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# Multiplier-free FIR Filter Design Based on IFIR

## Structure and Rounding

G. Jovanovic-Dolecek, Senior Member, IEEE, and S. K. Mitra, Life Fellow, IEEE

## the IFIR filter is designed using the Remez algorithm. In the

AbstractAn efficient three-step method for the design of next step the impulse response coefficients of both the model
multiplier-free finite impulse response (FIR) filter is presented. and interpolation filters are rounded. Finally the sharpening
In the first step, the desired filter is realized in the form of an technique  is applied to the filters with the rounded impulse
interpolated finite impulse response (IFIR) structure consisting responses such that the given specification is met. The paper
of a cascade of a sparse model filter and an interpolator. In the
is organized in the following way. In Section 2 we describe
next step, both sub-filters are approximated by rounding of the
filter coefficients. In the final step, the sharpening technique is
briefly the IFIR structure, rounding and the sharpening
used to improve the overall magnitude characteristics and to techniques. Next section describes the proposed method,
satisfy the given specifications. illustrated with several examples. Concluding remarks are
included in Section IV.
Index TermsFIR filters, multiplier-free, rounding,
sharpening
II. IFIR, ROUNDING AND SHARPENING TECHIQUES
The basic idea of an IFIR structure is to implement a FIR
I. INTRODUCTION filter as a cascade of two FIR filter sections, as shown in
In many applications, it is often advantageous to employ Figure 1. One section is the expanded model filter G(zM) and
finite impulse response (FIR) filters, since they can be another is the interpolator I(z). The filter G(zM), where M is
designed with exact linear phase and exhibit no stability
problems . However FIR filters are computationally more
complex compared to infinite impulse response (IIR) filters
with equivalent magnitude responses. During the past several G(zM) I(z)
years, many design methods have been proposed to reduce the
complexity of the FIR filters. One approach is based on
optimizing the filter coefficient values such that the resulting H(z)
filter meets the given specification with its coefficient values
represented in minimum number of signed powers-of-two Figure 1. IFIR structure.
(MNSPT) or canonic signed digits (CSD) representations of
binary digits . Approximation of an equiripple FIR by a the interpolation factor, is obtained by introducing M 1 zeros
rounding operation and implementation of the derived impulse between each pair of samples of the unit sample response of
response by a simple recursive equation have also been G(z). The function of the interpolator filter I(z) is to eliminate
proposed . In an earlier work  we used a rounding images introduced by G(zM). More details can be found in .
followed by an application of the sharpening technique for the We next use the approach proposed in  for the impulse
multiplier-less FIR filter design. However more complex response rounding given by
sharpening polynomials are needed in cases where the hr (n) = r hI (n) = r round (h(n) / r ) (1)
corresponding prototype equiripple filter is of very high order. where h(n) is an equiripple type FIR filter which satisfies
To overcome this problem we propose here to use the IFIR given specification, hI (n) is the new impulse response
structure in which an high order prototype filter is realized as derived by rounding all coefficients of h(n) to the nearest
a cascade of two less complex filters: the model filter and the integer, and round(.) means the rounding operation. The
interpolator. As a result, it is possible to apply lower order rounded impulse response hI (n) is scaled by r in order that
sharpening polynomials to satisfy the given specifications. In gain in dB of the rounded filter hr (n) has the value
this paper we propose a three-step procedure. In the first step, (0 R p ) dB in the passband, where Rp is the specified
passband ripple. The rounding constant r determines the
precision of the approximation of hr(n) to h(n). Considering
G. Jovanovic Dolecek is with the National Institute of Astrophysics, Optics
and Electronics, INAOE, Puebla, Mexico. (Phone & fax: +52-222-2470517; e- that the integer coefficient multiplications can be
mail: gordana@inaoep.mx). implemented with only shift-and-add operations, the rounded
S. K. Mitra is with Department of Electrical & Computer Eng., University impulse response filter is multiplier-free.
of California Santa Barbara,, CA 93106, USA, (e-mail: mitra@ece.ucsb.edu).

## 0-7803-9197-7/05/\$20.00 2005 IEEE. 559

As an example consider the rounding of the coefficients
of the impulse response h(n) shown in Fig. 2(a). Using the
rounding constants r = 0.01, 0.06, and 0.1, we obtained the
rounded impulse responses hI(n) shown in Figs. 2(b), (c) and
(d), respectively. The corresponding gain responses of the
scaled impulse responses hr (n) are shown in Fig. 3.
We observe:
The process of rounding introduces some zero-valued
coefficients in the rounded impulse response. The
number of nonzero integer coefficients Ns corresponds to
the number of the sums and decreases with the increase
of the constant r as shown in Fig. 2. Hence the number of
non-zero coefficients are 24, 10 and 8, for the responses
in Figs. 2(b), (c), and (d), respectively.
Some nonzero coefficients of the rounded filter have the
same values. Therefore the number of integer
multiplications corresponds to the number NM of a (b) hI (n), r = 0.01.
different positive integer coefficients values. (The values
1 and the corresponding negative values are not counted).
This number also decreases with the increase of the
constant r, as shown in Fig. 2. The values of NM for the
rounded responses in Figs. 2(b), (c), and (d), are 6, 2, and
2, respectively
As can be seen from Fig. 3, the gain responses of the scaled
rounded filters are distorted versions in both the passband
and the stopband of the gain response of the original filter.
Higher value of r means more distortion in the desired gain
response.
To improve the gain response characteristics, we propose
to use the sharpening technique for simultaneous improve-
ments of both the passband and stopband characteristics .
The technique uses the amplitude change function (ACF)
which is a polynomial relationship of the form H 0 = f ( H )
between the amplitudes of the overall and the prototype
filters, H 0 and H , respectively. The improvement in the (c) hI (n), r = 0.06.
gain response near the passband edge H = 1 , or near the
stopband edge H = 0 , depends on the order of tangencies m

## Figure 2. The original and rounded impulse responses.

(a) h(n).

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functions for the equiripple and the proposed filters are shown
in Fig. 5.

## Figure 3. Gain responses of the original and rounded filters.

and n of the ACF at H = 1 or at H = 0 . The expressions for (a) Rounded model filter gI (n).
the mth and nth order tangencies of the ACF at H = 1 and
H = 0 , respectively, can be found in .

## The proposed design procedure consists of the following

steps:
1) In the first step the interpolation factor M is chosen and the
IFIR filter is designed, i.e., equiripple model and interpolation
filters g(n) and i(n) are designed.
2) The value of the rounding constant r is chosen. As a good
starting point choose r = 0.01.
3) The coefficients of the filters g(n) and i(n) are rounded
using Eq. (1) to obtain filter gr(n) and ir(n), respectively.
4) The rounded filter gr(n) is up-sampled by M.
5) Choose the sharpening polynomials for interpolated filter (b) Rounded interpolator filter iI (n).
gr(n) and for ir(n) and verify if the specification is satisfied. Figure 4. Rounded impulse responses.
Start with m = 1, n = 1. If the specification is not satisfied try
Example 2.
to increase the constant r in order to decrease the complexity
We consider the design of a filter with the following
of the rounded filters.
If necessary increase the values of m, and n. The specifications: passband and stopband edge frequencies are
sharpening polynomials for rounded interpolated model and 0.1 and 0.11, respectively, passband ripple 0.1 dB and the
interpolator filter may be different. minimum stopband attenuation is 60 dB. The lengths of the
Example 1. resulting equiripple filter, model filter and interpolator are
We design a filter with the following specifications: the 545, 87, and 82, respectively. For r = 0.003, the number of
normalized passband and stopband edges are 0.2 and 0.25, nonzero coefficients in rounded model and interpolation filters
respectively. The passband ripple is Rp = 0.1 dB while the are 64 and 60, respectively, while the numbers of integer
minimum stopband attenuation A = 60 dB. The length of the multiplications are 14 and 13, respectively. The parameters of
equiripple filter N = 113. The model and the interpolator the sharpening polynomials used are n = m = 1,
filters have orders 41 and 31, respectively. For r = 0.01, the ( H sh = 3 H 2 2 H 3 ), for the model filter, and m = n = 2,
rounded model filter has 21 non-zeros coefficients and 7 ( H sh = 6 H 5 15 H 4 + 10H 3 ), for the interpolation filter.
integer multiplications, (Fig. 4(a)), while the rounded
interpolator filter has 23 nonzero coefficients and 7 integer The corresponding gain responses are shown in Fig.6.
multiplications (Fig. 4(b)). The sharpening polynomials used
has parameters m=1, n=2, for both the model and interpolator IV. CONCLUDING REMARKS
filters. ( H sh = 3H 4 + 4 H 3 , where Hsh and H are the A simple multiplier-free FIR filter design method based on
sharpened and the original filter). The corresponding gain IFIR structure is presented. The model and interpolation
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filters, both designed with Remez algorithm are rounded and
scaled by rounding constants. The sharpening technique is

b. Passband details.

Figure 6. Example 2.

## (a) Gain responses.

used to improve the magnitude characteristics and to satisfy
the specifications. Considering that the integer coefficient
multiplications can be accomplished with only shift-and-add
operations, the sharpened rounded impulse response filters are
multiplier-free. The parameters of the design are the
interpolation factor M, the rounding constant r, and the
sharpening polynomial parameters m and n. The complexity of
the rounded filters (the number of the sums and the number of
integer multiplications) depends on the choice of the rounding
constant. Less complexity (higher values of r) results in more
distortion in the obtained gain response and consequently
needs more complex sharpening polynomials.

REFERENCES
(b) Passband details.
 S. K. Mitra, Digital Signal Processing - A Computer-Based Approach,
Figure 5. Example 1. Third Edition, McGraw-Hill Inc., New York, 2005.
 M. Bhattacharya and T. Saramaki, Some observations leading to
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 A. Bartolo, B. D. Clymer, R. C. Burges, and J. P. Turnbull, An efficient
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 G. J. Dolecek and S.K. Mitra, Computationally efficient FIR filter
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 T. Saramaki, Y. Neuvo and S.K. Mitra, Design of computationally
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vol. 35, No.1, Jan. 1988, pp. 563-570.

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