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Unit 1: The Meaning, Nature, and Purpose of Counseling

The Meaning of Counseling

Glanz (1972) defines counseling as an open-ended, face to face problem solving situation
within which a student with professional assistance, can focus and begin to solve a problem or

Rogers (1965) speaks of counseling as the assistance which comes to a child through face to face
contact, with a professionally trained person in a psychological relationship using either talk or play as
the primary medium of communication.

Shostrom and Brammer reinforced by defining counseling as a purposeful, reciprocal

relationship between two people in which one, a trained person, helps the other to change himself or
his environment

Brewer (1933) Counseling is talking over, a conference, a friendly discussion, upon as equal
terms as may be, with no attempt to impose a decision, and with every effort to stimulate the thought
of the student to find or generate such technical knowledge and wisdom as will lead him to a right

The Nature of Counseling

Ford and urban cited four natures of counseling:

1. Counseling involves two people in interaction, a generic term for exchanges of meanings between
people which includes the direct communication of talking and listening as well as gestures, glances,
nods or shakes of the head, frowns, and other non-verbal features by which meaning is transmitted
from one person to another.

2. The Mode of interaction is usually limited to the verbal real; the counselor and counselee talk with
one another. Counselees talk about themselves, their thoughts, feelings, and actions.

3. The interaction is relatively prolonged since alteration of behavior takes time. In contrast to a brief
conversation with friend in which distortions or unconscious desires are usually maintained and usually
only temporary relief is gained, counseling has its goal, the change of behavior.

4. The purpose of the relationship is change in the behavior of the counselee. The counselor focuses the
interaction upon the counselee. Counselees need not to be concerned about the happiness of the
counselor but must devote their energies to changing themselves.

Purpose of Counseling
According to Dunsmoor and Miller (1955), the purpose of counseling are:

1. To give the student information on matters important to his adjustment and growth;

2. To get information about the student which will be of help to him in solving his problems;

3. To establish a feeling of mutual understanding between pupil and teacher,

4. To help the pupil work out a plan for solving his difficulties;

5. To help the pupil know himself better, his interested, abilities, aptitudes and available

6. To encourage special talents and develop right attitudes;

7. To inspire successful endeavour toward the attainment or realization of objectives;

8. To assist the pupil in planning for his educational and vocational choices formulating plans for
vocations, making surveys of employment opportunities, administering vocational or aptitude test,
gathering cumulative occupational information following-up pupils for placement, and sponsoring
convocations, programs, and career day seminars.

Alday, Maria Janella Allyson M.


Unit 2

The Role and Characteristics of an Effective Counselor

The Role of the Counselor

1. To provide a relationship between counselor and counselee, the most prominent quality of
which is that of mutual trust with each other;

2. To provide alternatives in self-understanding and in the courses of action open to the client;

3. To provide for some degree of intervention of the situation in which the client finds himself and
with important others in the clients immediate life;

4. To provide leadership in developing a healthy psychological environment for his clients; and

5. To provide for improvement of the counseling process through constant individual criticism and
extensive attention to improvement of process through research.

Characteristics of Effective Counselors

According to Cormier and Cormier (1985), the most effective helper is one who has successfully
integrated the personal and scientific parts of himself in other words, a person who has achieved a
balance of interpersonal and technical competence.

They list six qualities of effective counselors:

1. Intellectual Competence Counselors must have a thorough knowledge of many theories as

well as the desire and ability to learn;

2. Energy Counseling is emotionally draining and physically demanding. Counselors must have
the ability to be active in their sessions;

3. Flexibility Effective counselors are not tied to one specific theory or set of methods. Instead,
they are adapt what they do to meet the needs of their clients;
4. Support The counselor supports the client in making his or her own decision, help engender
hope and power and avoid trying to rescue the client;

5. Goodwill The nature of goodwill encompasses such qualities as the counselors desire to work
on behalf of the client in a constructive way that ethically promotes client independence; and

6. Self-Awareness This quality includes knowledge of ones self including attitudes and feelings
about self, and the ability to recognize how and what factors affect those attitudes and feelings.

Dela Cruz, Lovely Grace


Unit 3

Essential Elements and Ethical Standards of Counseling

Essential Elements of Counseling Process

Irrespective of a counselors orientation or theory preference, there are certain components

which characterize the counseling relationships.

The success of counseling depends upon the quality of the relationship established and upon the
thoroughness with which each of the essential element is incorporated into this relationship.

Downing 1965 enumerated eight essentials in the counseling process such as follows:

1. Anticipating the interview- the preparatory stage in counseling occurs prior to the actual
2. Developing a positive working Relationships- the development of a positive warm, accepting
working relationship between the counselors is basic to all counseling.
A good relationship is characterized by mutual:
- Understanding
- Acceptance
- Respect
- Confidence
- Concern
- Faith in the future

3. Exploring Feelings and Attitudes- the opportunity for a free, uninhibited exploration of feelings
and attitudes is an element of maximum significance in all counseling and therapy.
4. Reviewing and determining present status- together, the counselor and the client have to
determine some extent, the clients status.
5. Consisting existing problems- an honest straight forward self-appraisal is essential for the student
as he works toward better self-understanding and as he considers courses of actions for resolving
his problems.
6. Exploring Alternatives- various alternatives courses of action are generally available to a person
as he seeks to answer to his problems and as he plans for the future.
7. Making Decision- another essential element of counseling is arriving at decision.
8. Post Counseling Contact- the termination of counseling session should not constitute a
permanent break from all contact with the student.
Ethical Standards in Counseling

Counselors concern is always the welfare of client.

The counselor should be competent enough to serve the client. He or she should have the
necessary skills and training.

The confidentiality of the cases should always be observed. Cases on suicide, crimes committed,
addiction, and anything that pertains to threat to life may violate confidentiality policy.

There should be a record or file for every client and every significant things said in the
counseling sessions of every important datum like test results should be recorded.

Abrian, Alethia Abbie B.

` Reporter

Unit 4
Theoretical Approaches and Techniques in the counseling

Theoretical Approaches to Counseling

With over 200 approaches to individual counseling in use, counselors have a wide variety of theories
from which to choose. Effective counselors scrutinize the theories they employ for proven effectiveness
and for a match to personal beliefs about the nature of people and change. Most counseling approaches
fall within four broad categories:

1. The Client-Centered Counseling

This type of counseling has its origin with the early work of Carl Rogers and has received
considerable attention since then. This counseling approach stresses counselees ability to
determine the issues discussed and to solve their own problems. Counselor intervention in this
process is minimal. The most important quality of the counseling relationship is the establishment of
a warm, permissive and accepting climate which permits clients to explore their self-concept in
relation to their unique experience.

The major elements which characterize the client-centered counseling are:

a. The quality of the relationship between counselor and client is of maximum importance. The
relationship is the heart of the therapy.

b. The emotional aspects of the relationship are far more important than the intellectual. If one
works through the feelings and gain the necessary emotional insights, the necessary intellectual
insights will also occur.

c. The interaction within the relationship is the element which provides the catharsis by which the
client gains relief from his guilt and other negative feelings and through which he gains
emotional strength upon which to build for greater than future security.

d. The immediate situation is the focus of attention, its accompanying feelings providing the
fountain for expression. Historical events and prognostications for the future receive little more
than casual attention.
e. The counseling experience provides the opportunity for growth. The possibilities for maturing,
improved stability and better adjustment are increased as a person profits from, and grows as a
result of his experience in this relationship.

f. Giving advice, making interpretations and diagnosing as generally defined, have no place.
Freedom of thought, immunity of coercion and individual responsibility mark the client-centered

g. The relationship is warm, accepting and permissive, but is relatively narrow in its coverage,
since it does not include guidance, imparting information or advisement.

2. The Counselor-Centered Approach (Direct or Clinical Counseling)

This kind of approach was developed by E.G. Williamson (1960). This approach often sees the
counselor as a teacher who directs the learning process. The counselor is responsible for
deciding what data needed, collecting them, and presenting them to the counselee.

The following are some points of emphasis within the directive approach:

a. Considerable responsibility is assumed by the counselor. This is made manifest in the structuring
he provides, the direction he gives, his activity in the relationship and his sharing in the decision
and outcomes.

b. There is concern for techniques, procedures and the systematic attack upon problems.

c. Counseling tools such as test data, records, case histories and various reports play an important
part in the counseling effort. Objectives data are used to improve client self-understanding and
to serves as guides to the counselor in determining procedures to be used and decisions to be

d. Diagnosis is a major step in the therapeutic relationship. Possible causes of problems are
determined, the significance of these causes in terms the present status of the client is
ascertained and decisions are made for courses of action.

e. Interpretation is considered a responsibility, since the client depends upon the professional
competence of the counselor for possible answers to his problems and for direction in dealing
with them. The counselor interprets for the client to aid him in gaining intellectual insights and
understanding from which future progress and growth can be realized.

f. Purposeful questions are posed by the counselor to stimulate the thinking of the client and to
gain information.

g. The problem and its ramifications are considered with the calm objectivity of the scientist. The
intellectual aspects of the problem, not the emotional, demand first attention.

h. Decisions reached are to a great extent those of the counselor but with the aid and approval of
the client.

i. Judgment tools, instruments and techniques to be used and decisions to be made are the
prerogatives of the counselor.

3. Existential Counseling
Kemp (1971), a proponent of existentialism, believe people form their lives by the choices they
make. Existentialists focus on this freedom of choices and the action that goes with it. They view
people as the author of their lives. According to Frank, the meaning of life always changes but it
never ceases to be. According to them, the meaning of life can be discovered in three ways a) by
doing a deal that is, by achieving or accomplishing something; b) by experiencing a value, such
as work of nature, culture or love; c) by suffering, that is, by finding a proper attitude toward
unalterable faith.

The existentialists give emphasis on the following:

a. It helps client realize the importance of responsibility, awareness, freedom and potential;

b. It hopes that during the course of counseling, clients will take more responsibility for their lives
than they have previously taken;

c. The aim of therapy is that the patient experience his existence as real and that this existence
gives meaning to his life;

d. Through this process, the client is freed from being an observer of events and becomes a shaper
of meaningful personal activity;

e. Existential counselors make use of confrontation. Clients are confronted with the idea that
everyone is responsible for his/her own life;

f. Existential counselors do not make use of psychological tests, nor do they make diagnoses.

4. The Eclectic Approach

The eclectic approach to counseling is best characterized by its freedom to use whatever
techniques or procedures seem to the counselor to be most appropriate at any particular time.
It might utilize client-centered procedures at one time and follow the structured techniques of
the directive counselor at another.

Eclecticism assumes highest level competence and should never be used as rationalization by
the counselor for indiscriminate use or neglect of particular procedures advocated in other

A summary of the eclectic view may be helpful in clarifying relationships among the various

a. The methods used are justified by the counselor because of their appropriateness for both the
client and the counselor. These methods may change from client to client or even with the same

b. It is characterized by flexibility, making a shifting of emphasis in techniques possible and in some

cases desirable.

c. Freedom of choice and of expression is open to both counselor and client. Inhibiting influences
and feelings of guilt by the client are minimized or eliminated.

d. Modification of methods is made in an effort to accommodate the client, and philosophical

frameworks are adjusted to serve the purposes of the relationship.
e. Feelings of comfort are essential. Both people must feel good about what they are doing,
experience mutual confidence and have faith in the relationship.
f. Adaptations are made within the intellectual and emotional structure of the client as he makes
an effort to capitalize on his best resources. He utilizes the concepts of the best philosophies
available to him and bringing about desired changes of his behavior. The councilor likewise,
makes adaptations and adjustments.

5. The Gestalt Therapy

This approach is associated with Gestalt psychology, as school of thought the stresses
perception of completeness and wholeness.
The term Gestalt means the whole figure. Gestalt theory emphasizes how people function
as total units. This approach was popularized in 1960s by Fritz Perls, who focused on helping
individuals become more in touch with the many aspects of their personhood. He stated that
each person has a self-actualizing tendency that emerges through personal interaction with the
environment and the beginning of self-awareness. Self-actualization is centered on the present
it is the process of being what one is and not a process of striving top become. Each person
seeks to live integratively and productively, striving to coordinate the various parts of the person
into a healthy unified whole.

Magana, Sandra B.


Techniques in the counseling process

The goals of counseling are achieved primarily through verbal interactions between the
counselor and clients.

1. Listening Techniques- the counselor in this stage attempts to be an active talking and to keep
him going.

2. Reflection and Clarification Techniques- the counselor which attempt to feedback to the client
the cause of clients own expressions.

3. Leading Techniques- the counselor is playing a more active role in the counseling process,
interjecting some of his own ideas and taking some responsibility for the direction in which he
and the client are moving.

4. Interpretation- attempt to the part of counselor to aid the client in progressing toward his
counseling goal by helping the client put his thoughts and feelings into a more coherent and
organized structure.

5. Instruction- design to clarify the nature of behaviour to be changed and to test out certain
procedures which may affect the desired change.

6. Structuring- occurs when the counselor makes a statement to the client describing his view of
nature o the counseling relationship and the way in which he hopes the counseling will proceed.

7. Capping Techniques- it consist of changing the subject to something less intense ye still
propelling the interview forward.
Terminating the Interview

As with the opening of the session, the counselor has a responsibility to bring the interview to a
close smoothly and skillfully.

Reference to time limitations is one way to remind the student that the time is up.

By saying when would you come back? the counselor indicates the necessity for maintaining
future contacts and gracefully terminates the present interview.

Verbally summarizing the interview is another way of realizing closure.

The interview should end positively with the student knowing what is going to happen.

Abrian, Alethia Abbie B.