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Letter of Transmittal

31 August 2013

Sabrina Hoque Chowdhury


Lecturer
School of Business & Economics
United International University

Subject: Submission of assignment on The perceived relationship between Gender & Motivation.

Dear Madam,
We have successfully completed our group research entitled The perceived relationship between
Gender & Motivation as requirements for partial fulfillment of the course Organizational Behavior
(MGT-2318). This research is a summary of our findings from the organization in Bangladesh named,
Apex Adelchi Footwear Limited (AAFL). We hope it will enhance our future critical thinking about
various organization behavior practices and establish a theoretical and practical baseline regarding the
course.

We have tried our level best to include all the relevant theoretical framework, critical analysis,
application of knowledge and practice base evidence. If you have any questions or queries regarding
the contents of the research; we would be grateful to receive your advice.

Thank you for giving us the opportunity to have a practical knowledge about an organization which
follows various modern Organization Behavior (OB) concepts. We are looking forward to work under
your honorable supervision in our future courses.

Thanking You

Your Sincerely

Md. Al Amin
Shafatul Islam
Sankar Debnath
Raihan Kabir
Millon Rana
Ishrat Jahan

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Acknowledgment

Firstly, we express our gratefulness to Almighty Allah who has made be able to pursue our
study.

It gives us immense pleasure to thank a large number of individuals for their cordial
cooperation and encouragement who have contributed directly or indirectly in preparing this
report.

Our heartfelt thanks are due to our faculty Sabrina Hoque Chowdhury for giving us support,
courage, opportunity & a new out look to work on this innovative criteria. Without her help
it was quite Impossible to do the report and analysis. She always tried to make the things easy
and to feel what the reality is. She motivated us to be focused and work objectively. That
helps us to do the report pragmatically.

And last but not the least; we would like to thank all the executive personnel working in
Apex Adelchi Footwear Limited Ltd. It is about them who made it easy for uswith their
valuable suggestion specially some of our friends who helped us to understand the situation
and encouraged us a lot during the preparation of assignment and helpedus in data collecting
purpose.

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Executive Summary

We have done our research on the Apex Adelchi Footwear (Apex Footwear) Limited, in
which we are trying to find out the relationship between gender and motivation of the
employees working in this industry. In this study we found the relationship between two
factors (gender and motivation). We also able to learn great thing from this study that same
motivational factor cant motivate the entire employee in a time. In an organization all the
employee are not same gender. There are two type of gender one is Male and another is
Female. These two types gender never will be happy in same motivation way or motivation
factors. May be one type gender is happy with good salary and another type happy with good
flexible benefit.

We prepare this base on some peoples interview who works in Apex Adelchi Footwear. We
try to understand various motivational aspects of employee depending on gender. And we
make comparison between male female employees hoe they differ on motivational factors
like productivity, work life balance, pay for performance and so on.

In this study we find out some factor that effect on motivation. And how dose these factor
effects on different types of gender. Sometimes we found some employees who are beyond or
out from any category because they are only think how to improve their organization. There
are self motivated they dont need to do motivate.

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Contents
Methodology........................................................................................................................................... 1
Brief Profile of the Apex Adelchi Footwear Limited ........................................................................... 1
Employee Relationship ....................................................................................................................... 1
Method of Research............................................................................................................................ 1
Methodology of Survey....................................................................................................................... 2
Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 2
Motivation............................................................................................................................................... 2
Motivation is Important .......................................................................................................................... 3
Motivation is important to an individual as:....................................................................................... 4
Motivation is important to a business as:........................................................................................... 4
Job Satisfaction ....................................................................................................................................... 4
Importance of Job Satisfaction ........................................................................................................... 5
How employee can be motivated ........................................................................................................... 6
Motivating by Job designs: The five job characteristics model .............................................................. 7
Skill Variety: ........................................................................................................................................ 7
Task Identity: ....................................................................................................................................... 7
Task Significance: ................................................................................................................................ 8
Autonomy: .......................................................................................................................................... 8
Feedback: ............................................................................................................................................ 8
Motivating by Jobs Redesigned .............................................................................................................. 9
Job Rotation: ....................................................................................................................................... 9
Job Enlargement: ................................................................................................................................ 9
Job Enrichment: ................................................................................................................................ 10
Motivating by Alternative Work Arrangements ................................................................................... 10
Job Sharing: ....................................................................................................................................... 10
Flextime: ........................................................................................................................................... 10
Telecommuting: ................................................................................................................................ 11
Motivating by Employee Involvement .................................................................................................. 11
Employee Involvement: .................................................................................................................... 11
Participative Management: .............................................................................................................. 11
Representative Participation: ........................................................................................................... 12
Quality Circle: .................................................................................................................................... 12
Motivating by Using Rewards ............................................................................................................... 12
Variable-Pay Programs:..................................................................................................................... 12
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Piece-Rate Pay Plan:.......................................................................................................................... 12
Merit-Based Pay Plan: ....................................................................................................................... 13
Bonuses: ............................................................................................................................................ 13
Skill-Based Pay Plan: ......................................................................................................................... 13
Gain Sharing Plan: ............................................................................................................................. 13
Profit Sharing Plan: ........................................................................................................................... 13
Employee Stock Ownership Plan: ..................................................................................................... 14
Flexible Benefits: ............................................................................................................................... 14
Modular Plans: .................................................................................................................................. 14
Core-Plus Plans: ................................................................................................................................ 14
Flexible-Spending Plans: ................................................................................................................... 14
Sample of Survey Question ................................................................................................................... 15
Explaining the Questionnaire & Answers ............................................................................................. 17
Way of Selecting Answers ................................................................................................................. 17
Participated ....................................................................................................................................... 17
Questionnaire & Answers (Objective) .............................................................................................. 18
Questionnaire & Answers (Descriptive) ............................................................................................ 22
Findings and Analysis ............................................................................................................................ 23
How Male employee will be motivated ............................................................................................ 23
How Female employee will be motivated ........................................................................................ 23
Motivate Male & Female Together................................................................................................... 24
Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................. 25

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Methodology

Brief Profile of the Apex Adelchi Footwear Limited

Apex is a leading foot wears company of Bangladesh. Apex footwear Limited, established on 4th
January, 1990 Mr. Sayed Manzur Ilahi is the entrepreneur of Apex. It changes the name to Apex
Adelchi footwear limited. 27th December, 2007. It is the second largest footwear company in
Bangladesh. Apex Adelchi Footwear Limited is a leading manufacturer and exporter of leather
footwear from Bangladesh to Japan, Western Europe and North America. Apex Adelchi was one of
the first companies to start exporting value added finished leather products from Bangladesh. The
company is also involved in local retail business. AAFL has strategic, technical and marketing
alliances with Italy. Public listed and traded since 1993, AAFL is professionally managed, currently
employees 8000 persons and is in full compliance with Corporate Governance Compliance Report
under Section 2CC of the Securities Exchange Commission Notification Order. Per day production
capacity is more than 20000 pairs. Apex footwear is most successful footwear company in
Bangladesh. The company achieved net sales of BDT 7.8 billon in 2011. Its market share is growing
fast along with the emerging middle income population of the country.

Employee Relationship

Apex Adelchi Footwear maintains a very strong relationship among employees. It presently employs
8000 persons at various departments. In the lunch time during office hour, employees have their foods
by sitting in same table. The company provides same type of food for all employees. It never
differentiates any person in terms of their designations. It maintains a free flow of information among
the employees. Any employee can ask any question to any middle and top level management at any
time. When a person comes to another person, they give priority to that persons need to their own
task that they were performing. They deem it is discourteous to continue their own task when a person
comes to them. Most of its employees believe that they are doing a business not a job.

Method of Research
For our research, we have formed series of questions to measure relationship between gender and
motivation in organizations selected. We formed the questionnaire to understand the relationship. We
know that, motivation is fully internal force or it depend on mind. So we formed questions like this
type. Here are some questions that are really very personal but thanks to that persons who gave
answers very friendly.

We divided our time in three parts at time of interview. One team formed with a female for female
employees. Because we think that one female freely answers on the font of another female. Others
two teams for male employee.

We also followed some other methods which are given below:

Literature review of the related topics.


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Library research & studies
On line journal assessment & analysis about the topic.
Consulting with the general work force or employees of that organizations root level.
Noting the important points & in formations & focused our analysis based on the data which
were available during the conversation with the employees.
Class room lectures, class notes, lecture notes, relevant case studies
Real life experience & evidences with examples on the basis of theoretical & conceptual
analytical frame work.

Methodology of Survey
The responses to the survey have been quantified by assigning weights to answers. For instance, a
Strongly agree in response to a question gets a weight of 4, an Agree gets a weight of 3, a
disagree gets a weight of 2 and so on.

Introduction
Before we go our result of this study at first we have to know about motivation and job satisfaction.
How it helps to do better performance. When one employee motivated he or she will satisfied with job
and try level best to give better performance. So, fist we have understand what is motivation an what
is job satisfaction.

Motivation
Motivation is the word derived from the word motive which means needs, desires, wants or drives
within the individuals. It is the process of stimulating people to actions to accomplish the goals.
Motivation is a psychological feature that arouses an organism to act towards a desired goal and
elicits, controls, and sustains certain goal directed behaviors. It can be considered a driving force; a
psychological one that compels or reinforces an action toward a desired goal. For example, hunger is
a motivation that elicits a desire to eat.
Geen (1995) defines motivation as the, initiation, direction, intensity and persistence of human
behavior. Twyla Dell writes of motivating employees, "The heart of motivation is to give people
what they really want most from work. The more you are able to provide what they want, the more
you should expect what you really want, namely: productivity, quality, and service."

Motivation has been shown to have roots in physiological, behavioral, cognitive, and social areas.
Motivation may be rooted in a basic impulse to optimize well-being, minimize physical pain and
maximize pleasure. It can also originate from specific physical needs such as eating, sleeping or
resting, and sex.
Motivation is an inner drive to behave or act in a certain manner. It's the difference between waking
up before dawn to pound the pavement and lazing around the house all day. These inner conditions
such as wishes, desires, goals, activate to move in a particular direction in behavior.
In summary, motivation can be defined as the purpose for, or psychological cause of, an action.

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Motivation is Important
Motivation helps employees to work better in the organizations. Motivation is a very important for an
organization because of the following benefits it provides:-
1. Puts human resources into action

Every concern requires physical, financial and human resources to accomplish the goals. It is
through motivation that the human resources can be utilized by making full use of it. This can
be done by building willingness in employees to work. This will help the enterprise in
securing best possible utilization of resources.

2. Improves level of efficiency of employees

The level of a subordinate or a employee does not only depend upon his qualifications and
abilities. For getting best of his work performance, the gap between ability and willingness
has to be filled which helps in improving the level of performance of subordinates. This will
result into-

a. Increase in productivity,
b. Reducing cost of operations, and
c. Improving overall efficiency.

3. Leads to achievement of organizational goals

The goals of an enterprise can be achieved only when the following factors take place :-

a. There is best possible utilization of resources,


b. There is a co-operative work environment,
c. The employees are goal-directed and they act in a purposive manner,
d. Goals can be achieved if co-ordination and co-operation takes place simultaneously
which can be effectively done through motivation.

4. Builds friendly relationship

Motivation is an important factor which brings employees satisfaction. This can be done by
keeping into mind and framing an incentive plan for the benefit of the employees. This could
initiate the following things:

a. Monetary and non-monetary incentives,


b. Promotion opportunities for employees,
c. Disincentives for inefficient employees.

In order to build a cordial, friendly atmosphere in a concern, the above steps should be taken
by a manager. This would help in:

d. Effective co-operation which brings stability,


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e. Industrial dispute and unrest in employees will reduce,
f. The employees will be adaptable to the changes and there will be no resistance to
the change,
g. This will help in providing a smooth and sound concern in which individual
interests will coincide with the organizational interests,
h. This will result in profit maximization through increased productivity.

5. Leads to stability of work force


Stability of workforce is very important from the point of view of reputation .The employees can
remain loyal to the enterprise only when they have a feeling of participation in the management. The
skills and efficiency of employees will always be of advantage to employees as well as employees.
This will lead to a good public image in the market.

From the above discussion, we can say that motivation is an internal feeling which can be understood
only by manager since he is in close contact with the employees. Needs, wants and desires are inter-
related and they are the driving force to act. These needs can be understood by the manager and he
can frame motivation plans accordingly. We can say that motivation therefore is a continuous process
since motivation process is based on needs which are unlimited. The process has to be continued
throughout.

We can summarize by saying that motivation is important both to an individual and a business.

Motivation is important to an individual as:

1. Motivation will help him achieve his personal goals.


2. If an individual is motivated, he will have job satisfaction.
3. Motivation will help in self-development of individual.
4. An individual would always gain by working with a dynamic team.

Motivation is important to a business as:

1. The more motivated the employees are, the more empowered the team is.
2. The more is the team work and individual employee contribution, more profitable and
successful is the business.
3. During period of amendments, there will be more adaptability and creativity.
4. Motivation will lead to an optimistic and challenging attitude

Job Satisfaction
Job satisfaction is how content an individual is with his or her job. Scholars and human resource
professionals generally make a distinction between affective job satisfaction and cognitive job
satisfaction. Affective job satisfaction is the extent of pleasurable emotional feelings individuals have
about their jobs overall, and is different to cognitive job satisfaction which is the extent of individuals

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satisfaction with particular facets of their jobs, such as pay, pension arrangements, working hours, and
numerous other aspects of their jobs.

At its most general level of conceptualization, job satisfaction is simply how content an individual is
with his or her job. At the more specific levels of conceptualization used by academic researchers and
human resources professionals, job satisfaction has varying definitions. Affective job satisfaction is
usually defined as an unidimensional subjective construct representing an overall emotional feeling
individuals have about their job as a whole. Hence, affective job satisfaction for individuals reflects
the degree of pleasure or happiness their job in general induces. Cognitive job satisfaction is usually
defined as being a more objective and logical evaluation of various facets of a job. As such, cognitive
job satisfaction can be unidimensional if it comprises evaluation of just one aspect of a job, such as
pay or maternity leave, or multidimensional if two or more facets of a job are simultaneously
evaluated. Cognitive job satisfaction does not assess the degree of pleasure or happiness that arises
from specific job facets, but rather gauges the extent to which those job facets are judged by the job
holder to be satisfactory in comparison with objectives they themselves set or with other jobs. While
cognitive job satisfaction might help to bring about affective job satisfaction, the two constructs are
distinct, not necessarily directly related, and have different antecedents and consequences.

Many authors give a variety of definitions of job satisfaction. Some definitions of job satisfaction are
given below:

Job satisfaction does not seem to reduce absence, turnover and perhaps accident rates.
-Robert L. Kahn

Job satisfaction is defined as a pleasurable, emotional, state resulting from appraisal of ones job. An
affective reaction to ones job.
-Weiss

Job satisfaction is a general attitude towards ones job: the difference between the amount of reward
workers receive and the amount they believe they should receive.
-Stephen P. Robbins

Job satisfaction defines as The amount of overall positive affect (or feeling) that individuals have
toward their jobs.
-Hugh J. Arnold and Daniel C. Feldman

Importance of Job Satisfaction


Increase production
Decrease absenteeism
Low production cost
Increase job involvement
Always try to do for organization
Low turnover rate
Increase relationship with organization
Create positive work environment on organization

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We know before about the motivation and how it helps it to do better performance. Our study topic is
relationship between gender & motivation. This topic means we all know any organization there
are two of gender one is male & another female. These two types gender never will be happy in
same motivation way or motivation factors. For example we can say, may be male gender is
happy with good salary and female happy with good flexible benefit. So, our try to find out
which gender need what motivation factor. After motivate an employee that employee will be
satisfied with his or her job. Now we can easily say this motivation will or must be effect on
organizations productivity, work life balance, pay for performance and etc.

Before, we done this study we take some interview who works in Apex footwear Limited. They
gave us very use full answer for our study. We did our study on the basis of those answers.

Now we will know some basic role to motivate employee & try to focus the implication those to this
organization. So lets go

How employee can be motivated


Here we discuses some basic Theory of motivation that discuses by many scholars.

Motivating by Job designs: The five job characteristics model:

Skill Variety
Task Identity
Task Significance
Autonomy
Feedback

Motivating by Jobs Redesigned:

Job Rotation
Job Enlargement
Job Enrichment

Motivating by Alternative Work Arrangements:

Flextime
Job Sharing
Telecommuting

Motivating by Employee Involvement:

Participative Management
Representative Participation
Quality Circle

Motivating by Using Rewards:

What to Pay: Establishing a Pay Structure:

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Internal Equity
External Equity

How to Pay: Rewarding Individual Employees Through Variable-Pay Programs:


Piece-Rate Pay Plan
Merit-Based Pay Plan
Bonuses
Skill-Based Pay Plan:
Profit-Sharing Plans
Gain Sharing Plans
Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESPOs)
What Benefits to offer, especially whether to offer employees choice in benefits: Flexible
Benefits:
Modular Plans
Core-Plus Plans
Flexible Spending Plans

Motivating by Job designs: The five job characteristics model

Skill Variety:
The degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities in carrying out the work, involving
the use of a number of different skills and talents of a person is called as skill variety.A job that
involves a variety of skills may alleviate boredom and foster greater meaning in our work.Greater
skill variety has been found to be associated with greater perceived meaningfulness of work. Skill
variety would involve using different talents and skills in a job. Greater skill variety may foster
greater meaning in work because it allows us to express more aspects of our personality in our
work. It may also increase meaning because it reduces boredom.

Apex Adelchi Footwear Limited provide skill variety for their employee. The company believes that
the skill variety can create a great change in productivity. As it reduces boredom the employees show
more efficiency in their work. The company thinks it is one of the great reasons for the rapid success
of the company. They always try to bring the best skills of their employees. They believe thatthe
more skills involved, the more meaningful the work.

Task Identity:
The degree to which a job requires completion of a whole and identifiable place of work is called as
task identity. Task identityextent to which a job involves doing a complete from beginning to end and
identifiable piece of work with a visible outcome, as opposed to doing only a portion of the job. Task
identity is an important component of jobsatisfaction. We can say task identity is the extent to which
the job includes a whole identifiable unit of work that is carried out from start to finish and that
results in a visible outcome is its task identity.

Like skill variety Apex Adelchi Footwear Limited also follow the task identity. The engineers of the
company design for the project investigate the project and strictly observe the project unless it is
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completed. That is from beginning till ending engineers are related with the work and they results a
visible outcome which we call task identity. So task identity plays a vital role for the company.

Task Significance:
The degree to which a job has a substantial impact on the lives or work of other people is called as
task significance.Researchers studying both job design (Hackman & Oldham, 1976) and social
information processing (Salancik&Pfeffer, 1978) have proposed that when employees perceive their
jobs as high in task significance, they display higher job performance. Job design researchers
conceptualize task significance as an objective characteristic of the work itself, seeking to increase job
performance by structurally redesigning tasks to enrich employees' perceptions of task significance
(Steers &Mowday, 1977). The amount of impact the job has on other people indicates its task
significance. A job is more meaningful if it is important to other people for some reason.

Apex Adelchi Footwear Limited also follow the task significance for better job performance.

Autonomy:
The degree to which a job provides substantial freedom and discretion to the individual in scheduling
the work and in determining the procedures to be used carrying it out.The extent of individual
freedom and discretion in the work and its scheduling indicates autonomy. More autonomy leads to a
greater feeling of personal responsibility for the work. Efforts to increase autonomy may lead to what
was characterized as job enrichment by Frederick Herzberg. Examples of actions that increase
autonomy include giving more freedom and authority so the employee can perform the job as he or
she sees fit and increasing an employees accountability for work by reducing external control.

Apex Adelchi Footwear Limited do not believe in giving autonomy to its employees. The company
thinks that if they provide autonomy it will hamper the work environment of the company. Employees
will want to perform their work according to their wish. For this they might not follow the rules and
regulation of the company. The company does not provide freedom of work for their employee rather
than it encourages the employee to work according to the rules and regulation of the company.

Feedback:
The degree to which carrying out the work activities required by a job result in the individual
obtaining direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance . The amount
of information employees receive about how well or how poorly they have performed is feedback.
The advantage of feedback is that it helps employees to understand the effectiveness of their
performance and contributes to their overall knowledge about the work. At one firm, feedback reports
from customers who contact the company with problems are given directly to the employees who
handle the customers complaints, instead of being given only to the department manager

Apex Adelchi Footwear Limited strongly believe in feedback. The company always tries to maintain a
good and long term relationship with their customers. For this they really take the feedback of the
customers with great importance. The head of the Marketing Department is always concern about the
feedback of the company given by the customers, because the company believes in to provide the best
service and keep longer relations with the customers.

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Motivating by Jobs Redesigned
Job Rotation:
Job rotation is a management technique that assigns trainees to various jobs and departments over a
period of a few years. Surveys show that an increasing number of companies are using job rotation to
train employees. There are both positive and negative effects involved with job rotation that need to
be taken into consideration when a company makes the decision to usethis technique.

Job rotation is also a control to detect errors and frauds. It reduces the risk of collusion between
individuals. Organizations dealing with sensitive information or system where there is an opportunity
for personal gain can benefit by job rotation. Job rotation also helps in business continuity as multiple
people are equally equipped to perform a job function. If an employee is not available other can
handle his/her position with similar efficiency.

Apex Adelchi Footwear Limited follow the job rotation. They believe that job rotation is very
important to maintain the consistency of improvement of the company. The company allows its
employees to work in different department over a period of time. This is really beneficial for them
because if someone s absent or unable to perform his/her work other can easily replace him/her and
can maintain the work.

Job Enlargement:
Job enlargement means, increasing the scope of a job through extending the range of its job duties
and responsibilities generally within the same level and periphery. This contradicts the principles
of specialization and the division of labor whereby work is divided into small units, each of which is
performed repetitively by an individual worker and the responsibilities are always clear. Some
motivational theories suggest that the boredom and alienation caused by the division of labor can
actually cause efficiency to fall. Thus, job enlargement seeks to motivate workers through reversing
the process of specialization. A typical approach might be to replace assembly lines with modular
work; instead of an employee repeating the same step on each product, they perform several tasks on
a single item. In order for employees to be provided with Job Enlargement they will need to be
retrained in new fields which can prove to be a lengthy process. However results have shown that this
process can see its effects diminish after a period of time, as even the enlarged job role become the
mundane, this in turn can lead to similar levels of demotivation and job dissatisfaction at the expense
of increased training levels and costs. The continual enlargement of a job over time is also known as
'job creep,' which can lead to an unmanageable workload.

Apex Adelchi Footwear Limited follow the job enlargement. The company feels that this way is to
expand in several tasks than just to do one single task. It is also the horizontal expansion of a job. It
involves the addition of tasks at the same level of skill and responsibility. It is done to keep workers
from getting bored. This would also be considered multi tasking by which one person would do
several persons jobs, saving the company money and man hours that normally would be paid to
additional workers. New companies like them may not have as many opportunities for promotions,
so they try to motivate employees through job enlargement.

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Job Enrichment:
Job enrichment is the vertical expansion of jobs which increases the degree to which the worker
controls the planning execution, and evaluation of the work. It is an attempt to motivate employees by
giving them the opportunity to use the range of their abilities. It is an idea that was developed by the
American psychologist Frederick Herzberg in the 1950s. It can be contrasted to job
enlargement which simply increases the number of tasks without changing the challenge. As such job
enrichment has been described as 'vertical loading' of a job, while job enlargement is 'horizontal
loading. Job enrichment involves organizing and planning in order to gain more control over their
duties and work as a manager. The execution of plans and evaluation of results motivates workers and
relieves boredom. Job enrichment gives employees a chance to stay in their current roles, but
experience a greater depth of responsibility through enhanced tasks.

&K Associates also follow the job enrichment. They think that it helps them to motivate their
employees within their responsibilities.

Motivating by Alternative Work Arrangements


Job Sharing:
Job sharing is an employment arrangement where typically two people are retained on a part-time or
reduced-time basis to perform a job normally fulfilled by one person working full-
time. Compensation is apportioned between the workers, thus leading to a net reduction in per-
employee income. Job sharing should not be confused with the more pejorative term feather bedding,
which describes the deliberate retention of excess workers on a payroll.For employees seeking more
free time for them, job sharing may be a way to take back more control of their personal
lives. Employees who job share frequently attribute their decision to "quality of life" issues. Studies
have shown that net productivity increases when two people share the same 40-hour job.

Apex Adelchi Footwear Limited provide job sharing between their employees. They think that
employees will get more free times from this which will later encourage them to work more
efficiently. For this they think job sharing is a very good way of alternative work arrangements.

Flextime:
Flextime is a variable work schedule, in contrast to traditional work arrangements
requiring employees to work a standard 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. day. Under flextime, there is typically a core
period (of approximately 50% of total working time / working day) of the day, when employees are
expected to be at work (for example, between 11 a.m. and 3 p.m.), while the rest of the working day is
"flextime", in which employees can choose when they work, subject to achieving total daily, weekly
or monthly hours in the region of what the employer expects, and subject to the necessary work being
done. A flextime policy allows staff to determine when they will work, while a flex place policy
allows staff to determine where they will work. Advantages include allowing employees to adopt their
work hours to public transport schedules, to the schedules their children have, and that road traffic
will be less congested, more spread out.

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Apex Adelchi Footwear Limited do not provide any flextime. They think it will hamper their routine
work. It allows it employees only to work from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. Flextime does not really work for
them.

Telecommuting:
Telecommuting is a work arrangement in which employees do not commute to a central place of
work. A person who telecommutes is known as a "telecommuter and sometimes as a "home-sourced"
employee. Many telecommuters work from home, while others sometimes called "nomad workers",
use telecommunications technology to work from homes. Telecommuting requires an employee to do
his normal duties from his home, rather than at an office. While some telecommuters work from home
a few days a week, others do this full-time. A telecommuter needs self-motivation, organization and
strong communication skills in order to be successful.

As we have said earlier Apex Adelchi Footwear Limited is a newly launched company it has not
started telecommuting yet. But the company wishes to start telecommuting in the company. Although
the company does not have telecommuting yet but it shows a positive response for this, because the
company believes to follow the new technology for the betterment of the company and employees.

Motivating by Employee Involvement


Employee Involvement:
A participative process that uses the input of employees and in intended to increase employee
commitment to an organizations success call employee involvement.

Apex Adelchi Footwear Limited believe in employee involvement. They said that to involve
employees, they identified several strategic firm initiatives and delegated authority to employees
across all levels of the firm through task forces to develop those initiatives. This ongoing process
encourages their employees to generate ideas, put plans into action, and create further beneficial
initiatives for the firm. The mission of the company is to offer the highest quality service to clients
and be the best technical experts around. They want to teach their employees to do the same thing for
your clients. They need people who are highly motivated, engaged and excited about what theyre
doing. They believe that the idea of employee involvement, getting them involved in the firms
business, plus technical training, is what drives a high billing rate and ultimately profitability.

Participative Management:
A process in which subordinates share a significant degree of decision making power with their
immediate superiors is called as participative management. Type of management in
which employees at all levels are encouraged to contribute ideas towards identifying and
setting organizational-goals, problem solving, and other decisions that may directly affect them.

Apex Adelchi Footwear Limited do not allow participative management in their company. They do
not think it is necessary to take the ideas given by the employees of all level. They think that if they
take all the ideas it will be really time consuming for them. This will increase the expense of the
company. So they think its necessary to notice all the ideas given by the employees. They also think
that employees must have the skills and abilities to participate. Employees must have the technical
background, communication skills, and intelligence to make decisions and communicate those
decisions effectively.
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Representative Participation:
A system in which workers participate in organizational decision making though a small group of
representative employee is called as representative participation. Representative participation allows
workers to be represented by a small group who actually participate. The goal of representative
participation is to redistribute power within the organization. Employees' interests become as
important as those interests of management and stockholders.

The company also allows representative participation as like participative management.

Quality Circle:

Work groups of employee who meet regularity to discuss their quality problems, investigate causes,
recommend solution, and take corrective action is called as quality circle. It is a volunteer group
composed of workers usually under the leadership of their supervisor who are trained to identify,
analyze and solve work-related problems and present their solutions to management in order to
improve the performance of the organization, and motivate and enrich the work of employees.

Apex Adelchi Footwear Limited use quality circle. As quality circles are formal groups and they meet
regularly on company time and are trained by competent persons who may be personnel and industrial
relations specialists trained in human factors and the basic skills of problem identification,
information gathering and analysis, basic statistics, and solution generation. In quality circle they
generally free to select any topic they wish according to conditions of work, as there are other
channels through which these issues are usually considered.

Motivating by Using Rewards

Variable-Pay Programs:

A pay plan that bases a portion of an employees pay on individual and/or organizational measure of
performance is called variable pay programs. It is a performance-based incentive program for
employees that are based on the companys achievement of annual goals.

Apex Adelchi Footwear Limited follow the variable-pay programs. The different type of variable-pay
programs which are used by this company are discussed following below:

Piece-Rate Pay Plan:


A pay plan in which workers are paid a fixed sum for each unit production completed is called as
piece rate pay plan. It is any type of employment in which a worker is paid a fixed piece rate for each
unit produced or action performed regardless of time. Piece work is a form of performance-related
pay.

Apex Adelchi Footwear Limited follow the piece rate pay plan in production section.

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Merit-Based Pay Plan:
A pay plan based on performance appraisal rating is called as merit-based pay plan. It is a term
describing performance-related pay, most frequently in the context of educational reform. It provides
bonuses for workers who perform their jobs effectively.

Apex Adelchi Footwear Limited follow the merit-based pay plan. The company provides increases to
employees base salary based on their annual performance evaluation.

Bonuses:

A pay plan that rewards employees for recent performance rather than historical performance is called
as bonuses. It is an amount of money added to wages on a seasonal basis, esp. as a reward for good
performance. It is usually made to employees in addition to their base salary as part of their wages.
While the base salary usually is a fixed amount per month, bonus payments more often than not vary
depending on known criteria, such as the annual turnover, or the net number of additional customers
acquired, or the current value of the stock of a public company. Thus bonus payments can act
as incentives for managers attracting their attention and their personal interest towards what is seen as
gainful for their companies' economic success.

Apex Adelchi Footwear Limited provide bonuses to their employees based on their recent
performance and other accomplishment.

Skill-Based Pay Plan:

A pay plan that sets pay levels on the basis of how many skill employees have or how many jobs they
can do is called as skill-based pay plan. It is a Remuneration system in which employees are
paid wages on the basis of number of job skills they have acquired.

Apex Adelchi Footwear Limited follow skill-based pay plan because the company believe that it is
very necessary for acquiring new skills by following the skill-based pay plan. By Skill-based pay Plan
Companyincreases their productivity and also it can boost salaries of employees.

Gain Sharing Plan:

A formula based group incentive plans are called as gain sharing plan. It is companywide group
incentive plans that, through a financial formula for distributing organization wide gains, unite diverse
organizational elements in the common pursuit of improved organizational effectiveness.

Apex Adelchi Footwear Limited doesnt follow the gain sharing plan yet. But soon they will begin the
gain-sharing plan with profit sharing plan.

Profit Sharing Plan:

An organization program that distributes compensation based on some established formula designed
around a company profitable is called as profit sharing plan. Profit sharing refers to
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various incentive plans introduced by businesses that provide direct or indirect payments
to employees that depend on company's profitability in addition to employees'
regular salary and bonuses. In publicly traded companies these plans typically amount to allocation
of shares to employees.

Though it is a new company we told early in our discussion, so the company doesnt follow the profit
sharing plan yet. But soon the company will start profit sharing plan as it is necessary for companys
profitability.

Employee Stock Ownership Plan:


A company-established benefits plan in which employee acquire stock, often at below market prices,
as part of their benefit is called as employee stock ownership plan.It is an employee-owner scheme
that provides a company's workforce with an ownership interest in the company. In an ESOP,
companies provide their employees with stock ownership, often at no up-front cost to the employees.
ESOP shares, however, are part of employees' compensation for work performed. Shares are allocated
to employees and may be held in an ESOP trust until the employee retires or leaves the company. The
shares are then sold.

Apex Adelchi Footwear Limited doesnt have any ESOP yet. The company will begin a plan for
starting the ESOP because the company believes that ESOPs is potential to increase employee
satisfaction and work motivation.

Flexible Benefits:
Flexible benefits are various non-wage compensations provided to employees in addition to their
normal wages or salaries. In instances where an employee exchanges (cash) wages for some other
form of benefit is generally referred to as a 'salary packaging' or 'salary exchange' arrangement. In
most countries, most kinds of employee benefits are taxable to at least some degree.

Apex Adelchi Footwear Limited use flexible benefits. The company believes that a flexible benefit is
standard system for all employees benefits packages with needs and situations.

Modular Plans:
Modular plans are predesigned packages of benefits, with each module put together to meet the needs
of a specific group of employees.

Apex Adelchi Footwear Limited doesnt have any modular plans.

Core-Plus Plans:
Core-plus plans consist of a core of essential benefits and a menu-like selection of other benefit
options from which employees can select and add to the core.

Apex Adelchi Footwear Limited follow core-plus plan and as the employees of the company can
select and add to the core from a given benefit credits which allow the purchase of additional
benefits that uniquely meet his or her needs.

Flexible-Spending Plans:
Flexible-spending plans allow employees to set aside up to the dollar amount offered in the plan to
pay for particular services.

Apex Adelchi Footwear Limited doesnt follow the flexible-spending plans because they dont think
so that it is necessary for this company.
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Sample of Survey Question

Questionnaire (Objective)
(Only for academy purpose)
United International University
Please Select ():

Gender: Male / Female

No. Questions Strongly Agree Average Disagree Strongly No


Agree Disagree Comment
(5) (4) (3) (2) (1)
1 Gender discrimination effect
to motivate you
2 Available benefits for
women
3 Gender discrimination effect
on your recruitment
4 There is need a baby care
center
5 There is opportunity for
female to work Top Level
management
6 You get flexible benefit. (in
case of Medical leave,
unannounced leave, & etc)
7 There is effect as a male or
female in productivity.
8 There is salary
discrimination as a male or
female.
9 In your office male
performances is good
10 In your office female
performances is good
11 In same way boss motivate
male & female employee
12 I feel any under dominate as
a male or female

Please Read:

Feel free. We promise that we will not give this feedback to office management and not
published or use any other purposes.

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Questionnaire (Descriptive)
(Only for academy purpose)
United International University

Q.-1. How many Male and Female works in this office?

Ans:

Q.-2. What are the benefits for women?

Ans:

Q.-3. Is there any sexual harassment in this office? (for female)

Ans:

Q.-4. What is the highest position for female in your office?

Ans:

Q.-5. How your boss motivate you ? is it same for male and female ?

Ans:

Please Read:

Feel free. We promise that we will not give this feedback to office management and not
published or use any other purposes.

16
Explaining the Questionnaire & Answers
Here we set total 17 questions including 12 objectives and 5 descriptive. Also we take few interviews
which we dont want to show but, we use this information. Above we give the sample question of our
survey.

In objective question we give 6 ways to answer every question. First, Strongly Agree which number
is 5. Second, Agree which number is 4 and so on. Finally, we give a option No Comment when
anyone dont want to give any specific answer then he or she tic this option.

In descriptive part, employees are free to give their opinion. Here we set some questions those are not
possible to give answer in number. So, here we give estimated space to write.

Way of Selecting Answers


In case of objective part it is not possible to take all the answers for our study because many people
give many opinions. So, we take only those answers which are gets highest mark or highest
percentage (%).

In case of descriptive part we take only few common and ideal answers.

Participated
Gender No. Percentage

Male 12 60%

Female 08 40%

Percentage

Female
40%
Male
60%

Here we can see in our survey participated only 20 employee. Because remaining employees
are so busy at the time of our survey. Here are 12 male (60%) and 8 female (40%).

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Questionnaire & Answers (Objective)

1. Gender discrimination effect to motivate you

Male Female
40% 40%
30%
15% 20% 20%
4% 10% 10% 5% 5%
1%

Here we can see, majority male are disagree with this and on the other hand majority female
are agree with that. So we can say that yes gender discrimination effect to motivate
employee. Maybe many of people ask why we give the answer yes, here male are 40%
disagree and female are 40% agree these two are same. Yes, we ready to give this answer.
This answer is male never feel any gender discrimination. Only female are face it. So, here
we give priority the female answer.

2. Available benefits for women

Male Female
40% 40%
30% 30%
10% 20%
0% 0% 0% 10%

Here male and female are angriness is similar. Her we cant see the any big variation in
positive and negative answer. Generally in all organization female are enjoy little more
benefit than male. Thats why here male percentage is more than female in positive answer.
And another cause maybe has, we people are cant see our self in our own eyes.

3. Gender discrimination effect on your recruitment

Male Female
70% 50%
20% 25%
7% 19% 5%
1% 2% 1% 0% 0%

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We can see here both male and female are give answer in negative or disagree part. So we can say that
Gender discrimination not effect on recruitment. But we have to agree with that in some task
female are much needed than male like information desk and customers service in phone.

4. There is need a baby care center

Male Female
60% 40%
30%
10% 20% 10% 10% 10%
5% 5% 0%

We know that mothers are really more carful than father about children. So, think thats why male
response is more in negative sit and female are more in positive sit. Here we can also see some
percentage in negative sit for female. Thats cause is some female are think they are able to adjust
work life balance.

5. There is opportunity for female to work Top Level management

Male Female
40% 40%
30% 30%
20% 20%
10% 10%
0% 0% 0% 0%

Where we for study there were the all male person in top-level management so one of our friend ask
you all are male in top level management, is there no opportunity for female to work top level
management. They told us we didnt found that capability in any female that she can work in top
level management. But when we get we will appreciate her. We also noticed that there was no
experienced female worker thats why they didnt get chance to work in top level.

6. You get flexible benefit. (in case of Medical leave, unannounced leave, & etc)

Male Female
50%
40%
30% 30% 30%
20%
0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

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Here we can see male and female answers are similar. So, we can say that yes there is the opportunity
for flexible benefit like- Medical leave, Unannounced leave, choose flexible time (Marketing &
Sales), Urgent leave, Transportation (base on position) and some benefits depend on
situation.

7. There is effect as a male or female in productivity.

Male Female
40% 40%
20% 20% 20%
10% 10% 5% 5% 10%
0% 0%

We are sorry to say that we are not able to go Apex Adelchi Footwear Limited factory but we collect
information from this office. One of manager told us we actually always try to higher male employee
in case of production. We all know that female are weak than male in case of physical work. But yes
when it not question of physical work then we give same priority male and female both. On the other
hand our survey result shows the nearly same thing. Her female also agree with that though it is not
much but they did.

8. There is salary discrimination as a male or female.

Male Female
50% 45%
30% 30%
5% 10% 5% 5% 10% 10%
0% 0%

Her we can see majority male are disagree with this and also majority female disagree with this.
When we see the result we fall in confusion is right. Than we ask higher a authority person. Then he
give us solution and show us a sheet of salary where both male and female are included. There we can
see they are pay same salary both male and female employee.

9. In your office male performances is good.

Male Female
40% 45% 40%
30%
20%
10% 5% 10%
0% 0% 0% 0%

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Here is no confusion we can see both male and female gives the same answer.

10. In your office female performances is good.

Male Female
40% 45%
30%
15% 20% 15% 10% 5% 10% 5% 5%
0%

In here we can see female performance is in average.

11. In same way boss motivate male & female employee

Male Female
40% 30%
30% 20% 20% 15% 10%
10% 10% 5% 5% 5%

Here both majority male and female are agree with that. But in some case is different.

12. Female feel under dominate in this organization

Male Female
40% 40%
25% 30%
20% 20%
5% 10% 10%
0% 0% 0%

Here we can see the negative relationship between male and female answer. We will give this answer
with real life expenses. Bangladesh is till now male dominate country where female are not free at all.
So, can easily understand that, yes female are feel under dominate though female has adequate
qualification.

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Questionnaire & Answers (Descriptive)

1. How many Male and Female works in this office?


Ans: This is one branch of Apex Adelchi Footwear Limited so, here 55 employees have
including 41 male and 14 female.
2. What are the benefits for women?
Ans: Medical leave, Unannounced leave, choose flexible time (Marketing & Sales),
Urgent leave, Transportation (base on position) and some benefits depend on
situation.
3. Is there any sexual harassment in this office? (for female)
Ans: No, but not all the employees are same so sometimes not directly.
4. What is the highest position for female in your office?
Ans: There is actually no bound for this. It base on individuals performance. But
current highest position of female is
5. How Top-Level Management motivate you? is it same for male and female ?
Ans: it depend in factor, there is no specific way. Most of the time, same way they
motivate male & female but some cases are different like when female are fear about
doing something.

Note: In case of descriptive part every employee gives answer in his/her own way. We took
the ideal answers. Actually we will discuss most of answers which are need for our study.

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Findings and Analysis
Now we will focus on real life experiences what we got from this study. Above or before, we
know all the theoretical knowledge.

Our main task is make the comparison how male and female will motivate. We know that
make & female wont be motivated in same way but yes in some case it will be same.

How Male employee will be motivated


There is no difference techniques and method to motivate male. Most of the motivational
theory based on male motivation because in any organization male employees are more than
female. So we are not discussing this.

How Female employee will be motivated


Motivating female is different thing we ever had. Most of the motivational theory based on
male but we dont want to tell that these theories are not applicable on female. We want to
find more specific way to motivate female. We dont develop any theory but we find out
some point that can be motivating female employee in any organizations. Lets see

Make mentoring a must. Provide opportunities for women to align themselves with a
corporate leader who can coach and guide them professionally. This demonstrates that your
company is serious when it comes to the growth of your female workforce.

Leverage the power of a personal sponsor. Some women will advance faster and stronger
with sponsorshipespecially when theyve proven themselves but still are stuck. Sponsors
can go to bat for them and advocate for their advancement in the company.

Put some creativity into rewards. When a female employee truly goes above and beyond, a
cash bonus may not always be the best way to recognize the achievement. Keep in mind the
value of a paid day off, giving her the time to catch up on personal matters or enjoyments.

Let them lead a project. In male-dominated departments, it is easy to draw on the same 10
people or the typical go-to person for leading a project or completing an important task.
Consider bringing in a woman for such an initiative to give her an opportunity to stretch and
grow.

Lifelong learning is an investment. Most companies have educational reimbursement plans


for formal, long-term programs. But many women are parents (even single-parents) or
caretakers for elderly parents, and those commitments are too cumbersome for juggling along
training. Consider offering one- to two-day skill development programs to allow your female
employees to hone the skills they need to grow on the job.

Highlight the female leaders who have no titles. Thomasina Tafur reminds us that
females still tend to be the gender tapped for secretarial, executive assistant, and administrator
roles. These roles represent lifeblood of an organization and are assumed by quiet troopers
who keep company administration moving like clockwork. Make time to honor them formally
in front of their peers and privately too.
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Pay attention to expressing appreciation. Often, women tend to do better jobs of expressing
appreciation, and they also like to receive spoken and written forms of acknowledgement
more often than men. Stop and give frequent and specific thanks, especially at every stage of
a big project.

Find out how they want to be listened to. When a woman shares a problem, check in to see
if she just wants to vent or whether she wants your involvement. According to Tafur's
experience, men like to fix shared problems, but sometimes women just want to verbalize
things to feel better.

Show consistent respect and courtesy. During Tafur's mentor training, she stresses that the
one-time lunch and flowers for annual administrative assistant days dont mean anything
unless they are accompanied by ongoing appreciation year-round. Make sure your managers
and supervisors understand the value of day-to-day recognition and are appropriately trained
in expressing genuine respect for work and effort.

Reward equally and fairly. If there is one thing that irritates anyone, male or female, it is
seeing someone receive a pay raise, an award, or some form of recognition when he or she
feels deserving too. Tafur recommends that all organizations take the time to establish clear
quantitative criteria for evaluating performance and distributing awards.

Motivate Male & Female Together


We know that where only male and only female are worker but without exceptional. So we
have to know how motivate them together. We here also focus on some points. Lets see

Generate gender flexibilitytime, workplace, and benefits: More women than men report
problems with work-life balance and role overload. The multiple care-giving roles that
women have require employer sensitivity and open discussion between female employees and
their immediate supervisors or managers.

Offer work alone or together: We have learned that men like working more alone on
assignments and projects while women prefer to help each other in getting tasks completed.
Give genders the freedom to choose how to work. Be very clear on goals and deliverables but
don't micromanage how the results are to be achieved.

Maximize relationship skill strengths: Many surveys suggest that women have stronger
emotional and relationship abilities than men and provide better service to customers and
peers. Have them lead initiatives for educating across gender on customer service awareness
and demonstration of effective listening skills.

Adopt different problem-solving approaches: Society tells us that men will hear about a
problem and jump to solution mode and get it done. Women will ask questions to understand
the task before completing it. Assign tasks to employees based on their degree of
independence or collaboration required.

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Build in personal leave days: We expect men to stay at work and women are expected to
"take off" for important family functions or child/elder care. Dont penalize the time women
take for personal matters, but let them bank overtime hours and provide the benefit of one or
two personal days for such events.

Give a little more respect, please: The male-dominated workplace of yesteryear created a
tendency for men to act toward women like they act toward each other. Women report a
greater need for respect and civility in the workplace, and employers must honor it and
monitor compliance.

Draw on the emotion of recognition: Women often gravitate toward emotional expressions
of appreciation, and tangible gestures like gift baskets or flowers make them feel appreciated.
Remembering birthdays and taking time to recognize achievements are great motivators for
either gender, but they have stronger meaning to women.

Understand power motivators: Men certainly like to hear that their work is appreciated but
often let their work speak for itself. Men like to be the best and are competitive in nature. Play
the male ego by enticing them with some external marker/awardsomething to show for it.

Choose your words carefully: Communicating recognition across genders is a critical skill.
Fine means different things to men than women. Men take what is said at face value while
women are known to read between the lines and interpret. Be clear and specific with praise
and think about the worth of validation for the individual and gender.

Ensure total rewards are fair: Women report feeling undervalued more than men in the
same positions. Compensation and reward structures need to be evaluated for fairness and
correlation with performance. Communicate updates on such equality initiatives regularly.

Conclusion
After successfully completed our study we introduced with many things which are unknown before.
Here we the the relationship between gender and motivation. We found that there is relationship
between these in case of many things what we discussed above. In this report, it is not possible to give
all the things which are related to this topic but we try to give in short. We think here our main
contribution is we try to find out how male and female employee individually will be motivated in
organization. And we also how male and female both together will be motivated. But we try to find
out these points without any motivational theory.

Thank You

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