y[eB !xeac'm. bC'NIh. yrex]a.b'y> Al Wrm.N:h.-l[.Bo rm.ae ymi[\n"-la.aYOw: ~x. .Ruth Chapter Two tx.a.w: aAbT'w: %l. hd. ________________________________________________ h'r.F'h. hd.Y:w: 6 ________________________________________________ `ba'Am hdeF.q.bol. rm.v.F'h.l.W %l.Qoh.mi ymi[\n"-~[i hb'V'h.AmÐ ¿[D'yUm. tq.a] z[.aYOw: ~yrIc.AQl. ~yliB\Vib.m.mi rq.a]w: hd. aN"-hk'l.-l[.aYOw: ________________________________________________ `taZOh. ymil..r.l.Bo Amv.ylia/ tx. hY"bia]AMh. ________________________________________________ ~k.P.

za'me dAm[]T. tyfi['-rv.Y:w: 11 ________________________________________________ .k. ~yrI['N>h. ~yrIm'[\b' yTip.yI-rv.h'w> !Wrcoq. al{ ~g:w> rxea.a] rm. ^yn<y[eB.Tiw: h'yn<P'-l[. yrex]a.WDm.f'B.n" ykinOa'w> ynIreyKih.aYOw: z[.m.h.-la.AQh.l.k.l. %yIn:y[e 9 ________________________________________________ tytiv'w> ~yliKeh. ________________________________________________ ytiyWIci aAlh] !h.s. !Wba]v.w> rq. T.bil.yI rv.a'w> aN"-hj'q\l.-d[.v' aAlh] tWr-la. T.aYOw: 8 ________________________________________________ `yt'ro[]n:-~[i !yqiB'd>ti hkow> hZ<mi yrIWb[]t.a]me ________________________________________________ ytiac'm' [.aTow: 7 ________________________________________________ `j['m. ________________________________________________ `~yrI['N>h. hd.yrex]a.vi hz< hT'[.Te-la.aTow: hc'r>a' WxT.[.Bo ![.h'w> tmic'w> %[eg>n" yTil.F'B.________________________________________________ aAbT'w: ~yrIc.a] hd. yTiBi T.Boh.l. HT'b. !xe ________________________________________________ %teAmx]-ta.Bo rm.w: ________________________________________________ jqol.li ykil.a] lKo yli dG:hu dGEhu Hl' rm.ta. tyIB. lPoTiw: 10 ________________________________________________ `hY"rIk. wyl'ae rm. z[.v.

xoB.aTow: ________________________________________________ ~yrIm'[\h' !yBe ~G: rmoale wyr'['n>-ta.W %le[\P' hw"hy> ~Lev. z[.la.L.ykil.b. %TePi T.xop. yhit.m.YIw: ~yrIc. rm.a.l.y"-al{ rv.aTow: 13 ________________________________________________ `^yt.K. al{w> jQel.mi bv.h.x'p.dI ykiw> ynIT'm.Am #r.AQh.y>w: jQel.l.t.l.vi lAmT. T.Tiw: lk.a.x. !xe-ac'm. taB'-rv.Tew: %Ted>l. al{ ykinOa'w> ^t.d.k.y> 12 ________________________________________________ `wyp'n"K.T. ~q'T'w: 15 ________________________________________________ `h'Wmylik.a.a] laer'f. ________________________________________________ yhel{a/ hw"hy> ~[ime hm'lev. dC.vi tx.T.w: %veyai tAm yrex]a.Tow: [B. %Ter>Kuf.a] ~[.aoh' t[el.a.nI yKi ynIdoa] ^yn<y[eB. ________________________________________________ ~x.T. tAsx]l.aYOw: 14 ________________________________________________ yliq' Hl'-jB'c.-!mi T.Bo wc.a'w> ~l{h] yviGO lk. hy<h.bo hl' rm.f.vi ble-l[.j'w> ________________________________________________ `rt.Tew: #m. z[. ________________________________________________ `~Avl.yI ________________________________________________ T'r>B. .-tx.[.w> %Meaiw> %ybia' ybiz>[.

!mi Hl' WLvoT'-lvo ~g:w> 16 ________________________________________________ `Hb'-Wr[]g>ti ________________________________________________ yhiy>w: hj'Qeli-rv.a] tae jBox.li hpoyae Ht'Amx] Hl' rm.Tew: ry[ih' aAbT'w: aF'Tiw: 18 ________________________________________________ `H['b. AM[i ytiyfi[' rv.b.T.Q.w: br.x .a] tae Hl'!T.aTow: AM[i ht'f.l.w: 17 ________________________________________________ `~yrI[of.j. aWh %WrB' Ht'L'k.a] tae Ht'Amx] ar. ymi[\n" rm.a] vyaih' ~ve ________________________________________________ bz:['-al{ rv.aTow: 20 ________________________________________________ Wnl' bArq' ymi[\n" Hl' rm.['-rv.['h'-d[.aTow: ~ytiMeh.a] hw"hyl. jQel.z:[]w: ~ytib'C. dGET.Tiw: ________________________________________________ yhiy> tyfi[' hn"a'w> ~AYh.Bo ~AYh.aTow: 19 ________________________________________________ rm. ADs.h.F'mi hr'tiAh-rv.________________________________________________ al{w> hj'Q.T. T. hp'yaeK.h.-ta.liw> ~T.a] tae Ht'Amx]l.w> ~yYIx.-ta. hd.w: %WrB' %reyKim. ________________________________________________ `z[. ________________________________________________ aceATw: hj'Qeli-rv.F'B.

ymi[\n" rm. bv.d>Tiw: 23 ________________________________________________ `Ht'Amx]-ta.-lK' tae WLKi-~ai d[.W ________________________________________________ Ruth Chapter Three rv.b. tWr-la.Tew: ~yJixih.ae rm.aTow: 1 ________________________________________________ `%l'-bj. tyyIh' rv.aTow: 21 ________________________________________________ `yli-rv. !yqiB'd>Ti yli-rv.zO aWh-hNEhi wyt'Ar[]n:-ta.-ryciq.________________________________________________ `aWh Wnlea]GOmi vyaih'.w> 2 . ryciq.yI al{w> wyt'Ar[]n:-~[i ________________________________________________ ~yrI[oF.bo al{h] hT'[.Anm' %l'-vQ.-~[i yl.-d[.a] WnT'[.a'-yKi ~G: hY"bia]AMh.a] x. qB. %b'-W[G>p. ________________________________________________ ~yrI['N>h.mo z[.h.te yKi yTiBi bAj Ht'L'K.aTow: 22 ________________________________________________ `rxea.f'B.a] ________________________________________________ yaic. hd.Bo tAr[]n:B. tWr rm. tAlK.a] ryciQ'h.d.l.yyI ________________________________________________ hr. jQel. z[.a] al{h] yTiBi Ht'Amx] ymi[\n" Hl' rm.

yI rv.[. !r.liw> lkoa/l. T.aYOw: 7 ________________________________________________ `bK'v. Îyl.f.v. ________________________________________________ ¿yTid>r.GOh.w: !r.yYIw: T.GOh.k. f[.h.fiÀ T. ~yrI[oF. rv.YEw: z[.s.k.aeÐ ¿$kÀ yrIm.-ta. dr.li aboY"w: ABli bj.[/a.x.h.y"w>À %yIl.k'v'w>Ð ¿yTib.v.________________________________________________ `hl'y>L'h.a] lKo h'yl.v'b.w> T.fiÐ ¿%tel{m.y"w> Abk.m.Bi bK.a] lkoK.c. yhiywI 4 ________________________________________________ `!yfi[]T.GO-ta. lg:T. AtL{K.w: jL'b. aboT'w: ________________________________________________ tb.l{m. !r.r'w> 3 ________________________________________________ `tATv.vyail' y[id>W"Ti-la. d[.x/Y<w: hl'y>L.vo hV'ai hNEhiw> tpeL'YIw: vyaih' dr. yhiy>w: 8 ________________________________________________ .k'v'w>À wyt'l{G>r>m. ÎT.a] ~AqM'h.Tiw: wyt'l{G>r>m.Bo lk.[' Î%yIt.w" T.aTow: 5 ________________________________________________ `Ht'Amx] hT'W:ci-rv. ________________________________________________ `hf.d.T.d>r.a] tae %l' dyGIy: aWhw> ÎT.Tew: 6 ________________________________________________ hm're[]h' hceq.aTo-rv.y"w>Ð ________________________________________________ tyLigIw> tab'W ~v'-bK. ycix]B.b.ae rm.v.

`wyt'l{G>r>m; ________________________________________________ ^p,n"k. T'f.r;p'W ^t,m'a] tWr ykinOa' rm,aTow: Ta'-ymi rm,aYOw: 9 ________________________________________________ `hT'a' laegO yKi ^t.m'a]-l[; ________________________________________________ !Arx]a;h' %Des.x; T.b.j;yhe yTiBi hw"hyl; T.a; hk'WrB. rm,aYOw: 10 ________________________________________________ `ryvi['-~aiw> lD;-~ai ~yrIWxB;h; yrex]a; tk,l,-yTil.bil. !AvarIh'-!mi ________________________________________________ [;deAy yKi %L'-hf,[/a, yrIm.aTo-rv,a] lKo yair>yTi-la; yTiBi hT'[;w> 11 ________________________________________________ `T.a' lyIx; tv,ae yKi yMi[; r[;v;-lK' ________________________________________________ bArq' laeGO vyE ~g:w> ykinOa' laegO ÎqqÐ ¿~aiÀ yKi ~n"m.a' yKi hT'[;w> 12 ________________________________________________ al{-~aiw> la'g>yI bAj %lea'g>yI-~ai rq,Bob; hy"h'w> hl'y>L;h; ynIyli 13 ________________________________________________ `rq,Boh;-d[; ybik.vi hw"hy>-yx; ykinOa' %yTil.a;g>W %lea\g"l. #Pox.y: ________________________________________________ ¿~Arj.BiÀ ~q'T'w: rq,Boh;-d[; Îwyt'AlG>r>m;Ð ¿Atl'G>r>m;À bK;v.Tiw: 14 ________________________________________________

hV'aih' ha'b'-yKi [d;W"yI-la; rm,aYOw: Wh[ere-ta, vyai ryKiy: Î~r,j,B.Ð ________________________________________________ `!r,GOh; ________________________________________________ dm'Y"w: HB' zx,aTow: Hb'-yzIx\a,w> %yIl;['-rv,a] tx;P;j.Mih; ybih' rm,aYOw: 15 ________________________________________________ `ry[ih' aboY"w: h'yl,[' tv,Y"w: ~yrI[of.-vve ________________________________________________ tae Hl'-dG<T;w: yTiBi T.a;-ymi rm,aTow: Ht'Amx]-la, aAbT'w: 16 ________________________________________________ `vyaih' Hl'-hf'[' rv,a]-lK' ________________________________________________ Îyl;aeÐ ¿$kÀ rm;a' yKi yli !t;n" hL,aeh' ~yrI[oF.h;-vve rm,aTow: 17 ________________________________________________ `%teAmx]-la, ~q'yre yaiAbT'-la; ________________________________________________ al{ yKi rb'D' lPoyI %yae !y[id>Te rv,a] d[; yTibi ybiv. rm,aTow: 18 ________________________________________________ `~AYh; rb'D'h; hL'Ki-~ai-yKi vyaih' jqov.yI ________________________________________________
Ruth Chapter Four

z[;Bo-rB,DI rv,a] rbe[o laeGOh; hNEhiw> ~v' bv,YEw: r[;V;h; hl'[' z[;boW 1 ________________________________________________ `bveYEw: rs;Y"w: ynImol.a; ynIl{P. hPohb'v. hr'Ws rm,aYOw: ________________________________________________ `WbveYEw: hpo-Wbv. rm,aYOw: ry[ih' ynEq.ZImi ~yvin"a] hr'f'[] xQ;YIw: 2 ________________________________________________ hr'k.m' %l,m,ylia/l, Wnyxia'l. rv,a] hd,F'h; tq;l.x, laeGOl; rm,aYOw: 3 ________________________________________________ `ba'Am hdeF.mi hb'V'h; ymi[\n" ________________________________________________ ynEq.zI dg<n<w> ~ybiv.YOh; dg<n< hnEq. rmoale ^n>z>a' hl,g>a, yTir>m;a' ynIa]w: 4 ________________________________________________ Îh['d>aew>Ð ¿[d;aew>À yLi hd'yGIh; la;g>yI al{-~aiw> la'G> la;g>Ti-~ai yMi[; ________________________________________________ `la'g>a, ykinOa' rm,aYOw: ^yr,x]a; ykinOa'w> lAag>li ^t.l'Wz !yae yKi ________________________________________________ tWr taemeW ymi[\n" dY:mi hd,F'h; ^t.Anq.-~AyB. z[;Bo rm,aYOw: 5 ________________________________________________ tMeh;-~ve ~yqih'l. Îht'ynIq'Ð ¿ytiynIq'À tMeh;-tv,ae hY"bia]AMh;

kil.l.m. tWr-ta.ylia/l.-~ve ________________________________________________ . tazOw> Wh[erel.a]-lK'ta. hT'a.-!P.-l[. ________________________________________________ ~YEq. rv.W !Ayl.G> ytil'x]n:-ta.YIw: %l'-hnEq. tv. ________________________________________________ tyxiv.________________________________________________ `Atl'x]n:-l[.ae hY"bia]Moh.-~ve treK'yI-al{w> Atl'x]n:-l[. hd'W[T.n"w> Al[]n: vyai @l. !t.Bo rm.aYOw: 6 ________________________________________________ `laog>li lk.h. yli ytiynIq' !Alx. ~T.-la. tazOw> 7 ________________________________________________ `laer'f.a.bol. ^l.V.yIB.a]-lK' taew> %l. hr'WmT. rm.m.aYOw: 9 ________________________________________________ `ymi[\n" dY:mi !Alx. rv. ~ydI[e ~['h'lk'w> ~ynIqeZ>l. laer'f.v' rb'D'-lK' ________________________________________________ `Al[]n: @l{v.miW wyx'a.Wa-al{ yKi ytiL'auG>-ta.w> hL'WaG>h. hV'ail. tMeh.Wa al{ laeGOh.-l[.h.a. z[. laeGOh. ________________________________________________ ~yqih'l. ~[ime tMeh. ~ynIp'l.m. yliÎ-la'g>liÐ ¿-lAag>liÀ lk. rm.yIB. ~g:w> 10 ________________________________________________ r[. z[.aYOw: 8 ________________________________________________ ytiynIq' yKi ~AYh.

hi al{ rv.a] hw"hy> %WrB' ymi[\n"-la. ~ve-ar'q. z[. lKel.a] #r.aTow: 14 ________________________________________________ `laer'f.W vp. ________________________________________________ [r. yKi %teb'yfe-ta. ~yviN"h.B.V. tybeK.y"rv. hV'aih'-ta.w> r[.n< byvimel.-hfe[]w: laer'f.B. lyIx.W lxer'K. hw"hy> !TeyI rv.a] ha'lek.aYOw: 11 ________________________________________________ ~h. Al-yhiT.a. WnB' rv.W ht'r'p.l.-!mi ^l.Z<h.a] ~['h'-lK' Wrm.ae aboY"w: hV'ail.Tew: !Ayr'he Hl' ________________________________________________ tyBiv. ^t.Bo xQ. ^t.l'ƒtybeB.`~AYh.yIB. hr'[]N:h.k. ha'B'h.yBe-la. ________________________________________________ hw"hy> !TeyI ~ydI[e ~ynIqeZ>h.a] ________________________________________________ hw"hy> !TeYIw: h'yl.-!mi hd'Whyli rm't' hd'l. laeGO %l' ________________________________________________ %teL'k.w: tWr-ta.a. ________________________________________________ `~x.ybe yhiywI 12 ________________________________________________ `taZOh. hn"r>m. %l' hy"h'w> 15 ________________________________________________ .YIw: 13 ________________________________________________ `!Be dl.yI tyBe-ta.yTev. ~T. areQ'yIw> ~AYh. Amv.P. ~ydI[e AmAqm.-rv.

aew> 18 ________________________________________________ `bd'n"yMi[.-ta.w> 19 ________________________________________________ `hm'l.Y<h.boW z[. #r.AT hL.f. dyliAh #r. dyliAh !Aml.a] WTd.yIw> yv'yI-ta.x.w: Hq'yxeb.a] ________________________________________________ `tn<m. dyliAh z[.n:w> !Avx. dyliAh dbe[ow> 22 ________________________________________________ .`~ynIB' h['b. Al hn"ar.Tiw: ymi[\n"l.q.hea]-rv. dyliAh !Arc.-ta.Vimi %l' hb'Aj ayhi-rv.P' tAdl.x. dyliAh !Avx.Tiw: 17 ________________________________________________ @ `dwId' ybia] yv.h. WhteviT.Bo-ta. dyliAh ~r'w> ~r'-ta.-ta. dyliAh bd'n"yMi[.b.n:ta. dyliAh yv. ________________________________________________ `!Arc.P.Tiw: 16 ________________________________________________ hn"ar. Al-yhiT.f.l'y> %t.aol.w> 20 ________________________________________________ `dbeA[-ta.q.yI-ybia] aWh dbeA[ Amv. ymi[\n" xQ. !Be-dL.w> 21 ________________________________________________ `dwID'-ta.-ta.w: dl.yU rmoale ~ve tAnkeV.

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