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CONSTITUTIONAL LAW I

I. GENERAL PRINCIPLES

A. Political law defined.


B. Scope/Division of Political Law

II. THE PHILIPPINE CONSTITUTION

A. Nature of the Constitution


1. Constitution defined
2. Purpose
3. Classification
4. Qualities of a good written Constitution
5. Essential parts of a good written Constitution
6. Interpretation/Construction of the Constitution
Francisco v. House of Representatives, G.R. No. 160261, November 10, 2003
Civil Liberties Union v. Executive Secretary, 194 SCRA 317

Self-executing/non-self-executing provisions
Manila Prince Hotel v. GSIS, G.R. No. 122156, February 03,1997
Pamatong v. Comelec, G.R. No. 161872, April 13, 2004

B. Constitutional History
1. The Malolos Constitution
2. The American Regime and the Organic Acts
3. The 1935 Constitution
4. The Japanese (Belligerent) Occupation
5. The 1973 Constitution

C. The 1987 Constitution


1. Freedom Constitution
2. Adoption of the Constitution
3. Effectivity of the 1987 Constitution

D. Amendment
1. Amendment vs Revision
Lambino v. Comelec, G.R. No. 174153, October 25, 2006

2. Constituent vs Legislative Power


Imbong v. Comelec, 35 SCRA 28

3. Steps in the amendatory process:


a. Proposal (Secs. 1-3, Art. XVII)
Occena v. Comelec, 104 SCRA 1
i. Congress
ii. Constitutional Convention
iii. People
Republic Act No. 6735 - An Act Providing for a System of Initiative and Referendum

b. Ratification (Sec. 4, Art. XVII)


Gonzales v. Comelec, 21 SCRA 774
Tolentino v. Comelec, 41 SCRA 702
Sanidad v. Comelec, 78 SCRA 333
Javellana v. Executive Secretary, 50 SCRA 50

E. The Power of Judicial Review


1. Judicial Review
Angara v. Electoral Commission, 63 Phil. 139
Aquino v. Enrile, 59 SCRA 183
Bondoc v. Pineda, 201 SCRA 792
2. Who may exercise the power?
Sec. 4(2), Art. VIII
Ynot v. Intermediate Appellate Court, 148 SCRA 659
Commissioner of Internal Revenue v. Court of Tax Appeals, 195 SCRA 444
Ongsuco v. Malones, 604 SCRA 499 (2009)

3. Functions of Judicial Review


a. Checking
b. Legitimating
c. Symbolic
Salonga v. Pano, 134 SCRA 438

4. Requisites of Judicial Review


Guingona v. Court of Appeals, G. R. No. 125532, July 10, 1998
John Hay Peoples Alternative Coalition v. Lim, G.R. No. 119775, October 24, 2003
Perez v. Provincial Board, 113 SCRA 187
Lacson v. Perez, G.R. No.147780, May 10, 2001
David v. Macapagal-Arroyo, G.R. No. 171396, May 3,2006
Saniakas v. Executive Secretary,G.R. No. 159085, February 3, 2004
Salonga v. Pano, 134 SCRA 438
Tanadav. Angara, 272 SCRA 18
People v. Vera, 65Phil. 56
Senate v. Executive Secretary, G.R. No. 169777, April 20, 2006
Automotive IndustryWorkers Alliance v. Romulo, G.R. No. 157509, January 18,2005
Kilosbayan v. Guingona, 232 SCRA 110
Chavez v. Public EstatesAuthority and Amari, G.R. No. 133250, July 09, 2002
Matibag v. Benipayo, G.R. No. 149036, April 2, 2002
Estarija v. Ranada, G.R. No. 159314, June 26, 2006
Planters Products v. Fertiphll Corporation, G.R. No. 166006,March 14, 2008
Tarrosa v. Singson, 232 SCRA 553

5. Political Questions / Justiciable Questions


Velarde v. SJS, 428 SCRA 283 (2004)
Oposa v. Factoran, 224 SCRA 792 (1993)
Vinuya v. Romulo, 619 SCRA 533 (2010)
Defensor-Santiago v. Guingona, G.R. No.134577, November 18, 1998

6. Presumption of Constitutionality
Perez v. People, 544 SCRA 532 (2008)

7. Effects of Declaration of Unconstitutionality


a. Orthodox view
Art. 7, Civil Code of the Philippines

b. Modern view
Serrano de Agbayani v. PNB, 35 SCRA 429
Belgica v. Ochoa, 710 SCRA 1 (2013)
Araullo v. Aquino III, G.R. No. 209287, July 1, 2014
Cocofed v. Republic, 663 SCRA 514 (2012)
Sameer Overseas v. Cabilles, G.R. No.170139, August 5, 2014

8. Partial unconstitutionality
In Re: Cunanan, 94 Phil. 534
Salazar v. Achacoso, 183 SCRA 145

III. THE PHILIPPINES AS A STATE

A. Definition of a State
Collector v. Campos Rueda, 42 SCRA 23 (1971)

B. Elements of a State
1. People
2. Territory -Art. I; R.A. 3046; R.A. 5446
a. The National Territory
b. Components
c. The Philippine Archipelago
d. Other territories over which the Philippines exercises jurisdiction
e. Archipelagic Doctrine Sec. 1, Article II
i. Straight baseline method
ii. UN Convention on the Law of the Sea

3. Government
a. Definition
b. Functions
Romualdez-Yap v. Civil Service Commission, 225 SCRA 285
Shipside, Inc. v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 143377, February20,2001
c. Doctrine of Parens Patriae
d. Classification
i. De jure vs de facto
ii. Presidential vs parliamentary
iii. Unitary vs federal government

4. Sovereignty
a. Definition
b. Kinds
c. Characteristics
d. Effects of change in sovereignty
e. Effects of belligerent occupation
f. Dominium vs imperium
g. Jurisdiction

C. State Immunity from Suit


1. Basis
2. Par in parem non habet imperium
a. States diplomatic agents
Minucher v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 142396, February 11, 2003
b. The United Nations
c. Other international organizations/agencies
SEAFDEC-Aquaculture v. NLRC, 206 SCRA 283
Callado v. IRRI, 244 SCRA 210

3. Test to determine if the suit is against the State


Tan v. Director of Forestry, 125 SCRA 302
Veterans Manpower and ProtectiveServices, Inc. v. Court of Appeals, 214 SCRA 286

4. Suits against Government Agencies


a. Incorporated
SSS v. Court of Appeals, 120 SCRA 707
Municipality of San Fernando, La Union v. Judge Firme, 195 SCRA 692
National Irrigation Administration v. Court of Appeals, 214SCRA 35
Philippine National Railways v. Intermediate Appellate Court,217 SCRA 401
b. Unincorporated
Department of Agriculture v. NLRC, 227 SCRA 693
Civil Aeronautics Administration v. Court of Appeals, 167SCRA 28

5. Suit against Public Officers


Sanders v. Veridiano, 162 SCRA 88
Shauf v. Court of Appeals, 191 SCRA 713
Republic v. Sandiganbayan, G.R.No. 142476, March 20, 2001
Republic v. Hon. Edilberto Sandoval, 220 SCRA 124
Lansang v. Court ofAppeals, G.R. No. 102667, February 23, 2000

6. Need for consent


a. Express consent
Department of Agriculture v. NLRC, 227 SCRA 693
Amigable v. Cuenca, 43 SCRA 360
EPG Construction v. Secretary Vigilar, G.R. No. 131544,March 16, 2001

b. Implied consent
Froilan v. Pan Oriental Shipping, G.R. No. L-6060, Sept. 30, 1950
U.S. v.Ruiz, 136 SCRA 487
Republic (PCGG) v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 129406, March 6, 2006

7. Scope of Consent
National Housing Authority v. Heirs of Quivelondo, G.R. No. 154411, June 19, 2003
Municipality of San Miguel, Bulacan v. Fernandez,130 SCRA 56
Municipality of Makati v. Court ofAppeals, 190 SCRA 206

8. Suability not equated with outright liability


Merritt v. Government of the Philippine Islands, 34 Phil 311 (1916)
Fontanilla v. Maliaman, 194 SCRA 486

IV. PRINCIPLES AND STATE POLICIES

A. Preamble
B. Republicanism
Sec. 1. Art. II
1. Essential features
2. Manifestations
a. Ours is a government of laws and not of men
b. Rule of the majority (elections)
c. Accountability of public officials
d. Bill of Rights
e. Legislature cannot pass irrepealable laws
f. Separation of powers
Tuason v. Register of Deeds of Caloocan City, 157 SCRA 613
La Bugal-BLaan Tribal Association v. Ramos, G.R. No. 127882, December 1, 2004

g. Delegation of powers
Jaworski v. PAGCOR, G.R. No. 144463, January 14, 2004
Garcia v. Executive Secretary, 211 SCRA 219
Araneta v.Dinglasan, 84 Phil 368
David v. Macapagal-Arroyo, G.R. No. 171396, May 3,2006
People v. Vera, 65 Phil 56
Conference of Maritime Manning Agencies, Inc., v.POEA, 243 SCRA 666
Pelaez v. Auditor General, 15 SCRA 569

Tests for valid delegation


U.S. v. Ang Tang Ho, 43 Phil 1
Lozano v. Martinez, 146 SCRA 323
Chiongbian v. Orbos, 245 SCRA 253
Gerochi v. Department of Energy, G.R. No. 159796,July 17, 2007,

C. The Incorporation Clause


Sec. 2. Art. II
1. Read with Preamble, Sections 7 & 8 Art. II, and Sec 25 Art. XVIII
2. Renunciation of war
3. Doctrine of incorporation

D. Civilian Supremacy
Sec. 3. Art. II
Sec. 18, Art. VII

E. Duty of Government
Sec. 4 5 Art. II
Secs. 4 & 5, Art. XVI
Chavez v. Romulo, G.R. No. 157036, June 9, 2004
F. Separation of Church and State
G. Independent foreign policy and nuclear-free Philippines
Secs. 7-8, Art. II
H. Just and dynamic social order Sec. 9, Art II
I. Promotion of social justice Sec. 10, Art. II
J. Respect for human dignity and human rights Sec. 11, Art. II
K. Family and youth Sec. 12-13, Art. II
People v. Larin, G.R. No. 128777, October 7, 1998

L. Fundamental equality of men and women Sec. 14, Art. II


Philippine Telegraph and Telephone Co. v. NLRC, G.R. No. 118978, May 23, 1997

M. Promotion of health and ecology Sec. 15-16, Art. II


Oposa v. Factoran, 224 SCRA 792

N. Priority to education, science, technology, etc. Sec. 17, Art. II


Philippine Merchant Marine School, Inc. v. Court of Appeals, 244 SCRA 770
Guingona v. Carague, 196 SCRA 221
Professional Regulation Commission v. De Guzman, G.R. No. 144681,June 21, 2004

O. Protection to labor Sec. 18, Art. II


JMM Promotion and Management v. Court of Appeals, 260 SCRA 319
Bernardo v. NLRC, G.R. No. 122917, July 12, 1999

P. Self-reliant and independent economic order Sec. 19, Art. II


Tanada v. Angara, 272 SCRA 18
Association of Philippine Coconut Desiccators v. PhilippineCoconut Authority, G.R. No. 110526,
February 10, 1998

Q. Land Reform Sec. 21, Art. II


R. Indigenous cultural communities Sec. 22, Art. II
S. Independent peoples organizations Sec. 23, Art. II
T. Communication and information in nation-building Sec. 24, Art. II
U. Autonomy of local governments Sec. 25, Art. II
Lina v. Pano, G.R. No. 129093, August 30, 2001
Judge Dadole v. Commission on Audit, G.R. No. 125350, December 3,2002

V. Equal access of opportunities for public service Sec. 26, Art. II


Pamatong v. Comelec, G.R. No. 161872, April 13, 2004

W. Honest public service and full public disclosure Sec. 27, Art. II

V. CITIZENSHIP

A. General Principles
1. Defined
2. Usual modes of acquiring citizenship
3. Modes applied in the Philippines
a. Before the adoption of the 1935 Constitution
Roa v. Collector of Customs, 25 Phil 315
Teotimo Rodriguez TioTiam v. Republic, 101 Phil. 195

b. After the adoption of the 1935 Constitution

4. Natural-born citizens Sec. 2, Art. IV


5. Marriage by Filipino to an alien Sec. 4, Art. IV
6. Policy against dual allegiance Sec. 5, Art. IV
Mercado v. Manzano, 307 SCRA 630
Valles v. Comelec, G.R. No. 137000, August 9, 2000
Jacot v. Dal and Comeiec, G.R. No. 179848, November 27, 2008
Calilung v. Secretary of Justice, G.R. No. 160869, May 11, 2007

7. Attack on ones citizenship may be made only through a direct, not a collateral proceeding
Co v. HRET, 199 SCRA 692

8. Res judicata in cases involving citizenship


Board of Commissioners, CID v. de la Rosa, 197 SCRA 853

B. Citizens of the Philippines


1. Those who are citizens of the Philippines at the time of the adoption of this (1987)
Constitution
Tecson v. Comelec, G.R. No. 161434, March 3, 2004
Valles v. Comelec, G.R. No. 137000, August 9, 2000

2. Those whose fathers or mothers are citizens of the Philippines


3. Those born before January 17, 1973, of Filipino mothers, who elect Philippine citizenship
upon reaching the age of majority
a. Procedure for election
b. When to elect
Cuenco v. Secretary of Justice, 5 SCRA 110
In Re: Ching, Bar Matter No. 914, October 1, 1999
Republic v. Chule Lim, G.R. No.153883, January 13, 2004

4. Those who are naturalized in accordance with law

C. Naturalization
1. Modes of naturalization
2. Doctrine of indelible allegiance
3. Direct naturalization under Philippine laws
4. Naturalization under C.A. 473
a. Qualifications
b. Disqualifications
c. Procedure
d. Effects of naturalization
e. Denaturalization

5. Naturalization by direct legislative action


6. Administrative Naturalization R.A. 9139
So v. Republic, G.R. No. 170603, January 29, 2007
a. Special Committee on Naturalization
b. Qualifications
c. Disqualifications
d. Procedure
e. Status of Alien Wife and Minor Children
f. Cancellation of the Certificate of Naturalization

D. Loss and Reacquisition of Philippine Citizenship C.A. 63


1. Loss of citizenship
a. By naturalization in a foreign country
Frivaldo v. Comelec, 174 SCRA 245
modified by R.A. 9225
Eusebio Eugenio Lopez v. Comelec, G.R. No.182701, July 23, 2008

b. By express renunciation of citizenship


Labo v. Comelec, 176 SCRA 1

c. By subscribing to an oath of allegiance to support the Constitution or laws of a foreign


country
d. By rendering service to or accepting commission in the armed forces of a foreign country
e. By cancellation of the certificate of naturalization
f. By having been declared by competent authority a deserted of the Philippine armed
forces in time of war

2. Reacquisition of citizenship
a. Under R.A. 9225
b. By naturalization
c. By repatriation of deserters of the Army, Navy or Air Corps
Lee v. Comelec, 257 SCRA 727
Angat v. Republic, G.R. No.132244, September 14, 1999
Frivaldo v. Comelec, 257SCRA 727
Bengzonlllv. House of RepresentativesElectoral Tribunal, G.R. No. 142840, May 7, 2001
Tabasa v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 125793, August 29,2006

d. By direct act of Congress

VI. THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT

A. The Legislative Power


1. Definition
2. Where vested
Sec. 32, Art. VI

B. Congress
Sec. 1, Art. VI

C. The Senate
1. Composition Sec. 2, Art. VI
2. Qualifications Sec. 3 Art. VI
3. Term of Office Sec. 4, Art. VI

D. House of Representatives
1. Composition - Sec. 5(1) and (2), Art. VI
a. District representatives
b. Party-list representatives
c. Sectoral representatives
Quintos-Deles v. Committee on Constitutional Commissions, 177 SCRA 259

2. Apportionment of legislative districts - Sec. 5(3) and (4), Art. VI


Macias v. Comelec, 3 SCRA 1
Tobias v. Abalos, 239 SCRA 106
Sema v. Comelec, G.R. No. 177597, July 16, 2008

3. Qualifications Sec. 6, Art. VI


Imelda Romualdez-Marcos v. Comelec, 248 SCRA 300
Aquino v. Comelec, 248 SCRA 400
Coquilla v. Comelec, G.R.No. 151914, July 31, 2002

4. Term of Office Sec. 7, Art. VI

5. The Party-List System - R.A. 7941 (The Party-List System Act)

a. Definition of terms
b. Registration: Manifestation to Participate in the Party-List System
c. Refusal and/or Cancellation of Registration
d. Nomination of party-list representatives
e. Qualifications of Party-list nominees
f. Manner of voting
Bantay Republic Act or BA-RA 7941 v. Comelec, G.R. No. 171271, May 4, 2007

g. Number
h. Choosing Party-List Representatives
i. Effect of change of affiliation
j. Vacancy
k. Term of office: rights
Cases under Party List:
Banat v. Comelec, 586 SCRA 210 (2009)
Ang Ladlad v. Comelec, 618 SCRA 32 (2010)
Lokin Jr. v. Comelec, 674 SCRA 538, 2012
AtongPaglaum Inc. v. Comelec, 694 SCRA 477 (2013)
E. Election
1. Regular Sec. 8, Art. VI
2. Special Sec. 9, Art. VI
Lozada v Comelec, 120 SCRA 337
Tolentino v. Comelec, 420 SCRA 438 (2004)

F. Salaries
Sec. 10, Art. VI
Philconsa v. Mathay, 18 SCRA 300
Ligot v. Mathay, 56 SCRA 823 (1974)

G. Privileges - Sec. 11, Art. VI


1. Freedom from arrest
People v. Jalosjos, G.R. No. 132875, February 3, 2000
Trillanes IV v. Judge Pimentel, G.R. No.179817, June 27, 2008

2. Privilege of speech and of debate


Osmena v. Pendatun, 109 Phil. 863
Jimenez v. Cabangbang, 17 SCRA 876

H. Disqualifications Sec. 13, Art. VI


1. Incompatible office
Adaza v. Pacana, 135 SCRA 431
Liban v. Gordon, 639 SCRA 703 (2011)
2. Forbidden office

I. Other inhibitions Sec. 14, Art. VI


Puyat v. de Guzman, 113 SCRA 31 (1982)

J. Sessions
1. Regular Sec. 15, Art. VI
2. Special
3. Joint sessions
a. Voting separately:
i. Choosing the President - Sec. 4, Art. VII
ii. Determine Presidents disability - Sec. 11, Art. VII
iii. Confirming nomination of the Vice President - Sec. 9, Art. VII
iv. Declaring the existence of a state of war - Sec. 23, Art. VI
v. Proposing constitutional amendments - Sec. 1, Art. XVII

b. Voting jointly: Sec. 18, Art. VII


4. Adjournment - Sec. 16 (5), Art. VI

K. Officers - Sec. 16(1), Art. VI

L. Quorum - Sec. 16(2), Art. VI


Avelino v. Cuenco, 83 Phil 17
Arroyo v. De Venecia, G.R. No. 127255, June 26, 1998

M. Rules of proceedings - Sec. 16(3), Art. VI


Garcillano v. HR Committees, 575 SCRA 170 (2008)

N. Discipline of members - Sec. 16(3), Art. VI


Osmena v. Pendatun, 109 Phil 863
Miriam Defensor-Santiago v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 128055, April18, 2001

O. Records and books of accounts - Sec. 20, Art. VI

P. Legislative Journal and the Congressional Record Sec. 16(4), Art. VI


1. Matters which, under the Constitution are to be entered in the Journal
a. Yeas and nays on third and final reading of a bill;
b. Veto message of the President;
c. Yeas and nays on the repassing of a bill vetoed by the President;
d. Yeas and nays on any question at the request of 1/5 of members present

2. Enrolled Bill Theory


Mabanag v. Lopez Vito, 78 Phil 1
Arroyo v. De Venecia,G.R. No. 127255, August 14, 1997
Casco (Phil) Chemical Co. v. Gimenez, 7 SCRA 347

3. Journal Entry vs. Enrolled Bill


Astorga v. Villegas, 56 SCRA 714

4. The Congressional Record

Q. Electoral Tribunals Sec. 17, Art. VI


1. Composition
Bondoc v. Pineda, 201 SCRA 792
Abbas v. SenateElectoral Tribunal, 166 SCRA 651
Pimentel v. House of Representatives Electoral Tribunal, G.R. No.141489, November 29, 2002

2. Power
Sampayan v. Daza, 213 SCRA 807
Vinzons-Chato v. Comelec, G.R. No.172131, April 2, 2007

3. Judicial Review
Martinez v. HRET, 610 SCRA 733 (2010)
Vilando v. HRET, 656 SCRA 17 (2011)

R. Commission on Appointments Sec. 18, Art. VI


1. Composition
Daza v. Singzon, 180 SCRA 496
Coseteng v. Mitra, 187 SCRA 377
Guingona v. Gonzales, 214 SCRA 789

2. Powers
Sarmiento v. Mison, 156 SCRA 549
Bautista v. Salonga,172 SCRA 169

S. Powers of Congress
1. General (plenary) legislative power Sec. 1, Art. VI
a. Limitations
i. Substantive
ii. Procedural
a. Only one subject
Tio v. Videogram Regulatory Commission, 151 SCRA 208
Lacsonv. Executive Secretary, G.R. No. 128096, January 20, 1999
Farinas v. Executive Secretary, G.R. No. 147387, December 10,2003

b. Three readings on separate days


Tolentino v. Secretary of Finance xxx

b. Legislative Process
i. Requirements as to bills
Alvarez v. Guingona, 252 SCRA 695
Tolentino v. Secretary of Finance xxx

ii. Procedure - Sec 26 (2) Art. VI


Arroyo, et al., v. De Venecia, et at., G.R. No. 127255, August 14, 1997
Philippine Judges Association v. Prado, 227 SCRA 703

iii. Approval of bills


Gonzales v. Macaraig, 191 SCRA 452
Bengzon v. Drilon,208 SCRA 133
Philippine ConstitutionAssociation v. Enriquez, 235 SCRA 506
iv. Effectivity of laws Art. 2, Civil Code

2. Power of Appropriation
a. Need for appropriation Sec. 29 (1) Art. VI
Comelec v. Judge Quijano-Padilla, G.R. No. 151992, September 18, 2002

b. Appropriation law

c. Classification

d. Implied limitations on appropriation measures


Guingona v. Carague, 196 SCRA 221

e. Constitutional limitations on special appropriation measures Sec. 25 (4), Art. VI

f. Constitutional rules on general appropriations law Sec. 25, Art. VI


PhilippineConstitution Association v. Enriquez xxx
Aglipay v. Ruiz, 64 SCRA 201

g. Impoundment refusal by the President for whatever reason to spend funds made
available by Congress

3. Power of Taxation
a. Limitations - Sec. 28(3), Art. VI, Sec. 29(4), Art. V

4. Power of Legislative Investigation Sec. 21, Art. VI


a. Sec. 4(b) of E.O. No. 1
Miguel v. Gordon, G.R. No. 174340, October 17, 2006

b. Limitations
i. In aid of legislation
Bengzon v. Senate Blue Ribbon Committee, 203 SCRA 767
Standard Chartered Bank v. Senate Committee on Banks, G.R. No. 167173,December 27,
2007
ii. In accordance with duly published rules of procedure
Neri v. Senate Committees, G.R. No. 180843, March 25, 2008
iii. Rights of persons appearing in, or affected by such inquiry shall be respected

c. Power to punish contempt


Arnault v. Nazareno, 87 Phil 29

5. Question hour Sec. 22, Art. VI


Senate v. Ermita, supra.xxx

6. War powers Sec. 23 (1), Art. VI

7. Power to act as Board of Canvassers in election of President Sec. 4, Art. VII


Ruy Elias Lopez v. Senate of the Philippines, G.R. No. 163556, June 8, 2004

8. Power to call a special election for President and Vice President - Sec. 10, Art. VII

9. Power to judge Presidents physical fitness to discharge the functions of the Presidency - Sec.
11, Art. VII

10. Power to revoke or extend suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus or
declaration of martial law - Sec. 18, Art. VII

11. Power to concur in Presidential amnesties. Concurrence of majority of all the members of
Congress - Sec. 19, Art. VII

12. Power to concur in treaties or international agreements. Concurrence of at least 2/3 of all the
members of the Senate -Sec. 21, Art. VII
13. Power to confirm certain appointments/nominations made by the President
Sec. 9, Art. VII
Sec. 16, Art. VII

14. Power of impeachment - Sec. 2, Art. XI


Gonzales v. Office of the President, 678 SCRA 614 (2012)
Gutierrez v. HR Committee on Justice, 643 SCRA 198 (2011)

15. Power relative to natural resources - Sec. 2, Art. XII

16. Power to propose amendments to the Constitution - Secs. 1 and 2, Art XVII

VII. THE EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT


A. The President
1. Qualifications
2. Election
3.
B. xxx

VIII. XXX