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G. Jovanovic-Dolecek, Senior Member, IEEE, and S. K. Mitra, Life Fellow, IEEE

AbstractAn efficient three-step method for the design of next step the impulse response coefficients of both the model

multiplier-free finite impulse response (FIR) filter is presented. and interpolation filters are rounded. Finally the sharpening

In the first step, the desired filter is realized in the form of an technique [5] is applied to the filters with the rounded impulse

interpolated finite impulse response (IFIR) structure consisting responses such that the given specification is met. The paper

of a cascade of a sparse model filter and an interpolator. In the

is organized in the following way. In Section 2 we describe

next step, both sub-filters are approximated by rounding of the

filter coefficients. In the final step, the sharpening technique is

briefly the IFIR structure, rounding and the sharpening

used to improve the overall magnitude characteristics and to techniques. Next section describes the proposed method,

satisfy the given specifications. illustrated with several examples. Concluding remarks are

included in Section IV.

Index TermsFIR filters, multiplier-free, rounding,

sharpening

II. IFIR, ROUNDING AND SHARPENING TECHIQUES

The basic idea of an IFIR structure is to implement a FIR

I. INTRODUCTION filter as a cascade of two FIR filter sections, as shown in

In many applications, it is often advantageous to employ Figure 1. One section is the expanded model filter G(zM) and

finite impulse response (FIR) filters, since they can be another is the interpolator I(z). The filter G(zM), where M is

designed with exact linear phase and exhibit no stability

problems [1]. However FIR filters are computationally more

complex compared to infinite impulse response (IIR) filters

with equivalent magnitude responses. During the past several G(zM) I(z)

years, many design methods have been proposed to reduce the

complexity of the FIR filters. One approach is based on

optimizing the filter coefficient values such that the resulting H(z)

filter meets the given specification with its coefficient values

represented in minimum number of signed powers-of-two Figure 1. IFIR structure.

(MNSPT) or canonic signed digits (CSD) representations of

binary digits [2]. Approximation of an equiripple FIR by a the interpolation factor, is obtained by introducing M 1 zeros

rounding operation and implementation of the derived impulse between each pair of samples of the unit sample response of

response by a simple recursive equation have also been G(z). The function of the interpolator filter I(z) is to eliminate

proposed [3]. In an earlier work [4] we used a rounding images introduced by G(zM). More details can be found in [6].

followed by an application of the sharpening technique for the We next use the approach proposed in [3] for the impulse

multiplier-less FIR filter design. However more complex response rounding given by

sharpening polynomials are needed in cases where the hr (n) = r hI (n) = r round (h(n) / r ) (1)

corresponding prototype equiripple filter is of very high order. where h(n) is an equiripple type FIR filter which satisfies

To overcome this problem we propose here to use the IFIR given specification, hI (n) is the new impulse response

structure in which an high order prototype filter is realized as derived by rounding all coefficients of h(n) to the nearest

a cascade of two less complex filters: the model filter and the integer, and round(.) means the rounding operation. The

interpolator. As a result, it is possible to apply lower order rounded impulse response hI (n) is scaled by r in order that

sharpening polynomials to satisfy the given specifications. In gain in dB of the rounded filter hr (n) has the value

this paper we propose a three-step procedure. In the first step, (0 R p ) dB in the passband, where Rp is the specified

passband ripple. The rounding constant r determines the

precision of the approximation of hr(n) to h(n). Considering

G. Jovanovic Dolecek is with the National Institute of Astrophysics, Optics

and Electronics, INAOE, Puebla, Mexico. (Phone & fax: +52-222-2470517; e- that the integer coefficient multiplications can be

mail: gordana@inaoep.mx). implemented with only shift-and-add operations, the rounded

S. K. Mitra is with Department of Electrical & Computer Eng., University impulse response filter is multiplier-free.

of California Santa Barbara,, CA 93106, USA, (e-mail: mitra@ece.ucsb.edu).

As an example consider the rounding of the coefficients

of the impulse response h(n) shown in Fig. 2(a). Using the

rounding constants r = 0.01, 0.06, and 0.1, we obtained the

rounded impulse responses hI(n) shown in Figs. 2(b), (c) and

(d), respectively. The corresponding gain responses of the

scaled impulse responses hr (n) are shown in Fig. 3.

We observe:

The process of rounding introduces some zero-valued

coefficients in the rounded impulse response. The

number of nonzero integer coefficients Ns corresponds to

the number of the sums and decreases with the increase

of the constant r as shown in Fig. 2. Hence the number of

non-zero coefficients are 24, 10 and 8, for the responses

in Figs. 2(b), (c), and (d), respectively.

Some nonzero coefficients of the rounded filter have the

same values. Therefore the number of integer

multiplications corresponds to the number NM of a (b) hI (n), r = 0.01.

different positive integer coefficients values. (The values

1 and the corresponding negative values are not counted).

This number also decreases with the increase of the

constant r, as shown in Fig. 2. The values of NM for the

rounded responses in Figs. 2(b), (c), and (d), are 6, 2, and

2, respectively

As can be seen from Fig. 3, the gain responses of the scaled

rounded filters are distorted versions in both the passband

and the stopband of the gain response of the original filter.

Higher value of r means more distortion in the desired gain

response.

To improve the gain response characteristics, we propose

to use the sharpening technique for simultaneous improve-

ments of both the passband and stopband characteristics [5].

The technique uses the amplitude change function (ACF)

which is a polynomial relationship of the form H 0 = f ( H )

between the amplitudes of the overall and the prototype

filters, H 0 and H , respectively. The improvement in the (c) hI (n), r = 0.06.

gain response near the passband edge H = 1 , or near the

stopband edge H = 0 , depends on the order of tangencies m

(a) h(n).

560

functions for the equiripple and the proposed filters are shown

in Fig. 5.

and n of the ACF at H = 1 or at H = 0 . The expressions for (a) Rounded model filter gI (n).

the mth and nth order tangencies of the ACF at H = 1 and

H = 0 , respectively, can be found in [5].

steps:

1) In the first step the interpolation factor M is chosen and the

IFIR filter is designed, i.e., equiripple model and interpolation

filters g(n) and i(n) are designed.

2) The value of the rounding constant r is chosen. As a good

starting point choose r = 0.01.

3) The coefficients of the filters g(n) and i(n) are rounded

using Eq. (1) to obtain filter gr(n) and ir(n), respectively.

4) The rounded filter gr(n) is up-sampled by M.

5) Choose the sharpening polynomials for interpolated filter (b) Rounded interpolator filter iI (n).

gr(n) and for ir(n) and verify if the specification is satisfied. Figure 4. Rounded impulse responses.

Start with m = 1, n = 1. If the specification is not satisfied try

Example 2.

to increase the constant r in order to decrease the complexity

We consider the design of a filter with the following

of the rounded filters.

If necessary increase the values of m, and n. The specifications: passband and stopband edge frequencies are

sharpening polynomials for rounded interpolated model and 0.1 and 0.11, respectively, passband ripple 0.1 dB and the

interpolator filter may be different. minimum stopband attenuation is 60 dB. The lengths of the

Example 1. resulting equiripple filter, model filter and interpolator are

We design a filter with the following specifications: the 545, 87, and 82, respectively. For r = 0.003, the number of

normalized passband and stopband edges are 0.2 and 0.25, nonzero coefficients in rounded model and interpolation filters

respectively. The passband ripple is Rp = 0.1 dB while the are 64 and 60, respectively, while the numbers of integer

minimum stopband attenuation A = 60 dB. The length of the multiplications are 14 and 13, respectively. The parameters of

equiripple filter N = 113. The model and the interpolator the sharpening polynomials used are n = m = 1,

filters have orders 41 and 31, respectively. For r = 0.01, the ( H sh = 3 H 2 2 H 3 ), for the model filter, and m = n = 2,

rounded model filter has 21 non-zeros coefficients and 7 ( H sh = 6 H 5 15 H 4 + 10H 3 ), for the interpolation filter.

integer multiplications, (Fig. 4(a)), while the rounded

interpolator filter has 23 nonzero coefficients and 7 integer The corresponding gain responses are shown in Fig.6.

multiplications (Fig. 4(b)). The sharpening polynomials used

has parameters m=1, n=2, for both the model and interpolator IV. CONCLUDING REMARKS

filters. ( H sh = 3H 4 + 4 H 3 , where Hsh and H are the A simple multiplier-free FIR filter design method based on

sharpened and the original filter). The corresponding gain IFIR structure is presented. The model and interpolation

561

filters, both designed with Remez algorithm are rounded and

scaled by rounding constants. The sharpening technique is

b. Passband details.

Figure 6. Example 2.

used to improve the magnitude characteristics and to satisfy

the specifications. Considering that the integer coefficient

multiplications can be accomplished with only shift-and-add

operations, the sharpened rounded impulse response filters are

multiplier-free. The parameters of the design are the

interpolation factor M, the rounding constant r, and the

sharpening polynomial parameters m and n. The complexity of

the rounded filters (the number of the sums and the number of

integer multiplications) depends on the choice of the rounding

constant. Less complexity (higher values of r) results in more

distortion in the obtained gain response and consequently

needs more complex sharpening polynomials.

REFERENCES

(b) Passband details.

[1] S. K. Mitra, Digital Signal Processing - A Computer-Based Approach,

Figure 5. Example 1. Third Edition, McGraw-Hill Inc., New York, 2005.

[2] M. Bhattacharya and T. Saramaki, Some observations leading to

multiplierless implementation of linear phase filters, Proc. ICASSP

2003, pp. II-517-II-520.

[3] A. Bartolo, B. D. Clymer, R. C. Burges, and J. P. Turnbull, An efficient

method of FIR filtering based on impulse response rounding, IEEE

Trans. on Signal Processing, vol. 46, No. 8, August 1998, pp. 2243-

2248.

[4] G. J. Dolecek and S.K. Mitra, Computationally efficient FIR filter

design based on impulse response rounding and sharpening, Proc. 2004

IEEE Int. Conf. Punta Cana, Dominican Republic, November 3-5,

2004,pp.249-253.

[5] J.F. Kaiser and R.W. Hamming, Sharpening the response of a

symmetric nonrecursive filter by multiple use of the same filter, IEEE

Trans., Acoust. Speech, Signal Processing, vol. 45, pp. 457-467.

[6] T. Saramaki, Y. Neuvo and S.K. Mitra, Design of computationally

efficient interpolated FIR filters, IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems,

vol. 35, No.1, Jan. 1988, pp. 563-570.

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