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ABUTMENT - 1

CC wearing Coat 75 mm C/L of Expansion Road Level


RCC Approach Slab M30 joint 40mm width RL101.414
Base Course 150mm thick W.C 75 mm

3500 mm RCC T-Beam Cum Slab

Dirt Wall
1599.0 mm Depth at Centre
1500.0 mm at edge
1.507m

C/L of Bearing
1.882m

1.807m

RL99.740 BOD
RL99.682 BOB
150 RL99.532 BOP
300 RL99.232 BOBB

HEEL MFL RL97.700


300 mm

320 mm

280 mm TOE

4.192m
600 mm
4.492
6374

4192

STEM G.L RL96.740

0 0

3500 mm 900 mm 1300 mm


RL95.040 Top of Footing
150

600

5700 mm footing
1300

700 RL93.740
Bottom of Footing

1
9.00 kN
Kerb & Hand Rail Top of Return wall

475 RL101.208

1.976m

RL99.232
6.168m

4.192m

RL95.040 Top of Footing

475 525
1000

RL93.740 Bottom of Footing

2
Geometric data:
Carriageway of the bridge = 10.900 m
Raod way of the Bridge = 12.000 m
Span C/C of Expansion joint = 16.600 m
Overall span, Length of Deck = 16.560 m
Effective Span = 16.000 m
Width of Foot path = .750 m

Type of super structure = T - Beam with Deck


Details of Bearing width ( Longitudianl direction ) = 500 mm
Length ( Transverse direction ) = 320 mm
Thickness = 64 mm
Thickness of Steel plate = 4 mm
Number of Steel plate Layers = mm
Number of Bearings per Support = 4 Nos
Height of Pedestal = 150 mm
Thickness of superstructure @ Centre = 1.599 m
Thickness of superstructure @ Edges = 1.500 m
Distance between the girders = 2.650 m
Thickness of Wearing coat at centre = 0.075 m
Thickness of Wearing coat at edges = 0.075 m
Thickness of Approach slab at centre = 0.436 m
Thickness of Approach slab at edges = 0.300 m
Thickness of Base Course Below Approach Slab = 0.150 m
Height of Crash barrier = 1.336 m
Width of Bed Block = 0.900 m
Thickness of Bed Block = 0.300 m
Width of Back wall = 0.000 m
Skew Angle = 60.000
Expansion Gap = 0.040 m
Front Batter in the Abutment = 0.000 m
Rear Batter in the abutment = 0.000 m
Length of abutment at top of Footing = 12.000 m
Raod level in meters = RL101.414
Bottom of deck in Meters = RL99.740

Sill Level / Ground Level in Meters = RL96.740


Top of Footing = RL95.040
Depth of Footing = 1300 mm
Bottom of Footing = RL93.740

Soil parameters
Angle of repose = 35 = 0.611 rad
Angle of wall friction = 22.5 = 0.393 rad
Angle of surcharge = 0 = 0.000 rad
Angle of internal wall slope tan-1(0 / 4192)+90 = 90 = 1.571 rad
Unit weight of soil = 18 KN/m

3
Loading Data:-
No. of Lanes = 3
No. of Vehicles admitted = 3
Class A Wheeled = 2
Class 70R Wheeled = 1
Live Load Reaction from Superstructure = 584.000 kN
Live Load on the span - 70R = 1000.000 kN
Live load on the span - Class -A 2 lane = 1108.000 kN
Permanent Load on Super Structure = 2880.000 kN
Surfcaing Load on Super Structure = 262.000 kN

Material data:-
Grade of concrete = M 30
Condition of exposure = Moderate
Grade of Steel fyk = Fe 500
Design value of concrete compressive strength, fcd = 20 Mpa
Design yield strength of reinforcement, fyd = 435 Mpa
Modulus of elasticity of steel, Es 200000
Partial safety factor for concrete, c = 1.50
Unit weight of concrete = 25 kN/m3
Partial safety factor for steel, s = 1.15
Clear Cover to reinforcement in stem & return Walls = 40
Diameter of main Reinforcement ( Tension ) = 16 mm
Dia. Of the Distribution rebar for Main Reinforcement = 12 mm
Diameter of the Compression reinforcement = 12 mm
Dia of the Rebar to Distributor for compression reinf = 10 mm

Design notes:
The design is based on the provisions of the following IRC codes.
1. IRC : 5 -1998
2. IRC : 6 -2000
3. IRC : 112-2011
Length of abutment at top = 12.000 m
Length of abutment at top of pile cap = 12.000 m
width of Stem at bottom 300+320+280 = 900
Eccentricity for the Vertical load = 900 / 2 - 280
170
i.e., 0.170 m towards toe
Permanent Load From Super Structure
Dead Load From Super Structure = 2880 /2
= 1440 kN
Intensity of Load per Metre = 1440 / 12
= 120.00 kN/m
Moment due to the dead Load = 120 x 0.17
20.40 kN-m

Sufacing Load From Super Structure

4
Dead Load From Super Structure = 262 /2
= 131 kN
Intensity of Load per Metre = 131 / 12
= 10.92 kN/m
Moment due to the dead Load = 10.917 x 0.17
1.86 kN-m

Live Load From Super Structure = 584


Intensity of Load per Metre = 584 / 12
= 48.67 kN/m
Moment due to the Live Load = 48.667 x 0.17
8.27 kN-m

Live Load on Footpath


due Live load on footpath = 16.56x 0.75 x 4.3
= 53.41 kN
Live Load on footpath per m run = 53.406 / 12
4.451 kN/m
Moment due to the footpath live load = 4.4505 x 0.17
.76 kN-m

Vertical reaction induced due to braking force


Ref.Cl.204.3 of IRC : 6-1966
Total load on the span = 1000 KN
20 % of two Lane load + 5% of add lane load = 1000 x 0.2
Which acts at 1.2m above road crest level = 200 KN/m
Vertical reaction due to braking = (200x ( 1.2 + 1.807 +0.075) )/ 16
= 38.525
= 38.525 / 12
3.210 kN
Moment due to the force = 3.21 x 0.17
0.546 kN-m
Longitudinal Forces
Ref. Cl. 213.5.4 of IRC:6- 2000
Longitudinal Forces = Fb / 2 + Vr l tc
where Fb = Applied horizontal Force
Vr = shear rating of elastomeric Baering
ltc = Movement of deck above bearing
Strain due to Shrinkage = 2.00E-04
( Ref. Cl. 220.3 of the above code )
Temperature Variation = 25
coefficient of Expansion = 1.17E-05
( Ref.Cl. 218.4.6 of the above code )
strain due to Temperature variation Et = l x a x t =
= 0.0000117 x 25 = 2.93E-04
Total Strain Es+ Et = 0.0002 + 0.0002925= 4.93E-04

5
Horizontal Deformation on one side ( on abutment ) = 0.0004925 x 16.56 x 1000 /2
= 4.078E+00
Total thickness of Bearing = 64 mm
Effective thickness of bearing = 64 - (4 x 0)
64 mm
Shear Strain = 4.0779 / 64
6.372E-02
considering 10% Variation in the Efficiency of the Bearing force developed
= 1.1x0.9 x 0.06372 X 488 x 308 X 4
= 37926.3887
= 37.93 kN
Under span Loaded condition
Horizontal Due to Temp & Shrinakge Force
Total Longitudinal Force = 37.93
= 37.93 kN
This force acts at bearing Level
Intensity of the Force per Metre = 37.93 / 12
= 3.16 kN
Moment due to to LL at top foundation = 3.16 x 4.7
= 14.852 kN-m

Moment due to to LL at Bottom foundation = 3.16 x 6


= 18.960 kN-m
Horizontal Due to Braking Force
Total Longitudinal Force = 200.00 kN
This force acts at bearing Level
Intensity of the Force per Metre = 200 / 12
= 16.67 kN
Moment due to to LL at top foundation = 16.67 x 4.7
= 78.349 kN-m

Moment due to to LL at Bottom foundation = 16.67 x 6


= 100.020 kN-m
Under span Unloaded condition
Total Longitudinal Force = 37.93 / 12
= 3.16 kN
Moment due to to LL at top foundation = 3.161 x4.7

= 14.857 kN-m
Moment due to to LL at Bottom foundation = 3.161 x 6
= 18.966 kN-m
ACTIVE EARTH PRESSURE
Earth pressure Calculations are done using Coulumb's Formula

Ka = (sin2( - f ) 1
X x cos
2
((sin () X sin ( - d ) (1 + k) 2

Where k = (Sin( f + ) x sin (f - )


(Sin( - ) x sin ( + )

6
Here = f Angle of internal Friction = 35.00 0.6108652
= Angle of wall Friction = 22.50 0.3926991
= Angle of surcharge = 0.00 0
= Angle of internal wall slope = 90 1.5707963
= g unit weight of soil = 18.00kN/cum

sin(35+22.5) x sin ( 35 - 0)
K =
sin(90+22.5) x sin ( 90 - 0)

k = 0.8434x 0.5736
0.9239x 1

= 0.7236

Ka = Sin2 (90 + 35) 1


X x cos 22.5
Sin2 (90xsin (90 - 22.5) (1 +0.7236)2

0.671 1
= X X
1x 0.924 2.970797 0.924

= 0.7262 X 0.336610012 X 0.924


= 0.2259
Earth Pressure = 0.2259 x 18 x 6.374
25.92kN/Sqm
2
Active Earth Pressure = 1/2 x ka x h x g
= 1/2 x 0.2259 x18 x (6.374)^2
= 82.60 kN
This Force acts at 0.42 H From sill Level
Moment Due to this Force, M = Pa x 0.42 x h
= 82.6005 x 0.42 x 6.374
221.128 kN-m
Live Load surcharge
Earth Pressure due to a Fill of 1.2m = 0.2259 x 1.2 x 18
= 4.88kN/Sqm
Horizontal Force = 1/2 x 4.879 x 1.2
2.93 kN
Lever arm from top of footing = (0.42 x 1.2) +6.374
6.880 m
Earth Pressure due to Fill of 1.2m = 0.2259 x 18 x (6.374+1.2 )
= 30.80kN/Sqm
Horizontal Force = 1/2 x 30.797 x (6.374 + 1.2 )
= 116.6 kN
Lever arm from footing = (0.5 x( 1.2+6.374 )
= 3.790 m
Net Horizontal force = 116.628 - 82.6005
34.0 kN
Moment due to This force = (34.0275 x 3.79) - (2.927 x 6.88)
124.284 kN-m

7
Self Weight
Weight/Rm Lever Arm Moment
Sl .No Decription 'kN' 'm' kN-m
1 Below Bed block
0.6x 4.192 x 25 62.88 0.3 18.8640
2 Below Dirt Wall
0.3x 4.192 x 25 31.44 0.75 23.5800
3 Bed Block
0.9x 0.3 x 25 6.75 0.450 3.0375
4 Dirt Wall
0.3 x 1.807 x 25 13.5525 0.750 10.1644
5 Front Batter
1/2x 0x 4.192 x 25 0 0.000 0.0000
TOTAL 114.6225 55.6459

Centre of Gravity of the section = 55.645875 / 114.6225


0.485 m
Therefore Eccentricity = 0.9 /2 - 0.485
-0.035 m
moment due to Self Weight = 114.6225 x -0.035
-4.012 kN-m
Summary of Force and Moments under Span loaded condition
Horizont
Vertical Load
al Load Moment
Decription in
in
Sl .No 'kN' 'kN' in kN-m
Permanent Load From Super
1
Structure 120.000 0.00 20.400
Surfacing Load From Super
2
Structure 10.917 0.00 1.856

3 Self Weight
114.623 0.00 -4.012
Horizontal Reaction due to Temp
4
& Shrinkage 0.00 3.16 14.852
5 Earth Pressure due to back fill 0.00 82.60 221.128
6 i) Variable Load ( Live load ) 48.667 0.00 8.273
ii) Pedestal Live load 4.45 0.00 0.757
Horizontal Reaction due to
7
Braking force 0.00 16.67 78.349

8 Vertical reaction due to braking


3.210 0.00 0.546

9 Live Load Surcharge


0.00 0.00 0.00
TOTAL 301.87 102.43 342.149

Summary of Force and Moments under Span Unloaded condition

8
Vertical Load Horizont
Moments
Decription in al Load
Sl .No 'kN' in
'kN' in kN-m
Permanent Load From Super
1
Structure 120.000 0 20.400
Surfacing Load From Super
2
Structure 10.917 0 1.856
3 Self Weight
114.623 0 -4.012
Horizontal Reaction due to Temp
4
& Shrinkage 0.000 3.161 14.857

5 Earth Pressure
0.000 82.601 221.128

6 Live Load Surcharge


0.000 34.028 124.284

TOTAL 245.540 119.789 378.513


Summary of Force and Moments at the bottom of Stem

Vertical Force Moments HT


Load
B.Comb (A+ LL(L)+LLS(A)+EP(LL)
Under Span Load Condition 426 517 157
Span Unload Condition 338 530 173
B.Comb (A+ LL(A)+LLS(A)+EP(A)
Under Span Load Condition 406 375 109
Span Unload Condition 338 419 131

Vertical Force Moments HT


Load
B.Comb (R + LL(L)+LLS(A)+EP(LL)
Under Span Load Condition 334 503 155
Span Unload Condition 246 516 171
B.Comb (R+ LL(A)+LLS(A)+EP(A)
Under Span Load Condition 314 361 107
Span Unload Condition 246 405 129

DESIGN OF ABUTMENT SECTION AT STEM BOTTOM


Span Unload Condition governs the Design
Design Bending Moment = 530 or 530.000 kN-m

1.1 Material Data :


Grade of Concrete fck = M 30
Grade of Steel fyk = Fe 500
Design value of concrete compressive strength, fcd = 20 Mpa
Design yield strength of reinforcement, fyd = 435 Mpa
Modulus of elasticity of steel, Es = 200000 N/mm2

9
Partial safety factor for concrete, c = 1.50
Partial safety factor for steel, s = 1.15
1.2 Geometric Data;
Consider a one meter of stem (Width), b = 1000 mm
Thickness of stem, D = 900 mm
Clear cover to any reinforcement = 40 mm (Moderate)

Adopting a clear cover of 40 mm and Providing 20 mm dia. As the main rebar


Effective Depth available d = 900-40-10
d= 850 mm
Design of Bending Moment M = 530 kN.m
Design of Shear force VEd = 338 kN
Design of Horizontal H = 173 kN.m
Design of Main reinforcement
Determination of x/d
X/d = 1.2 - ((1.44 - (6.68Mu / fck b d2 ))1/2
= 1.2-(1.44-(6.68*530x10^6 )/ (30x 1000x850^2))1/2
= 0.070
Determination of Lever arm 'z'
z = d - ( 1 - 0.416 x/d )
= 850* (1 - 0.416 x 0.07)))
= 825 mm < 0.95 d = 808 mm
= 825 mm
Tension Reinforcement for Stem
As = M / (0.87 fy z)
= 530x10^6 / ( 0.87 x 500 x 825.248 )
= 1476 mm2
Ftd = 0.5 VEd Cot IRC : 112-2011 Cl. 10.3.3.3 ( 6)
= 0.5 x 338 x Cot 33.5
0.5X338 x 1.511
= 255.331 kN
As = Ftd / 0.87 x fyk
= 255.331X10^3/ (0.87 x 500)
587 mm2
= 1476 + 587
= 2063.0 mm2
Check minimum reinforcement
As min = .0012Ac
= 0.0012*1000*900
= 1080 mm mm2
Check maximum reinforcement
As max = 0.04 Ac
= 0.04*1000*900
= 36000 mm2

Main Steel Required = 2063 mm2


Required 20 mm and Providing 152 mm c/c

10
2
Provide 20 mm and Providing 150 mm c/c 2095.00 mm
2
Provide mm and Providing 160 mm c/c 0.00 mm
2095.00
Safe
Compression Reinforcement for Stem:
Minimum Steel of
2063 mm2
Tensionreinforcement=
Minimum steel = 25% of Astmin
= 0.25x 2063
2
= 515.75 mm
2
= 510 mm
2
Hence Provide Min Steel = 515.75 mm
Required 12 mm and Providing 219 mm c/c
2
Provide 12 mm and Providing 150 mm c/c 754.00 mm
Safe
As per Cl.16.6.1.1.3 of IRC: 112 -2011
Secondary transverse reinforcement should be provided in one way slab. This should be at least 20% of the main
reinforcement
= 2095 x 0.2
2
= 419 mm
2
= 510 mm
Provide 12 mm dia bars @ 150 mm c/c
2
Ast provided = 754 mm Safe

Distribution Reinforcement for Stem:


The Area of Total Horizontal Reinforcement Should Not Be Less Than 25% of The Total Vertical Reinforcement or
.001Ac Which Ever is Greater.
2
As = 2063 mm
= 25% x 2063
2
= 515.75 mm
2
= 510.00 mm
Required 12 mm and Providing 219 mm c/c
2
Provide 12 mm and Providing 200 mm c/c 566.00 mm

Calculate the stress in the concrete :


c = M*2 / ( bf * X * Z) x= 3.892 m
= (516*10^6)*2 / (900x3892x825.248)
= 0.36 N/mm2

Check for Cracking


steel area greater than 0.12 % bd = 0.12%x 1000 x 825.248
2
= 990.2976 mm
Spacing Less than 3d = 3x = 2476 mm ( Required )
150 mm ( Provided)
OK Spacing of bar
Diameter of rod < d/8

11
Daimeter of Rod = 20 mm mm
d/8 = 825.248 /8 = 103.156 mm
OK Diameter of bar
Punching shear resistance of Slabs
VRd,c = [0.18/ c k (80 1 fck ) 1/3 + (0.1cp) > Vmin (0.1cp)
IRC112-Pg.No:103-Eq.No:10.33
v min = 0.031 k 3/2 fck 1/2 IRC112-Pg.No:104
= 0.309
k = 1 + (200/d) 2.0 IRC112-Pg.No:103-Eq.No:10.34
= 1.492
1 = ly * lz 0.02

ly = 2095 / (1000*825.248) = 0.0030


lz = 754 / (1000*825.248) = 0.0010
1 = 0.003*0.001
= 0.001732051 0.173 %
cp = ( cy + cz ) /2
cy = NEd.Y / Acy
= 530x10^3 / (1000 x 825.248)
= 0.642
cp = 0.642 = 0.642
VRd,c = (0.18/1.5) *1.492*((80*0.01*30)^(1/3))+(0.1*0.642 <
Vmin+(0.1x0.642)"
= 0.352 > 0.373

12
Design of Footing - Normal Case
Detail of Foundation
Type of foundation = Open Foundation
Type of Footing = Isolated footing
Footing dimension
in Logitudinal direction = 5.700 m
in transverse direction = 14.60 m
Depth of Footing = 1.30 m
Ground Level at site = RL96.740
Top of Footing = RL95.040
Bottom of Footing = RL93.740
Exposure = (Moderate)
Grade of concrete for Pile cap = M 35
Grade of concrete for Piles = M 35
Modular ratio adopted = 25
Grade of steel adopted = Fe 415
Clear Cover to reinforcement = 75 mm
Length of approach slab = 3.50 m
Self Weight
Summary of Weigth / Rm and Moment 1m
Weight/Rm Lever Arm from Moment
Sl .No Decription 'kN' CG of Toe 'm' kN-m
1 Below Bed block - Stem
0.6x 1 x 4.192 x 25 62.88 1.600 100.6080 c.w
2 Below Dirt Wall
0.3x 1 x 4.192 x 25 31.44 2.05 64.4520 c.w
3 Bed Block
0.9x1 x 0.3 x 25 6.75 1.750 11.8125 c.w
4 Dirt Wall
0.3x 1.807 x 1 x 25 13.5525 2.050 27.7826 c.w
5 Weight of Earth on heel Side

3.5x5.849x 18 368.487 3.950 1455.524 a.c.w


6 Base Slab - Rectangular ( Toe &
Heel )
5.7 x 0.7 x 25 99.75 2.850 284.2875 a.c.w
7 Base Slab - Rectangular ( Toe &
Heel )
4.55 x 0.6x 25 68.25 3.425 233.7563 a.c.w
8 Base Slab - Triangular ( Toe )
1/2 X 1.15 x 0.6 x 25 8.63 0.767 6.6125 a.c.w
8 Approach Slab

3.5 x 0.4363x 25 38.18 3.950 150.8110 a.c.w


9 Base Course
3.5 x 0.15 x 25 13.125 3.950 51.8438 a.c.w
10 Wearing Coat
3.5 x 10.9x 2 76.30 3.950 301.3850 a.c.w
11 Crash Barrier
0.261cu.m x 3.5x 25 x 2 45.675 3.950 180.4163 a.c.w

13
TOTAL 834 2870.000
Direct Load = 834
Moment = 2870 3.441 m
Eccentricity for the direct load from superstructure
= 5.7/2-(3.441)
-0.59 m
SUMMARY OF FORCES AND MOMENTS - LL on Span - At foundation
Restore OT
SL DESCRIPTION Vertl KN Horzl KN L A toe Moment Moment
1 Load of abutment 834.0 0.00 3.441 2869.79
Active earth
2
pressure 82.6 2.677 221.13
Permanent Load
3 120.0
fromSuperstructure 1.58 189.60
Surface Load
4 10.9
fromSuperstructure 1.58 17.25
Live Load from
5 48.7
Superstructure 1.58 76.89
Vert Reaction due to
6 3.2
braking 1.58 5.07
Horiz force Temp &
7
shrinkage 3.16 6 18.96
Horiz force braking
8
etc 16.67 6 100.02
9 Centrifugal force
Total 1017.0 103.00 3159.00 341.00

SUMMARY OF FORCES AND MOMENTS - LL on Approach - At foundation


Restore OT
SL DESCRIPTION Vertl KN Horzl KN L A toe Moment Moment
1 Load of abutment 834 3.44 2869.79
Active earth
2
pressure 82.60 2.68 221.12
Permanent Load
3
fromSuperstructure 120.00 1.58 189.60
Surface Load
4 fromSuperstructure
10.92 1.58 17.25

5 Live Load Surcharge


116.63 3.84 447.50
Vert Reaction due to
6 braking
Horiz force Temp &
7 shrinkage
3.16 6 18.96
9 Centrifugal force
Total 965 203.00 3077.00 688.00
As the foundation is resting on soft rock friction coefficient is 0.5

14
Serviceability Condition
Summary of Factored Loads And Moments
Equilibrium Condition for Basic Combination
SL.NO DESCRIPTION Horzl KN Overturning
Vertl KN Restoring
Factored or Silding or
Factored Load Moment
Load Uplift Effect

1 LL on Span Loaded Condition 1017.0 3159 103 341.00


2 LL on Span Un Loaded
965 3077.00 203 688
Condition

Span loaded condition


Check for sliding
Horizontal force = 103 KN
Resistance against sliding = 1017 x 0.5 = 508.5 KN
Factor of safety = 508.5 / 103
= 4.937 > 1.5 Ok
Check for overturning
Overturning moment = 341.00
Resisting moment = 3159
Factor of safety = 9.264 > 2 Ok
Approach loaded condition
Check for sliding
Horizontal force = 203
Resistance against sliding = 965 x 0.5 = 482.5
Factor of safety = 482.5 / 203
= 2.377 > 1.5 Ok
Check for overturning
Overturning moment = 688
Resisting moment = 3077
Factor of safety = 4.472 > 2 Ok
Pressure at founding level
Span loaded condition
Vertical laod = 1017.0 kN
Net moment at founding level = 3159 - 341
= 2818 kNm
Dist of resultant from toe = 2818 / 1017
= 2.771 m
Eccentricity = 2.85 - 2.771
= 0.080 m
towards toe
Stress at toe or heel SV 6e
= 1
B B

Stress at toe 1017 6 0.08


= 1
5.7 5.7
= 193.446 kN/sqm

15
Stress at heel = 163.40 m kN/sqm

Approach loaded condition


Vertical laod = 965 kN
Net moment at founding level = 3077 - 688
= 2389.00 kNm
Dist of resultant from toe = 2389 / 965
= 2.48 m
Eccentricity = 2.85 - 2.48
= 0.37 m
towards toe
SV 6e
= 1
Stress at toe or heel B B

Stress at toe 965 6 0.37


= 1
5.7 5.7

= 235.235 kN/sqm

Stress at heel = 103.361 kN/sqm

At toe At heel
Span loaded condition 193.446 163.40 m

Approach loaded condition 235.235 103.361

SPAN LOADED CONDITION 5.7


heel 3.50 0.9 1.3 toe

163.396 181.85 186.59


193.446

Pressure at toe of stem = 186.59 kN/sqm


Pressure at heel of stem = 181.85 kN/sqm

16
Equilibrium condition
SUMMARY OF FORCES AND MOMENTS - LL on Span - At foundation
Restoring
or Overturning Vertl Horzl Restore OT
SL DESCRIPTION L A toe
Resisting Effect KN KN Moment Moment
Effect

0.95 1.05 792.3 0 3.441 2726 0


1 Load of abutment
Active earth
0 1.5 0.0 123.9008 2.677 0 331.69
2 pressure
Permanent Load
fromSuperstructur 0.95 1.05 114.0 0 1.580 180 0
3e
Surface Load
fromSuperstructur 1.00 1.35 10.9 0 1.580 17 0
4e
Live Load from
0 1.5 0.0 0 1.580 0 0
5 Superstructure
Vert Reaction due
0 1.5 0.0 0 1.580 0 0
6 to braking

Horiz force Temp 0 0.9 0.0 2.844 6 0 17.06


7 & shrinkage
Horiz force
0 1.5 0.0 25.005 6 0 150.03
8 braking etc
9 Centrifugal force 0 1.5 0.0 0 0 0 0
918.0 152 2924 499

SUMMARY OF FORCES AND MOMENTS - LL on Approach - At foundation


Restoring
or Overturning Vertl Horzl Restore OT
SL DESCRIPTION L A toe
Resisting Effect KN KN Moment Moment
Effect

0.95 1.05 792.3 0 3.44 2726 0


SL Load of abutment
Active earth
0 1.5 0.0 123.9008 2.68 0 331.68
1 pressure
Permanent Load
fromSuperstructur 0.95 1.05 114.0 0 1.58 180 0
2 e
Surface Load
fromSuperstructur 1.00 1.35 10.9 0 1.58 17 0
3 e
Live Load from
0 1.5 0.0 174.942 3.84 0 671.2525
4 Superstructure

17
Vert Reaction due
0 1.5 0.0 0 0.00 0 0
5 to braking

Horiz force Temp 0 0.9 0.0 2.844 6 0 17.06


6 & shrinkage
7 Centrifugal force 0 1.5 0.0 0 0.00 0 0
918.0 302 2924 1020
Summary of Factored Loads And Moments

Equilibrium Condition for Basic Combination


SL.NO Description
Horzl KN Overturning
Vertl KN Restoring
Factored or Silding or
Factored Load Moment
Load Uplift Effect
1 LL on Span Loaded Condition 918.0 2924 152 499
2 LL on Span Un Loaded Condition 918.0 2924 302 1020

Span loaded condition


Check for sliding
Horizontal force = 152 KN
Resistance against sliding = 918 x 0.5 = 459 KN
Factor of safety = 459 / 152
= 3.020 > 1.5 Ok
Check for overturning
Horizontal force = 499
Resisting moment = 2924
Factor of safety = 5.860 > 2 Ok
Approach loaded condition
Check for sliding
Horizontal force = 302
Resistance against sliding = 918 x 0.5 = 459
Factor of safety = 459 / 302
1.520 > 1.5 Ok
Check for overturning
Overturning moment = 1020
Resisting moment = 2924
Factor of safety = 2.867 > 2 Ok
Pressure at founding level
Span loaded condition
Vertical laod = 918 kN
Net moment at founding level = 2924 - 499
= 2425 kNm
Dist of resultant from toe = 2425 / 918
= 2.642 m
Eccentricity = 2.85 - 2.642
= 0.21 m
towards toe
Stress at toe or heel SV 6e
= 1
B B

18
Stress at toe 918 6 0.21
= 1
5.7 5.7
= 196.654 kN/sqm
Stress at heel = 125.45 m kN/sqm
Approach loaded condition
Vertical laod = 918 kN
Net moment at founding level = 2924 - 1020
= 1904.00 kNm
Dist of resultant from toe = 1904 / 918
= 2.07 m
Eccentricity = 2.85 - 2.07
= 0.78 m
towards toe
SV 6e
= 1
Stress at toe or heel B B

Stress at toe 918 6 0.78


= 1
5.7 5.7

= 293.285 kN/sqm

Stress at heel = 28.82 kN/sqm

At toe At heel
Span loaded condition 196.654 125.45 m

Approach loaded condition 293.285 28.82

SPAN LOADED CONDITION 5.7


heel 3.50 0.9 1.3 toe

125.452 169.17 180.41


196.654

Pressure at toe of stem = 180.41 kN/sqm


Pressure at heel of stem = 169.17 kN/sqm

Partial Safety factor for verification of foundation Design (Combination -1 )


SUMMARY OF FORCES AND MOMENTS - LL on Span - At foundation
Restoring
or Overturning Vertl Horzl Restore OT
SL DESCRIPTION L A toe
Resisting Effect KN KN Moment Moment
Effect

1 Load of abutment 1.35 1.35 1125.9 0 3.441 3874 0


Active earth
2 1.50 1.50 0.0 123.9008 2.677 0 331.69
pressure

19
Permanent Load
3 fromSuperstructur 1.35 1.35 162.0 0 1.58 256 0
e
Surface Load
4 fromSuperstructur 1.75 1.75 19.1 0 1.58 30 0
e
Live Load from
5 1.50 1.50 73.0 0 1.58 115 0
Superstructure
Vert Reaction due
6 1.50 1.50 4.8 0 1.58 8 0
to braking
Horiz force Temp
7 1.35 1.35 0.0 4.266 6 0 25.60
& shrinkage
Horiz force
8 1.50 1.50 0.0 25.005 6 0 150.03
braking etc
9 Centrifugal force 1.50 1.50 0.0 0 0 0 0
1385.0 154 4284 508

SUMMARY OF FORCES AND MOMENTS - LL on Approach - At foundation


Restoring
or Overturning Vertl Horzl Restore OT
SL DESCRIPTION L A toe
Resisting Effect KN KN Moment Moment
Effect

1 Load of abutment 1.35 1.35 1125.9 0 3.44 3874 0


Active earth
2 1.50 1.50 0.0 123.9008 2.68 0 331.68
pressure
Permanent Load
3 fromSuperstructur 1.35 1.35 162.0 0 1.58 256 0
e
Surface Load
4 fromSuperstructur 1.75 1.75 19.1 0 1.58 30 0
e
Live Load from
5 1.50 1.50 0.0 174.942 3.84 0 671.2525
Superstructure
Vert Reaction due
6 1.50 1.50 0.0 0 0.00 0 0
to braking
Horiz force Temp
7 1.35 1.35 0.0 4.266 6 0 25.60
& shrinkage
8 Centrifugal force 1.50 1.50 0.0 0 0.00 0 0
1308.0 304 4161 1029
Summary of Factored Loads And Moments
Foundation Combination
Horzl KN Overturning
SL.NO Description Vertl KN Restoring
Factored or Silding or
Factored Load Moment
Load Uplift Effect
1 LL on Span Loaded Condition 1385.0 4284 154 508
2 LL on Span Un Loaded Condition 1308.0 4161 304 1029

20
Span loaded condition
Check for sliding
Horizontal force = 154 KN
Resistance against sliding = 1385 x 0.5 = 692.5 KN
Factor of safety = 692.5 / 154
= 4.497 > 1.5 Ok
Check for overturning
Horizontal force = 508
Resisting moment = 4284
Factor of safety = 8.433 > 2 Ok
Approach loaded condition
Check for sliding
Horizontal force = 304
Resistance against sliding = 1308 x 0.5 = 654
Factor of safety = 654 / 304
2.151 > 1.5 Ok
Check for overturning
Overturning moment = 1029
Resisting moment = 4161
Factor of safety = 4.044 > 2 Ok
Pressure at founding level
Span loaded condition
Vertical laod = 1385 kN
Net moment at founding level = 4284 - 508
= 3776 kNm
Dist of resultant from toe = 3776 / 1385
= 2.726 m
Eccentricity = 2.85 - 2.726
= 0.12 m
towards toe
Stress at toe or heel SV 6e
= 1
B B

Stress at toe 1385 6 0.12


= 1
5.7 5.7
= 273.675 kN/sqm
Stress at heel = 212.29 m kN/sqm
Approach loaded condition
Vertical laod = 1308 kN
Net moment at founding level = 4161 - 1029
= 3132.00 kNm
Dist of resultant from toe = 3132 / 1308
= 2.39 m
Eccentricity = 2.85 - 2.39
= 0.46 m
towards toe
SV 6e
= 1
Stress at toe or heel B B

21
Stress at toe 1308 6 0.46
= 1
5.7 5.7

= 340.587 kN/sqm

Stress at heel = 118.36 kN/sqm

At toe At heel
Span loaded condition 273.675 212.29 m

Approach loaded condition 340.587 118.36

SPAN LOADED CONDITION 5.7


heel 3.50 0.9 1.3 toe

212.29 249.98 259.67


273.675

Pressure at toe of stem = 259.67 kN/sqm


Pressure at heel of stem = 249.98 kN/sqm

TOE ( Ignoring Soil Over Toe slab)


BM at toe due to soil pressure = 259.67x1.30^2/2+14.01/2x1.30^2/3
= 227.32 kNm
BM due to self weight
1 = 1.15 x 0.7 x 25 x 1.15 / 2
= 11.57 kNm
2 = 1.15 x 0.6 x 25 / 2 x ( 1.15 x 2 / 3 )
= 6.61 kNm
3 = 0.15 x 0.6x25 x ( 0.15 / 2 )
= 0.16875 kNm
Total anticlock moment = 227.32
Total clockwise moment = 11.571875 + 6.6125 + 0.16875
= 18.36 kNm
Net BM at toe = 227.32 - 18.36
= 208.96 kNm Anti clockwise

HEEL
BM at heel = 212.29 x 3.50^2 / 2 + 37.69 x 3.50^2 / 3
= 1454 kNm
BM due to self weight
1 = 3.5 x 1.3 x 25 x 3.5 / 2
= 199.06 kNm
2 = 3.5 x 1.3 x 25/ 2 x ( 3.5 x 2 / 3 )
= 132.708
BM due to self weight = 199.0625 + 132.708
= 331.77
BM due to overburden

22
1 = 3.5 x 6.374 x 20 x3.5/2
= 780.815
BM due to overburden = 780.815
= 783.265 kNm
Total clock moment = 1454
Totalanti clockwise moment = 331.7705 + 783.265
= 1115.04

Net BM on heel = 338.96 kNm

APPROACH LOADED CONDITION 5.70


heel 3.50 0.9 1.3 toe

118.36 254.82 289.90


340.587

Pressure at toe of stem = 289.90 kN/sqm


Pressure at heel of stem = 254.82 kN/sqm

TOE ( Ignoring Soil Over Toe slab)


BM at toe due to soil pressure = 289.90x1.30^2/2+50.69/2x1.30^2/3
= 273.52 kNm
BM due to self weight
1 = 1.15 x 0.7 x 25 x 1.15 / 2
= 11.57 kNm
2 = 1.15 x 0.6 x 25 / 2 x ( 1.15 x 2 / 3 )
= 6.61 kNm
3 = 0.15 x 0.6x25 x ( 0.15 / 2 )
= 0.16875 kNm
Total anticlock moment = 273.52
Total clockwise moment = 11.571875 + 6.6125 + 0.16875
= 18.36 kNm
Net BM at toe = 273.52 - 18.36
= 255.16 kNm Anti clockwise

HEEL
BM at heel = 118.36 x 3.50^2 / 2 + 136.46 x 3.50^2 / 3
= 1282 kNm
BM due to self weight
1 = 3.5 x 1.3 x 25 x 3.5 / 2
= 199.06 kNm
2 = 3.5 x 1.3 x 25/ 2 x ( 3.5 x 2 / 3 )
= 132.708
BM due to self weight = 199.0625 + 132.708
= 331.77
BM due to overburden
1 = 3.5 x 6.374 x 20 x3.5/2
= 780.815

23
BM due to overburden = 780.815
= 780.815 kNm
Total clock moment = 1282
Totalanti clockwise moment = 331.7705 + 780.815
= 1112.59

Net BM on heel = 169.41 kNm

Bending moments
Toe Heel clockwise +
Span Loaded 208.96 338.96 kNm
Approach Loaded 255.16 169.41 kNm

Bending moment at toe 255.16 kNm

Bending moment at heel 338.96 kNm

Design of Heel Slab


Thickness of Footing Slab based on shear
qu = 212 kN/m2
= 0.213 N/m2
One - Way Shear
The Critical Section is at distance 'd' from the Stem face

Vu1 = 0.213 x 5700 x( 1300- d )


= 1214.1x( 1300- d )
= 1578330 - 1214.1 d N
Percentage of Steel = 0.150
Table - 19 Design Shear strength of Concrete - IS 456 :2000
Grade of Concrete = M30
c = 0.290 0.15 0.290
0.25 0.370
One - way Shear Resistence Vc1 = 0.29 x 5700 x d
= 1653 d N
Vu1 < Vc1 = 1578330 - 1214.1d < 1653d
1578330
d = = 550 mm
2867.1
Two - Way Shear
The Critical Section is at distance 'd/2' from the periphery of the Stem
Vu2 = 0.213 x (5700^2 - (900+ d )^2
Assuming d = 550 mm
Vu2 = 6473 x 10^3 N
Two - way Shear Resistence Vc2 = ks c x ( 4 x ( 0 + d ) d)
Where ks = 1
c = 0.25x Sqrt (30)
= 1.369 Mpa ( refer Cl.31.6.3.1 of the code )
Vc2 = 1 x 1.369x 4d x (900+d)

24
2
= 4928.4 d + 5.476 d
Vu2 < Vc2 = 6473000 < 4928.4+5.476
= -4928.4+sqrt(4928.4^2-4x5.476x-6473000)/2x5.476
d = 636.68 mm < 1300 mm Safe
Evidently, in this Case, Two - way Shear is governs the thickness
Hence Provided Overall Depth = 1300 mm
Effective Depth = 1300-75-8 = 1217
Design of Flexural Reinforcement
Factored moment
Mu = 339.00 kNm
= 339 x 10^6
Mu/ bd2 = 0.229 N/mm2
M30
= 1- sqrt(1 - 4.598 x 0.229/30)
2x 500
Pt = 0.053
= 0.053x1000x1217/100 = 646 mm2
Check minimum reinforcement
As min = 0.26 fctm b d / fyk
fctm = 0.259 (fck)^2/3
= 0.259*30)^2/3 = 2.501
As min = (0.26*2.501*1000*1217)/(500)
= 1583 mm2
Pt Min = 100X1583/(1217x1000)
= 0.130
= 1583 mm2
Required 16 mm and Providing 127 mm c/c

Provide 16 mm and Providing 180 mm c/c 1118.00 mm2 (g)


2
Provide 16 mm and Providing 180 mm c/c 1118.00 mm (h)
2236.00 OK
Compression side Reinforcement @ toe Slab:
Minimum Steel of
= 2236 mm2
Tensionreinforcement
Minimum steel = 25% of Ast
2
= 0.25x 2236 = 559 mm
2
0.06% = 0.06% x 1000X1217 = 730.2 mm
Required 16 mm and Providing 275 mm c/c
2
Provide 16 mm and Providing 180 mm c/c 1118.00 mm (e)
OK
Distribution Reinforcement @ toe Slab: As per Cl.16.6.1.1.3 of IRC: 112 -2011
Secondary transverse reinforcement should be provided in one way slab. This should be at least 20% of the main
reinforcement
= 2236 x 0.2
2
= 447 mm
Required 12 mm and Providing 253 mm c/c
2
Provide 12 mm and Providing 150 mm c/c 754.00 mm (e)
OK

25
Check for Cracking
steel area greater than 0.12 % bd = 0.12%x 1000 x 1300
2
= 1560 mm
Spacing Less than 3d = 3x = 3651 mm ( Required )
180 mm ( Provided)
OK Spacing of bar
Diameter of rod < d/8
Daimeter of Rod = 16 mm
d/8 = /8 = 152.125 mm
OK Diameter of bar
Punching shear resistance of Slabs
VRd,c = [0.18/ c k (80 1 fck ) 1/3 + (0.1cp) > Vmin (0.1cp)
IRC112-Pg.No:103-Eq.No:10.33
v min = 0.031 k 3/2 fck 1/2 IRC112-Pg.No:104
= 0.283
k = 1 + (200/d) 2.0 IRC112-Pg.No:103-Eq.No:10.34
= 1.405
1 = ly * lz 0.02

ly = 2236 / (1000*1217) = 0.0020


lz = 1118 / (1000*1217) = 0.0010
1 = 0.002*0.001
= 0.0014 0.14 %
cp = ( cy + cz ) /2
cy = NEd.Y / Acy
= 1385x10^3 / (1000 x 1217)
= 1.138
cp = 1.138 = 1.138
VRd,c = (0.18/1.5) *1.405*((80*0.01*30)^(1/3))+(0.1*1.138
< Vmin+(0.1x1.138)"
= 0.367 < 0.397
Hence the section do not require shear reinforcement

Design of Toe Slab


Thickness of Footing Slab based on shear
qu = 341 kN/m2
= 0.341 N/m2
One - Way Shear
The Critical Section is at distance 'd' from the Stem face

Vu1 = 0.341 x 5700 x( 1300- d )


= 1943.7x( 1300- d )
= 2526810 - 1943.7 d N
Percentage of Steel = 0.150
Table - 19 Design Shear strength of Concrete - IS 456 :2000
Grade of Concrete = M30
c = 0.290 0.15 0.290

26
0.25 0.370
One - way Shear Resistence Vc1 = 0.29 x 5700 x d
= 1653 d N
Vu1 < Vc1 = 2526810 - 1943.7d < 1653d
2526810
d = = 703 mm
3596.7
Two - Way Shear
The Critical Section is at distance 'd/2' from the periphery of the Stem
Vu2 = 0.341 x (5700^2 - (900+ d )^2
Assuming d = 703 mm
Vu2 = 10203 x 10^3 N
Two - way Shear Resistence Vc2 = ks c x ( 4 x ( 0 + d ) d)
Where ks = 1
c = 0.25x Sqrt (30)
= 1.369 Mpa ( refer Cl.31.6.3.1 of the code )
Vc2 = 1 x 1.369x 4d x (5700+d)
2
= 31213.2 d + 5.476 d
Vu2 < Vc2 = 10203000 < 31213.2+5.476
= -31213.2+sqrt(31213.2^2-4x5.476x-10203000)/2x5.476
d = 310.02 mm < 1300 mm Safe
Evidently, in this Case, One-way Shear is governs the thickness
Hence Provided Overall Depth = 1300 mm
Effective Depth = 1300-75-8 = 1217
Design of Flexural Reinforcement
Factored moment
Mu = 256.00 kNm
= 256 x 10^6
Mu/ bd2 = 0.173 N/mm2
M30
= 1- sqrt(1 - 4.598 x 0.173/30)
2x 415
Pt = 0.048
= 0.048x1000x1217/100 = 585 mm2
Check minimum reinforcement
As min = 0.26 fctm b d / fyk
fctm = 0.259 (fck)^2/3
= 0.259*30)^2/3 = 2.501
As min = (0.26*2.501*1000*1217)/(500)
= 1583 mm2
Pt Min = 100X1583/(1217x1000)
= 0.130
= 1583 mm2
Required 16 mm and Providing 127 mm c/c

Provide 16 mm and Providing 180 mm c/c 1118.00 mm2 (g)


2
Provide 16 mm and Providing 180 mm c/c 1118.00 mm (h)
2236.00 OK
Compression side Reinforcement @ toe Slab:

27
Minimum Steel of = 2236 mm2
Tensionreinforcement
Minimum steel = 25% of Ast
2
= 0.25x 2236 = 559 mm
2
0.06% = 0.06% x 1000X1217 = 730.2 mm
Required 16 mm and Providing 275 mm c/c
2
Provide 16 mm and Providing 180 mm c/c 1118.00 mm (e)
OK
Distribution
Secondary Reinforcement
transverse @ toeshould
reinforcement Slab: be provided in As
oneper
wayCl.16.6.1.1.3 of IRC:be
slab. This should 112
at-2011
least 20% of the main
reinforcement
= 2236 x 0.2
2
= 447 mm

Required 12 mm and Providing 253 mm c/c


2
Provide 12 mm and Providing 150 mm c/c 754.00 mm (e)
OK
Check for Cracking
steel area greater than 0.12 % bd = 0.12%x 1000 x 1300
2
= 1560 mm
Spacing Less than 3d = 3x = 3651 mm ( Required )
180 mm ( Provided)
OK Spacing of bar
Diameter of rod < d/8
Daimeter of Rod = 16 mm
d/8 = /8 = 152.125 mm
OK Diameter of bar
Punching shear resistance of Slabs
VRd,c = [0.18/ c k (80 1 fck ) 1/3 + (0.1cp) > Vmin (0.1cp)
IRC112-Pg.No:103-Eq.No:10.33
v min = 0.031 k 3/2 fck 1/2 IRC112-Pg.No:104
= 0.283
k = 1 + (200/d) 2.0 IRC112-Pg.No:103-Eq.No:10.34
= 1.405
1 = ly * lz 0.02

ly = 2236 / (1000*1217) = 0.0020


lz = 1118 / (1000*1217) = 0.0010
1 = 0.002*0.001
= 0.0014 0.14 %
cp = ( cy + cz ) /2
cy = NEd.Y / Acy
= x10^3 / (1000 x 1217)
= 0
cp = 0 = 0.000
VRd,c = (0.18/1.5) *1.405*((80*0.01*30)^(1/3))+(0.1*0
< Vmin+(0.1x0)"
= 0.253 < 0.283
Hence the section do not require shear reinforcement

28
Design of Wing normal

DATA FOR DESIGN OF RETURN WALL

9.00 kN/m
475 Top of return Wall
RL 101.208

475

1976

1976
475 RL 99.232

2.65

4192
Rear Batter

1000 150
RL 95.040
60 525 475
0
1300

RL 93.740

CROSS SECTION OF THE RETURN WALL


Design of Wing normal

DATA:-
Geometric data :
Top of Return wall = RL 101.208
Bottom of stem / Top of foundation = RL 95.040
Width of stem at top = 0.475 m
Width of stem at sill = 0.475m
Width of stem at base = 1.000m
Width of rear batter = 0.525m
Width of front batter = 0.000m
Width of Haunch at top = 0.000m
Depth of Haunch rectangular = 0.000m
Depth of Haunch triangular = 0.000m
Height of stem above GL = 1.976m
Height of stem triangular portion = 4.192m
Height of return wall = 6.168m
Soil Parameters:
Angle of internal friction f = 35.00
Angle of wall fiction d = 22.50
Angle of surcharge b30 = 0.00
Angle of Internal wall slope a tan-1 ( 525 / 4192 ) + 90 = 97.14
Angle of Internal wall slope
Unit weight of soil g = 20.0kN/cum

Material data:
Exposure = Moderate
Grade of Concrete = M-35
Grade of Steel fyk = Fe 500
Design value of concrete compressive strength, fcd = 23 Mpa
Design yield strength of reinforcement, fyd = 435 Mpa
Modulus of elasticity of steel, Es = 200000 N/mm2
Partial safety factor for concrete, c = 1.50
Partial safety factor for steel, s = 1.15
Unit weight of concrete = 25kN/cu.m
Clear Cover to reinforcement for stem = 75mm
CALCULTION OF FORCES AND MOMENTS IN RETURN WALL
The intensity of earth pressure is calculated using Coulomb's formula
and coefficients of Active earth pressure are calculated as follows
ACTIVE EARTH PRESSURE
COULUMB'S FORMULA
Earth pressure calculations are done using
Design of Wing normal

Coefficient of active earth pressure , ka is given by


sin2(a + f) 1
ka = x xcosd
sin2(a) x sin (a + d) [1+k]2

Where sin(f+d) x sin(f-b)


k = sin(a+d) x sin(a+b)
Here f Angle of internal friction = 35.00
d Angle of wall fiction = 22.50
b Angle of surcharge = 0.00
a Angle of Internal wall slope = 97.14
g Unit weight of soil = 20 kN/cum
Sin(35 + 22.5) x Sin(35 - 0)
k = Sin(97.14 + 22.5) x Sin(97.14 - 0)
0.8434 x 0.5736
k = 0.8692 x 0.9922
= 0.7489
sin2 (97.14-35} 1
ka = x xcos22.5
sin2 97.14 x sin (97.14+22.50) ( 1+0.7489)2

0.782 1
x x x 0.9239
0.9846 x 0.8692 3.0588
= 0.913 x 0.3269 x 0.9239 = 0.2759

Active earth pressure 1.98m = 1/2 x ka x g x h2


at uniform section = 1/2 x 0.2759x20.00x1.976x1.976
= 10.77 kN/sqm
Moment due to this force @
1.97575000000001 = 10.769 x 0.42 x 1.976
= 8.936 kN-m
Active earth pressure6.17m
at = 1/2 x ka x g x h2
top of footing = 1/2 x 0.276x20x6.168x6.168
= 104.94 kN/sqm
Moment due to this force = 104.944 x 0.42 x 6.168
= 271.853 kN-m
LIVE LOAD SURCHARGE
Intensity pressure = ka x g x h
= 0.2759x20x1.20 = 6.621kN/sqm
@ 1.98 m from top
Horizontal force = 6.621 x 1.976 = 13.0812
Moment due to this force = 13.081x1.98/2 = 12.923kN-m
Design of Wing normal

@ 6.17 m from top [bottom of stem]


Horizontal force = 6.621 x 6.168 = 40.8359
Moment due to this force = 40.836 x 6.17/2 = 125.933kN-m
DESIGN OF RETURN WALL SECTION AT GROUND LEVEL

DESIGN BENDING MOMENTS


Moments due to Active earth pressure = 8.93612 kN-m
Moments due to Live load surcharge = 12.923 kN-m
Net Bending moment = 21.8587 kN-m
Moment due to self weight:-
Sl. Moment
Details Forces 'kN' Lever arm 'm'
No. 'kN-m'
1 Crash barrier As per details 9.000 0.475-0.475 0.000 0.0000
2 Stem vertical 1.976x0.48 x25.00 37.663 0.48/2 0.238 8.945
3 Stem trianlge 0.000x0.000/2 x25.00 0.000 0.000x1/3+0.48 0.475 0.000
4 Soil over heel Triangle 0.000x0.000/2 x20.00 0.000 0.000x2/3+0.48 0.475 0.000
over heel Rectangle 1.976x0.000x20.00 0.000 1.98 /2+ 4.19 5.180 0.000
Total 46.663 8.945
Centre of gravity of the section = 8.945/46.663
= 0.192 m
Therefore eccentricity = 0.475 / 2 - 0.19
= 0.046 m
Moment due to self weight = 46.66x0.05
= 2.14 kNm/m
Design bending moments = 21.86+(2.14)
24 kN-m
Unfactored Summary of Force and Moments @ 1.97575000000001
Horizont
Vertical Load in Moment
Sl .No Decription al Load
'kN' in
'kN' in kN-m
1 Self Weight 46.663 0.00 2.138
2 Active Earth Pressure 10.769 0.00 8.936
3 Live Load Surcharge 6.621 13.08 12.923

Factored Summary of Force and Moments @ 1.97575000000001 L.L.S (AL)+A.E.P ( LL)


Vertical Horizont Moment
Sl .No Decription Factored Load
'kN'in al'kN'Load in kN-m
1 Self Weight 1.35 62.995 0.00 2.886
2 Active Earth Pressure 1.50 16.153 0.00 13.404
3 Live Load Surcharge 1.20 7.945 15.697 15.507
Total 87.093 15.697 31.797

Factored Summary of Force and Moments @ 1.97575000000001 L.L.S (LL)+A.E.P ( AL)


Design of Wing normal

Vertical Horizont Moment


Sl .No Decription Factored
Load
'kN'in al'kN'
Load in kN-m
1 Self Weight 1.35 62.995 0.00 2.886
2 Active Earth Pressure 1.00 10.769 0.00 8.936
3 Live Load Surcharge 1.20 7.945 15.70 15.507
Total 81.709 15.697 27.329

Adopting a clear cover of 475 mm and Providing 12 mm dia. As the main rebar
Effective Depth available d = 475-75-6
d= 394 mm
Design of Bending Moment M = 32 kN.m
Design of Shear force VEd = 88 kN
Design of Horizontal H = 16 kN.m
Design of Main reinforcement
Determination of x/d
X/d = 1.2 - ((1.44 - (6.68M u / fck b d2 ))1/2
= 1.2-(1.44-(6.68*32x10^6 )/ (35x 1000x394^2))1/2
= 0.017
To determine the Depth
d = Mu/0.138fck b
= 32x10^6/(0.138x35x1000)
= 81.4
required d 81.4 < 475 mm Safe

Determination of Lever arm 'z'


z = d - ( 1 - 0.416 x/d )
= 394* (1 - 0.416 x 0.017)))
= 391 mm < 0.95 d = 374 mm
= 391 mm
Tension Reinforcement Required from
As = M / (0.87 fy z)
= 32x10^6 / ( 0.87 x 500 x 391.214 )
= 188 mm2
Ftd = 0.5 VEd Cot IRC : 112-2011 Cl. 10.3.3.3 ( 6)
= 0.5 x 88 x Cot 33.5
0.5X88 x 1.511
= 66.477 kN
As = Ftd / 0.87 x fyk
= 66.477X10^3/ (0.87 x 500)
153 mm2
= 188 + 153
Design of Wing normal

= 341.0 mm2
Check minimum reinforcement
As min = 0.26 fctm b d / fyk
fctm = 0.259 (fck)^2/3
= 0.259*35)^2/3 = 2.771
As min = (0.26*2.772*1000*394)/(500)
= 568 mm2
Check maximum reinforcement
As max = 0.04 Ac
= 0.04*1000*475
= 19000 mm2

2
Main Steel Required = 568 mm
Required 12 mm and Providing 199 mm c/c
Provide 12 mm and Providing 150 mm c/c 754.00 mm2 OK

Compression side Reinforcement @ Stem :


Minimum = 568 mm2
Steel of steel
Minimum = 25% of Astmin
= 0.25x 568
2 2
= 142 mm < 142 mm
2
0.06% = 236.4 mm
Required 10 mm and Providing 332 mm c/c
Provide 10 mm and Providing 150 mm c/c 524.00 mm2 OK

As per Cl.16.6.1.1.3
Secondary transverseofreinforcement
IRC: 112 -2011should be provided
in one way slab. This should be at least 20% of the main
= 754 x 0.2
2
= 151 mm
2
0.06% = 236.4 mm
Required 10 mm and Providing 332 mm c/c
Provide 10 mm mm dia bars @ 200 mm c/c
2
Ast provided = 393 mm OK

Check for Cracking


steel area greater than 0.12 % bd = 0.12%x 1000 x 391.214
2
= 469.46 mm
Spacing Less than 3d = 3x = 1174 mm ( Required )
150 mm ( Provided)
OK Spacing of bar
Design of Wing normal

Diameter of rod < d/8


Daimeter of Rod = 12 mm
d/8 =391.214 /8 = 48.902 mm
OK Diameter of bar
Punching shear resistance of Slabs
VRd,c = [0.18/ c k (80 1 fck ) 1/3 + (0.1cp) > Vmin (0.1cp)
IRC112-Pg.No:103-Eq.No:10.33
v min = 0.031 k 3/2 fck 1/2 IRC112-Pg.No:104
= 0.411
k = 1 + (200/d) 2.0 IRC112-Pg.No:103-Eq.No:10.34
= 1.712
1 = ly * lz 0.02

ly = 754 / (1000*391.214) = 0.0020


lz = 524 / (1000*391.214) = 0.0010
1 = 0.002*0.001
= 0.0014 0.14 %
cp = ( cy + cz ) /2
cy = NEd.Y / Acy
= 88x10^3 / (1000 x 391.214)
= 0.225
cp = 0.225 = 0.225
VRd,c = (0.18/1.5) *1.712*((80*0.01*35)^(1/3))+(0.1*0.225 <
Vmin+(0.1x0.225)"
= 0.3475 < 0.4335

DESIGN OF RETURN WALL SECTION AT STEM BOTTOM

DESIGN BENDING MOMENTS


Moments due to Active earth pressure = 272 kN-m kN-m
Moments due to Live load surcharge = 126 kN-m kN-m
Net Bending moment = 398 kN-m kN-m
Moment due to self weight:-
Sl. Moment
Details Forces 'kN' Lever arm 'm'
No. 'kN-m'
1 Crash barrier As per details 9.000 0.475-0.475 0.000 0.0000
2 Stem vertical 6.168x0.48 x25.00 117.573 0.48/2 0.238 27.924
3 Stem trianlge 4.192x0.263 x25.00 27.510 0.53x1/3+0.48 0.650 17.882
4 Soil over heel Triangle 4.192x0.263 x20.00 22.0080.525x2/3+0.48 0.825 18.157
over heel Rectangle 1.976x0.000x20.00 0.000 1.98 /2+ 4.19 5.180 0.000
Total 176.091 63.962
Design of Wing normal

Centre of gravity of the section = 63.962/176.091


= 0.363 m
Therefore eccentricity = 1.000 / 2 - 0.36
= 0.137 m
Moment due to self weight = 176.09x0.14
= 24.08 kNm/m
Design bending moments = 397.79+(24.08)
422 kN-m
Unfactored Summary of Force and Moments @ 6.167751
Vertical Load in Horizont Moment
Sl .No Decription
'kN' al'kN'
Load in kN-m
1 Self Weight 176.091 0.00 24.084
2 Active Earth Pressure 104.944 0.00 271.853
3 Live Load Surcharge 6.621 40.84 125.933

Factored Summary of Force and Moments @ 6.167751 L.L.S (AL)+A.E.P ( LL)


Vertical Horizont Moment
Sl .No Decription Factored
Load
'kN'in al'kN'
Load in kN-m
1 Self Weight 1.35 237.722 32.513
2 Active Earth Pressure 1.50 157.416 407.779
3 Live Load Surcharge 1.20 7.945 49.003 151.119
Total 403.083 49.003 591.411

Factored Summary of Force and Moments @ 6.167751 L.L.S (LL)+A.E.P ( AL)


Vertical Horizont Moment
Sl .No Decription Factored
Load
'kN'in al'kN'
Load in kN-m
1 Self Weight 1.35 237.722 .000 32.513
2 Active Earth Pressure 1.00 104.944 .000 271.853
3 Live Load Surcharge 1.20 7.945 49.003 151.119
Total 350.612 49.003 455.485

Adopting a clear cover of 1000 mm and Providing 16 mm dia. As the main rebar
Effective Depth available d = 1000-75-8
d= 917 mm
Design of Bending Moment M = 592 kN.m
Design of Shear force VEd = 404 kN
Design of Horizontal H = 50 kN.m
Design of Main reinforcement
Determination of x/d
X/d = 1.2 - ((1.44 - (6.68M u / fck b d2 ))1/2
= 1.2-(1.44-(6.68*592x10^6 )/ (35x 1000x917^2))1/2
= 0.057
Design of Wing normal

To determine the Depth


d = Mu/0.138fck b
= 592x10^6/(0.138x35x1000)
= 350.1
required d 350.1 < 1000 mm Safe

Determination of Lever arm 'z'


z = d - ( 1 - 0.416 x/d )
= 917* (1 - 0.416 x 0.057)))
= 895 mm < 0.95 d = 871 mm
= 895 mm
Tension Reinforcement Required from
As = M / (0.87 fy z)
= 592x10^6 / ( 0.87 x 500 x 895.256 )
= 1520 mm2
Ftd = 0.5 VEd Cot IRC : 112-2011 Cl. 10.3.3.3 ( 6)
= 0.5 x 404 x Cot 33.5
0.5X404 x 1.511
= 305.19 kN
As = Ftd / 0.87 x fyk
= 305.189X10^3/ (0.87 x 500)
702 mm2
= 1520 + 702
= 992.0 mm2
Check minimum reinforcement
As min = 0.26 fctm b d / fyk
fctm = 0.259 (fck)^2/3
= 0.259*35)^2/3 = 2.771
As min = (0.26*2.772*1000*917)/(500)
20 = 1322 mm2
Check maximum reinforcement
###
0 As max = 0.04 Ac
= 0.04*1000*1000
= 40000 mm2

2
Main Steel Required = 1322 mm
Required 16 mm and Providing 164 mm c/c
2
Provide 16 mm and Providing 150 mm c/c 1341.00 mm
Provide mm and Providing 150 mm c/c 0.00 mm2
1341.00 OK
Design of Wing normal

Compression side Reinforcement @ Stem :


12 Minimum = 1322 mm2
Steel of steel
100Minimum = 25% of Astmin
= 0.25x 1322
2
= 330.5 mm < 330.5 mm2
2
0.06% = 550.2 mm
Required 12 mm and Providing 206 mm c/c
Provide 12 mm and Providing 150 mm c/c 754.00 mm2 OK

As per Cl.16.6.1.1.3
Secondary 12
transverseofreinforcement
IRC: 112
10 -2011should be provided
in one way slab. This should be at least 20% of the main
= 1341 x 0.2
2
= 268 mm
2
0.06% = 550.2 mm
Required 12 mm and Providing 206 mm c/c
Provide 12 mm mm dia bars @ 200 mm c/c
2
Ast provided = 565 mm OK

Check for Cracking


12
steel area greater than150
0.12 % bd = 0.12%x 1000 x 895.256
2
= 1074.3 mm
Spacing Less than 3d = 3x = 2686 mm ( Required )
150 mm ( Provided)
OK Spacing of bar
Diameter of rod < d/8
Daimeter of Rod = 16 mm
d/8 =895.256 /8 = 111.91 mm
OK Diameter of bar
Punching shear resistance of Slabs
VRd,c = [0.18/ c k (80 1 fck ) 1/3 + (0.1cp) > Vmin (0.1cp)
IRC112-Pg.No:103-Eq.No:10.33
v min = 0.031 k 3/2 fck 1/2 IRC112-Pg.No:104
= 0.326
k = 1 + (200/d) 2.0 IRC112-Pg.No:103-Eq.No:10.34
= 1.467
1 = ly * lz 0.02

ly = 1341 / (1000*895.256) = 0.0010


lz = 754 / (1000*895.256) = 0.0010
1 = 0.001*0.001
Design of Wing normal

= 0.001 0.1 %
cp = ( cy + cz ) /2
cy = NEd.Y / Acy
= 404x10^3 / (1000 x 895.256)
= 0.451
cp = 0.451 = 0.451
VRd,c = (0.18/1.5) *1.467*((80*0.01*35)^(1/3))+(0.1*0.451 <
Vmin+(0.1x0.451)"
= 0.2932 < 0.3711
Design of Wing seismic

CALCULTION OF FORCES AND MOMENTS IN RETURN WALL - SEISMIC

BENDING MOMENT IN RETURN CONSIDERING SEISMIC FORCE


Height of Return wall above GL = 1.976 m
Height of Return wall below GL = 4.192 m
Horizontal seismic coefficient For Zone II. ah = Z/2 x Sa/g x I
=
Fundamental Period time = 0.075 x (103.49925 - 98 )^0.75
= 0.269
Zone factor as per table 5 of IRC:6 Z = 0.10
Sa/g = 2.50
Response reduction factor R = 3.00
Importance factor I = 1.20
Horizontal seismic coefficient
ah = Z/2 x Sa/g x I = 0.05 x 2.50 x1.2 / 3 = 0.0500
0.00
Vertical seismic coefficient av = 0.00
Angle of internal friction of soil f = 35.00 degrees
= 0.61 radians

l = tan -1 ( ah / 1+ - av) = tan-1{ 0.05 } l = 2.86 Degrees


1+ 0.00 = 0.05 radians

Angle of incl. of the earth fill with the horizontal I = 0.00 degrees
= 0.00 radians

Angle of friction between wall and earthfill d = 22.50 degrees


= 0.39 radians

Inclined face of Abutment tan-1 ( 0.53 / 4.192 ) q0 = 7.14 Degrees


= 0.12 radians
Active seismic earth pressure coefficient = Ca

STATIC CONDITION

Ca = sin 2 ( q - f )
x cos d
sin 2 q sin ( q + d ) ( 1 + k ) 2

Where
q = Angle that the face of wall makes with the horizontal line in
clockwise direction
Inclined face of Abutment = 90 + tan-1( 0.53 / 4.19 )= 97.1 0
Design of Wing seismic

1/2
k = sin ( f + d ) sin ( f - a )
sin ( q + d ) sin ( q - a )

Parameters q0 f0 d0 a0 k Ca Ca
Inclined face of Abutment 97.14 35 22.50 0 0.75 0.30 0.2595
Say 0.2595
SEISMIC CONDITION
2
Ca = 1+- a v cos ( f - q - l )
cos2 q cos(q + d + l)cos( l ) ( 1 + k )2

q = Angle that the face of wall makes with the horizontal line in clockwise direction
Vertical face of retaining wall
1/2
k = sin ( f + d ) sin ( f - I - l )
cos ( q + I ) cos ( q + d + l )

l = tan -1 ah = tan
-1
0.05 l = 2.86 0
= 0.05 rad
1+- a v 1+- 0.00

Parameters q0 f0 d0 I l k Ca Cacos(q + d)
Incl. face of
0.12 0.61 0.39 0.00 0.05 0.73 0.33 0.2869
Abutment

Active Earth Pressure


2
Static Shear = 1/2 x 20 x 0.2595 x 6.168 = 98.73 kN
2
Dynamic Shear = 1/2 x 20 x 0.2869 x 6.168 = 109.14 kN
Dynamic increment = 109.14 - 98.73 = 10.41 kN
Moment = 10.41 x 0.50 x 6.168 = 32.11 kNm

Live Load Surcharge


Static Shear = 0.260 x 20 x 1.2 x 6.168 = 38.42 kN
Dynamic Shear = 0.287 x 20 x 1.2 x 6.168 = 42.47 kN
Dynamic increment = 42.47 - 38.42 = 4.05 kN
Moment = 4.05 x 0.66 x 6.168 = 16.50 kN
Design Moment = 16.50 x 0.50 = 8.25 kN
DESIGN BENDING MOMENTS
Moments due to Active earth pressure = 32.11 kN-m
Moments due to Live load surcharge = 8.248 kN-m
Design of Wing seismic

Net Bending moment = 40.362 kN-m


Moment due to self weight:-

Sl. Moment
Details Forces 'kN' Lever arm 'm'
No. 'kN-m'

1 Crash barrier As per details 9.000 1.00 /2+ 6.2 6.668 60.01
2 Stem vertical 1.976x0.48 x25.00 37.663 1.98 /2+ 4.19 5.180 195.09
3 Stem trianlge 0.000x0.000/2 x25.00 0.000 0.00 /3+ 4.19 4.192 0.00
4 Soil over heel Triangle 0.000x0.000/2 x20.00 0.000 0.00 2*/3+ 4.19 4.192 0.00
5 Soil over extended width 1.976x3.609x20.00 142.605 1.98 /2+ 4.19 5.180 738.67
of heel Rectangle
6 Soil over heel Rectangle 1.976x0.000x20.00 0.000 1.98 /2+ 4.19 5.180 0.00
Total 189.267 993.77
Seismic Force = 0.050 x 189.27 = 9.46 kN
Seismic bending moment = 0.050 x 993.77 = 49.69 kNm

Design bending moment due to seismic = 40.36+(49.69)


90 kN-m
Unfactored Summary of Force and Moments @ 6.167751
Vertical Horizont Moment
Sl .No Decription
Load
'kN'in al'kN'
Load in kN-m
1 Self Weight 176.091 .000 24.084
2 Active Earth Pressure 104.944 .000 271.853
3 Live Load Surcharge 6.621 40.836 125.933
4 Seismic 9.463 49.689

Factored Summary of Force and Moments @ 6.167751 L.L.S (AL)+A.E.P ( AL)+ Seismic ( LL)
Vertical Horizonta Moment
Sl .No Decription Factored Load in l Load in
'kN' 'kN' in kN-m
1 Self Weight 1.35 237.722 32.513
2 Active Earth Pressure 1.00 104.944 271.853
3 Live Load Surcharge 0.2 1.324 8.167 25.187
4 Seismic 1.50 14.195 74.533
Total 343.991 22.362 404.085

Maximum Moment is = 404.1 ( for Seismic condition )


Maximum Moment is = 592.0 ( for Normal condition )
Hence Ok
This moment is less than that of normal case Hence seismic is not governing
DESIGN OF BED BLOCK
Thickness of Bed Block = 300mm
Width of Bed Block = 900mm
Exposure = Moderate
Grade of Concrete = M-35
Grade of Steel = 500
Clear cover to the reinforcement = 40mm
300

30

600 320
1.807

30 500

300
1100
650mm
900mm
Roadway Direction
Traffic Direction
2.7
Due to Permanent load = 504.00 kN
Due to Surfacing load = 48.00 kN
Due to Live load = 433.00 kN

on foot path = 30.00kN


due to braking
34.09/4x1.10x1.50 = 14.06 kN
due to wind load = kN
Total reaction, P = 1029.06 kN
Overall60 Effective
l = 500 mm 488 mm
b = 320 mm 308 mm
= 150304 mm2
= 650mm mm
= 1100 mm
= 715000 mm2

= sco x (A1/A2)0.5
sco = 8.750 Mpa
(A1/A2)^0.5 = 2.18 > 2 SAFE and restrict it to 2
Hence, A1/A2 = 2.00 and scc = 17.500 Mpa
= P/A2 = 6.847 Mpa
< 17.500 Mpa SAFE
Ast Required = 300x900 x1 /400
675 mm2 /face @ top & bottom
Providing 12 dia bars of 7 nos per face
Ast Provided = 791.68 mm2
(Longitudinal bars)
Providing 12 dia bars @ 140 mm c/c
Ast Provided (stirupps) = 807.84 mm2
DESIGN OF DIRTWALL
DATA:- Width of dirt wall = 300mm
Depth of dirt wall = 1.507m
Exposure = Moderate
Grade of Concrete = M-35
Grade of Steel = Fe -500
Clear cover to the reinforcement = 40 mm

Axial Load in kN 100 100


Mb
Braking
Force(40kN) Crash Barrier

1.507

0.3 1.630 1.930 1.937

Width of dispersion

SIDE VIEW ELEVATION OF DIRT WALL


LIVE LOAD:
Consider Bogie Single Axle load on dirt wall as shown above
Min. clear distance between wheel and kerb = 1.20 m
Width of wheel = 0.860 m
Width of dispersion, Bw = 5.497 m
Total Vertical load = 200.00 kN
Braking force, Fb, 20% of the total vertical load = 40.00 kN
acting at 1.20m above the road surface.
Lateral load/m = Fb / Bw = 40 / 5.50
= 7.28 kN
Coefficent of active earth pressure Ka = 0.2259
[from abut.design]
LIVE LOAD SURCHARGE:
Live load surcharge = 1.2m height of backfill
1.2kag = 1.20 x 0.2259 x 20.00 = 5.42160 kN/m2
Lateral force, FLL = 1.2kagh = 1.507 x 5.42160 = 8.170 kN/m
Lever arm = 0.50h = 0.50 x 1.507 = 0.754 m
ACTIVE EARTH PRESSURE:
Active earth pressure = 0.5kagh2 = 0.5x0.2259x20 x 1.507 2
= 5.1303 kN/m
Lever arm = 0.42h = 0.42 x 1.507 = 0.633 m
Moment at base of dirt wall due act.earth Pr. = 5.1303 x 0.633
= 3.247 kNm/m
Moment due to braking force = 7.277 x 2.675 = 19.465 kNm/m
live load surcharge = 8.170 x 0.754 = 6.156 kNm/m
active earth pressure = 5.130 x 0.633 = 3.247 kNm/m
Total moment = 28.869 kNm/m

###
Vertical Horizont Moment
Sl .No Decription
Load
'kN'in al'kN'
Load in kN-m
Selfweight 11.303 0.00 8.516
1 Braking Force 7.28 19.465
2 Active Earth Pressure 5.130 0.00 3.247
3 Live Load Surcharge 8.170 0.63 6.156

Factored Summary of Force and Moments:


Vertical Horizont Moment
Sl .No Decription Factored
Load
'kN'in al'kN'
Load in kN-m
1 Self Weight 1.35 15.258 11.497
1 Braking Force 1.35 10 26.278
2 Active Earth Pressure 1.50 7.695 4.871
3 Live Load Surcharge 1.20 9.804 1 7.388
Total 32.758 10.583 50.034
Adopting a clear cover of 300 mm and Providing 12 mm dia. As the main rebar
Effective Depth available d = 300-40-6
d= 254 mm
Design of Bending Moment M = 51 kN.m
Design of Shear force VEd = 33 kN
Design of Horizontal H = 11 kN.m
Design of Main reinforcement
Determination of x/d
X/d = 1.2 - ((1.44 - (6.68M u / fck b d2 ))1/2
= 1.2-(1.44-(6.68*51x10^6 )/ (35x 1000x254^2))1/2
= 0.065
To determine the Depth
d = Mu/0.138fck b
= 51x10^6/(0.138x35x1000)
= 102.8
required d 102.8 < 300 mm Safe
Determination of Lever arm 'z'
z = d - ( 1 - 0.416 x/d )
= 254* (1 - 0.416 x 0.065)))
= 247 mm < 0.95 d = 241 mm
= 247 mm
Tension Reinforcement Required from
As = M / (0.87 fy z)
= 51x10^6 / ( 0.87 x 500 x 247.132 )
= 474 mm2
Ftd = 0.5 VEd Cot IRC : 112-2011 Cl. 10.3.3.3 ( 6)
= 0.5 x 33 x Cot 33.5
0.5X33 x 1.511
= 24.9 kN
As = Ftd / 0.87 x fyk
= 24.929X10^3/ (0.87 x 500)
57 mm2
= 474 + 57
= 531.0 mm2
Check minimum reinforcement
As min = 0.26 fctm b d / fyk
fctm = 0.259 (fck)^2/3
= 0.259*35)^2/3 = 2.771
As min = (0.26*2.772*1000*254)/()
= 367 mm2
Check maximum reinforcement
As max= 0.04 Ac
= 0.04*1000*300
= 12000 mm2

2
Main Steel Required = 531 mm
Required 12 mm and Providing 213 mm c/c
Provide 12 mm and Providing
150 mm c/c 754.00 mm2 OK

Compression side Reinforcement @ Stem :


Minimu = 531 mm2
m Steel
Minimum steel = 25% of Astmin
= 0.25x 531
2 2
= 133 mm < 132.75 mm
Required 12 mm and Providing 852 mm c/c
Provide 12 mm and Providing
150 mm c/c 754.00 mm2 OK
As per Cl.16.6.1.1.3
Secondary transverseofreinforcement
IRC: 112 -2011should be
provided in one way slab. This should be at
= 754 x 0.2
2
= 151 mm
Provide 10 mm mm dia bars200
@ mm c/c
2
Ast provided = 393 mm OK

Check for Cracking


steel area greater than 0.12 % bd = 0.12%x 1000 x 247.132
2
= 297 mm
Spacing Less than 3d = 3x = 741 mm ( Required )
150 mm ( Provided)
OK Spacing of bar
Diameter of rod < d/8
Daimeter of Rod = 12 mm
d/8 =247.132 /8 = 30.9 mm
OK Diameter of bar
Punching shear resistance of Slabs
VRd,c = [0.18/ c k (80 1 fck ) 1/3 + (0.1cp) > Vmin (0.1cp)
IRC112-Pg.No:103-Eq.No:10.33
v min = 0.031 k 3/2 fck 1/2 IRC112-Pg.No:104
= 0.000
k = 1 + (200/d) 2.0 IRC112-Pg.No:103-Eq.No:10.34
= 1.887
1 = ly * lz 0.02

ly = 754 / (1000*247.132) = 0.0030


lz = 754 / (1000*247.132) = 0.0030
1 = 0.003*0.003
= 0.003 0.3 %
cp = ( cy + cz ) /2
cy = NEd.Y / Acy
= 33x10^3 / (1000 x 247.132)
= 0.134
cp = 0.134 = 0.134
VRd,c = (0.18/1.5) *1.887*((80*0.01*)^(1/3))+(0.1*0.134
< Vmin+(0.1x0.134)"
= 0.0134 < 0.0134