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This is to certify that this project has been made by Shaik Jilani of class XI on the topic
FOAMING CAPACITY OF SOAPS under the guidence of our chemistry teacher Mr. K
Babuji and HAVE BEEN completed it sucessfully.
Yours truely
Shaik Jilani

I would like to express my special thanks of gratitude to my teacher K Babuji as well as
our principal KK Sinha who gave me the golden opportunity to do this wonderful
project on the topic FOAMING CAPACITY OF SOAPS , which also helped me in doing a
lot of Research and I came to know about so many new things I am really thankful to
Secondly I would also like to thank my parents and friends who helped me a lot in
finalizing this project within the limited time frame.


Soaps are sodium or potassium salts of higher fatty acids like stearic, palmitic and oleic acids
can be either saturated or unsaturated. They contain a long hydrocarbon chain of about 10-20
carbon with one carboxylic acid group as the functional group. A soap molecule a tadpole
shaped structure, whose ends have different polarities. At one end is the long hydrocarbon
chain that is non-polar and hydrophobic, i.e., insoluble in water but oil soluble. At the other end
is the short polar carboxylate ion which is hydrophilic i.e., water soluble but insoluble in oil and
grease. Long Hydrocarbon Chain Hydrophobic end Hydrophilic end When soap is shaken with
water it becomes a soap solution that is colloidal in nature. Agitating it tends to concentrate the
solution on the surface and causes foaming. This helps the soap molecules make a unimolecular
film on the surface of water and to penetrate the fabric. The long non-polar end of a soap
molecule that are hydrophobic, gravitate towards and surround the dirt (fat or oil with dust
absorbed in it). The short polar end containing the carboxylate ion, face the water away from
the dirt. A number of soap molecules surround or encircle dirt and grease in a clustered
structure called 'micelles', which encircles such particles and emulsify them. Cleansing action of
soaps decreases in hard water. Hard water contains Calcium and magnesium ions which react
with sodium carbonate to produce insoluble carbonates of higher fatty acids.
This hardness can be removed by addition of Sodium Carbonate.
The most popular soap making process today is the cold process method where fat such as olive
oil sector will strong alkaline solution wild some Soapers use the historical hot process
Handmade soap different from industrial shopping, usually and I accept that is sometimes used
to consume the alkali and is not removed, leaving a natural moisturizer soap and detergent
emollient search as search added actress which is the saponification process is sufficiently
advanced that the soap has begun after most of the oils have saponified
So that they remain undirected in the finished soap.

Soap is derived from either vegetable or animal fats sodium tallowate is

derived from fat soap can also be made of vegetable oils as palm oil and the
product is typically softer.
An array of saponification and fats are used in the process of chest only with
coconut Palm oil to provide different qualities for example only for oil
provides info coconut oil provides lots of leather wild coconut and farmers
provide hardness
Sometimes castor oil can also be used as an event.
Unsaponifiable oils and fats that do not yield so headed for further benefits.
IN cold Process and hot process soap making it may be required the cold
process of making take place at the sufficient temperature set of a story the
fat big used process can be used right away because the early and fat
saponified quickly at the higher temperature used in hot process soap
making. Cold process of making required measurements of alkali and mouse
and computing the ratio using saponification charts to answer that the
finished product is mild and skin friendly.
Hot process in the hot process together at 80-1000 c saponification which
is the soap maker can determine by taste or by eye.
Cold which is the news to calculate the process soap makes up the
saponification value of the fat used on a saponification chart appropriate
amount of alkali
Excess unreacted allegory in the shop will result
In a very high PH and can burn are edited skin not enough so far easy
teacher the alkalies dissolved in water that also heated.
Then if the solid at room temperature .Once both substances to have cooled
to approximately 10 degrees fahrenheit guide this Twister interest there are
wearing levels of traces .

Soap samples of various brands are taken and their capacity with the next
informing capacities said to be heavy tails capacities in notice sample taken
separately and their foaming capacity is observed best cleaning capacity the
test request to be done with distilled water as well as with the test of soap
on distilled water give the actual strength of the cleaning capacity request to
be done with distilled water as well as Ca+2 ,Mg+2 capacity.

To compare the foaming capacity of various soaps.
The foaming capacity of soaps upon the nature of the shop and its
concentration this may be compared by equal having the same
concentrations which saves the same amount of time used during disappears
gradually the time taken to disappear in equal sample is determined the
longer the time take it for the form today disappear elite sample is
determined the longer time taken for the disappearance of the given sample
offshore of greater is its foaming capacity cleaning action.

FIVE 100ml conical flask, 5 test tubes 100 ml measuring cylinder, test tube
stand, weighing machine ,stopwatch
5 different of Soap sample, distilled water , tap water.
1. Take 5 100ml conical flasks add number 1.2345 p put 60 table of
water in each flask and add 8 grams of soap.
2. Warm the contents to get a solution.
3. Take 5 test tubes add 1 ml of soap solution to 3 ml of water
Repeat the process for each soap solution in different test.
4. Close the mouths of the test tube and vigorously for a minute do
the same for all test tubes and with equal force.
5. Start the timer immediately and not is the rate of 2 mm froth.

Test tube No. Volume of soap Volume of Time taken for
solutions water added disappearance
1.Dove 8ml 16ml 1142
2.lux 8ml 16ml 328
3.Tetmosol 8ml 16ml 510
4.Santoor 8ml 16ml 1532
5.Cinthol 8ml 16ml 940
The cleansing capacity of soaps taken is in the order
From these experiment we can infer that santoor has the highest foaming
capacity in other words highest cleaning capacity l
Lux on the other hand is found to be have least amount of time taken
disapperance of the foam
Produced and thus is said to be have least foaming capacity and cleansing
capacity test for handness in water.
TEST for Ca+2 and Mg+2 salts in the water supplied
Test for Ca+2 in water .
H2O + NH4Cl +NH4OH+(NH4)2CO3
No precipitate.
That show negative result for the presence of salts
Causing hardness in water. The water used doesnt contain salts of Ca+2 and
Mg+2 .the tap water provided is soft and thus the experimental.

1.Together with lab manual chemistry class xi
2.NCERT books of chemistry

Name - Shaik Jilani

Class - XI
Roll no. - 1127
Subject - chemistry
Project submitted to
Mr K Babuji