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Posted In Treatment Of Joints At November 03, 2017 00:00

Meniscus knee joint symptoms treatment


Treatment of injuries of the knee joint meniscus

Osteoarthritis is able to develop for years, sometimes the disease takes a chronic form and makes
itself felt when a person is in old age. It happens that any careless movement damages the inner or
outer meniscus. It is treated, as a rule, such a pathology for a long time. Therefore, senile arthrosis
presents the greatest danger for healthy joints and knee structures. It is necessary to visit the doctor
periodically and, as necessary, to undergo examinations, appropriate procedures. Osteoarthritis
leads to the destruction of the joint, which will affect not only the condition of the knee, but also the
performance of the patient's leg.
There are cases when patients in time did not cure arthrosis( or treated it incorrectly) and became
disabled. Since the knee joint is a complex structure, it is difficult to treat damage of any kind.
The knee is the largest joint. He, despite all sorts of injuries, is capable of recovery. Usually, a
conservative, comp
lex treatment is prescribed. The operation is required in rare cases, when physiotherapy, traditional
medicine and other means are rendered useless.

What is the knee joint and how does it work?


It is located between two bones: the femur and the tibia. In front is the patella. Anatomically, the
knee consists of cruciform ligament, cartilage and meniscus.
Where the meniscus is located in the knee joint
There are two ligaments in the joint: the posterior and anterior. They perform such important
functions as opposing the shift of the shank backward or forward beyond the norm, holding the
bone protrusion and stabilizing the entire joint. Its surfaces are covered with cartilage. Menisci are
located between two bones( tibial and femur).They are also called sickle cartilages.
There are two types of meniscus: external and internal. In medicine, the concept of meniscus is
interpreted as follows: these are the layers of cartilage that are in the inner part of the knee. As a
rule, they serve as shock absorbers and serve as a stabilizer. The outer meniscus is called the lateral,
and the inner meniscus is called the medial one.
Knee joint meniscus injury significantly complicates movement. Until recently, it was believed that
the presence of the lateral meniscus( as well as the medial) was not due to any functions. The
doctors thought that it was just a remnant of the muscles. However, according to the results of
numerous studies, doctors identified a number of functions. It turns out that menisci can correctly
distribute the load on the joint, protecting it from arthrosis, arthritis. They reduce the force of the
shock, which occurs on the knee, and stabilize it.
The presence of the knee joint meniscus provides a significant reduction in contact voltage. They
limit the amplitude of motion to avoid dislocation. Among other things, the main function of the
meniscus is the transmission of a signal to the brain about the joint state at the moment.
Knee meniscus damage: how often does this happen?
What are the possible damages of knee ligaments
The rupture of this structure is observed mainly among athletes. However, performing daily
physical activities also leads to various injuries. The risk group includes, as a rule, men.
The fact is that they perform all the physical work, so they are often prone to such damage. The
most common are middle-aged people. Men from 18 to 30 years of age are at risk.
In people in old age, the disease also occurs, but for other reasons. This can be a pathology of the
joint, which developed and passed into a chronic form. Thus, any degenerative changes in the knee
joint soon cause consequences( even an accidental stroke or a wrong movement can trigger a
meniscus tear).Which meniscus is damaged most often: lateral or medial?According to statistics,
most patients are diagnosed with an internal meniscus injury. This is due to the fact that he is
anatomically more prone to injury. However, there are cases when the injury extends to the entire
structure of the joint. In addition to the injured meniscus, ligaments are damaged.
Symptoms of trauma are known to have a pronounced character. These are frequent pains, the
intensity of which depends on the severity of the injury.

Symptoms of meniscus damage: symptoms of


Meniscus injuries often occur with torsion on the leg. This happens when running, when the leg is
on a convex surface. In this situation, a person falls and a trauma occurs. Damage to the inner or
outer meniscus is accompanied by pain in the affected area.
Illustration for an external rupture of the knee tendon
The signs and symptoms of meniscus lesions depend on where the rupture occurred. Thus, with
larger injuries of the meniscus, a hematoma is formed. If the meniscus lesions are small, then it
becomes difficult for a person to walk. When walking, characteristic clicks and crunches are heard.
The causes of the occurrence also matter. In accordance with them, the treatment is prescribed.
Symptoms of rupture of the lateral meniscus of the knee joint, the symptoms of the lesion differ
from the characteristic features of the internal knee joint meniscus. If the injury is external, then a
person experiences pain when the fibular ligament( collateral) tenses. At the same time, painful
sensations can be sweeping, giving to the external part of the joint. If you turn your lower leg, you
will feel a sharp pain. In the front of the thigh there is weakness. Such symptoms have a rupture of
the lateral meniscus. Note that the disease makes itself felt at an early stage of development, which
allows you to start treatment on time.
Damage to the medial character has other signs and symptoms. Pain in the inner part of the joint,
spot sensitivity in a certain area( the attachment site of the ligament and meniscus), acute, shooting
painful sensations at the joint strain - all this refers to the symptoms of damage to the medial
meniscus. In addition to these signs, the patient develops swelling. They do not allow to move the
patella. When bending the knee, too, pain is formed. In the anterior surface of the thigh, the patient
feels weak.
Remember that identifying the cause is important in order to prescribe the right treatment. If, for
example, you are a man of age and have found the symptoms described above, then, perhaps, you
have a degenerative rupture of a chronic nature. Young people will not show such a diagnosis.

Diagnosis of the disease


To accurately diagnose, you should consult a specialist. First he will conduct an oral survey, then he
will examine his aching leg. Further the doctor will check up: whether there is a congestion of a
liquid, whether there is no atrophy of muscles?You need to contact a traumatologist.

Where usually a tendon injury occurs


An experienced doctor, when conducting an oral survey and examining the leg, will immediately
diagnose. To make sure of the diagnosis, conduct a survey. X-ray examination, magnetic resonance
imaging, ultrasonic radiation - all this you have to go through. X-ray is the main method of
detecting joint damage.
Knee joint damage: treatment
Different methods are used to treat lesions. One of them is surgery. This method is necessary in the
case when the patient becomes difficult to bend and unbend his leg. The operation is needed when
the patient is not helped by conservative treatment.
Arthroscopy is the name of an operation to remove a damaged meniscus. All necessary actions are
done by means of two notches. The operation as a whole is considered to be not difficult. Complete
recovery of the patient after it occurs only after 2 weeks.
Knee meniscus lesions can be treated with folk remedies. However, doctors do not believe that
traditional medicine is able to completely heal the joint. Such methods are most often recommended
as a supplement. Often they are used during the rehabilitation period. It is appropriate to use alcohol
based compresses based on honey. In addition, a compress made of burdock or onions is effective.
Before using traditional medicine, be sure to consult a doctor.

Knee joint meniscus injury: symptoms, treatment and


operation

In addition to this part of the body, there are few soft tissues that could protect it from damage.
This is why knee joint injuries are diagnosed quite often, and one of the most common injuries is
the meniscus rupture.

Meniscus structure
Meniscus is a cartilaginous crescent-shaped formation. It is located between the shin and thigh and
is a kind of lining between the articular ends of the bones.
Meniscus performs a number of functions, the main one of which is motion damping and
protection of the articular cartilage .In addition, it performs a stabilizing function, which is aimed
at increasing the mutual correspondence of all articular surfaces in contact with each other. Also, the
meniscus helps to significantly reduce friction in the joints.
In the knee joint there are two meniscus :
1. external;
2. internal.
The outer meniscus is more mobile, and therefore it is much less damaged than the internal one.
Certain features have a blood supply to the meniscus. The fact is that in newborn children all their
tissue permeated by blood vessels, but already at nine months from the inside the vessels
completely disappear. As the blood flow increases, the meniscus worsens. From this point of view,
two zones are distinguished: white and red.

Damage classification
distinguishes such varieties of the knee joint meniscus:

Separation from the attachment point. This can occur around the body of the meniscus in
the paracapsular region or in the area of the anterior and posterior horns.
Tears of the body of the meniscus. This can occur in the transchondral area, as well as in
the region of the hind and anterior horns.
All possible combinations of such damages.
Excessive movement of the meniscus .It can be a degeneration of the meniscus or rupture
of its ligaments.
Chronic degeneration or trauma of the meniscus , cystic degeneration.
Meniscus tears can also have several varieties of :

longitudinal;
transverse;
flap-shaped;
crushed.
In terms of complexity, has complete and incomplete breaks.

Causes of rupture
This is quite common phenomenon, and this injury is usually received by people who are engaged
in sports , - skiers, tennis players, figure skaters, football players.
Sometimes an meniscus rupture occurs without injury to .Most often this is observed in the
development of inflammation or degenerative processes in the knee joint. Often, this is due to
arthrosis. Sometimes traumatic injuries of menisci are accompanied by rupture of ligaments and
other injuries of the knee joint.

Symptoms of trauma
Symptoms of , characteristic of knee joint meniscus damage at the initial stage of the disease
development: nonspecific inflammation, severe cramped movements, local pain, presence in the
blood cavity or exudate.
Already after 2-3 weeks these manifestations disappear and symptoms appear that are specific to
the meniscus injury:
1. Local soreness.
2. Presence of effusion.
3. Infiltration of the capsule.
4. Tumor soreness in the area of the joint space.
5. Fixed joint, which is associated with a pinching of the meniscus.
6. Character click when bending the joint.
7. Increased temperature in the area of the affected joint.
8. Atrophy of the muscles of the thigh and lower leg - occurs in some cases.
The chronic form of the disease is observed in case of systematic damage to the meniscus. In this
case there are no clearly expressed signs. Sometimes the following manifest themselves:

pain in the area of the joint space;


synovitis;
atrophy of the quadriceps muscle of the thigh.
To confirm the damage to the meniscus, you can perform the various tests:
1. Symptom Baykova - pain sensations appear when pressing on the joint slit during the
extension of the knee, bent at right angles.
2. Landa symptom - the pain appears when trying to sit "in Turkish."
3. Symptom Steinman - painful sensations occur in a bent at right angles to the knee when
performing rotational movements.
4. Symptom Polyakova - the pain appears in the position on the back with a raised healthy leg
and an elevated trunk, while the patient must rely on the heel of the injured leg and shoulder
blade.
5. Symptom McMurray - Painful sensations are amplified by rotating the leg bent at right
angles to the outside or inside. Due to this, it is possible to judge the trauma of the medial or
lateral meniscus.
6. The Turner symptom is a decrease or increase in sensitivity in the region of the inner
surface of the knee.
7. The symptom of Perelman is the appearance of pain when descending the stairs.
8. Symptom of Chaklin is the strain or flattening of the sartorius muscle during the extension
of the tibia.

To avoid trouble you need to know what to do with a leg dislocation. As it turns out the first aid and
the subsequent treatment you can find here.
Symptoms of rupture of the medial and lateral meniscus of the knee joint also have some
differences. So, to the signs of traumatization of the medial meniscus include:

intense pain sensations from the inside of the joint;


point pain when pressing into the place of attachment of the ligament to the meniscus;
painful sensations with strong bending of the foot;
"knee block";
pain when turning the shin to the outside.
Symptoms of traumatization of the lateral meniscus include:
1. pain in the external part arising from the strain of the knee;
2. pain when turning the shins to the inside;
3. muscle weakness in the anterior part of the thigh.
Diagnosis of damage
Only the doctor can diagnose the diagnosis correctly. Before conducting a study, a specialist should
ask about all the symptoms and perform an examination of the knee and leg. Then the doctor
examines the joint for fluid accumulation and checks for muscle atrophy.
An experienced trauma specialist based on this data will be able to diagnose with an accuracy of
95%.However, in order to get 100% confidence, additional
X-ray examination is necessary;
ultrasound examination;
magnetic resonance imaging.
With the development of any unpleasant sensations in the joint area, x-rays are necessarily
performed - this is the simplest and most accessible method of investigation. In more complex
situations, magnetic resonance imaging is prescribed - it allows, in addition to the joint, to check the
periarticular formations.

Comprehensive treatment
Conservative therapy
Regardless of the severity of the injury, the victim needs first aid. For this, the patient should ensure
complete rest, apply a cold compress and elastic bandage to the knee joint area. To prevent or
remove swelling, you need to lay your foot just above the chest level.
Conservative methods of in the treatment of a knee joint meniscus tear include the use of non-
steroidal painkillers. These include ibuprofen, meloxicam, diclofenac .
To restore cartilaginous tissue, requires chondoprotectors - they help improve metabolic processes
in the regenerative tissue. These drugs include chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine. To increase the
water-holding characteristics of the cartilage and prevent inflammation, a biologically active
supplement collagen ultra can be prescribed.
For grinding, various ointments - ketoral, alesan, voltaren, dolgite are used. If pain and limited
mobility are observed, Ostenil can be administered inside the joint bag.

Surgery
Indications for surgery for rupture of the meniscus of the knee joint are :
1. rupture and displacement of the meniscus.
2. Blood in the cavity.
3. Milling of the meniscus tissue.
4. Detachment of the body and horns of the meniscus.
5. No effect from drug treatment for several weeks.
In such situations, it may be assigned to surgery, which is carried out by different methods :
meniscectomy or meniscus removal
This operation is shown in the separation of a large portion of meniscus cartilage tissue
decomposition, the development of complications. This procedure refers to a rather traumatic and
leads to the elimination of pain only in 50-70% of cases.

Restoring the meniscus


If possible, surgeons try to keep the meniscus as far as possible. Restoration is possible in the
following situations:

detachment of the meniscus from the capsule;


longitudinal vertical fracture;
peripheral rupture of the meniscus;
no degenerative processes in the cartilaginous tissue;
is a young age.
Successful operation depends on the prescription and location of the gap. The localization of the
lesion in the red or intermediate region and the age of the patient up to 40 years increase the
probability of a successful outcome.

Arthroscopy

MRI photo of the damaged meniscus of the knee


This method is considered the most advanced and the least traumatic. During the procedure, using
an arthroscope, visualize the site of the lesion and perform the operation. This method can be used
with ruptures of the body or anterior horn of the meniscus. Read more about it.
Approximately 70-85% of cases of cartilaginous tissue fully fused, and the knee joint restores its
functions.

meniscus transplantation
indications for such an operation to break the meniscus of the knee is considered crushing the
meniscus and a significant deterioration in the quality of human life. In this contraindication to
transplantation are: elderly age, knee instability, degenerative processes, general diseases.
Bond meniscus special holders
With this procedure fails to seal the meniscus without performing additional cuts. For this,
absorbable fixatives of the first or second generation are used.

Rehabilitation
Of no small importance is the rehabilitation period after the injury. It includes :
1. Perform special exercises for knee joint development.
2. Use of chondoprotectors and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Massage,
physiotherapy.
3. .
4. No stress for a year.
Rehabilitation after such an injury includes five steps:
1. Stage 1 of the - its duration is 4-8 weeks. At this stage, you need to try to maximize the
range of motion in the injured joint, reduce swelling.
2. Stage 2 of the - lasts about 2.5 months. It is necessary to completely restore the motor
activity, eliminate puffiness, begin to train weakened muscles.
3. Stage 3 of the - it is necessary to completely restore the motor activity in sports, to restore
the strength of the muscles. At this stage, actively engaged in physical therapy and return to
the usual life.
4. Stage 4 - you must get the opportunity to actively engage in sports without pain, as well as
to increase the muscle strength of the injured leg.
5. 5 stage - it is necessary to restore all the functions of the joint.

Prevention
In order to prevent the from breaking the meniscus , it is necessary to use special knee pads during
sports activities - this will help minimize the risk of injury.
is also recommended to perform special exercises , which will help strengthen muscle strength,
take chondoprotectors and drugs that improve peripheral circulation.
Meniscus rupture is a fairly common injury of the knee joint, which significantly impairs the quality
of life of a person. Therefore, for any damage, it is worth to turn to an experienced traumatologist -
he will be able to make the correct diagnosis and choose the treatment.
osteocure.ru

meniscus of the knee: the symptoms and treatment of the


disease symptoms
injury meniscus patella
understand that there was a torn meniscus, can be on their own feelings. A sign of the rupture is
characteristic crackling, cotton. In the first minutes the pain is not felt, a person may not even
realize that he was injured. When moving, there is no pain, even with full support for the injured
leg. And if the load does not weaken, for example, the athlete continues training, then the danger
that the splinter will fall into the articulation gap increases.
Symptoms increase gradually and appear about 2 days after injury. At the patient in an initial phase
the significant restriction in an extension of the sick extremity is observed. A characteristic feature
of injury is swelling and then joined thereto and other signs of damage:

limitation of freedom of movement of the joint, stiffness, inability to straighten the leg;
sudden full knee mobility blockade;
instability of the knee joint;
increased sensitivity in the area of injury;
pain.
By the nature of the pain, it is possible to determine the localization of the injury. When the internal
meniscus ruptures, shooting pain arises on the inside of the knee. In addition, there is a point
discomfort over the place of attachment. Pain also occurs when turning a bent knee, with excessive
force when bending the leg. There is a weakening of the hip muscles on the front surface. With
partial or complete destruction of the external meniscus, severe pain is felt in the outer part of the
calyx, when the knee is turned inwards. In addition, there are special symptoms specific to these
injuries.

When lifting legs straightened knee becomes clearly visible atrophy of the quadriceps
femoris on the inside and strong tension sartorius( tailor inache- symptom).
Pressing the bent at the right angle of the knee with a passive extension of the leg causes an
increase in pain - this is the symptom of Baykov.
Discomfort and pain intensification is noted with the usual unhurried descent from the stairs.
This phenomenon is called "symptom of the staircase"( or otherwise - Pelman's symptom).
Even during normal walking in a calm pace symptom "click" can be observed, and the
attempt to sit with crossed legs causing discomfort and increased pain.
Rauber - detected on radiographs in 2-3 months after the injury and is sprouting
shiloobraznyh formations on the condyles of the knee.
Polyakova - pain in the kneecap appears when you try to raise the healthy leg from a prone
position, resting on the heel of the patient's back and legs.
Inside the joint, changes also occur. The synovial fluid accumulates in the joint cavity, articular
cartilage is gradually destroyed, exposing the surface of bones in the joint.

Diagnosis
Symptoms of a meniscus rupture are similar to those of other knee diseases. X-ray helps to
eliminate diseases that have similar symptoms.

The diagnosis is confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging - it provides a good snapshot of


the soft tissues of the knee;
by ultrasonic examination.
In addition, pain and sound tests are conducted.
Treatment of the knee joint meniscus
The release of a meniscus, sandwiched between the cartilages of the knee joint, is entrusted to a
traumatologist, orthopedist or manual therapist. Usually, several procedures are sufficient to restore
the normal mobility of the joint. In an unfavorable case, the patient is prescribed a joint extension.
artritsustava.ru

Knee joint meniscus: treatment for meniscus injury at home


Folk treatment of meniscus at home: recipes
It should be noted that the treatment of the meniscus at home is not able to completely restore the
patient's health, but is aimed at eliminating pain, reducing edema or improving motor function. In
any case, when the first symptoms appear, you need to contact a specialist who will conduct a
thorough examination and prescribe competent therapy.

Treatment of the meniscus with honey


Honey tincture is used for compresses.

To make it, you need to take a tablespoon of liquid honey and medical alcohol.
Ingredients should be mixed and melt in a water bath.
Next, it is recommended to cool the mixture a bit, so as not to burn yourself, and put it on a
sore knee.
On top, you need to wrap your leg with polyethylene and a woolen shawl.
Keep the compress two hours in the morning and in the evening.
Perform the procedure daily until complete recovery.

Treating meniscus with bile


You need to buy a bottle of medical bile in the pharmacy.
Two tablespoons of the product should be slightly heated in a water bath and smear them
with a knee, wrapped up with a bandage and a warm kerchief.
The duration of the wrapping procedure is 2 hours.
You need to put the compress in the morning and in the evening. In a couple of months the
patient's condition will improve.

Treatment of a burdock with a burdock


A simple but very effective method of treating a meniscus is a burdock compress.

It is necessary to take a fresh leaf of the plant and wrap it with a knee, attaching a bandage
or a handkerchief.
After 3-4 hours the sheet needs to be changed.
In winter, you can use and dry burdock leaves, previously soaking them in warm water. The
procedure will last no longer 4, but 8 hours.
Make wraps daily until the pain disappears.
Treatment of the meniscus with onion
The onion mixture successfully helps to get rid of the disease.

To cook it, you need to grate two small onions and add a dessert spoonful of sugar to the
gruel.
The prepared drug must be wrapped in several layers of gauze, attach to the knee, and top
with a film and stand all night.
Wrapping is recommended for a month.

Treating the meniscus with horseradish


The horseradish root should be crushed thoroughly to make a tablespoon.
Then the raw material should be placed in a container and steamed on low heat.
It is necessary to crush the horseradish, moisten the resulting tissue, apply it to a sore spot
and tie it with a handkerchief.
Hold for 2 hours, then rinse with warm water.

Treatment of meniscus with apple cider vinegar


Apple cider vinegar has analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. It is recommended to take the
vinegar solution three times a day.

You need to add a teaspoon of apple cider vinegar and a similar amount of honey in a glass
of warm water.
Drink daily for 10 days.
Then you can repeat the course after a 3-day break.

Treatment of meniscus with pork fat


Take 200 g of inner fat and put it on a low heat.
When the fat is slightly warmed up, it should be added to it the crushed garlic head and 2
spoons of dried eucalyptus leaves.
When the mass boils, it must be infused for 2 hours, then passed through gauze and place the
drug in a glass jar.
It is recommended to rub the mixture twice a day into the diseased knee.

Treatment of meniscus with garlic


Garlic tincture can effectively reduce pain syndrome and improve the patient's well-being.

To make it, you need to grind the garlic( 2 heads) and add it to apple cider vinegar( 0,5l).
Pour the medicine into a dark bottle and insist for a week.
The medicine must be rubbed into the affected area twice a day by massaging movements
for 10-15 minutes.
Carry out the procedure until the pain disappears completely in the knee.
Treatment of the meniscus with herbs
To prepare a medicinal tincture, you need to take a tablespoon of birch buds, leaves of
violets and nettles.
All components must be crushed, mixed and poured into 500 ml of boiling water.
The medicine should be insisted for 30 minutes and filtered through a sieve or gauze.
Take 1/4 cups 4 times a day.

Rehabilitation after meniscus surgery


Most often, a meniscus injury requires surgery. The length of rehabilitation depends on the nature
and severity of the damage. After suturing the meniscus tears, rehabilitation lasts 9-12 months, after
removal of the meniscus - 2-3 months. During the recovery period, therapeutic exercise,
independent movement on crutches is shown.
After the removal of gypsum, physiotherapy is prescribed. It is necessary to do massage and simple
passive exercises: to put the roller under the heel and perform the extension with the operated
leg;To lay, straining for 10 seconds of a muscle of a femur and t. Before their performance it is
necessary to consult with the expert.

Prevention and useful advice on how to avoid inflammation and meniscus injury
^
Preventive measures to avoid damage to the meniscus are to prevent injury when running or
walking. It is advisable for athletes to wear knee pads or use elastic bandage. An equally effective
method of prevention is to strengthen the body through exercise and a balanced diet.
Before any physical activity, you need to warm up and warm up your muscles. To avoid injury, you
need to work on strengthening the quadriceps muscle of the thigh, which works when extending the
knee joint. A very effective exercise is the slow descent and lifting of the straight leg, performed in
a standing position.
You can strengthen the cartilaginous tissue with a balanced diet. To do this, include in the daily diet
of protein foods, foods containing calcium, magnesium and potassium. Often athletes use various
nutritional supplements that have a positive effect on joints: collagen, glucosamine or chondroitin.
In general, an active lifestyle and a correct diet will not only strengthen the knee menisci, but also
increase the vital forces of the body.
happy-womens.com

Knee joint meniscus: symptoms, diagnosis, treatment


View of knee joint meniscus

General characteristic of
During leg movements, the meniscus changes shape depending on the directions in which they are
shifted, While the inner is much more mobile than the outer one.
Blood to the meniscus comes from the arteries located in the capsule of the joint. Their internal part
does not have access to blood, but the zone closest to the capsule is best supplied with it. In case of
damage, this part is best treated and treated, in contrast to the internal one, which is the worst after
the rupture. This plays a significant role in how the treatment will be treated.
Meniscus lesions can be either separate or combined with each other. As the statistics show, the
most damage occurs in the inner meniscus. Less common with external problems. The most rare
cases relate to disruption of the ability to work and the disease of both menisci simultaneously. The
cause of the problem, which all athletes are afraid of - the rupture of the internal meniscus of the
knee joint - can be a sharp bending of the legs during the jump or unsuccessful movement.

Symptoms of diseases
The first symptoms of meniscus damage are similar to those of any other joint disease. If there is a
break in the meniscus, then this problem can be identified only 2 weeks after the injury. Symptoms
of the rupture are:

severe pain, spreading over the surface of the knee from the outside or inside;
decrease in the level of cellular nutrition of muscles;
pain during sports;
elevated temperature in the area of damage;
joint increase;
click when bending.
Due to the fact that many of these symptoms of the meniscus of the knee joint are found and with
other problems with the knee, it is necessary to consult a doctor and conduct a full examination to
establish an accurate diagnosis. The inner meniscus is most often torn( longitudinally or
transversely), detached from the capsule or squeezed. The outer meniscus, thanks to its mobility,
only squeezes. Therefore, the symptoms of damage to the medial meniscus from lateral injuries can
be fundamentally different.
A visual example of the femur and meniscus
Symptoms in case of damage to the medial meniscus:

pain concentrated in the internal honor of the joint;


special sensitivity over the joint area of the meniscus and ligament;
pain with strong bending of the legs;
weakening of the muscles of the anterior part of the thigh;
sudden lumbago under tension.
Symptoms for damage to the lateral meniscus:

pain in the peroneal ligament;


pain in the region of the collateral ligament with strong flexion of the legs;
weakening of the muscles of the anterior part of the thigh;
synovitis.
Damage and illness
Damage to the external and internal meniscus of the knee joint has various classifications. From the
anatomical point of view, the discontinuities are patchwork, degenerate, radial, horizontal, etc. In
terms of the localization of the injury, there are gaps:

in the red-red zone - the meniscus is disconnected from the capsular attachment;
in the red-white zone - damage in the paracapsular region;
in the white-and-white area - damage in the site, deprived of blood vessels.
The doctor operates the knee
Meniscus lesions often occur due to direct injury, for example, when a joint strikes a solid object.
But repeated injuries can lead to a chronic pathology, and in the worst case - a break in the
meniscus. Meniscus can degenerate with rheumatism or gout. If various injuries occur
simultaneously, it can cause a defect in other parts of the joint: ligaments, capsules, cartilage.
One of the most common diseases associated with the joint is the knee joint meniscus cyst. Cyst is
the formation of fluid inside its cavity. Most often occurs in middle-aged people. In addition, there
is a high chance of developing meniscus cyst in young people. With the appearance of a cyst, the
chance of rupture of the meniscus increases several times. The main symptom is swelling in the
area of the anterolateral surface, which increases during flexion of the knee. The cyst of the outer
meniscus can lead to a degenerative condition of bone tissue and arthrosis.
The deforming arthrosis in the tibia is called the Rauber-Tkachenko symptom - it can only be
determined with the help of an X-ray. If the cyst is formed in the medial meniscus, then the swelling
can be found in the inner part of the knee joint. The cyst is determined by performing magnetic
resonance imaging or sonication.

Diagnosis
Before the treatment of the knee joint meniscus, a thorough diagnosis should be carried out.
Diagnosis involves the collection of anamnesis, examination of the patient, various instrumental
methods of examination. Since menisci are invisible to X-rays, it is used to exclude the possibility
of other damages. Using MRI( magnetic resonance imaging), you can visualize both the meniscus
and other intraarticular structures, after which, based on the information received, the doctor makes
a diagnosis. In addition to MRI, methods such as ultrasound( ultrasound) and CT( computed
tomography) are used.
It is necessary to diagnose
with the help of an MRI, it is possible to clearly say which lesions the meniscus received. The
tomogram clearly shows whether it is pinched, torn or torn. The information received is important,
it gives an idea of the future course of treatment.
Diagnosing recent meniscus problems can cause difficulties. Instead of the correct diagnosis,
doctors can refer the patient to treatment for sprains or an ordinary bruise. After the initial
treatment, pain and clicks go away, but with repeated trauma the disease becomes chronic. In this
case, symptoms may appear, previously not manifested.
Meniscus treatment
On the question of how to treat the knee joint meniscus, you can find many answers, the main thing
is to find an effective one. Depending on the degree of severity of the meniscus damage, as well as
age and many other factors affecting the patient, the doctor chooses one of two treatment methods:
operative or conservative. Regardless of further treatment, during the provision of first aid to the
victim, a cold compress is applied, which is tied with a bandage. With an elementary displacement
of the meniscus, an experienced doctor can quickly identify and fix the problem. First, for a period
of up to 3 weeks, the patient is impregnated with gypsum, and after its removal, the treatment
process is completed with restorative therapy.
With conservative treatment, knee joint puncture is performed. After removing a certain amount of
blood, the blockade of the joint is eliminated. Next, a set of physiotherapy procedures is appointed,
which will be discussed below. This technique is suitable for patients suffering from meniscus
fractures, which are located in the area of blood supply.
Chondroprotectors are taken to return the cartilaginous tissue to its normal state. The intake of this
drug helps only in the early stages of the disease, since the chondroprotector is not able to
completely repair the completely destroyed cartilage. Do not forget that the treatment course is not
fast - its average duration reaches one and a half years. Sometimes the period of taking the medicine
is extended to 3 years. To determine the daily dose of the drug should consult with a doctor.
Chondroprotectors do not cause side effects, but since they contain a high level of glucose, diabetic
patients should take the drug with extreme caution. The drug is contraindicated for young children,
pregnant women and people who have allergic reactions to this drug. Among the most common are
the following chondroprotectors:

"Artra" - in the form of tablets( USA);


"Dona" - in powder form( Italy);
"Teraflex" is a complex preparation( USA);
"Hondrolon" - in the form of an ampoule solution( Russia);
"Structum" - in the form of capsules( France).
Medical treatment also involves rubbing joints with ointments such as Alesan, Dolgit, Ketoral or
Voltaren. If possible, it is necessary to use bee venom. With pains concentrated in the articular bag,
with the help of injection, introduce "Ostenil".After the first administration of the drug, an
improvement may occur, but it is better to repeat the procedure up to 5 times.
Knee pain
Meniscus treatment also includes physiotherapy. The patient is prescribed a course of therapeutic
gymnastics, various physical procedures and massage. Myostimulation is used to relax and
strengthen the muscles of the thigh. Thanks to magnetotherapy, it is possible to improve metabolism
in muscle tissues. One of the simple but effective exercises that you can do at home is walking on
all fours.

Surgical intervention
Operation on the knee joint meniscus is necessary if:
the meniscus is crushed;
a hemorrhage occurred in the joint cavity;
there was an absolute separation of the meniscus.
The most common operation of the meniscus is arthroscopy. Even with the most complex disorders,
arthroscopic surgery is performed with minimal surgical intervention. During the operation, an
endoscopic device is used, consisting of: a monitor, a stable light source and a video camera. A fluid
supercharger is also used. During the procedure, the joint cavity is constantly washed with saline
solution.
Among the advantages of arthroscopy is the following:

insignificant dimensions of the incision;


there is no need to fix the leg with a plaster bandage;
rehabilitation after surgery is quite fast;
stay on inpatient treatment does not last long;
possibility of ambulatory surgery.
Thanks to the arthroscopic technique, the joint tissues remain intact. In this case, only the injured
fragment is eliminated, and the defective edges are aligned. It should be noted that the subsequent
progression of changes in the joint depends on the amount of the stored meniscus. For example, the
removal of the entire meniscus leads to arthrosis.
Due to minor surgical intervention, the postoperative phase in the hospital lasts about three days.
During the first month it is desirable to avoid any physical exertion. Sometimes when walking it is
necessary to use crutches. Complete recovery of the body occurs after the end of the 6th week of
treatment. The cost of treating the knee joint meniscus depends on the degree of difficulty of the
injury, as well as on the method of treatment chosen. In Russia, the cost of treatment with the
operation can range from 15,000 rubles. Up to 40 000 rubles.

Treatment of the meniscus with folk remedies. Rehabilitation


A popular compress for the meniscus is a warm compress, the basis of which is honey and alcohol
in a ratio of 1: 1.Compress should lie on a sore spot for 2 hours. The pain should disappear after a
month of such daily routines. Another effective remedy is two grated bulbs mixed with a teaspoon
of sugar: warm the mixture, and then apply it in a closed bandage to the injured knee for the night.
As in the case of honey, this procedure must be repeated throughout the month.
In folk medicine, in the treatment of a meniscus, burdock leaves or compresses with medical bile
are also used, but if these remedies do not help, it is necessary to consult a doctor. The
aforementioned remedies are cheaper than drug intervention, but they help only in mild cases of the
disease.
Despite the reasons why the meniscus of the knee joint was damaged, rehabilitation is absolutely
necessary after the treatment. The rehabilitation period includes the elimination of edema, the
healing of cracks and ligaments, and the complete restoration of the knee. Doctors strongly
recommend doing such exercises at home as squats with the ball behind your back, walking
backwards, exercising on an exercise bike, jumping on one leg and many others. Depending on the
severity of the injury and the complexity of the operation, full functioning will be restored in the
period from several weeks to 3 months.
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