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1. , , - !  "  #k  %n| ()  5 j nd    "(- d  t-    % j  % e| n !
12k  2-!-t-    !  % 4 ia6- %  j   ! d  % % e|
! e"7 1-7 " 27 c  9|
t-    "(- :-s   j   ! d  % e| :    , <=?>    s  (ak 7(, "( n, "( )  j   !
d  1m|
"  3 p    1> -B (  BC"D E, <=?> u  BCF , o  ! (?  B t  (E? ,
a 8, (J  1-5)| e% 3  s 1>n o s  p | 1 3 M    N O7 3 p    !-1d n  E
 !  B (? EQ  utt, s, E  -, 17%  <=?> u  B (?   p , o  ! u  p    N
%  7  d  |
! o  S  4 p  T  | 2-    %   1 1?--? U  !  %n|  %  F 2 1" k %i 
% e, 1 ak !|  %   , E  k 2  2 Ms  Ep # s ?-1 ak !|  1 2- 17s  6 an % e
 %7, E Me s   4 %  %: , 1 a s   YZ 4Y| 1 a !| Y%  12k  Y%  Y\ 2   1 an 
"  \  %7| 1 :]   %Y     t  %n|
k ! 1Y YS  %i %i ^ %i 4 e- %   S   S| = 4 % # : E: , 1  Y B1Y  %7,  e%
 S  < Y  %n| - : _s :k aQb p< d (E? 10/32)
ak k 2 !| B  - p <  #k  % e-",  1, !-|  %   o E % e| #k 2 7 ut "  -  j % e,
  2 : t    S  %n| nt j  a 1  d^ a 1   :   % e, n p (  E   S 1s7 O 1 |
= E O7 B u  E Me   E a6 | e% E  BT  Y d k 2 %7,  E f %6n- :g
:  %7-E? (10/30)1%4j g p g 1<^h   # p g | a p1!i! _s^
>  Tj ||10||
e7 pk7 #k7   -4?% 4g .||16|| (E? , 3)
a !  ak  :| e%   BT  o s -a% k  :g T  _%7  Ng| (E? 10/33)
 t  :-e%   ak s  o 1 1Y a   ,     t  :  %n| 1 as p  9 p   1<^ % e| 1<^
 :  bh  " o  %  ak  :   t  %n|
ak dk4g 1- pn% E |  t E p:?4n tD k 17j || (E? , 8/18)
B 1Y    S a 1  % e,   1   O7  (DY O7   S "Nn| "  Y tY O7 o   O   !
 B( | " u  !   % 4 ia6-
" % j =-p< t g,  S  2- g % v j g|
s ""7  ST  ( st7, 4  !7 ", 1 " j9||
2.  
-12 - 1d n (14/1)  9 p    :-  a6-(1) bh  -1<^  - - :  bh  " o  %   ak
 :   t| e% 1 :] = 1000 4E| p 4E  12000 " !-, o 1 " !- = 360 ", ag
1 :]  bh  " = 1000 x 12000 x 360 = 432,00,00,000 !-|
"- t    864  M !-| "< ( Et t e p ( !- |
(2) p  -p    t- | 1<^ -   - B (E7E p  B> %: ,   %  ak-z  : (30.68  M !-)
 >n  %n| B (-E7E  tt    %n| 1    (10 | 11) 1 B s} , %  kB %: |
1 >n = 71 E = 30.68  M !-
(3)   -1 " !- = 360 1F !-| e%  3 p   a=-- () 12 - p  60 E "2   kt k (12 - 1d n 12/80)|
50.6 E "2  k  g% 360 !-  12 -  k Y|  E   a 1  ep 60000 Y :: 12 -  k n|
100  M 4  (1280  M : M)  1  1F-U:  2 ( E  , sn 5)-1  # k -n k 
j (- ) kt| k  1n  1? Y :: 4 %  B  ( 1) 1 a7E ( <?  1 = 96 a7E:  !, 1 a7E: 
a7E = 135 .) (2) k u  12 -  u" -as  #k  "  %n| 1%  ut -"k  E  #k  " "  %n|
(3)  !  B  100 !-| - #k    120 !-  n| B 1>n 3 ! = 360 !- -n %| 1  : 
% 1 -  #k  % 4 ia6|     B"  28  1 12#?    - 4E  % 4 ia6|
(4)
 $- E  361.0486 "  E 1  (  %| 1  :  E !-  %n| 12 - 1d n   ut   (o(
  )  s E #: a 1  ( E ) E !-  T-  % e| e% C  85 1F !-  86 E !- %Y| "k
   1F !-  % E !-  %n| 4YS E < !  (  %, 1YS p p  60 !-  E #k  B>| e%
#k  E  5 o (  2 #k 2- % e| 5100 !-  u #k (ut o "k   ) #k ( 4Y| p p  E !- #k
B> %Y    a6  e% !-  u   t (9533 O1 2)- o   (4433 O1 2)-  a  %i: |
(5) &  - <?  12 - d  "< ( k   :  1F !-  %n|  %  12(  E  1, o  1  30  E 1F "|
(6) (nd  -12 - a k  #nd  -z  : 29.5 "  # nd  1| "(- p  2k -n (J o   a  1 -n <
k| 12 # nd  1 (354 ")  # nd !-|
(7) -#nd  i-  E   %n| B < k  7 " o B (J k - t| 30 # nd  1  1   1, o 1
p   12  1   !-|
(8)  - 1 s   12 - " p  BE ? 12 - " -n  :  1  (civil day) "  %n| 30 " = 1  1, 12  1
=1 !-|
(9) kt- ak  <=?>  z  : 23 | 56 M   kt ", 30 "   1, o 12  1  !-|
9 p  /0 (k-e% a 1  9 p    S| p1<^  s  : 1  p1  " =-| B (    1  Bn  %n,
1 7E %: 1  1:S %: | 1:S d  bh U (B (Eu )  7 utt, bh U  a o (b  7E  k %:
am| 1F US  1  (?# p )| 3 M 1d %: s f, 1s ,E t  | 3 M 2S 2  B" %:-a - ,
, t| k U 2 %: | t  -  T? as  | (:+ ),   % (S + 2  ()  %n|  9 M - 
#k  9 M ||
3. 
s-4E  7 p      %Y-
(1) 4s 6
- ! d  (k 2- Y  e 1 : E, 1 17s  4E | e% 5 p  -
()
 6
- E O  4 " 1"< ( E Me 4E  4 M !-| e% E T2S S p  Bm % e| 12 - s  S  4S E O
  6n, 1S T2S up| 1  S  p g 1n 6 M S 4" !- Bm % e, 1 BE ? !-   12 M  1Y|
e% E  Bm %Y  S (S = E )| S 1: S :  ( OY, ag S  ( g (1p)  % 4 i#| d? !- 
d  (= d? )  %n, e% < ? !- 1 S 6 M S 1Y, 1S E Bm % e,  1 17% | < ? !- %:
t | 1 " " i p%  1Y 4S :  # : Y,  12 - 1"< (  pB Y, ag t  f(pB)  % 4 i#|
4E #k 4 !-  1Y  2- %Y,   <  ( 2)-  % 4 i#, 1  1n 6  1Y| e% 4 !-  E Me " aC %: ,
n -  gE? D:U   aC "  :? Oa %Y, ag e% 1 1F !- 1 7E ( 4 u#|
:g (4   1% s d g | utf t  < 7 1m" #f | (4 b h, 7/13)
(N) 7 $ 6
-  !  !  5 !-  4E| 5 M 4E  6 M : p !- %Y, a=- Q19 !-  #k| (E) 12 $ 6
- e% E
 z #k o "    S E 4 e| (|) 19 $ 6
-e%  !  E| e%  E  7 aC 1 %Y o 1F !-
1%  t 2 |  an %Y (p  % :  " 7E  !,  E , 1985)| () g9 6
-12 -- %  174k E 18 !-
10.5 "  % e 4 % g%  #k|  %  aT-  E  g%  #k-e% 3339   (j3/9/9, 10/52/6)-
t? (  t? 1%s g7 t7(c "  # 1 4-f | (j, 10/52/6)
(2)    6
-() 60 $ (k- !  1   - ? 60 !- | 60 !-  E !- #k  E  5 o (  2 k % e|
  "  a7E - S  % 4 i#-B" v %  Bu1v sE- :  _sT-n-47 2- e!  , 4 |
 % __" g 2- sE- : 7 Eg , v u1g !^ 7  !-! (4 b h, 18/3/7) B" v u1v 1E- : 
_sT-n  B" e7 %   (f (Dt?4 b h, 2/2/3/5) ep, B" = 12, %  = 5 x 12 = 60 !-
(N) ;b $-e%  1p!k d  dk^| p kt  1p!k 100 !- %n| B (  1p!k US  2 2-?    ( iY 
N k n < t  47 n   MY, 1 1p!k  kt| e% p kt (13 20)   ? E  100 !-   | 5 M
0

E
 E Me  ! 4E ( i:  100 !-? 4E %Y| 19x 5 + 5 = 100 !- |e%  #nd 2- kt  # :4Y|
e%   7E?  :F 4E  % 4 i#|
(E) 120 $-g%  7 "( #k :  !  120 !-  % e|
(3) $ 6
-e% 360 !-  " 17t|     (23/114-226)  2 -   (a 52)    d -NU 
-  % 4 i#| bh U   (1/2/29/19)  26,000 !-  4E o 1%   (1/2/9/36-37)    71 E 
>n  % 4 i#| ep 1 4E = 360 !-
! 7( 1%s  !-    !   | !-  7 4E7 j47.. (bh U  , 1/2/29/19)
1D1p 4E7 >n% # (bh U  ,1/ 2/9/36,37)
71 x 360 = 25, 560  p g 26,000 !-|
(4) 9s 6
-()  E   (1/1/4)  (F  1000 !- 1t  ulN|  !  ?  t 100 !- , n B# 
 "U 1000 !- -n %, 1% 1000 !-  1t| (F  3000 !-  k "  S     g 1m "
%: , 4 % eY 2000 !- p  # : #| (!   3/3/1/2-4)
(N) p? t 2700 " (1F)  3030   ! !- (327 "  #nd  12 k  S)
t? !- 1%s    ! p g | t7("C    g 1p!k tg |
(bh U  , 1/2/29/16,  4 
 , 57/17)
1p7( 4-n < ts kt U: | 1p!-4s n 4- 4 (7 (9 |
(bh U  , 2/3/74/231,  4  , 99/419)
ep, 2700 " !- = 2700 x 365.25 " | 3030   ! #!- = 3030x 327 "| u 1 |
(E)  dn  2850 !-  E, 4 % 19 !-? E
 150 E |
(5) CD  k&7 6
-() CD t  9090   !  8100 1F !- % e| (bh U   1/2/29/18)|    
(57/18)    kF 1>t  % 4 i#|
(E)
 6
-ut    E   s   E  1  ( z  S  E !-  %n 4 % 12 -- 1d n, a 4 a 1 
361.0486 "  % | e%    85 1F !-  86 E !- % e| "k    1F !  % E !-  %n| 2 d  60
!-  #k 85 x 60 = 5100 !-  ( 4Y|  T- t   (82/7-8) a 4 ?    S (11-2-4433 O1 ,-
10-47-48 s ? 1 )  u   p !- : , 1   p !- p  60 !-  #k Bm % e, 4S E
< !  (  Y, ( Bm p   %7|  % p  5100 !- 2,-  t a  (9533 O1 2)-   u   p
%- : | i:a  o1? a 1  %  M1 :an  9564 i1 2-  aM: 1  an d? Y \ 4 i: | 1? E =
a 1  9844 i1 2-  S-p: %i: | BT a   a 1  10,000 i1 2-  p g 1000 !- i7 S-pS
%i: |
(6) a 6
-26000 %-  % 1 >n <=?> ak   ? E   ? "(  #k| n % 1 #k S-pS  #k
a 1  % e| e% ut? E : T-  % % e| ut? T) 4S 12 -   ? "(  Y o 1% 1  " 12 - n c
(apogee)  Y, 1S -pS %Y|  %   ? 4S 12 - n-?# (perigee) : S 4" ut T) 12 - 
 ? "(  Y, "S %-4E %Y| e% 1923 O.  : 7  (Milancovich) 1d n a 1  " c #k
(100000 !-) o  ? E  T)-#k (26000 !-)   21600 !-  %Y-
1/26000 + 1/100000 = 1/21600
n n c o T) E s  %Y  e%  s  24000 !- #k  % e| e% bhEp  b h-s M-1d n,   C  (60-61)
o  s # - -2  1d n-( , 2- C (7-8) a 1  Y?-17s   #k 4 % BE  : p  B1#| #k  p=  E
12000 !-  a1 k? E| ep 4, 3, 2, 1  E  1, t , d , S e% k  B1n| 12000 !-  d? aT-  E 
 ? k   E B1n|
(7)  6
- e% 12000 " !- , p " !- 360 1F !-| a=-  43,20,000 !-   E %Y 4 %  4,
3, 2, 1  E  1, t , d , S 4E B1Y| e%  3 a=--(1) 12 - =  #k 12 - p  1000  1 -n| e%  (
-n g%  7 174k #k 43,20,000 !-  % e ( s # --2  YE t)| (2) <? k  nd  #k| (3)
#>? T)  "( t-| e% 2 M #k p= #k u  % -|
4. 6
-(k- p= 4E a 6 M o an 4E a Y\|  t-? 5 M 4E d  % 1 4E  T-  % e| " 7E  ! 
N  uk a6- 7# 17t  7 4E7|  %  3 M a=--(1) 5 !-  4E % e| (2) 19 !-? 4E  5 M !- 17t o a 14
(- a 4 p  - t, idt, i" t, a t %Y| (3) 5 p   17t d   E T-  % e-E, ", 1p!k, T) o
a | e% p  5 M E d  "  T-  % e-,  , kt,  E, | ag  ?  S-E  7# 7E  %n| 5
p   4E  " T-   a  -(1) ",  1, !-  a p    ! | (2) 12 ,- <?, #nd E  1S 1>n
 %7 o e 7 "?|-<t? k  1M? E   1 C B -n  %7| (3) g% k  nd , <? ak   ,
n c  "( B"  "?|- : t- % e| (4) "?|- S t-  a    a(d| (5) 1d 7E  |!-   <?
 |2
- -E  4 u#, o 3000 i1 2-  E  28-64 | -n 2: % e| 5 p   E d  a(d  "2   %Y|
-   !? 4E S  Bm 17-2-3102 i( 2,- ujD   t  %i: | e% % 1 4E  a1 k? k  S
Bm|  2-  1, t , d    : 4800 + 3600 + 2400 = 10800 !- : , a=- Q13902i1 2- p  t- 
 E#k Bm %: | a1 k? S  1200 !-  (1902 i1 2)- ut k? : (1200 !-) d  (2400 !-) 1: |
eY t # : #, o  1 E
B1Y| 13902 i1 2-  -  4E < ? a6,  2-  24-24000 !-  2 M #k :
4 % 61902 i1 2-  Bm %: |
(1) pG an 6
-() a?  k-1 61902 p  57, 102 i1 2- -n| t 57, 102 p , d  53, 502
p , o S 51,102 p  49902 i1 2- -n| BT 2E- ( st  a   a 1  69200 i1 2- ( 2-  :  ut k?
t ) %-4E o e% t  58100 i1 2-  S-pS %i: | e% 4E        E  % 4 i#| 7
"?  = # :M ( st?  "- S-- (inF, 1925) a 1  Dt ? 17% B"   12k e%  S | e% #  ( <?
ak   ) a 1  E |
(E) ut?  k-: 49102, d  48702 , t 46302 , o 1 4E 42702 i1 2-  Bm %i 37902
-n # :: | e% t  31200 i1 2-  %-4E %i: |
(2) J  sm 6
-() a?  k-1 37902 , t 33102, d  29502, o S 2702 i1 2-  Bm
%: | e% t  31200 i1 2-  S-pS %i: | e% 4E  1 , %  , < pn o  !- 4 p   E :,
t-   S  b h, kt , D(, (2d  |   p= d   29102 i1 2-  1  7  s m  %:|
  B" t   % 4 i#, % 6 2-  1: | S-pS  Bm %Y      %-   %n| s m  p=
 ! bh :| 1 1Y 2- j   17# o  N  "  -  :| %  , ( n -, a 356 a 1  7 M  !
bh %i:|
(E) ut?  k-: 25102, d  24702, t 22302, o 1 4E 18702  Bm %i 13902 i1 2-  1: |
s m   p Ft #kt-?  T) %i:|  7 "% n  t-  T)   (Polaris) "(  <?  ut T) : |
1 S 27376 i1 2-  T) 17t  Bm %: | e%  t  % 4E 20000 i1 2-  %: | %4E
1:  19276 i1 2-  p= T) 17t 1: |   kF-d? (ut a )   :  a1   ptt 
:, ag  u kF-17t   % 4 i#|
(3) t$ Ns 6
-() a?  k-1 4E 13902, t 9102, d  5502, o S 3102 i1 2-  Bm %i
1902  1: | " !- NU a 1  13102  Ds    S Bm %: | 1  S  B #Dt  1 p  !- Bm
%u# 4S 12 -  ! 17k n % e| 11176 i1 2-  d? T) #k 1:  p g 9500 i1 2-  t 4E
 S-p: %i: |   s n 12 -- 1d n  17( T  a1 d  9233 i1 2-  %: 4S ! "?
( 1 :| 1 s m  1"< ( 1   Bam Y    m   7(| < ? T)  p= 1p!k #k 8476
 2- %: ,  %  100 !- 2- 8576 i1 2-  ik>   ( 1 Bm %i: | d? 1p!k #k 5776  1: | < ?
1p!k #k  T)-#k 3076 i1 2-  2- %: , 1S  C  "% n %: o (?  :F !- Bm %: |
E  < 7 "% n  e% S 3102 i1 2-  Bm %i: |  %  36 !- 2- 16-10-3139 i1 2- 
%   4d Bm %: ,  %  68 "  22-12-3139 i1 2-  | (J a^?  u  Bm  ?!  %
"% E :|  %  5 " 2- 4C  a! o 4C-(  Bm %: (17-12-3139 i1 2)- | E  < 7
"% n (17-2-3102 i1 2)-  6  1 11 "  ?k  a! 22-8-3102 i1 2-  %:, 1 " E !-
Bm %: o 4C a" i7 E:, ag 1 " p  4C- " -( Bm %: | 25 !-  4C  "% n
%:  :F !- Bm %: | a1 k? k 1Y  3 !- 2- 11-3-1905 i1 2-  E  % ?7  %: |
(E) ut?  k- S 1902 p  702 i1 2- -n, d  1699 i1? -n %: |   3600 !-  t # : #
4 %  1n  S 300 !- 1999  2- %: | t 4E 4999  1Y  4800 !-  1 4E # :Y| d  Bm 
6  : 2-  (2d a k  756 i1 2-  4 ag7(?   7 17| BY2 -  %: -  , p% , # % ,
# : | e   a1 (a1? ) Bk  p  : o 612 i1 2-  "l?  # %  d  a1?  T ?   2-
i71 %: -e% Y iY:    s   k
, # %   1n "? 2-  T( (Medes =  -"()    % 4 i#|
612 i1 2-  a1  (  ( Bm %: 4 %  p E  %% d  %i# (Y< %t7% , 13/3)| d  4E  :k
%: "  ud , e% 509-477 i1 2-  (7 # - d  %: |   ? %!- d  456 i1 2-  ( Bm  "l?
  -i %: 4 %  E s? % :1 sm :# o  1% a=-   Y-?  %:| (d p  ?%!- -n  S 
300 !-  E  %#-e%  S-E    N | 376 i1 2-  1p!k !-  2700 !-  #k 2 %: o 6
1  327 i1 2-  Ep- S Bm %: |  57 i1 2-  uj ?     k " d  k 17
Bm %: ,  7  S (82 i1 2- p  19 i1? -n)   , nt, B -" B" gn  7  1m " %: |  7
"% n    u  # "k "(? Bk %: , 1 7 k "   Ft ( : % 78 i1?      
( Bm :|  248 i1?  :#  o 319 i1?  :? 7E ( Bm %: | t E  :k a6 j    1,
 %  1n  S  ao E k n %: o   eY 12# -4E # : #|
5. 6
EO-bh U   (1/2/6/6-8)  -  :] (24000 !-  bh b)   %-:]  % 4 i#| 4E NU  E e% :]
O7| 28  1  7 12#?  p 4E NU  -  % 4 #|
1 - = 360 !- ( C  3600   , -- S), 1 t = 3600 !- = 10 - 4E|
t  Bm 22,302 o 9102 i1 2-  %i: | pt 4E  10+ 10= 20 - %Y| d? t 5502 i1 2- 
1:      S - e% 4E-NU  E %: | B1  Y: < ? t  :| 4E s Ds  p 
13902 i1 2-  Bm, n Y:  7 2-  :, ag 10 M 4E NU (3600 !- )  7 2-  E 4Y,
a=- Q13902 + 3600 = 17502 i1 2|- 1 10 4E  a1  7 p2t : | ag Y:   S %: 2 t 
17502-2x 360 = 16,822 p  16462 i1 2|-  7  S  %  tk a1  7   :| 1 S
ut? T) a kt p  "2  # S 4 i: o T kt  ( -  p( p  !-  Bm %: -p g 16000 i1 2- 
(%  , u" E - 230/8-10)| 1S 1% a !-  Bm %u: ,  17t  !- % :|
"t t "( t  :| e% t 10000 i1 2-  S-pS   Bm  S-9102 i1 2|-
 n  15( t  :| e% 9102-4 x 360 = 7662 i1 2- p  360 !-  7302 i1 2- -n|  7 p  18
!   Y % %i: 4 4 Bk  % %: (bh U   2/3/63/119-120)| E s, 1 :,ea
B" g? :N   e%  6177 i1 2- apD:  1   11  Bk :cn|
(  19( t  :| e% 5502+2 x 360 = 6222 i1 2- p  360 !- # S: |  7 "% n  6177 i1
2-  :> ( l) 1> Bm %: , 4 % B  S  p#S|  7  S  120 !- p nt : (E s) 4 %
 21 = kt  7  (  % 4 i#| sS 1 v 30 !-  Y, ag  7  6177+120+30 = 6227 i1
2-  %Y| 1 ( a  2  % :1)  11 (6777 i1 2-) p  15 !  :, e% E  1 550
!-  an B1#|
  24 t  :, e% 5502+3 360= 4422 i1 2-  Bm|  :?     - S? g%-s a 1 ,  7
 11-2-4433 i1 2-  %i: ,  7 11 !-  1  24( t  Bm|
6. 
  -p<    1 #k  s^  s 1>n  %7|  T p   E  1M? 1  T-  % e|
i7 ? D:U   t 2 M T-  % e-=,  | e " o !-   ! a6,  1   !  BT   %7, e%  N?|
   5 p   " T- ,    u  %n-,  , kt,  E, | 1%   E T-  O7  7 M  5
 E  E % e| i% 1 E O  !? E Y%  Y\, o  ! E Y%  6 M| " u  !  p1d uk  Y%  p 
 a=-- 1>t  7  E9|
(1) 5 !-  E % e|
(2) 5 p  1>t   E % e-1>t, t, i" t, a t, idt| e% !-   Bm  1F o # nd  1  0-
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