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CHAPTER I

The Problem and Its Background

Introduction

Education is an important means by which an organized society achieves stability

and prosperity. Through the process of Education, the citizens are imbued with proper

attitudes, values and aspirations, necessary to gain knowledge and skills that will help

them achieve maximum self-realization. The Congressional Commission on Education

(EDCOM) has recognized the crucial importance of Education when it stated in the

preface to the official EDCOM report: Education is essential to our life as a nation. This

is the truism that bears endless repetition And professional educators know very well

that the word Learning implies both teaching and learning.

The Philippine Educational System was before patterned from both Educational

Systems of Spain and United States of America. But as the time goes by, different

technologies spawned. The Department of Education proposed a new educational

system, along with that the new curriculum for all students. This will be the answer for

the demand for manpower that will help for the countrys development.

The end goal of Philippine Education is to produce Filipinos who respect human

rights, whose personal disciplines are guided by spiritual and moral values and who can

exercise responsively their rights and duties as citizens.

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Contrary to their concept, the Philippine Educational System has apparently failed

to produce the much-needed Filipinos for the countrys social and economic

development. The demand for learning especially in the world of work has altered.

Background of the Study

Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE) is one of the learning areas in

Secondary Education in the Philippines. As a subject in high school, it basically tackles

the fundamentals of technicalities that can be found in people's everyday life. Also, with

the ever emerging Philippine Technology, students were also taught the need to know

about the growing industry to hands-on activities and creativity projects. TLE provides

High School students with practical experiences, technical knowledge and expertise in

Home Economics, Agri-Fishery Arts, Industrial Arts, and Information and

Communication Technology (ICT).

Technology and Livelihood Education intends to develop knowledge, skills,

values, and attitudes that will prepare the students for entry into world of work. This will

enable the students to gain understanding and acquire competency in various activities.

The study of TLE needs redirection to suit to the conditions today and to promote

advancement in knowledge and respond to the needs of individuals, families, and

community. According to De Alca, The TLE as the 5 th learning area in the curriculum is

the Laboratory of Life. Among the learning areas, it is the most experimental,

interactive, interdisciplinary, vocational, politico-economic and Moral Values. It is the

learning area that provides the students quality time to demonstrate practical knowledge

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and life skills that have been gained especially, the skills of empathy, vocational

efficiency and solving problem of daily life.

The DepEd is vested with the authority, accountability and responsibility for

ensuring success to promote Quality Education. Quality Education can provide people

with the means to assess and construct their own values and provides a foundation for the

continued Education that is essential to personal and professional fulfillment.

At the present setting in the Philippines, The Technology and Livelihood

Education is under the Technical-Vocational Program (Tech-Voc). Technical-Vocational

Education offers Technical and Vocational courses to basically enhance and develop their

skills. The Department of Education (DepEd), represented by Secretary Bro. Armin

Luistro said in the column entitled Education and Home for November 10, 2010 issue

of The Philippine Star:

DepEd believes that the tech-voc high school program will play a significant role

in raising the quality of high school graduates in the country toward employment

here and abroad or toward entrepreneurship. Through it, they can contribute

more significantly to revenue generation, jobs creation, and to national

development.

DepEd continues to raise the quality of the Tech-Voc program through the

provision of Competency-Based Curriculum, Teachers Training, acquisition of physical

facilities, development of instructional materials, and other logistics support.

Also, The Technical Education and skills Development Authority (TESDA),

works hand in hand with DepEd in encouraging the full participation and mobilization of

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the industrys labor and Tech-Voc Education in the development of the countrys human

resources.

As a means of achieving the goal of Quality TLE, the researcher is motivated to

pursue this study to identify the Techniques and Strategies of Teachers in Teaching

Different Areas in TLE in Public High School.

How would these be done? It will begin with the Teachers Effectiveness in

Teaching. The concern for Teachers Effectiveness is underscored in the Education Act

of 1982 which provides, among other things, that students in schools have the right to

receive, primarily through competent instruction, relevant quality education The same

law provides that every Teacher shall be accountable for the efficient and effective

attainment of specified learning objectives

Let us start with the conceptualization of Teaching, Teaching is a science as it

involves a systematic process of instruction guided by established theories, principles,

and approaches that make teaching effective. It is a cycle of instruction that is based on

theories, principles and approaches that will result in effective teaching. There is a

tremendous semantic confusion in the use of such words as strategies, techniques, and

methods. Strategies are the plans intended for accomplishing specific goals. Techniques

are the day to day activities which the teacher may design for a lesson and methods are

the overall procedure or process to achieve certain goals. It is now clear that the three are

interchangeably used in education.

Strategies are used in different strokes and advances to expand and raise goals and

undertaking for both the teacher and advances to expand and raise goals and undertaking

for both the teacher and students. It is a means to set off and develop the students skills

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and in-depth knowledge of what had to be learned according to their interests and

intelligence. It has a direct pressure on how the students learn and what skills they need

to develop. Hence, it has been purposeful to strengthen and intensify the awareness of

students in every topic to be understood.

Aside from using new technology, a teacher needed to use different strategies and

techniques to get hold of the attention of high school students. There were many ways of

applying strategies to High School Students. But a teacher must know the most effective

approach to be used to a kind of learner. According to Lardizabal, A Teacher should

realize individual differences among students and put himself in the position to meet

them through a variety of strategies.

In other schools, it is common problem of the teachers if what are the strategies

suited to arouse students interest. According to Tenedero, the problem raised when the

Teachers were left behind by the innovations in Education. Many Teachers didnt care for

someone exerted no effort to think which could be more appropriate learning style or

strategies for their school or grade level.

According to Aquino, at the end of every subject, the teacher must have

developed the students cognitive learning, his intellectual skills will have developed;

Affective learning, deals with attitudes, motivation, willingness to participate, valuing

what is being learned, and ultimately incorporating the values of a discipline into a way

of life; and Psychomotor Learning, focuses on performing sequences of motor activities

to a specified level of accuracy, smoothness, rapidity, or force.

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Theoretical Framework

This study was anchored on the theory of self-activity formulated by John Dewey

which is based on the idea of learning by doing, reacting or experiencing. This theory is

evident in the new philosophical approaches in Philippine education where in the first

approach introduced is the work-oriented curriculum which aims to develop work values

of creativity and employability of the individual. This concept calls for a real work

experience. The love for work must be stressed or develop by the TLE teachers.

B.F. Skinners Behaviorism in Modification which stresses the stimulus-response

approach to learners. The teachers should be aware that a positive stimulus should be

presented to the study to achieve the desire outcome.

Banduras Social Learning Theory stresses the observational learning where a

response is linked with a stimulus after a person sees the consequences of another

persons responses. The teacher should manifest a type of personality considered as a

true model for the students to emulate.

Ericksons Theory of Development and Sullivans Observation on the self-concept

stresses the importance of making students feel confident about their own ability. The

teacher should encourage the students to perform an activity for its own sake and for their

personal growth and satisfaction.

Kolbs Theory of Experiential Learning states that, learning as "the process

whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience. The students

cannot only learn in the four corners of a classroom, the teacher should not teach with the

theories only but instead he/she must let his/her students experience it.

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Bruners Theory of Cognitive Constructivism states that, Learning is an active

process: Direct experience, making errors, and looking for solutions are vital for the

assimilation and accommodation of information. How information is presented is

important. When information is introduced as an aid to problem solving, it functions as a

tool rather than an isolated arbitrary fact. Learning should be whole, authentic, and real

the students are engaged in the true to life experience in a classroom. The school should

have adequate facilities and equipment to help the students learn from the real thing.

Reigeluths Theory of Elaboration states that, content to be learned should be

organized from simple to complex order, while providing a meaningful context in which

subsequent ideas can be integrated. The Teacher should teach theory, principles, and

procedures of the topic first. Then, after the student learned the basic theories, let the

student choose the theory, principle and procedure of the topic to be elaborated.

Vygotskys Social Development Theory argues that social interaction precedes

development; consciousness and cognition are the product of socialization and social

behavior. A constructivist teacher creates a context for learning in which students can

become engaged in interesting activities that encourages and facilitates learning.

The teacher does not simply stand by, however, and watch children explore and

discover. Instead, the teacher may often guide students as they approach problems, may

encourage them to work in groups to think about issues and questions, and support them

with encouragement and advice as they tackle problems, adventures, and challenges that

are rooted in real life situations that are both interesting to the students and satisfying in

terms of the result of their work. Teachers thus facilitate cognitive growth and learning

as do peers and other members of the child's community.

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Browns Cognitive Apprenticeship is a theory that attempts to bring tacit

processes out in the open. It assumes that people learn from one another, through

observation, imitation and modeling. The Teacher demonstrates a task explicitly, and the

students build a conceptual model of the task at hand.

Statement of the Problem

This study aimed to assess and describe the Techniques and Strategies of Teachers

in teaching different areas in Technology and Livelihood Education in Public High

School.

Specifically, the study sought to answer the following questions:

1. What is the teachers demographic profile in terms of:

1.1 sex;

1.2 age; and

1.3 educational attainment?

2. Which of these areas of TLE are they currently taking up?

3. What techniques and strategies are used by the teacher?

4. Is there any significant relationship between the Teachers and Students responses

on the Techniques and Strategies?

5. What are the things that they use when they teach?

5.1 Resources and Materials

5.2 Facilities and Equipment

6. Is there any significant relationship between the Teachers and Students

responses regarding:

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6.1 Resources and Materials

6.2 Facilities and Equipment

7. What are the things developed by the students in learning different areas in TLE?

7.1 Skills

7.2 Values

8. What are the problems that the Teacher and Student encountered in the Learning

Process of TLE?

9. What are the solutions to the problems met?

10. Is there any significant relationship between the Teachers and Students

responses on solutions to the problems encountered?

11. How are you going to rate the performance of your teacher in teaching the subject

based on the following:

5- Outstanding

4- Very Satisfactory

3- Satisfactory

2- Fair

1-Needs Improvement

Null Hypotheses

The Null Hypotheses tested in this study were:

1. There is no significant relationship between the Teachers and Students responses

on the Techniques and Strategies.

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2. There is no significant relationship between the Teachers and Students responses

regarding:

2.1 Resources and Materials

2.2 Facilities and Equipment

3. There is no significant relationship between the Teachers and Students responses

on solutions to the problems encountered.

Significance of the Study

This study will benefit the following:

Technology and Livelihood Education Teachers. The findings of this study

would equip the teachers with the skills they would need to handle Technology and

Livelihood Education effectively.

Students. Results of this study will lead to the students improvement of their

studies and academic performance to the best of their potentials.

Parents. Results of this study may provide parents a feedback on the nature of the

classroom performance of their children through their teachers who may offer some ways

for children to strive more on their TLE subject.

The Community. This study is important because it can help the community;

particularly the officials and members of the Parents-Teacher Community Association

(PTCA) understand better the parents obligations and responsibilities in school.

Administrators. The results of this study will serve as an eye-opener to

administrators for effective planning, direction or guidance by encouraging teachers to

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use more applicable, suitable, and effective methods and strategies which will improve

their teaching abilities and performance.

Educational Institutions. Results of this study can provoke educational

institutions to assess the students performance in Technology and Livelihood Education

to develop desirable attitudes and values which will contribute to effective personal,

family, and community living.

Future Researcher. The results of the study may reveal insights that will help

future researcher realize the goals of their studies. They may use the data of this study to

come up with a bigger and wider spectrum about the subject.

Scope and Limitation of the Study

This study focuses on the Techniques and Strategies of Teachers in Teaching

different areas in Technology and Livelihood Education in Public High School. The

respondents are the Grade 7 and 8 students of Masagana High School.

Definitions of Terms

For better understanding of this study, the following words are defined

operationally.

Affective Learning. It includes the way we deal with things emotionally, such as

feelings, values, appreciation, enthusiasms, motivations, and attitudes.

Age. It is a period of human life, measured by years form birth, usually marked

by a certain stage or degree of mental physical development and involving legal

responsibility and capacity.

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Cognitive Learning. It involves knowledge and the development of intellectual

skills. This includes the recall or recognition of specific facts, procedure, and concepts.

Competency Based Curriculum. It is a framework or guide for the subsequent

detailed development of competencies, associated methodologies, training and

assessment resources.

Education. It is the aggregate of all processes by which a person develops ability,

attitudes, and other forms of behavior of practical values in the society in which he lives.

Effectiveness. It is the capability of producing a desired result. When something

is deemed effective, it means it has an intended or expected outcome, or produces a deep,

vivid impression.

Gender. It is used to describe the characteristics, roles and responsibilities of

women and men, boys and girls, which are socially constructed. Gender is related to how

we are perceived and expected to think and act as women and men because of the way

society is organized, not because of our biological differences.

Innovation. It is the creation of better or more effective products, processes,

services, technologies, or ideas that are readily available to markets, governments, and

society.

Psychomotor Learning. It includes physical movement, coordination, and use of

the motor-skill areas.

Strategies. Are the plans intended for accomplishing specific goals.

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Teacher. It is a symbol of learning, a leader of learners, and a miracle to

education. They are the main source of inspiration for the next generation. They are the

ones that reach for the sky to get what our students need.

Teaching. It is a science as it involves a systematic process of instruction guided

by established theories, principles, and approaches that make teaching effective.

Techniques. The day to day activities which the teacher may design for lesson.

Technology. It is the making, modification, usage and knowledge of tools,

machines, techniques, crafts, systems, methods of organization, to solve a problem,

improve a pre-existing solution to a problem, achieve a goal or perform a specific

function.

Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE). It is one of the learning areas in

Secondary Education in the Philippines. Technology and Livelihood Education intends to

develop knowledge, skills, values, and attitudes that will prepare the students for entry

into world of work. This will enable the students to gain understanding and acquire

competency in various activities.

Technical Vocational Education. It is demonstrated and acknowledge

development of knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary for a place in the workforce, at

levels ranging from pre-trade to a Para-professional.

CHAPTER II

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Review of Related Literature and Studies

In this chapter, Review of Related Literature and Studies are divided into four

parts, Foreign Literature, Foreign Studies, Local Literature and Local Studies.

Local Literature
Curriculum Development

According to Gonzales, from a National outlook the High School or Secondary

Level should have as it aims the preparation of students either for Technical Vocational or

for University studies. He added that the Vocational Curriculum should include more

than a mere basket-weaving or pig raising; it should be well designed to prepare the

student in Technical field and not simply to give him what he perhaps could learn better

at home.

For Palma, the Curriculum is not static. It is always tentative and is meant to

undergo a process of development to bring it even higher levels of effectiveness. The

concurrent process of planning and implementing, evaluating, and revising the

curriculum goes on in a never-ending cycle.

He added that for Curricular change to be positive and result in development it

must have the following characteristics:

1. It must be purposeful. Objectives must be clearly specified.

2. It must be planned. It must be systematic, sequential, and executed over a

period.

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3. It must be progressive. It must bring improvement.

Bacani, P. and Barba, B. stated that to make Education more relevant to students

future life goals and potential curriculum should be geared towards career education.

They added that when this program is properly integrated into the Educational System it

can help teachers make the basics more relevant to the world of work and each student

career interest and potential.

Based on the Primer on the SEDP (Secondary Education Development Program),

the program consists of curriculum, staff and physical facilities development designs to

achieve the following objectives:

1. To improve the quality of Secondary graduates and the internal efficiency of

the system.

2. To expand access to quality Secondary Education; and

3. To promote equality in the allocation of resources specifically at the local level.

Under this program the students shall:

a. Obtain knowledge and form desirable attitudes for understanding the

nature and purpose of man, therefore, of ones self, ones own people and other

races, places and time.

b. Developed skills in higher intellectual operations and more complex

comprehension and expression activities, and in thinking intelligently and

critically and creatively in life situations.

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c. Broaden and heighten ones abilities in and appreciation for the arts, the

science, and technology as a means for maximizing ones potentials for self-fulfillment

and for promoting the welfare of others.

The Primary task of education is to develop the individual to his maximum

potential so that he can effectively live in an increasingly complex society, a speech of

Secretary Juan Manuel of DECS in the conference of the Philippine Society for

Curriculum Development held at the Teachers Camp, Baguio City. These Statement

capsulate two major concerns of education: Individual and Society. Through education

the maximum potential of the individual is developed. Through education the upliftment

of society is enhanced and assured.

Education in the Philippines may be characterized as dynamic and forward

looking. It is dynamic in that is sensitive to the major movements in education, is aware

of community problems, and is cognizant of the need to continually revitalize itself to

become relevant and vital factor in national development. It is forward looking because

it is ever alerted to consider new ideas, new concepts, and new ways of doing things.

Technology and Livelihood Education Program

Technology and Livelihood Education is one of the subjects offered in the

secondary schools. The subject is intended to provide classroom and practical work

experience that will enable the students to gain understanding and acquire competencies

in various activities as they relate to Home Economics, Agricultural Arts, Industrial Arts

and Entrepreneurship. This subject cover home and family living, housing and family

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economics, foods and applied nutrition and basic clothing. Practical work experiences

include managing the household, caring for the sick, preparing and processing food,

simple sewing and other allied activities. Academic subjects must be applied in the home

economics program, especially consumer and homemaking classes that study the cultural

differences and similarities in ways that will make the economics, social and cultural

principles more meaningful.

Home Economics programs needs redirection to reflect conditions today.

According to Macarayan, the home and the family are still the center of the

mission of Home Economics, as a discipline. Peaceful and successful interrelationship,

because of the need to survive as a planet is going to be the new ethics for the 21st

century. Values formation is the focus of all disciplines and professions in the 21st

century. Home Economics may have to move towards a creative professional stance

where the professional seeks its own level. Home Economics program should be more

relevant to the needs of the times and must focus more on research. It is only through

research that one can add to the existing body of knowledge in Home Economics and

improve its practice and application in the country.

Local Studies

STUDENT RELATED FACTORS

GENDER

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Several studies on the students performance revealed that there are significant

factors that affect it. For Etulle, in her investigation of the correlation of the competency

of freshmen college students of University of Baguio, she found out that gender did not

affect their competency level.

On his study, Pacer pointed out that the magnitude of differences in the overall

intellectual ability between gender was not great. There had some differences between

men and women. However, their differences in the intellectual ability are caused by their

cultural differences.

AGE

A study conducted by De Pano, said that younger people are more innovative

because of the spirit of adventure. The older ones especially those bidding their time for

their eventual retirement are likely to be inclined in the status quo.

Age composition determines in a large measure the social roles of the population,

the degree range and direction of their vertical and geographical movement, their

adaptability to new situations, the extent, and the nature of their participation.

INTEREST OF THE STUDENTS

In his study about Interest and Needs in Industrial Arts of Grade Six Boys in

Public Elementary School in the Division of Albay, Payno stated that the program of

Industrial Arts Instruction can be effective only if it meets adequately the pupils needs

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and interests; if there is correspondence between the pupils interest and needs; when the

activities are considered interesting and are useful to the pupils; and if wholesome

attitude towards Industrial Arts can be developed. When the teacher has a good need and

interests in his/her school work and understand the needs and interests in his/her school,

Industrial Arts Instruction will also be effective.

TEACHER RELATED FACTORS

GENDER

Several studies are conducted to find out if gender affects the Teachers teaching

characteristics. According to Jeraplasen, she concluded a study on personal teaching

characteristics and pupils achievement in Mathematics as a basis for teacher

development programs. In her study, she uses Gender as one of the variables in the

personal profile. Based on her findings, she found out that teaching profession is always

dominated by woman, a finding that is like Gahite.

According to Bael, she revealed that gender is undoubtedly the most intensely

eagerly studied individual differences.

According to Fehr, as cited by Muvises, The D.C. Clellands Theory of

Achievement and Motivation, pointed out that high need achievers tend to be

independent or autonomous in performance and decision making. They like to take

responsibility for their actions. Males would like to be practical, shrewd, assertive, and

dominating while females would like to be moving affectionate and impulsive.

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AGE

According to Callos studies, the relationship of age and enthusiasm among

teachers in State Universities in Metro Manila. These variables obtain a negative

regression coefficient. This inverse relationship implies that the younger the teacher, the

greater is his/her enthusiasm toward teaching technology subjects. His findings support

the general observation that the older the teacher, the more they tend to loss enthusiasm

on modern technology because of its complexities that change at a quick pace, almost

requiring a rapid adaptation on the part of the users. He added that younger teachers

showed greater interest, enthusiasm, propensity, acceptability, and creativity towards

technology.

Lehman, as cited by Naga, believed that younger people are more creative that

the older ones. In her study, she found out that the age at which creativity can be seen in

34 years old.

Galilea said that age creates more experiences and those experiences are generally

accepted as great teachers. A person who occupies an executive position may perform

not as fast as she/he can, but can perform the task more meaningful and efficiently.

AREA OF SPECIALIZATION

According to Vongyuttakrai, teacher who are given assignments based on their

areas of specialization are given added trust and confidence vis-a-vis their expertise along

their fields of specialization.

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TEACHING STRATEGIES USED IN TEACHING

Naga, cited Maromas study of the proficiency of Industrial Arts Teachers. His

findings are as follows:

a. Not all teachers covered the areas of Industrial Arts.

b. The respondents used the right methods in teaching Industrial Arts.

c. There was inadequacy of shop tools based on the assessment of the

respondents.

d. No significant relationships existed between the activities in Industrial Arts and

the manpower requirements of the service area.

e. Teachers were found proficient in teaching Industrial Arts.

Teachers are highly interested in how well the learners do in the classroom; hence,

they always like to be updated with the newest trends and methodologies of teaching to

make their classroom lively, dynamic, conducive to learning and influential.

Survey enumerated various teaching methods which can be used by classroom

teachers. They are as follows: use of lecture, lecture-forum, panel, debate, film method,

slideshows method, prepared videotapes, drills demonstration, group discussion,

brainstorming, case study, mini-case study, graphic method, role playing and use of

games. The writer added that there are no known best methods of teaching but a teacher

can blend all teaching approaches and methodologies and use the most appropriate one

for his/her lessons.

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SCHOOL RELATED FACTOR

ADEQUACY OF FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT

According to Sillantoc, the physical facilities have much significant effect on the

quality of education. It is not only the student who will suffer in that situation but also

the Teacher, who are the ones who teaches the students. It can affect the students

academic performance, and the Teachers strategies of teaching.

Pagram as cited by Castro, stated the site, buildings, furniture, and multi-media

equipment as the physical assets of the school. To attain the objectives of teaching and

learning to a minimum degree, the existence of these resources is very crucial.

Overcrowded classrooms and structurally unfit school buildings undermine students

achievement and compromise the safety of staff and students as well.

Foreign Literature

The Materials below represent below the concepts that strengthened the need to

undertake the present study.

Cited by Yuzon in his study, Balmores defined Quality Education as the best

education that money can buy in terms of facilities as well as of academic standards and

traditions developed over time. This definition implies that quality education is viewed

in terms of Educational inputs and outputs. This means that the educational quality

should be evaluated by looking at the condition (inputs) that are believed to be necessary

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and desirable to produce Educational Quality and by looking at evidence (outputs)

whether the institution of programs does indeed achieve Educational Quality.

According to Zwaenepoel, Education in the Philippines just like in some other

countries is a preparation for the higher educational level and in many cases, not for the

world of work and the realities of Life. This therefore, calls for reorientation of

curriculum to meet the needs of industry and the work environment. For Education

Sector, this also calls for making the student more employable and suitable to the

demands of society.

Foreign Studies

Curriculum offerings are vital in any institution. Adams, conducted a study about

the plans of Belizean High School students post-secondary plans. The aim of the study

was to help the Belizean Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports.

The results of the study indicated that the most common preferred destination for

these students immediately after high school was 6 th Form and then attend a university.

Many students beliefs about what they will probably do after high school differed from

what they want most to do. The students were more likely to say that they will probably

go to work (either immediately after high school or after 6 th Form) and less likely to go to

University.

Belizean High School students most frequently requested training in additional

educational options in subjects related to business, such as accounting, economics,

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finance, and banking, and they want to pursue careers in business and tourism.

Efficient teachers and able administrators are paramount in an effective school. In

a study conducted by Powell, the researcher explored how the behaviors and practices of

the principals of various schools in Virginia, USA, influence and contribute to the

success. The findings led to some of the following conclusions: the vision of the

principal is paramount for school success; the culture of the school must be as nurturing

to teachers as the students; the teaching of curriculum is foremost.

Squire, explored and described the vocational training needs of rural youth in

Botswana. The objectives were to: (1) describe the demographic characteristics of out-

of-school youth in the age of 10-18 years. (2) identify the out-of-school youth vocational

training needs, and (3) describe the problems the out-of-school youth face in rural areas.

The findings showed that most of the respondents were in the age group of 16-18

years. 55% female, 63% single, 52% had only primary education, and 60% were

unemployed. Much of the youth (51%) chose careers in the farm trades, and the plurality

(16%) chose to pursue careers in building and construction trades. Other career options

were not popular among the youth for training.

The youth identified the lack of educational facilities, employment security,

recreational facilities, health education, decision-making opportunities and access to land

as major problems affecting them in rural areas.

It was recommended that government and non-government organizations should

provide vocational training in farm trades, establish youth clubs, provide leadership,

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financial and logistical support for the youth to develop and manage self-sustaining

enterprises that can create employment in the rural areas.

Griffith and Wade, worked on a study of The Relation of High School Career and

Work-Oriented Education to Postsecondary Employment and College Performance, A

Six-Year Longitudinal Study of Public High School Graduates in Maryland, USA.

Employment and college enrolment history of high school graduates of a large, suburban

school district were examined.

Further, they noted the work of Ames (1979, 40). Survey results indicated that

graduate deans believed the following criteria (and related attributes) were most

instrumental to program quality such as quality of faculty, quality of incoming students,

resources, learning environment, curricula, and characteristics of recent alumni.

Synthesis

These Review of Related Literature and Studies are pertaining to Education. It is

important to review related literature and studies because it may help and guide the

researcher in making comparison between his findings with of other researches on similar

studies and literature with the end in view of formulating generalizations or principles

which are the contributions of the study to fund the knowledge.

The Local Literature reviewed the works of Gonzales, Palma, Bacani, and Barba

is about the Curriculum Development. Gonzales work is all about the Curriculum for

Technical Vocational Curriculum or the Preparation for Higher Education. Palmas work

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said that Curriculum in the Philippines is not static. Bacani and Barba stated that to make

Education more relevant to students future life goals and potential curriculum should be

geared towards Career Education. They added that it should be integrated to the world of

work and should be relevant to students career interest and potential. Based on the

SEDP, there are the following objectives to achieve like for the composition of the

curriculum, staff and Physical facilities development designs. On the other hand, the

subject Technology and Livelihood Education was discussed by Sarmiento and

Macarayan. Sarmiento discusses about the Home Economics programs needs. And

Macarayan, discusses the Home and Family as the Centre of the Mission of Home

Economics, as a discipline.

Most of the Local Studies reviewed focused on the Student related factors,

Teacher related factors, and School related factors. For Student related factors, Etulles

and Pacers study find out that Gender did not affect the ability of the student. De Panos

study finds out that the younger people are more innovative than older people. Paynos

study finds out that teaching Industrial Arts can be effective only if it meets adequately

the pupils need and interests.

For Teacher related factors, based on Jeraplasens study, she found out that

teaching is dominated by woman. Baels Study focused of the individual differences of

the teacher. Muvises study was pointing out that males would like to be practical,

shrewd, assertive, and dominating while females would like to be moving affectionate

and impulsive. Callos study, finds out that older teacher tends to loss enthusiasm, unlike

younger teacher shows greater enthusiasm. The study of Naga also is like Callos study,

but she added that the creativity can be seen at the age of 34 yrs. old. Galilea also said

26
that, age creates more experiences and those experiences are generally accepted as great

teachers. According to Vongyuttakrai, the teacher who given assignments based on their

areas of specialization are given added trust and confidence. Nagas study teaching

strategies finds out that not all teachers covered all the areas of TLE, the respondents

used the right methods in teaching Industrial Arts, there is a lack of tools needed, and the

teachers are proficient in teaching Industrial Arts.

School related factor like adequacy of facilities and equipment. According to

Sillantoc, the physical facilities have much significant effect on the quality of education.

Pagram as cited by Castro, stated the site, buildings, furniture, and multi-media

equipment as the physical assets of the school. To attain the objectives of teaching and

learning to a minimum degree, the existence of these resources is very crucial.

Most of the concepts which can be gleaned from the Foreign Literature focused

on the importance of school, its basic concepts, characteristics of an effective school,

partnership of the school to the community and parent, good teaching practices and sound

curriculum.

The Foreign Studies reviewed the works of Adams, Powell, Squire, Griffin, and

Wade and Haworth and Conrad. Most of the mentioned authors wrote about the needs of

students ranging from good leadership, educational facilities, and expectations after

graduation in High School and program quality.

All these concepts are significant to the study because they expand the need for

curriculum to meet the pressing needs of the society. At the same time, the interests,

previous experiences, problems encountered by the learner are explicitly reviewed.

27
Further, the said chapter reviewed also the needs of schools specifically that of competent

teachers, good physical facilities, and administrative support.

The significance of the studies and literature then provides a strong basis for

which this current study is founded. For schools to can offer Technology and Livelihood

Education, they must meet the above challenges.

The present study differs from the completed studies in terms of the inclusion of

integration of values, impression of the teachers to technology lessons and the teachers

work place which includes the school, facilities and equipment, and environment.

Furthermore, the present study will make use of different instrument and treat the data

that will be gathered statistically.

CHAPTER III

Research Methodology

28
In this chapter, Research Method, Research Locale, Population Frame and Sample

Scheme, Sampling Technique, Description of the Respondents, Instrumentation,

Validation of the Questionnaire, Data Gathering Procedure, and Statistical Treatment

were presented.

Research Method Used

The Researcher used the Descriptive Research Method. Descriptive Research

describes and interprets what is. It reveals the conditions or relationship that exist or

do not exist, practices that are held or are not held; processes that are going on or

otherwise, effects that are being felt, or trends that are developing.

According to Calderon, Descriptive Method of Research is a purposive process of

gathering, analyzing, classifying, and tabulating data about prevailing conditions,

practices, beliefs, processes, trends, and cause effect relationship and then making

inadequate and accurate interpretation about such data with or without the aid of

statistical methods.

It attempted to describe the Techniques and Strategies of Teachers in teaching

different areas of Technology and Livelihood Education in Public High School.

Research Locale

29
Masagana High School is the research locale of the study. It has a total of 9

sections in Grade 7 and Grade 8 level. In this study, the researcher chooses only the 20 %

of each section

Population Frame and Sample Scheme

The population comprised of 281 Grade 7 students, 252 Grade 8 students, a total

of 533 students and 14 Technology and Livelihood Education Teachers. In computing the

number of respondents, the researcher used the Slovens Formula which is represented:

Where : n= Number of Respondents


n = N
N= Total Number of Population
1+ (N*e2)

e= Margin of Error

The number of respondents was determined using 5 % or 0.05 Margin of Error.

Applying the Slovens Formula:

n= N
1+ (N*e2)

n= 533
1+ [533(0.05)2]

n= 533
1+533(0.0025)

n= 533
1+4.1975

n= 533
5.1975

n= 109

30
To get the proportional allocation of the percentage, the researcher uses the proportional

allocation formula which is represented:

Where: n= Number of Respondents


%= n
N N= Total Number of Population

%= Percentage

Applying the proportional allocation formula to get the percentage:

%= 109
533

% = 19.2 or 20 %

See Table 1 and 2 for the presentation of data in tabular form.

Table 1

Presentation of the Teacher Respondents

RESPONDENT MALE FEMALE TOTAL PERCENTAGE


Teacher 6 8 14 100%

This table will show the number of male and female teachers, the total and the

percentage.

Table 2

31
Presentation of the Student Respondents

POPULATION PER SAMPLE


GRADE 7 SECTIONS PERCENTAGE
SECTION SIZE
7-Sampaguita 53 11 20%
7-Orchids 59 12 20%
7-Camia 61 13 20%
7-Rose 55 11 20%
7-Sunflower 53 11 20%
TOTAL 281 58 20%
POPULATION PER SAMPLE
GRADE 8SECTIONS PERCENTAGE
SECTION SIZE
8-Diamond 53 11 20%
8-Ruby 68 14 20%
8-Sapphire 66 13 20%
8-Pearl 65 13 20%
TOTAL 252 51 20%

OVERALL TOTAL 533 109 20%

Sampling Technique

The researcher used Probability Sampling specifically, Pure Random Sampling.

This type of sampling is one in which everyone in the population of the inquiry has an

equal chance of being selected to be included in the sample.

A certain percentage of the population is to be selected. In this research, 20% of

each class is the sample size; the total sample size is 109 which are 20% of 533.

Therefore, if there are 53 students in a class, 20% of that is 11.

Description of the Respondents

In this study, the process used was a survey of the responses of the 58 Grade 7 and

51 Grade 8 students of Masagana High School located at Pandi, Bulacan for the School

Year 2017-2018. The other responses will be taken from all the members of the faculty

specifically those who are teaching Technology and Livelihood Education.

32
Instrumentation

The main instrument in gathering the necessary data is Questionnaire. Before

preparing the questionnaires, the researcher gathered information from books and other

sources such as published or unpublished theses to gain more knowledge and insights

about the study. The Questionnaire was based on the Questionnaire of Alejandro Vitug.

Then all information related to the study was put together in a form of

questionnaire. Two sets of questionnaires were prepared, one for the TLE Teachers and

the other one for the students. Questionnaires intended for the TLE teachers include

information about the teachers name and gender, and highest educational attainment.

The areas of Technology and Livelihood Education which they are currently teaching,

techniques and strategies they are using, resources and materials, facilities and

equipment, skills and values developed, problems encountered and the solutions to that

problems, and the evaluation of their own teaching performance (See Appendix B).

Questionnaires intended for the students, include the students name, year and

section and gender. The area of Technology and Livelihood Education they were taking

up, techniques and strategies their teacher used, resources and materials, facilities and

equipment, skills and values they developed, problems they encountered and the

solutions to that problems.

Validation of the Questionnaire

33
The researcher gives them a checklist to be answered if the question will be

revised, retained, or removed. After they validated it, the researcher made all the

revisions. Then, the researcher conducted dry run to two (2) TLE Teachers and five (5)

Grade 7 students of the Masagana High School.

Data Gathering Procedure

The Administration of the questionnaire was personally conducted by the

researcher. Permission was sought from the school principal who gladly accommodates

the researcher. The principal of the school told the TLE Department Head of that school

to assist the researcher. The TLE Department Head asked the researcher if they have the

questionnaires with them, they have. Since the topic is about TLE, The Department head

of TLE manage the distribution of the questionnaires to all the Faculty members of TLE.

At the same time, the TLE Teacher was given also the teachers questionnaire. After all

the distribution was done, the TLE Department Head told the researcher to go back next

day for the retrieval.

Statistical Treatment of the Data

As soon as the researcher gathered the pertinent data, they were complied, sorted

out, organized and tabulated. The data were subjected to statistical treatment to answer

the questions proposed in this study.

1. The Statistical Treatment used was the simple frequency and the

percentage. The Percentage can be computed by dividing the class frequency by the total

frequency.

34
Where: P = Percentage
Perc
P= f x 100 F = Frequency
N
Per
N = Number of Class

Percentage Distribution is a descriptive statistic used to determine the number of

respondents responding to a category against the total number of respondent.

2. Likert Scale. Based on Rensis Likert, a scale of 1 to 5 was used to

describe the performance of teachers in teaching TLE such as:

5 Outstanding, 4 Very Satisfactory, 3 Satisfactory, 2 Fair, 1 Needs

Improvement

3. Weighted Mean. The Weighted Mean was used to calculate the central

tendency of the responses of the respondents, the formula is:

Where: w = Weighted Mean

Typewequation
= here. = the sum of all quantities that follow
n
= Frequency

n = Number of respondents
4. Arbitrary Scale. The following scale was used to describe the result.

4.21 5.00 Outstanding (O)

3.41 4.20 Very Satisfactory (VS)

2.61 3.40 Satisfactory (S)

1.81 2.60 Fair (F)

1.01 1.80 Needs Improvement (NI)

35
5. Pearson Correlation Coefficient denoted by r, is given by:

nxy (x) (y)

nx2 (x) 2 ny2 (y) 2

x = first set of scores (y) 2 = sum of all y

y = second set of scores

x2 = first set of scores squared

y2 = second set of scores squared

n = number of cases

xy = x multiply by y

(x) 2 = sum of all x

6. The Critical Value Table of the Pearson r Correlation Coefficient was used to

determine the relationship between the two-data treated. Here is the Table:

df = n-2

Level of
Significance
(p) for the .10 .05 .02 .01
Two-Tailed
Test

df

1 .988 .997 .9995 .9999

2 .900 .950 .980 .990

3 .805 .878 .934 .959

4 .729 .811 .882 .917

5 .669 .754 .833 .874

6 .622 .707 .789 .834

7 .528 .666 .750 .798

36
8 .549 .632 .716 .765

9 .521 .602 .685 .735

10 .497 .576 .658 .708

11 .476 .553 .634 .684

12 .458 .532 .612 .661

13 .441 .514 .592 .641

14 .426 .497 .574 .623

15 .412 .482 .558 .606

16 .400 .468 .542 .590

17 .389 .456 .528 .575

18 .378 .444 .516 .561

19 .369 .433 .503 .549

20 .360 .423 .492 .537

CHAPTER IV

Presentation, Analysis, and Interpretation of Data

In this chapter, presentation, analysis and interpretation of data were presented.

Tables and its interpretation were discussed comprehensively.

37
TLE Teacher Respondents Profile in terms of Gender, Age, and Educational
Attainment
Table 3

Profile of Teacher-Respondents According to Gender

RESPONDENT F %
MALE 6 42.86
FEMALE 8 57.14
TOTAL 14 100

Table 3 shows the Profile of Teacher Respondents According to Gender. 8 or

57.14% were Female, and 6 or 42.86% were Male. This indicates that Female Teachers

are dominant than

Table 4

Profile of Teacher Respondents According to Age

AGE RESPONSES
F %

25-35 1 7.14
35-45 1 7.14

38
45-55 6 42.86
55-65 6 42.86
TOTAL 14 100.00

Table 4 shows the Profile of Teacher Respondents According to Age. 6 or

42.86% of TLE teacher respondents are at the age bracket between 45-55, and 55 65,

and 1 or 7.14% of the TLE teacher respondents are at the age bracket between 25 35,

and 35 45.

The data confirms that most of the age of the TLE Teacher Respondents, whether

male or female are in between the age bracket of 45 55, and 55 65.

Table 5

Profile of Teacher Respondents According to Educational Attainment

BACHELOR'S DEGREE RESPONSES


TOTAL
f %
Bachelor of Secondary Education Major in
0 0.00
Home Economics

Bachelor of Science in Industrial Education


1 7.14
Major in Electrical Technology

Bachelor of Science in Industrial Education


6 42.86
Major in Industrial Arts

Bachelor of Science in Agriculture 0 0.00

Bachelor of Science in Home Economics


6 42.86
Major in Food and Applied Nutrition

Bachelor in Business Education Major in


1 7.14
Business Technology

39
Bachelor of Science in Computer Education 0 0.00

Bachelor in Technical Education 0 0.00


TOTAL 14 100.00

Table 5 shows the Profile of Teacher Respondents According to Educational

Attainment. 6 or 42.86% of the TLE Teacher Respondents graduated with a degree of

Bachelor of Science in Home Economics Major in Food and Applied Nutrition and

Bachelor of Science in Industrial Education Major in Industrial Arts, and 1 or 7.14% of

the TLE teacher respondent graduated with a degree of Bachelor of Science in Industrial

Education Major in Electrical Technology and Bachelor of Science in Business

Education.

This indicates that most of the TLE Teacher Respondents is a graduate of

Bachelor of Science in Home Economics Major in Food and Applied Nutrition and

Bachelor of Science in Industrial Education Major in Industrial Arts.

Table 6

Profile of Teacher Respondents According to Highest Educational Attainment

MASTER'S DEGREE RESPONSES


TOTAL
f %
Master in Educational Management 0 0.00

40
Master of Arts in Teaching 0 0.00

Master of Arts in Education 2 66.67

Master of Arts in Industrial Education 0 0.00

Master of Arts in Home Economics 0 0.00

Others:

Master of Arts in Education Units only 1 33.33


TOTAL 3 100.00

Table 6 shows the Profile of Teacher Respondents According to Highest

Educational Attainment. 2 or 66.67% of the TLE teacher respondents graduated with a

Masters Degree of Master of Arts in Education, and 1 or 33.33% of the TLE teacher

respondents have only Master of Arts in Education (MaEd) Units only.

This indicates that only 2 out of the 14 TLE teacher respondents have the highest

educational attainment of Master of Arts in Education.

The Teacher and Student respondents assessment on the Instruction of Technology


and Livelihood Education
Table 7

Subjects taught by the Teacher Respondents

SUBJECTS TAUGHT RESPONSES


F %

41
Culinary Arts 2 11.76
Computer Education 1 5.88
Dressmaking 2 11.76

Home Economics
(Cosmetology, 1 5.88
Housekeeping, etc.)
Industrial Arts (Drafting,
Construction Building,
5 29.41
Woodworking, Metal
Works, Electronics, etc.)
Business Education
(Entrepreneurship, 1 5.88
Marketing, etc.)

Others:
Exploratory Technology
and Livelihood 3 17.65
Education I
Exploratory Technology
and Livelihood 2 11.76
Education II
TOTAL 17 100.00

Table 7 shows the subject taught by the TLE teacher respondents. 5 or 29.41% of

the teacher respondents is teaching Industrial Arts (Drafting, Construction Building,

Woodworking, Metal works, Electronics, etc.), 3 or 17.65% of the TLE teacher

respondents is teaching Exploratory TLE I, 2 or 11.76% of the TLE teacher respondents

is teaching Culinary Arts, Dressmaking, and Exploratory TLE II, 1 or 5.88% of the TLE

teacher respondents is teaching Computer Education, Home Economics, and Business

Education.

This means that most of the TLE teachers are teaching Industrial Arts (Drafting,

Construction Building, Woodworking, Metal works, Electronics, etc.).

42
Table 8

Subjects currently taking up by the Student Respondents

SUBJECT RESPONSES
f %
Culinary Arts 76 22.16
Computer Education 43 12.54
Dressmaking 0 0.00

Home Economics (Cosmetology, Housekeeping, etc.) 53 15.45

Industrial Arts (Drafting, Construction Building, Woodworking, Metal


164 47.81
Works, Electronics, etc.)

Business Education (Entrepreneurship, Marketing, etc.) 7 2.04

Others:
TOTAL 343 100.00

Table 8 shows the students response on the subject they are taking up. Based on

the data on subject areas, the findings revealed that 164 or 47.81% of the respondents

specialized in Industrial Arts; 76 or 22.16% in Culinary Arts; 53 or 15.45% in Home

Economics; 43 or 12.54% in Computer Education; 7 or 2.04% in Business Education and

none or 0% of the respondents specialized in Dressmaking.

This indicates that most of the respondents are specialized in Industrial Arts.

Table 9

Teachers Responses on the Teaching Method Used

43
TEACHING METHODS/STRATEGIES RESPONSES

f
%
Lecture Method 13 18.57
Reporting Method 12 17.14
Activity Method 5 7.14
Discussion Method 13 18.57
Laboratory Method 1 1.43
Project Method 13 18.57
Demonstration Method 8 11.43
Question and Answer Method 2 2.86
Group Learning Method 1 1.43
Problem Solving Method 1 1.43
Others: 0.00
Simulation Method 1 1.43
TOTAL 70 100.00

Table 9 presents the teacher response on the teaching methods they used. 13 or

18.57% of the TLE Teacher Respondents used Lecture, Discussion and Project Method;

12 or 17.14% of the TLE Teacher Respondents used Reporting Method; 8 or 11.43% of

the TLE Teacher Respondents used Demonstration Method; 5 or 7.14% of the TLE

Teacher Respondents used Activity Method; 2 or 2.86% of the TLE Teacher Respondents

used Question and Answer Method, and 1 or 1.43% of the TLE Teacher Respondents

used Laboratory, Group learning, Problem Solving, and Simulation Methods.

This indicates that the TLE Teachers use Lecture, Discussion and Project Method

as the primary Teaching Methods used in teaching different areas of TLE.

Table 10

Students Responses on the Teaching Method used by their TLE Teachers

44
TEACHING
RESPONSES
METHODS/STRATEGIES

f %

Lecture Method 85 17.54


Reporting Method 48 14.03
Activity Method 55 14.69
Discussion Method 91 18.10
Laboratory Method 84 7.96
Project Method 104 9.86
Demonstration Method 80 7.58
Question and Answer Method 67 6.35
Group Learning Method 33 3.13
Problem Solving Method 8 0.76
TOTAL 655 100.00

Table 10 the table represents the Student Responses on the Teaching Methods

used by their TLE Teachers. 91 or 18.10% of the students said that their teachers use

Discussion Methods in teaching different areas of TLE; 15 or 17.54% in Lecture Method;

55 or 14.69% in Activity Method; 148 or 14.03% in Reporting; 104 or 9.66% in

Demonstration; 84 or 7.96% in Laboratory; 80 or 7.58% in Project Method; 67 or 6.35%

in Question and Answer; 33 or 3.13% in Group-Learning and lastly 8 or 0.76% answered

Problem-Solving Method.

The data confirms that discussion method garnered the highest number of

responses that states that most of the teachers use this method in teaching different areas

of TLE.

Table 11

Teachers Responses on the Resources and Materials They Used

45
RESOURCES AND MATERIALS RESPONSES

f %
Lesson Plans 13 30.23
Textbooks 14 32.56
Module/Workbook 2 4.65
Multimedia Aids 2 4.65
Visual Aids 12 27.91
TOTAL 43 100.00

Table 11 shows the TLE Teachers response on the Resources and Materials they

used in teaching. 14 or 32.56% of the TLE Teachers used Textbooks as their resources

and materials; 13 or 30.23% of the TLE Teachers used Lesson Plans; 12 or 27.91 of the

TLE Teachers used Visual Aids; 2 or 4.65% of the TLE Teachers used Module/Workbook

and Multimedia Aids.

This data confirms that the primary resources and materials used by TLE Teachers

are Textbooks.

Table 12

Students Responses on the Resources and Materials used by their TLE Teachers

RESPONSES
RESOURCES AND MATERIALS
f %
Lesson Plans 156 28.11
Textbooks 83 14.95

46
Module/Workbook 53 9.55
Multimedia Aids 49 8.83
Visual Aids 207 37.30
Others:
Drawing Boards 1 0.18
Cooking Materials 2 0.36
Drafting Tools 2 0.36
Actual Materials 2 0.36
TOTAL 555 100.00

Table 12 shows the Students Responses on the resources and materials used by

their TLE Teacher. 37.30% or 207 Student Respondents answered that the materials used

by their TLE Teacher is visual aids; 28.11% or 156 Student Respondents answered that

their teacher make Lesson Plans; 14.95% or 83 student respondents answered textbooks;

9.55% or 53 student respondents answered module/workbooks; 8.83% or 49 student

respondents answered that the materials used by their teacher in teaching TLE by the use

of multimedia aids; while some of the student respondents answered others, .18% or 1

student respondent said that they used actual materials; .36% or 2 student respondents

said that they used cooking tools, Drafting Tools and Actual Materials

This indicate that majority of the students/respondents is being taught with the use

of the most common and popular material in learning which is the Visual Aids.

Table 13

Teachers Responses on the Facilities and Equipment They Used

FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT RESPONSES


f %

47
Home Economics Room (Gas Stove,
Kitchen Utensils, Sewing, Machines, 7 24.14
etc.)
Industrial Arts Room (Electrical Tools,
Drafting Tools, Woodworking Tools, 5 17.24
etc.)
Agricultural Arts Room (Gardening 2 6.90
Tools, Farm Tools, etc.)
Spacious Working Area 0 0.00
School Garden 5 17.24
Storage Cabinet 8 27.59
Computer Laboratory 2 6.90
TOTAL 29 100.00

Table 13 shows the TLE Teacher Responses on the facilities and equipment they

used in teaching different areas of TLE. 8 or 27.59% of the TLE Teachers used Storage

Cabinet, 7 or 24.14% of the TLE Teachers used Home Economics Room, 5 or 17.24% of

the TLE Teachers used Industrial Arts Room and School Garden, 2 or 6.90% of the TLE

Teachers used Agricultural Arts Room and Computer Laboratory.

This indicates that Storage Cabinet is the most common facilities and equipment

used by TLE Teachers in Masagana High School.

Table 14

Students Responses on the Facilities and Equipment used in learning different areas of TLE

48
FACILITIES AND RESPONSES
EQUIPMENTS
f %
Home Economics Room (Gas
Stove, Kitchen Utensils, Sewing, 113 31.13
Machines, etc.)
Industrial Arts Room (Electrical
Tools, Drafting Tools, 161 44.35
Woodworking Tools, etc.)
Agricultural Arts Room
(Gardening Tools, Farm Tools, 4 1.10
etc.)
Spacious Working Area 18 4.96
School Garden 5 1.38
Storage Cabinet 7 1.93
Computer Laboratory 52 14.33
Others: 0.00
Classroom 3 0.83
TOTAL 363 100.00

Table 14 shows the Students Responses on the facilities and equipment used in

teaching T.L.E. 161 or 44.35% of the students are using the Industrial Arts (Electrical

tools, Drafting tools, Woodworking tools, etc.); 113 or 31.13% of the students are using

Home Economics Room (Gas stove, Kitchen Utensils, Sewing Machine, Cosmetics, etc.);

52 or 14.33% of the students are using the Computer Laboratory; 18 or 4.96% of the

students are using Spacious Working Areas; 7 or 1.93% of the students are using the

Storage Cabinet; 5 or 1.38% of the students are using School Garden; 4 or 1.10% of the

students are using Agricultural Arts (Gardening tools, Farm tools, etc.); 3or 0.83% of the

students are using Classroom.

49
Majority of the students were using Industrial Arts (Electrical tools, drafting tools,

Woodworking tools, etc.) based on their responses in the facilities and equipment they are

using in learning T.L.E.

Table 15

Teachers Responses on the skills developed by the students in learning different areas of TLE

SKILLS RESPONSES
A. CULINARY ARTS F %

2 20.00
Meal Planning, and Budgeting

Preparing, Cooking, and Serving Foods and 2 20.00


Table Setting
Introducing Cooking Terms and Techniques 2 20.00
Preparing Food properly 2 20.00
Others:
Food Preservation 1 10.00
Baking 1 10.00
TOTAL 10 100

B. COMPUTER EDUCATION
Learning Computer operations and concepts 0 0.00

Knowing the general structure of E-Mail and 0 0.00


E-Mail Address
Understanding the structures of Microsoft 0 0.00
Office Software
Typing with desirable speed using the proper 0 0.00
keyboarding positions
Others:
HTML/Web Design 1 100.00
TOTAL 1 100

C. HOME ECONOMICS
(DRESSMAKING, COSMETOLOGY,
HOUSEKEEPING, ETC.)

Able to apply the principles in Cosmetics 2 11.76

Able to sew and design dresses 5 29.41


Able to use different tools in Housekeeping 4 23.53

50
Able to apply the principles in decoration 5 29.41
Others: 0.00
Draft Patterns 1 5.88
TOTAL 17 100.00

D. INDUSTRIAL ARTS (DRAFTING,


CONSTRUCTION BUILDING,
WOODWORKING, METAL WORLDS,
ELECTRONICS. ETC.)

Repairing defective furniture and appliances 5 21.74

Lettering and making of pictorial drawings 4 17.39


Making a Project Plan 6 26.09
Using the principles of English and Metric 4 17.39
System accurately
Others:
Construction Building Theories 2 8.70
Wood Products 1 4.35
Orthographic Drawings 1 4.35
TOTAL 23 100.00

E. BUSINESS EDUCATION
(ENTREPRENEURSHIP, MARKETING,
ETC.)
Making useful and artistic articles out of trash
for home and personal use
0 0.00
Identifying business opportunities in the
locality
2 33.33

Making business plans of feasibility study 1 16.67


Retailing Business 3 50.00
TOTAL 6 100.00

Table 15 the table shows the Students Responses on the skills they developed in

different areas of Technology and Livelihood Education. In Culinary Arts, 2 or 20% of

the TLE Teacher said that introducing cooking terms and techniques; preparing, cooking

and serving foods and table setting; preparing foods properly; meal planning and

51
budgeting, and 1 or 10% of the TLE Teacher answered food preservation and baking.

These are the skills to be developed by the students

In Computer Education, making HTML and Web Design is the only skill the

students should developed.

In Home Economics including Dressmaking, Cosmetology and Housekeeping,

29.41% or 5 TLE Teachers answered that ability to sew and design dresses and ability to

apply the principles in decoration is the primary skills to be developed by the students;

23.53% or 4 TLE Teachers answered the ability to use different tools in housekeeping;

11.77% or 2 TLE Teachers answered the ability to apply the principles in Cosmetics and

5.88% or 1 TLE Teacher answered the ability to draft patterns

In Industrial Arts including drafting, construction building, wood working, metal

works and electronics, 6 or 26.09% of TLE Teachers answered that Making a Project Plan

is the Primary skill to be developed by the students; 5 or 21.74% of the TLE Teachers

answered repairing defective furniture and appliances; 4 or 17.39% of the TLE Teachers

answered Lettering and Making of pictorial drawings, and Using the principles of English

and Metric system accurately; and 1 or 4.35% of the TLE Teachers answered

Learning the Construction Building Theories, Wood Products, Orthographic Drawings,

and Electric Circuit.

In Business Education, 3 or 50% of the TLE Teachers answered that retailing

business is the primary skill to be developed by the students; 2 or 33.33% of the TLE

Teachers answered Identifying business opportunities in the locality; and 1 or 16.67% of

the TLE Teachers answered Making business plans of feasibility study is the last.

52
This indicates that in Culinary Arts, majority of the TLE Teacher choose all the

skills to be developed by the students and food preservation and baking as additional

skills to be developed. In Computer Education, HTML/Web Design is the only skill to be

developed by the students. In Industrial Arts, majority of the TLE Teacher choose

making a project plan as the primary skill to be developed by the students. In Business

Education, majority of the TLE Teachers said that retailing business is the primary skill to

be developed by the students.

Table 16

Students Responses on the skills they developed in different areas of TLE

SKILLS RESPONSES
A. CULINARY ARTS f %
Meal Planning, and Budgeting 57 20.73
Preparing, Cooking, and Serving Foods 72 26.18
and Table Setting
Introducing Cooking Terms and
Techniques 73 26.55
Preparing Food properly 66 24.00
Others:
Food Preservation 4 1.45
Baking 3 1.09
TOTAL 275 100

B. COMPUTER EDUCATION
Learning Computer operations and 43 35.83
concepts
Knowing the general structure of E-Mail 16 13.33
and E-Mail Address

Understanding the structures of 29 24.17


Microsoft Office Software
Typing with desirable speed using the 18 15.08
proper keyboarding positions
Others:
Making Website 6 5.00

53
HTML 8 6.67
TOTAL 120 100

C. HOME ECONOMICS
(DRESSMAKING, COSMETOLOGY,
HOUSEKEEPING, ETC.)
Able to apply the principles in Cosmetics 60 72.29
Able to sew and design dresses 12 14.46
Able to use different tools in
Housekeeping 9 10.84

Able to apply the principles in decoration 2 2.41

Others:

TOTAL 83 100.00

D. INDUSTRIAL ARTS (DRAFTING,


CONSTRUCTION BUILDING,
WOODWORKING, METAL
WORKS, ELECTRONICS. ETC.)

Repairing defective furniture and


appliances
42 18.10
Lettering and making of pictorial
drawings
94 40.52
Making a Project Plan 40 17.24
Using the principles of English and 49 21.12
Metric System accurately
Others:
1 0.43
Construction Building Theories
Silk Screen Printing 6 2.59

TOTAL 232 100.00

E. BUSINESS EDUCATION
(ENTREPRENEURSHIP,
MARKETING, ETC.)
Making useful and artistic articles out of 30 32.97
trash for home and personal use

Identifying business opportunities in the 23 25.27


locality

54
Making business plans of feasibility 19 20.88
study
Retailing Business 19 20.88
TOTAL 91 100

Table 16 shows the Students Responses on the skills they developed in different

areas of Technology and Livelihood Education. In Culinary Arts, 26.55% or 73 of the

Students Responses said that they developed their skills in introducing cooking terms

and techniques; 26.18% or 72 Students Responses answered that they developed their

skills in culinary arts through preparing, cooking and serving foods and table setting

24% or 66 Students Responses answered preparing foods properly; and 20.73% or 57

Students Responses answered that they developed their skills in meal planning and

budgeting. But 1.45% or 4 and 1.09% or 3 of the Students Responses answered others

and that they enjoyed and developed their skills through food preservation and baking.

In Computer Education, 35.83% or 43 of the Students Responses answered that

they developed their skills through learning computer operations and concepts; 24. 17%

or 29 Students Responses answered understanding the structures of Microsoft office

software; 15.08% of the Students Responses answered typing with desirable speed using

the proper keyboarding positions has developed their skills. And 13.33% or 16 Students

Responses answered knowing the general structure of and email address. While there are

6.67% or 8 and 5% or 6 of the Students Responses said that they developed their skills

by making HTML and making website.

In Home Economics including Dressmaking, Cosmetology and Housekeeping,

72.29% or 60 Students Responses answered that able to apply the principles in cosmetics

55
developed their skills; 14. 46% or 12 Students Responses answered able to sew and

design dresses developed their skills; 10.84% or 9 Students Responses answered that

able to use different tools in housekeeping and 2.41% or 2 among the Students

Responses answered that able to apply the principles in decoration developed their skills.

In Industrial Arts including drafting, construction building, wood working, metal

works and electronics, 40.52% or 94 Students Responses answered that lettering and

making of pictorial drawings have developed their skills; 21.12% or 49 of the Students

Responses answered using the principles of English and Metric System accurately;

18.10% or 40 Students Responses answered repairing defective furniture and appliances

have developed their skills; and 17.24% or 40 Students Responses answered making a

project plan. While 2.59% or 6 and .43% or 1 among the Students Responses answered

that they developed their skills through skill screen printing and construction building

theory.

In Business Education, 32.97% or 30 Students Responses answered that making

useful and artistic articles out of trash for home and personal use have developed their

skills; 25.27% or 23 Students Responses answered making business plans of feasibility

study and 20.88% or 19 answered that retailing in business have developed their skills in

Business Education.

This indicates that in Culinary Arts, majority of the Students Responses have

developed their skills in Introducing, cooking Terms and techniques; in Computer

Education, majority of the Students Responses developed their skills through learning

computer operations and concepts; in Home Economics, majority of the Students

56
Responses said that able to apply the principles in cosmetics have developed their skills;

in Industrial Arts, majority of the Students Responses said that lettering and making of

pictorial drawings have developed their skills and in Business Education, majority of the

Students Responses said that making useful and artistic articles out of trash for home and

personal use have developed their skills.

Table 17

Teachers Responses on the Values learned

VALUES RESPONSES
f %
Adaptability 14 12.39
Honesty and Integrity 14 12.39
Positive Attitude 14 12.39
Dependable and Responsible 14 12.39
Strong Work Ethics 12 10.62
Self-Motivation 14 12.39
Loyalty 13 11.50
Strong Self-Confidence 14 12.39
Others:
Accuracy 1 0.88
Neat and Orderly 1 0.88
Self-Discipline 2 1.77
TOTAL 113 100.00

Table 17 presents the TLE Teachers Responses on the values to be developed by

the students. 14 or 12.39% of the TLE Teachers Responses answered Adaptability,

Honesty and Integrity, Positive Attitude, Dependability and Responsibility, Self-

Motivation and Strong Self Confidence are the primary values to be developed by the

students; 13 or 11.50% of the TLE Teachers Responses answered Loyalty; 12 or 10.62%

of the TLE Teachers Responses answered Strong Work Ethics; 2 or 1.77% of the TLE

57
Teachers Responses answered Self Discipline; and 1or 0.88% of the TLE Teachers

Responses answered Accuracy and Neat and Orderly.

This indicates that being Adaptable, Honest and Good Integrity, Positive Attitude,

dependable and responsible, Self-Motivated, and Strong Self Confidence are the values

the students should developed in different areas of TLE.

Table 18

Students Responses on the Values Learned

VALUES RESPONSES
f %
Adaptability 95 8.55
Honesty and Integrity 134 12.06
Positive Attitude 164 14.76
Dependability and 143
Responsibility 12.87
Strong Work Ethics 149 13.41
Self-Motivation 154 13.86
Loyalty 108 9.72
Strong Self-Confidence 160 14.40
Others:
Accuracy 1 0.09
Neat and Orderly 1 0.09
Self-Discipline 2 0.18
TOTAL 1111 100.00

Table 18 shows the Students Responses on values they learn from different areas

of T.L.E. 164 or 14.76% of the students have developed the values of dependable and

responsible; 160 or 14.40% of the students have developed the values of strong self-

confidence; 154 or 13.86% have developed the values of self-motivation; 149 or 13.14%

have developed the values of strong work ethics. 143 or 12.87% of the students have

developed the values of dependability and responsibility; 134 or 12.06% of the students

58
have developed the values of honesty and integrity; 108 or 9.72% of the students have

developed the values of loyalty; 95 or 8.55% of the students have developed the values of

adaptability; 1 or 0.09% among the students has developed the values of patience; 1 or

0.09% among the students has developed the values of being helpful; and 2 or 0.18% of

the students have developed the values of being resourceful.

Majority of the students have a positive attitude based on their responses on the

values they learned from different areas of T.L.E.

Table 19

Teachers Responses on the problems they met

PROBLEMS RESPONSES
f %
Tardiness 11 24.44
Absenteeism 13 28.89
Lack of Interest 10 22.22
Non-Compliance of the 7 15.56
requirements

Malfunctioning of Laboratory 3 6.67


Equipment
Classroom/Laboratory
1 2.22
Environment
TOTAL 45 100.00

Table 19 shows the problems met by the TLE teacher in the teaching process of

different areas in TLE. 13 or 28.89% of the TLE Teachers answered Absenteeism as the

primary problem in the teaching process; 11 or 24.44% of the TLE Teachers answered

Tardiness; 10 or 22.22% of the TLE Teachers answered Lack of Interest on the part of the

students; 7 or 15.56% of the TLE Teachers answered Non-Compliance of the


59
requirements; 3 or 6.67% of the TLE Teachers answered Malfunctioning of the

Laboratory Equipment; 1 or 2.22% of the TLE Teacher answered Classroom/Laboratory

Environment.

The data confirms that the primary problem they met in the teaching process of

TLE is Absenteeism.

Table 20

Students Responses on the Problems they met in TLE

PROBLEMS RESPONSES
f %
Tardiness 56 18.73
Absenteeism 16 5.35
Lack of Interest 81 27.09
Non-Compliance of the
38 12.71
requirements
Malfunctioning of Laboratory
34 11.37
Equipment
Classroom/Laboratory
70 23.41
Environment
Others:
Sleepy 4 1.34
TOTAL 299 100.00

Table 20 shows the Students Responses on the Problems they encounter in the

teaching-learning process. The table reveals that 81 or 27.09% of the Student

Respondents answered that they are lacking interest on the area they are currently taking

up; 70 or 23.41% said that the classroom/laboratory environment affects their learning;

56 or 18.73% said that tardiness is a hindrance on the teaching-learning process; 38 or

60
12.71% answered that non-compliance of the requirements will be a problem especially

when computing grades; 34 or 11.37% said that malfunctioning of the laboratory

equipment has a great effect on the hands-on activities of the subject; 16 or 5.35%

answered that absenteeism affects the gaining of knowledge and acquiring of the needed

skills. Aside from these responses, 4 or 1.34% said that falling asleep during discussion is

also a problem among students.

As reflected on the table, majority of the student-respondents said that lacking

interest on the subject is the major problem that they encounter in the teaching-learning

process.

Table 21

Teachers Responses to the solutions to the problems

SOLUTIONS RESPONSES
f %
Constant Follow up on
Attendance 14 41.18
Consultation of Parents 13 38.24
Counseling 4 11.76
Research Work 0 0.00
Request on
Classroom/Laboratory
Improvement 0 0.00

Others:

Repairs of Computers 1 2.94

Budget for New Equipment 2 5.88


TOTAL 34 100.00

61
Table 21 shows the TLE Teachers Responses to the solutions to the problem. 14

or 41.18% of the TLE Teachers answered Constant follow up on attendance as the

solution to the problem; 13 or 38.24% of the TLE Teachers answered Consultation of

Parents; 2 or 5.88% of the TLE Teachers answered Budget for new equipment; and 1 or

2.94% of the TLE Teachers answered Repair of computers.

This means that the solution to the problem is Constant follow up on Attendance.

Table 22

Students Responses on the solution to the problem

SOLUTIONS RESPONSES
f %

Constant Follow up on Attendance 75 21.55

Consultation of Parents 56 16.09


Counseling 41 11.78
Research Work 59 16.95
Request on Classroom/Laboratory
112 32.18
Improvement

Others:

Budget for New Equipment 5 1.44

TOTAL 348 100.00

Table 22 shows the Students Responses on the Solution to the Problems met. As

suggested by the students, 112 or 32.18% request for classroom/laboratory improvement,

to have a room conducive to learning. Although there are rooms conducive to learning,

yet there are still some rooms which are not. 75 or 21.55% said that there should be a

constant follow-up on attendance for a regular monitoring with the parents and teachers.

62
59 or 16.95% of the student-respondents also suggested that research work can be given

to students to lift their poor performance. 56 or 16.09% said that consultation with

parents will help remedy the problems. This may be conducted by the teachers, students,

and parents. 41 or 11.78% said that there should be counselling, an activity of students,

teachers, and guidance counsellors. Moreover, 5 or 1.44% said that budget for new

equipment is really a need in schools.

Among the solutions suggested by the students, majority of them said that

classroom/laboratory improvement will keep and encourage students to continue

learning.

Table 23

Teachers own Performance Evaluation

CRITERIA 5 4 3 2 1
OWM DI
# WM # WM # WM # WM # WM
Mastery of the Subject
11 3.93 3 0.86 0 0 0 0 0 0 4.79 O
Matter
Knowledge of the
Teaching 8 2.86 6 1.71 0 0 0 0 0 0 4.57 O
Methodology

63
Ability to implement a
technique in 12 4.29 2 0.57 0 0 0 0 0 0 4.86 O
presenting lessons

Ability to motivate
9 3.21 5 1.43 0 0 0 0 0 0 4.64 O
students to inquire and
look for answers
Technique in
10 3.57 4 1.14 0 0 0 0 0 0 4.71 O
Questioning students
Knowledge in the use
of equipment and uses 11 3.93 3 0.86 0 0 0 0 0 0 4.79 O
it for instruction
Ability to use the
tools and equipment 12 4.29 2 0.57 0 0 0 0 0 0 4.86 O
properly
TOTAL 4.74 O

WM = Weighted Mean 4.21 5.00 Outstanding (O)


DI = Descriptive Interpretation 3.41 4.20 Very Satisfactory (VS)
OWM = Overall Weighted Mean 2.61 3.40 Satisfactory (S)
1.81 2.60 Fair (F)
1.01 1.80 Needs Improvement (NI)

Table 23 shows the TLE Teachers own performance Evaluation. The data were

treated by using Weighted Mean. In the first criteria, they evaluate their performance as

Outstanding, which has an Over All Weighted Mean of 4.79; in the second criteria,

they evaluate their performance as Outstanding, which has an Over All Weighted Mean

of 4.57; in the third criteria, they evaluate their performance as Outstanding, which

has an Over All Weighted Mean of 4.86; in the fourth criteria, they evaluate their

performance as Outstanding, which has an Over All Weighted Mean of 4.64; in the

fifth criteria, they evaluate their performance as Outstanding, which has an Over All

Weighted Mean of 4.71; in the sixth criteria, they evaluate their performance as

Outstanding, which has an Over All Weighted Mean of 4.79; and in the seventh

64
criteria, they evaluate their performance as Outstanding, which has an Over All

Weighted Mean of 4.86.

The TLE Teachers of Masagana High School is Outstanding in terms of the

criteria given.

Table 24

Students Evaluation on their TLE Teacher

CRITERIA 5 4 3 2 1
OWM DI
# WM # WM # WM # WM # WM
Mastery of
the Subject 179 2.61 108 1.26 54 0.47 2 0.01 0 0 4.35 O
Matter
Knowledge of
the Teaching 145 2.11 150 1.75 43 0.38 3 0.02 0 0 4.26 O
Methodology

65
Ability to
implement a
technique in 154 2.24 132 1.54 39 0.34 2 0.01 0 0 4.14 VS
presenting
lessons
Ability to
motivate
students to
123 1.79 137 1.60 62 0.54 4 0.02 0 0 3.96 VS
inquire and
look for
answers
Technique in
Questioning 145 2.11 123 1.43 60 0.52 6 0.03 0 0 4.11 VS
students
Knowledge
in the use of
equipment
200 2.92 100 1.17 41 0.36 2 0.01 0 0 4.45 O
and uses it
for
instruction
Ability to
use the tools
and 209 3.05 85 0.99 37 0.32 2 0.01 0 0 4.37 O
equipment
properly
TOTAL 4.23 O

WM = Weighted Mean 4.21 5.00 Outstanding (O)


DI = Descriptive Interpretation 3.41 4.20 Very Satisfactory (VS)
OWM = Overall Weighted Mean 2.61 3.40 Satisfactory (S)
1.81 2.60 Fair (F)
1.01 1.80 Needs Improvement (NI)

Table 24 shows the Students Evaluation on their TLE Teacher. The data were

treated by using Weighted Mean. In the first criteria, they evaluate their performance as

Outstanding, which has an Over All Weighted Mean of 4.35; in the second criteria,

they evaluate their performance as Outstanding, which has an Over All Weighted Mean

of 4.26; in the third criteria, they evaluate their performance as Very Satisfactory,

which has an Over All Weighted Mean of 4.14; in the fourth criteria, they evaluate their

performance as Very Satisfactory, which has an Over All Weighted Mean of 3.96; in

66
the fifth criteria, they evaluate their performance as Very Satisfactory, which has an

Over All Weighted Mean of 4.11; in the sixth criteria, they evaluate their performance

as Outstanding, which has an Over All Weighted Mean of 4.45; and in the seventh

criteria, they evaluate their performance as Outstanding, which has an Over All

Weighted Mean of 4.37.

The Students of Masagana High School evaluate their TLE Teachers as

Outstanding in terms of the criteria given.

CHAPTER V

67
Summary of Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations

In this chapter, Summary of Findings, Conclusions, and Recommendations were

Presented.

The purpose of this study is to find out the Techniques and Strategies of teachers

in teaching different areas of Technology and Livelihood Education in Public High

School.

This research used the descriptive method. The population comprised of 854

Fourth year students, 825 Third year students, and 14 Teachers who are teaching

Technology and Livelihood Education. The Sample Scheme was 343 Fourth and Third

year students, which is 20% of the total population, and 14 Teachers who are teaching

Technology and Livelihood Education, which is 100% of the total population.

The pure random sampling was used in this study. A researcher-made instrument

was used for the questionnaire.

The instrument used was tested first with a group of 1 Fourth Year college

students, 5 High School students, and a teacher. The administration of questionnaires

was personally conducted by the researcher.

The data were compiled, sorted out, organized and tabulated. The statistical

treatment used was Percentage Distribution to find out the profile of the TLE Teachers,

areas of TLE that the teacher taught, and student took up, teachers and students

responses on the techniques and strategies, resources and materials, facilities and

equipment used by the Teachers, skills and values being developed in the teaching and

learning process of different areas of TLE, problems that may encounter in teaching and

68
learning process of TLE, and its solutions. A Weighted Mean was used to find out the

performance of the teacher in teaching TLE.

Findings

1. 8 or 57.14% of the TLE Teacher Respondent were Female, and 6 or 42.86% were

male. Majority of the TLE Teachers were Female.


2. 6 or 42.86% of the TLE Teacher Respondents are at the age bracket between 45-

55, and 55-65. This represents the majority of the TLE Teacher Respondent. And

1 or 7.14% of the TLE Teacher Respondent are at the age bracket between 25-35,

and 35-45.
3. 6 or 42.86% of the Teacher-Respondents graduated with a degree of Bachelor of

Science in Home Economics Major in Food and Applied Nutrition and Bachelor

of Science in Industrial Education Major in Industrial Arts. This represents most

Teacher-Respondents who graduated with the Bachelors degree with the major of

TLE subjects. And 1 or 7.14% of the TLE teacher respondent graduated with a

degree of Bachelor of Science in Industrial Education Major in Electrical

Technology and Bachelor of Science in Business Education.


4. 2 or 66.67% of the Teacher-Respondents graduated with a Masters Degree of

Master of Arts in Education. This represents most of the Teacher-Respondents

who took up Masters Degree. And 1 or 33.33% of the TLE teacher respondents

have only Master of Arts in Education (MaEd) Units only.


5. 5 or 29.41% of the Teacher-Respondents is teaching Industrial Arts (Drafting,

Construction Building, Woodworking, Metal works, Electronics, etc.). This

represents that most of the Teacher-Respondents are teaching Industrial Arts. 3 or

17.65% of the TLE teacher respondents is teaching Exploratory TLE I, 2 or

69
11.76% of the TLE teacher respondents is teaching Culinary Arts, Dressmaking,

and Exploratory TLE II, 1 or 5.88% of the TLE teacher respondents is teaching

Computer Education, Home Economics, and Business Education.


6. The findings revealed that 164 or 47.81% of the Student-Respondents are

specialized in Industrial Arts; 76 or 22.16% in Culinary Arts; 53 or 15.45% in

Home Economics; 43 or 12.54% in Computer Education; 7 or 2.04% in Business

Education and none or 0% of the Students-Respondents are specialized in

Dressmaking.
7. 13 or 18.57% of the Teacher-Respondents used Lecture, Discussion and Project

Method as their method for teaching the subject. 12 or 17.14% of the TLE

Teachers used Reporting Method; 8 or 11.43% of the TLE Teachers used

Demonstration Method; 5 or 7.14% of the TLE Teachers used Activity Method; 2

or 2.86% of the TLE Teacher used Question and Answer Method, and 1 or 1.43%

of the TLE Teachers used Laboratory, Group learning, Problem Solving, and

Simulation Methods. Majority of the TLE Teacher respondents used Lecture,

Discussion and Project Methods in teaching TLE subject.


8. 185 or 17.54% of the Student respondent answered lecture method as the method

used by their TLE teachers; 155 or 14.69% in activity method; 148 or 14.03% in

reporting method; 104 or 9.66% in demonstration method; 84 or 7.96% in

laboratory method; 80 or 7.58% in project method; 67 or 6.35% in question and

answer method; 33 or 3.13% in group-learning method and lastly 8 or 0.76%

answered problem-solving method. Majority of the Student-Respondents

answered Lecture Method as the method of teaching used by their TLE Teachers.
9. 14 or 32.56% of the Teacher-Respondents used Textbooks as their resources and

materials in teaching TLE subject; 13 or 30.23% used Lesson Plans; 12 or 27.91

70
used Visual Aids; 2 or 4.65% used Module/Workbook and Multimedia Aids.

Majority of the Teacher-Respondents used textbooks as their primary resources

and materials in teaching the subject.


10. 7.16% or 207 Student-Respondents answered that the materials their teacher used

in the class are visual aids; 28% or 156 Student-Respondents answered that their

teacher used lesson plans; 14.90% or 83 Student-Respondents answered

textbooks; 9.52% or 53 Student-Respondents answered module/workbooks;

8.80% or 49 Student-Respondents answered multimedia aids; and some of the

Student-Respondents also answered others. 54% or 1 Student-Respondent said

that they used actual materials; 36% or 2 Student-Respondents said that they used

cookery tools, drafting tools and actual materials. Majority of the Student-

Respondents answered visual aids as the primary resources and materials used by

their TLE Teacher.


11. 8 or 27.59% of the Teacher-Respondents used Storage Cabinet as their facilities

and equipment in teaching the subject; 7 or 24.14% of the Teacher-Respondents

used Home Economics Room; 5 or 17.24% of the Teacher-Respondents used

Industrial Arts Room and School Garden; 2 or 6.90% of the Teacher-Respondents

used Agricultural Arts Room and Computer Laboratory. Majority of the Teacher-

Respondents used Storage Cabinet as their facilities and equipment provided by

the school for TLE subject.


12. 161 or 44.35% of the Student-Respondents are using Industrial Arts Room

(Electrical tools, Drafting tools, Woodworking tools, etc.) as their facilities and

equipment in learning the subject; 113 or 31.13% of the Student-Respondents are

using Home Economics Room (Gas stove, Kitchen Utensils, Sewing Machine,

Cosmetics, etc.); 52 or 14.33% of the Student-Respondents are using the

71
Computer Laboratory; 18 or 4.96% of the Student-Respondents are using

Spacious Working Areas; 7 or 1.93% of the Student-Respondents are using

Storage Cabinet; 5 or 1.38% of the Student-Respondents are using School

Garden; 4 or 1.10% of the Student-Respondents are using Agricultural Arts

(Gardening tools, Farm tools, etc.); 3 or 0.83% of the Student-Respondents are

using Classroom. Majority of the Student-Respondents answered Industrial Arts

Room as their facilities and equipment used in the teaching-learning process of

the TLE subject.


13. This indicates that in Culinary Arts, 2 or 20% of the Teacher-Respondents choose

all the skills to be developed by their students. Aside from this, they include food

preservation and baking as additional skills to be developed. In Computer

Education, HTML/Web Design is the only skill to be developed by the students

that comprises 1 or 100%. In Industrial Arts, 6 or 26.09% of the Teacher-

Respondents chose making a project plan as the primary skill to be developed by

the students. In Business Education, majority of the Teacher-Respondents said

that retailing business is the primary skill to be developed by the students which

comprises 3 or 50%.
14. In Culinary Arts, majority of the Student-Respondents have developed their skills

in introducing cooking terms and techniques that comprises 73 or 26.55%; in

Computer Education, majority of the Student-Respondents developed their skills

through learning computer operations and concepts which comprises 43 or

35.83%; in Home Economics, majority of the Student-Respondents said that they

already have the ability to apply the principles in cosmetics which comprises 60

or 72.29%; in Industrial Arts, majority of the Student-Respondents said that

72
lettering and making of pictorial drawings have developed their skills which

comprises 94 or 40.52%; and in Business Education, majority of the s Student-

Respondents said that making useful and artistic articles out of trash for home and

personal use have developed their skills which comprises 30 or 32.97%.


15. 14 or 12.39% of the Teachers-Respondents answered adaptability, honesty and

integrity, positive attitude, dependable and responsible, self-motivation and strong

self-confidence as the primary values to be developed by the students; 13 or

11.50% answered loyalty; 12 or 10.62% answered strong work ethics; 2 or 1.77%

answered self-discipline; and 1or 0.88% answered accuracy, and neatness and

orderliness. Majority of the TLE Teachers said being adaptable, honest, Positive,

dependable and responsible, self-motivated and strong self-confidence as the

primary values to be developed by the students.


16. 164 or 14.76% of the Student-Respondents answered that they have developed the

values of dependable and responsible. This represents most of the Student-

Respondents with regards on the Values being developed. 160 or 14.40% of the

Student-Respondents answered strong self-confidence; 154 or 13.86% Student-

Respondents answered self-motivation; 149 or 13.14% of the Student-

Respondents answered strong work ethics. 143 or 12.87% of the Student-

Respondents answered dependability and responsibility; 134 or 12.06% of the

Student-Respondents answered honesty and integrity; 108 or 9.72% of the

Student-Respondents answered loyalty; 95 or 8.55% of the Student-Respondents

answered adaptability; 1 or 0.09% of the Student-Respondents answered patience;

1 or 0.09% of the Student-Respondents answered the values of being helpful; and

2 or 0.18% of the Student-Respondents answered the values of being resourceful.

73
17. 13 or 28.89% of the Teacher-Respondents answered absenteeism as the primary

problem in the teaching process; 11 or 24.44% of the Teacher-Respondents

answered tardiness; 10 or 22.22% of the Teacher-Respondents answered lack of

interest on the part of the students; 7 or 15.56% of the Teacher-Respondents

answered noncompliance of the requirements; 3 or 6.67% of the Teacher-

Respondents answered malfunctioning of the laboratory equipment; 1 or 2.22% of

the Teacher-Respondents answered classroom/laboratory environment. Majority

of the Teacher-Respondents encounter Absenteeism as the major problem in the

teaching process.
18. 81 or 27.09% of the Student-Respondents answered that they are lacking interest

on the area of TLE they are currently taking up; 70 or 23.41% said that the

classroom/laboratory environment affects their learning; 56 or 18.73% said that

tardiness is a hindrance on the teaching-learning process; 38 or 12.71% answered

that non-compliance of the requirements will be a problem especially when

computing grades; 34 or 11.37% said that malfunctioning of the laboratory

equipment has a great effect on the hands-on activities of the subject; 16 or 5.35%

answered that absenteeism affects the gaining of knowledge and acquiring of the

needed skills. Aside from these responses, 4 or 1.34% said that falling asleep

during discussion is also a problem among students. Majority of the Students-

Respondents lack interest in the learning process.


19. 14 or 41.18% of the Teacher-Respondents answered constant follow up on

attendance as the solution to the problem; 13 or 38.24% of the Teacher-

Respondents answered consultation of parents; 2 or 5.88% of the Teacher-

Respondents answered budget for new equipment; and 1 or 2.94% of the Teacher-

74
Respondents answered repair of computers. Majority of the Teacher-Respondents

suggested that constant follow up on attendance is the solution to the problem.


20. 112 or 32.18% of the Student-Respondents requested for classroom/laboratory

improvement, to have a room conducive to learning. Although there are rooms

conducive to learning, yet there are still some rooms which are not. 75 or 21.55%

said that there should be a constant follow-up on attendance for a regular

monitoring with the parents and teachers. 59 or 16.95% of the student Student-

Respondents also suggested that research work can be given to students to lift

their poor performance. 56 or 16.09% said that consultation with parents will help

remedy the problems. This may be conducted by the teachers, students, and

parents. 41 or 11.78% said that there should be counselling, an activity of

students, teachers, and guidance counsellors. Moreover, 5 or 1.44% said that

budget for new equipment is really a need in schools. Majority of the Student-

Respondents requested for classroom/laboratory improvement to have a room

conducive to learning.
21. In the first criteria, the Teacher-Respondents evaluated their performance as

Outstanding, with an Over All Weighted Mean of 4.79; in the second criteria,

the Teacher-Respondents evaluated their performance as Outstanding, with an

Over All Weighted Mean of 4.57; in the third criteria, the Teacher-Respondents

evaluated their performance as Outstanding, with an Over All Weighted Mean

of 4.86; in the fourth criteria, the Teacher-Respondents evaluated their

performance as Outstanding, with an Over All Weighted Mean of 4.64; in the

fifth criteria, the Teacher-Respondents evaluated their performance as

Outstanding, with an Over All Weighted Mean of 4.71; in the sixth criteria,

75
the Teacher-Respondents evaluated their performance as Outstanding, with an

Over All Weighted Mean of 4.79; and in the seventh criteria, the Teacher-

Respondents evaluated their performance as Outstanding, with an Over All

Weighted Mean of 4.86.


Therefore, the Teacher-Respondents evaluated their own performance as

Outstanding.
22. In the first criteria, the Student-Respondents evaluated the performance of their

TLE Teacher as Outstanding, which has an Over All Weighted Mean of 4.35;

in the second criteria, the Student-Respondents evaluated the performance of their

TLE Teacher as Outstanding, which has an Over All Weighted Mean of 4.26;

in the third criteria, the Student-Respondents evaluated the performance of their

TLE Teacher as Very Satisfactory, with an Over All Weighted Mean of 4.14; in

the fourth criteria, the Student-Respondents evaluated the performance of their

TLE Teacher as Very Satisfactory, with an Over All Weighted Mean of 3.96;

in the fifth criteria, the Student-Respondents evaluated the performance of their

TLE Teacher as Very Satisfactory, with an Over All Weighted Mean of 4.11;

in the sixth criteria, the Student-Respondents evaluated the performance of their

TLE Teacher as Outstanding, with an Over All Weighted Mean of 4.45; and

in the seventh criteria, the Student-Respondents evaluated the performance of

their TLE Teacher as Outstanding, with an Over All Weighted Mean of 4.37.

Therefore, the Student-Respondents evaluated the performance of their TLE

Teachers as Outstanding.

Conclusions

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1. In terms of profile of the Teacher-Respondents, most them are Female Teachers.

Also, most of them are between the age brackets of 45-55 and 55-65 years old.
2. Most of the Teacher-Respondents graduated with Bachelors degree major in

Industrial Arts and Food and Applied Nutrition. Two of them had their Masters

Degree and have units with their only respective graduate studies.
3. Most of the Teacher-Respondents taught Industrial Arts. Also, most of the

Student-Respondents are taking up the same subject.


4. Most of the Teacher-Respondents are using Lecture, Discussion, and Project

Method as the method in teaching different areas of TLE. Most of the Student-

Respondents answered Lecture Method as the method of teaching used by their

TLE teachers.
5. Most of the Teacher-Respondents are using Textbooks as their primary resources

and materials in teaching. Most of the Student-Respondents answered Visual

Aids as the primary resources and materials used in the subject.


6. Most of the Teacher-Respondents are using Storage Cabinet as their facilities and

equipment for the subject. Most of the Student-Respondents answered that they

are using the Industrial Arts Room as the facilities and equipment for the subject.
7. Most of the Teacher-Respondents said that adaptability, honesty and integrity,

positive attitude, dependability and responsibility, self-motivation and strong self-

confidence are the values that the students should be learned. Most of the Students

said that they have developed the values of dependability and responsibility.
8. Most of the Teacher-Respondents encountered absenteeism as the primary

problem in the teaching and learning process of TLE. Most of the Student-

Respondents answered that they lack interest in TLE they are taking up.
9. Most of the Teacher-Respondents suggested that constant follow-up on attendance

is the best solution for the problem they encounter in the teaching and learning

process in TLE. Most of the Student-Respondents requested for

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classroom/laboratory improvement as the best solution for the problems they met

in the teaching and learning in TLE.


10. Most of the Teacher-Respondents evaluate their selves as outstanding with regards

to teaching TLE subject. Most of the Student-Respondents evaluate as

outstanding the performance of their TLE Teachers in teaching the TLE subject.

Recommendations

In the light of the summaries, findings, and conclusions drawn, the following are

offered for recommendations.

1. School heads should find ways and means to have sufficient funds to improve the

physical facilities, tools, and equipment used in the program.


2. Teachers should have a continuous evaluation or analysis of their performance in

teaching Technology and Livelihood Education so that they could improve their

weak points and enhance strong points.


3. Addressing students own choice of areas in TLE that would best fit into their

interest, their sexes, physical capabilities and mental capacity.


4. Extra and Curricular activities should be enhanced so students can freely integrate

among others, the value of human labor and skills. Linkages and community

involvement are encouraged to promote basic training skills of students.


5. Teachers in TLE should teach the subject in conformity to its curricular content.
6. Adequacy of facilities and instructional materials in TLE should be given

attention. It is necessary that school facilities be provided by the government so

that students are properly guided and taught how to handle the right tools,

equipment, and facilities.


7. Varied Strategies of teaching the subject should be given more focus aside from

the usual strategies used by the teachers. Teachers should be encouraged to grow
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professionally or attend professional trainings on teaching strategies to update

their technical expertise in teaching the subject.


8. Further studies related to this research are recommended.

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