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OILFIELD INDEX

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W XYZ

Permanent dismantling of a production


ABANDONMENT platform or other installation. i.e. Plugging
of a well.
The quantity of oil (gas) found in the
ACCUMULATION
reservoir rock in an oil or gas field.
Defined limits placed on characteristics of
ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA
products, materials or services.
Wetted surfaces that could be viewed for
NDE puposes by direct line of sight. This
ACCESSIBLE WETTED SURFACE excludes test ports, control line ports,
lockdown screw holes and other
penetrations of these types.
Used to open and shut valves. Double
ACTUATOR (DA AND DAO TYPE) Acting Hydraulic Actuator (DA) Double
acting with manual override (DAO).
ACTUATOR (FSC AND FSO Used to open and shut valves. Fitted with
TYPE) hydraulic failsafe spring return actuators.
A piece of equipment for containing
pressure having end connections of
different nominal sizes and pressure
ADAPTER
ratings, used to connect equipment of
different API nominal sizes and/or
pressures.
AG Arabian Gulf (Acronym).
AGO Atmospheric gasoil (Acronym).
ALBIAN The oldest terrain from the Cretaceous era.
ALG Algerian (Acronym).
A gasoline-blending component composed
ALKYLATE
of isobutane and butylene (propylene).
ALKYLATION A chemical reaction that fixes an akyl
radical onto a molecule. Used when refining
to produce high-octane gasoline.
API is the governing authority on oil industry
standards and practices. "API Gravity" is a
AMERICAN PETROLEUM
reference system for the density of crude
INSTITUTE (API)
oils and constituent hydrocarbons. API6A is
an example of an API standard.
The fundamental constituent of protein, it
AMINO ACIDS
has both an acid and a basal function.
ANILINE POINT The aromatics content of a mixture.
Meaning space. Used to describe the space
ANNULUS
between the casing and the cell wall.
A mechanism that seals off annular
pressure between the OD of a suspended
ANULAR PACKOFF
tubular member/ hanger and the ID of the
spool/ head.
ANS Alaska North Slope (Acronym).
Company manufacturing and supplying
oilfield equipment with a worldclass
reputation for quality, reliability, safety and
value. Anson Oilfield Equipment PTE is
ANSON based in Singapore, Anson Flowline Inc is
based in Houston. Anson Ltd has sales and
distribution centers in Dubai and Aberdeen
(Scotland), as well as substantial facilities in
Gateshead (England).
A geological formation described usually as
a dome or inverted saucer. Such a structure
would be an anticline with "four way dip
ANTICLINE closure". However, not all anticlines are this
"perfect" shape. If covered by an
impermeable layer of rock the anticline
would make a potential oil or gas reservoir.
API American Petroleum Institute (Acronym).
API GRAVITY An arbitrary scale expressing the density of
liquid (gravity) petroleum products devised
jointly by the American Petroleum Institute
and the National Bureau of Standards. Oil
with the least specific gravity has the
highest API gravity. The measuring scale is
calibrated in terms of degrees API. API
Gravity is the industry standard for
expressing the specific gravity of crude oils.
A high API gravity means lower specific
gravity and lighter oils.
Degrees API Gravity = (141.5/Specific
Gravity at 60 Deg. F) 131.5
Gate Valve from Anson designed to the
API.6A E' TYPE relevant oilfield specifications of the
American Petroleum Institute.
Fittings designed to the relevant oilfield
API.6A FLANGES & STUDDED
specifications of the American Petroleum
BLOCKS
Institute.
American Petroleum Institute registered
API MONOGRAM
trademark.
American Petroleum Institute, Specification
API.Q1
for Quality Programs
A well drilled to measure the size / quality
(commercial potential) of a hydrocarbon
APPRAISAL WELL
discovery. Before development, a discovery
is likely to need several such wells.
Amsterdam - Rotterdam Antwerp
ARA
(Acronym).
Chemical Group characterized by a ring
structure. Aromatics are produced in
refinery reformers and petrochemical
plants. The most commonly traded are
AROMATICS
toluene, benzene and xylenes. Aromatics
are used as high-octane components for
gasoline blending or for chemical
production
The equipments condition when it is ready
AS SHIPPED CONDITION
for shipment.
ASPH Asphaltene (Abbreviation).
1. A mixture of bitumen and mineral
aggregate as prepared for the construction
of roads or in other paving uses.
ASPHALT
2. United States citizens refer to Asphalt as
the product that is known as bitumen in the
rest of the world.
Set of Techniques for increasing a fields
ASSISTED RECOVERY
productivity.
Natural gas found as part of or in
conjunction with other constituents of oil,
ASSOCIATED GAS this is as opposed to gas found on its own.
The expression has come to mean natural
gas produced along with crude oil.
American Society for Testing Material,
ASTM ASTM has established many of the
technical standards used in the oil industry.
ATL Atlantic (Abbreviation).
The smallest unit capable of combining with
ATOM another, an atom is a particle capable of
combining with another.
AUD Australian dollar (Abbreviation).
Facility authorised under the quality
AUTHORIZED FACILITY qssurance program, specified by the
operator on the purchase order.
Quality assurance program, API or SPPE,
AUTHORIZED QA PROGRAM
applicable to SSV/USV equipment.
AVAILS Availability (Abbreviation).
High-octane aviation gasoline (petrol) used
AVGAS in piston type aircraft engines.
(Abbreviation).
Association of Wellhead Equipment
AWHEM
Manufacturers.
B
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1. When drilling, to pull the drill-string out of,


or partly out of, the borehole.
BACK OFF
2. To unscrew a joint of drillpipe.

3. To slacken off a line or block.


A check valve that is installed through the
christmas tree, into the tubing hanger, this
BACK PRESSURE VALVE
prevents well fluids from flowing out of the
well.
Market situation where prices are highest in
BACKWARDATION the nearest date periods and become lower
in forward delivery dates.
BACTERIA A single cell microscopic organism.
To keep floating equipment stable a ballast
BALLAST TANK
tank can be filled with water.
Valve that contains a sphere with a hole
through it, the ball can be rotated thus
BALL VALVE
turning the valve on or off, similar to a plug
valve in function.
A vessel carrying oil usually on rivers -
containing between 8,000 to 50,000 bbl or
BARGE weighing 1,000 to 10,000mt. In the US,
barges can be up to 100,000 bbl, and some
barges can even exceed this.
BARREL/BARRELAGE A volumetric unit of measure for petroleum
products (usually crude oil). 1 barrel equals
42 US gallons, 35 imperial gallons or 159
liters. The traditional unit of measure of oil
volume.
BBL Barrel (Abbreviation).
BEAN Internal part of a choke valve.
Roller or Ball Bearings allow an axle or
BEARING
shaft to rotate freely with limited friction.
Documentation associated with a specific
cargo of oil and is signed by the captain of
BILL OF LADING
the ship and the contract supplier. Also
applies to any other cargo.
A drilling bit. Those chiefly in use are the
steel roller-cutter, which drills by crushing or
pulverizing. The diamond-insert bit (A very
hard material) penetrates by scratching or
BIT
abrading the rock. In conjunction with a
core barrel there is also the annular
diamond-insert core bit, for cutting and
retrieving rock samples.
Common slang for oil due to its color and its
BLACK GOLD
high potential value.
A component blended with other materials
BLENDSTOCK
to produce a finished refined product.
Block fittings typically are small and
compact employing sharp corners, unlike
longsweep fullflow fittings they will generally
BLOCK FITTING 45 ELBOW induce turbulence and thus a pressure
drop. As the name implies a 45-degree
block fitting changes the direction of flow by
45 degrees.
As the name implies a 90-degree block
fitting changes the direction of flow by 90
degrees. Block fittings typically are small
BLOCK FITTING 90 ELBOW and compact employing sharp corners,
unlike longsweep fullflow fittings they will
generally induce turbulence and thus a
pressure drop.
BLOCK FITTING CROSS A block fitting cross allows changes in the
direction of flow in one of three directions.
Such fittings can be found in some
manifolds and Christmas trees. Block
fittings typically are small and compact
employing sharp corners, unlike longsweep
fullflow fittings they will generally induce
turbulence and thus a pressure drop.
A lateral is a fitting similar to a tee but
instead of a 90-degree shape, there is a 45
degree one. Block fittings typically are small
and compact employing sharp corners,
BLOCK FITTING LATERAL
unlike longsweep fullflow fittings they will
generally induce turbulence and thus a
pressure drop.

A block-fitting tee is small and compact,


employing sharp corners, unlike longsweep
fullflow fittings they will generally induce
turbulence and thus a pressure drop. This
BLOCK FITTING TEE
fitting when attached to valves allows the
direction of flow to be changed in one of
two directions.

Uncontrollable release of downhole


pressure upward through the well-bore or
casing. As well as fire, the gases are also
BLOWOUT
toxic, and in floating operations a gas
blowout may include a threat to the stability
of the rig itself. (See Mud)
An emergency shut-off valve installed on
the wellhead during drilling or testing of a
BLOWOUT PREVENTER (BOP) well, which incorporates hydraulic pipe
rams capable of closing the space around
the drillpipe against very high pressures.
A portion of API equipment between end
BODY connections, with or without internal parts,
which contains well bore pressure.
Threaded fasteners used to assemble
BOLTING pressure containing parts (studs, bolts,
nuts, cap screws).
A closure for a body other than an API end
BONNET
or outlet connection.
The mechanism that seals off annular
pressure between the OD of a suspended
BOTTOM CASING PACKOFF tubular member or hanger and the ID of the
spool or tubing head adapter being placed
over the suspended hanger/ tubular.
The uppermost fitting of a christmas tree
BOTTOM HOLE TEST ADAPTER which allows full bore access to the
christmas tree.
More information
BOTTOMS UP Circulation of drilling fluid in a well, before
the bottom hole mud and cuttings reach the
surface.
As in pin and box, the box is the female
BOX
coupling end of a drillpipe.
Barrels Per Day, Unit of measurement for
BPD, B/D or BBL/D the production rates of oil fields, pipelines
etc.
Where ships and other equipment are
BREAKERS YARD
decommissioned for scrap.
In Europe Brent is the reference quality of
crude from the North Sea. Each market
requires reference crudes to compare the
prices of different quality products. It is used
on both the Physical Market and the Spot
Market.
BRENT
Other fields in the North Sea include:

Magnus, Gulfaks, N.Alwin, Troll, Frigg,


Bruce, Heimdal, lClaymore, Piper, Sleiner,
Forties
A North Sea platform that was
controversially decommissioned.
Environmental activists successfully argued
BRENT SPAR
that it would be to polluting to sink the
structure, it was therefore broken-up on
land.
A type of plug used to seal off a well
temporarily while the wellhead is removed.
Also a down-hole packer assembly used in
BRIDGE PLUG
a well to seal off or isolate a particular
formation for acidizing, testing, cementing,
etc.
Bottom sediment and water, usually
BS&W
expressed as a percentage by weight.
British Standards Specification for Design
Development, Production, Installation and
BS.5750
Servicing. Largely replaced now by the
international standard ISO9000.
New specification covering ISO9001,
BS.EN.ISO.9001
became effective in July 1994.
BSI British Standards Institute (Acronym)
BTU British Thermal Unit (Acronym)
BTX Benzene, Toluene and Xylene. (Acronym)
BTX EXTRACTION The process for removing benzene, toluene
and xylene from pyrolysis asoline or
reformate.
As in Bullplug ended fittings, the bullplug
end blocks of one of the ends, for example
BULLPLUG a bullplug ended tee is functionally similar
to an elbow.

A residual fuel used as ship's fuel, Buker C


BUNKER C usually has a high sulfur content and high
viscosity.
Hammer Lug Unions come in two basic
categories buttweld or threaded. The
BUTT WELD HAMMER LUG
buttweld denotes that it must be welded
UNION
onto a pipe etc. before use.

Pipe fittings that are connected together via


BUTT WELD PIPE FITTINGS welding rather than bolts or threads.

C
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C+F Cost and Freight (Abbreviation).


Comparison and adjustment to a standard
CALIBRATION
of known accuracy.
A tool for checking casing in a well for
deformation before e.g. running drilling
CALIPER tools, which might become stuck, or
packers which might leak. Digital Calipers
are a modern form of micrometer.
Very common element (C) present in all
CARBON hydrocarbons as well as all living things, i.e.
carbon based life.
Carbon and iron alloy containing a
CARBON STEEL maximum of 2% carbon, 1.65% manganese
and other residual quantities of elements.
CARIBS Caribbean
CASING ETC. The steel pipes with which a well is lined,
for protection against collapse of the
borehole are called the casing. The casing
also stops unwanted leakage into or from
the surrounding rock formation, or at the
surface. Joints of the casing are typically
around 33ft/10metres long normally these
Joints are screwed together as they are run
into the well. It is common practice to set
large diameter casing, (such as 20") called
the Conductor (or surface) Pipe after the
well has penetrated the layers nearest the
surface, and cement it into place, after
doing this the drilling continues with a
smaller diameter bit, etc. The "Surface
String" is cemented inside the previous
string and down to the new Casing Point,
which may be at, say 1,250m forms the
base for the wellhead. This is then followed
by one or more intermediate strings
depending on the target depth and
expected conditions. In the end the
Inner/Production String is set and cemented
through the reservoir zone, and perforated
to allow the oil to enter the well
Supports casing string in a casing head by
means of a male female thread attached to
CASING HANGERS the casing. i.e. threaded or Mandrel. Casing
Hangers slips is when it is gripped with
wedge type members.
Equipment joined to the uppermost end of
CASING HEAD HOUSING the surface casing which serves to suspend
and seal a casing ring.
Equipment joined to another casing head
CASING HEAD SPOOL which serves to suspend and seal a
secondary casing string.
The depth of the lower end of a string of
CASING POINT
casing.
The Casing Shoe is a reinforced section of
casing run into a well at the lower end of a
CASING SHOE
string, this is used to protect against
bucking or deformation.
Pouring molten metal into a mold to
produce an object. The object is also called
CASTING
a casting. Castings are inferior to forgings in
almost all regards.
Chemical compounds that facilitate or
CATALYSTS promote a reaction by their presence or
action.
Hydrocarbon molecules are broken up into
CATALYTIC CRACKING smaller ones at very high temperatures in
the presence of a catalyst.
(cat naphtha) A gasoline blending
CAT GASOLINE
component made in a catalytic cracker.
CATFEED Feeds to a catalytic cracker, usually
vacuum gasoil.
CD Canadian dollar (Acronym).
Cement is used to "set" casing in the well
bore and seal off unproductive formations
and apertures. Similar to concrete without
CEMENT aggregate. Cementing is the injection of
cement into the annulus (space) between
the casing and the well wall to consolidate
and reduce water influxes.
Manifold used in connection with cement,
CEMENT MANIFOLDS usually contains plug valves.

Tending to move away from the center, as


in centrifuge which is used to separate
CENTRIFUGAL parts of different density in a mixture.
Centripetal is the force acting towards the
center.
A hydrocarbon used as an additive in diesel
CETANE
fuel.
Number equal to the percent by volume of
the hydrocarbon added to basic diesel fuel
CETANE NUMBER
to achieve a certain ignition performance
characteristics.
Contract For Differences. A type of crude oil
CFD
swap. (Acronym).
CFPP Cold filter plugging point (Acronym).
A flapper stops the flow travelling in the
wrong direction, therefore a check valve
CHECK VALVE (IN LINE) ensures uni-directional flow. An inline check
valve is a compact version.

A top entry check valve allows the inner


parts to be examined more easily, better
CHECK VALVE (TOP ENTRY)
suited to more permanent structures.

Determination via analysis of a materials


CHEMICAL ANALYSIS
chemical composition.
Restricting flow and thus controlling the flow
CHOKE
of fluids.
Choking reduces the pressure. Killing the
flow stops it altogether. A choke and kill
CHOKE AND KILL MANIFOLDS manifold is basically a collection of pipes
and valves.

CHOKE BEAN The replaceable orifice part used in positive


chokes to control flow. Also known as a flow
bean, or just simply bean.
Choke components, including beans, one
CHOKE TRIM
peice stems, multi peice stems etc.
A flow can be throttled by way of a choke
valve. By inserting something with
CHOKE VALVE increasing width into the flow the size of the
hole can be changed. By changing this size
the flow can be choked.
The manifold, or arrangement of pipework
connections and valves which are installed
on the wellhead prior to production. Along
with outlets for production, the tree will
provide for the injection of mud to "kill" the
CHRISTMAS TREE
well, and for the insertion of downhole
maintenance tools and wirelines. Typically a
Christmas tree will be assembled from gate
valves and connecting fittings.

Cost, insurance and freight charges for


CIF shipping products. CIF prices include these
charges. (Acronym).
Otherwise known as loops. These hoses
contain swivel joints which allows them to
CIRCULATING / CEMENTING turn corners, hammer lug unions allow them
HOSES to be quickly assembled to fit with other
loops, pipes or connections.

The passage of liquid, primarily drilling mud,


down the interior of the drill-stem and back
CIRCULATION (DRILLING) to surface viz. the annulus. The circulation
is necessary to remove the debris that is
created when drilling.
All round closure or seal is necessary, over
the top and down the gradients on the sides
of a potential reservoir, before it can trap or
CLOSURE retain hydrocarbons. Closure may be partly
due to an impermeable fault, or structural
as in an anticline, or may be due to a
stratigraphic trapping.
The temperature at which a fuel begins to
CLOUD POINT congeal and take on a cloudy appearance
due to bonding of paraffin.
CNR Charterer Not Revealed (Acronym).
Contract Of Affreightment between ship
COA
owner and charterer. (Acronym).
Commercial Reserves of oil and gas are
COMERCIAL RESERVES restricted to volumes recoverable at an
acceptable profitability.
COMMERCIAL WELL A well capable of producing profitably.
When weight and space are at a premium a
'COMPACT' PLUG VALVE smaller plug valve is a good idea.

Installation in a well of production tubing


COMPLETION and equipment, wellhead and Christmas
Tree.
The deed that entitles the holder to produce
CONCESSION from/ or explore land following the discovery
of a commercial reservoir.
Light hydrocarbon fractions produced with
natural gas, which condense into liquid at
CONDENSATE (GAS
normal temperatures and pressures
CONDENSATE)
associated with surface production
equipment.
Compliance with specified requirements,
CONFORMANCE
i.e. Anson equipment conforms to API6A.
The reduction in reservoir pressure may
tend to draw up underlying water towards
the well in a cone like shape if an oil well is
CONING
produced at excessive rates. Like-wise gas
can be drawn downwards from an overlying
gas cap.
A connector that is not intended to be
integral with another piece of API6A
CONECTOR, LOOSE equipment. There are blind, spacer,
threaded, welding neck, flanged, studded or
others available.
The situation in a market where prices are
CONTANGO progressively higher for forward delivery
dates than for nearer delivery dates.
This stage in the refining process involves
breaking up the large molecules into
CONVERSION smaller ones to produce lighter compounds.
Includes catalytic cracking and viscosity
reduction.
CORE/CORE BARREL A vertical section of reservoir or other rock
taken in drilling a well, for detailed study
and analysis. To retrieve the core as intact
as possible, it is cut from the rock by an
annular core bit. The central column of rock
passes through the center of the bit and, as
the bit cuts deeper, is received by a hollow
cylindrical Core Barrel above the bit, where
it is protected by a series of rubber baffles.
When the bit has cut deep enough to fill the
core barrel, it is withdrawn from the hole
and the core is removed for study. By doing
this the actual sequence of rock strata can
be readily identified.
Drilling cylindrical samples of rock in order
CORE SAMPLING
to study its characteristics.
Deteriation due to prolonged adverse
physical condition. Corrosion resistant
alloys are generally non-ferrous based.
CORROSION
Corrosion resistant ring grooves such as
stainless steel inlay are available from
Anson.
Connect one part to another, such as
flanges hammer lug unions clamps
COUPLINGS
universal joints etc.

Molecules broken by certain refining


CRACKED processes...this is the opposite of a straight-
run.
Residue remaining after a straight run fuel
CRACKED FUEL has been processed by enhanced refining
methods such as catalytic cracking.
Terms of payment, i.e. 30 days, opposite of
CREDIT
debit.
CRITICAL COMPONENTS Parts that have specified requirements.
Full flow manifold fittings do not induce the
same level of turbulence as the more
sharply cornered fittings. A full flow manifold
CROSS (FULL FLOW MANIFOLD fitting cross, is a cross with a smooth inside.
FITTINGS) Incredibly these can be made from forging
ensuring that they are very strong. Fittings
like these are often used on manifolds.

A cross block fitting is considerably smaller


than a full flow fitting because it doesnt
CROSS BLOCK FITTING
have smooth corners.

Crossovers are the name given to a piece


of equipment that can be connected to
pipes of different sizes. For example the
CROSSOVERS
crossover might be 2 on one side and 4
on the other.
Crossover spools are also provided with
suitable means to suspend and seal around
an inner string of tubing or casing. They
consist of flanged or other connected
CROSSOVER SPOOL equipment with a restricted area sealing
means, at or near the face of its lowest
flange. A crossover spool has a top
connection with a pressure rating above
that of the lower connection.
Unrefined oil / petroleum is referred to as
CRUDE crude oil. This is what comes out of the
ground.
Surface layer of the earth made up of
CRUST
tectonic plates.
Centistokes - A way of measuring viscosity
CST similar to seconds. One hundredth of a
stoke (Abbreviation).
CT Cent (Abbreviation).
CTS Cents (Abbreviation).
Cubic meters (Abbreviation). Also m3 or
CUM
m^3
Hammer lug Unions can be made to order
CUSTOM HAMMER LUG UNIONS by specialists such as Anson.

The small chips or flakes of rock debris


retrieved from a well by the circulation of
CUTTINGS
the mud. They are studied and logged by
the well-site geologist.

D
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Measurement of rock permeability, i.e. the


extent to which it will allow a fluid to flow
DARCY through it. The permeability of most oil and
gas reservoir rocks is measured in
millidarcies, (thousandths of a Darcy)

Date of manufacturers final acceptance of a


DATE OF MANUFACTURE
finished product.
1. Flat horizontal surface placed on a
jacket, supporting the facilities necessary
DECK
for producing oil.
2. The roof of a ship that is walked upon.
DELINEATION WELL A certain type of appraisal well, usually one
drilled specifically to determine the
boundary of a discovered reservoir.
Alluvial deposits at a river mouth, i.e. the
DELTA
Nile delta.
The detention of a vessel in loading or
unloading beyond the agreed upon time.
DEMURRAGE
Demurrage costs are usually incurred for
any delay.
Ratio of the mass of a given volume of a
DENSITY substance to the mass of an equivalent
volume of water.
A relief map of a sub-surface geological
structure, the contours on a depth map
DEPTH MAP relate to depths from the surface datum
level. This is a further interpretation of a
seismic time map.
Directorate of Engine Research and
DERD Development. This is a UK Ministry of
Defense jet fuel specification.
Metal tower above a well the purpose of
DERRICK which is to lift and lower tubes and tools into
the well.
Drilling crew member who works at the top
DERRICK-MAN
of the derrick.
Removal of salt from crude oil. Desalting is
preferably performed prior to
DESALTING
commercialization of the crude. Desalting
must be performed prior to refining.
Any well drilled for the extraction of
DEVELOPMENT WELL
reservoir hydrocarbons.
A well whose path has been deliberately
diverted from the vertical plane. Commonly
used offshore to reach distant parts of a
reservoir from a single platform. Directional
DEVIATED WELL/HOLE
drilling of up to 60 to 70 from the vertical
is now fairly common. Deviation is possible
that exceeds this with modern special
equipment.
A measure of the ignition quality of diesel
DIESEL INDEX calculated from a formula involving its
gravity and its aniline point.
Differential, usually between two prices.
DIFF
(Abbreviation).
DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE The difference of pressure in a well due to
the mud column and the pressure in the
surrounding rock. See also Sticking.
A Dip Meter indicates dip relative to a well
bore. Dip is the inclination from the
DIP (DIPMETER)
horizontal to the surface of a geological
structure.
Commonly well drilling is vertical, but there
DIRECTIONAL DRILLING are many reasons for drilling in a non-
vertical direction.
A well that during exploration discovers an
DISCOVERY WELL
oilfield.
DM Deutschemark (Abbreviation).
Instead of a spring return this type of
DOUBLE ACTING VALVE Actuator is hydraulically actuated in both
ACTUATOR directions.

An area of a structure where the top of the


DOWN DIP formation is lower than the point under
consideration.
Down hole is a collective term, the
expression covers any equipment,
DOWN HOLE measurement, etc., in a well or designed for
use in one. The meaning is the same as
down a well.
A period when any equipment is
DOWNTIME unserviceable or out of operation for
maintenance, holidays etc.
The experienced person who operates the
DRILLING FOREMAN
well and oversees the drilling crew.
The person responsible for the proper
DRILLING SUPERINTENDANT
execution of well-drilling operations.
DRILL Used to make a round hole
Pipe, usually between 3.5 in. and 5 in.
outside diameter, which is supplied in
"joints" normally of around 33 ft./10m. in
length. Each length of drillpipe is fitted with
DRILL PIPE thicker, or "up-set" reinforced threaded
couplings at each end, "male and female"
or "pin and box" respectively. To save time,
drill pipe in use but not in the well is stacked
in stands.
Comprises of pipes connected to each
DRILL STRING other at the end of which is the bit. The
rotary table rotates the drillstrig.
DRILLING MUD Mixture of water and other additives that
circulate the well. Has the purpose of
cooling bit, removing rock cuttings,
preventing cave in, averts hydrocarbon
blowout.
An empty or unsuccessful well. Sometimes
DRY HOLE
called a "Duster".
DTD Dated (Abbreviation).
DUSTER A dry hole, i.e. an unsuccessful well
Automatically keeps a ship at a determined
DYNAMIC POSITIONING position using its own propulsion system.
Can be used in conjunction with GPS
A drilling ship equipped with several
DYNAMICALLY-POSITIONED
computer-activated propellers to keep the
SHIP
ship stationary.
Seals in which motion exists relative to the
DYNAMIC SEAL sealing surface after installation.

E
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Anson Gate valve designed to API.6A


E' TYPE API.6A GATE VALVE
specifications.

C.I.S. high sulfur straight-run feedstock.


E-4
Formerly called F-10.
As sonar this is a device to calculate the
distance of an object based on the time
ECHOSOUNDER
taken by sound waves to travel to it and
back.
EFF Effective. (Abbreviation).
Mixture of oil, gas, water and sand
EFFLUENT
discharged from a well.
Exchange of futures for physicals.
EFP
(Acronym).
Longsweep fittings do not induce
turbulence to the extent other shorter
ELBOW (LONG SWEEP 90 fittings do. A longsweep Elbow is the name
DEGREE) given to a curved fitting that changes the
direction of the flow.

ELBOW (LONGSWEEP 45 Longsweep fittings do not induce


DEGREE ) turbulence to the extent other shorter
fittings do. A longsweep Elbow is the name
given to a curved fitting that changes the
direction of the flow.

Block elbows have sharp angles and


therefore may induce turbulence to a
ELBOW BLOCK FITTING 45 greater extent than smoother angled
elbows.

Block elbows have sharp angles and


therefore may induce turbulence to a
greater extent than smoother angled
ELBOW BLOCK FITTING 90 elbows. However Anson 90-degree block
elbows are designed to use the induced
turbulence as a cushion against wear.

Elbows can be created in one piece by the


ELBOWS : FORGED process of forging.

Elbows can also be fabricated via the action


ELBOWS : WELDED of welding.

Particle in an atom carrying a negative


ELECTRON
charge.
Integral threads, fem or male, flanges,
studded, through bolted, or any other
END & OUTLET CONNECTIONS
means used to join together equipment that
controls pressurised fluid.
Recovery technique that extracts more oil
ENHANCED RECOVERY from a reservoir by thermal, physical or
chemical means.
Used to test oilfield products under high
ENVIRONMENTAL TEST
and low temperatures. To the Standards of
CHAMBER
API6A Appendix F PR2 requirements.
Installing equipment and instrumentation to
EQUIPPING (a well)
monitor the events in a producing well.
Exploration is the process of finding a
prospective source of hydrocarbons, mainly
by reference to regional, and specific,
EXPLORATION geochemical, geological and geophysical
(seismic) surveys. Exploration is any
method used to discover new oil and gas
fields.
EXPLORATION WELL An Exploration Well is a well drilled to test a
potential but unproven hydrocarbon trap.
For instance a structure where good
reservoir rock and closure combine with a
potential source of hydrocarbons would be
a good place to try an exploration well.
Bolting exposed directly to a sour
EXPOSED BOLTING environment, or otherwise denied
atmospheric exposure.
F
TOP

FACIES Geological term describing the composition


and characteristics of a rock formation.
A spring return type actuator. Actuators are
hydraulically (or other force) operated ways
of opening and closing valves, rather than
FAILSAFE (OPEN/CLOSED)
turning a handle to open the valve, it can be
VALVE ACTUATOR
operated at a distance by the push of a
button.

A change in a rock formation caused by


fracturing of the earth's crust. In oilfield
terms a Fault Block is a compartment of a
FAULT/FAULT BLOCK rock formation surrounded by faults,
potentially the fault block may have sealed
in hydrocarbons separately from the rest of
the formation.
FCC First class charter (Acronym)
FCC Fluid catalytic cracker or cat unit. (Acronym)
FCCU Fluid catalytic cracking unit. (Acronym)
FEEDSTOCK Material used in a processing plant.
FEMALE Part that the male end threads into
Swivel joints are joints of pipe that allow
corners to be turned, they are effectively to
elbows connected together by a joint that
FEMALE LONG RADIUS
allows rotation. Long Radius Swivel Joints
THREADED ENDED SWIVEL
take up more space but have the
JOINT
advantage over short radius swivel joints as
the larger radius allows better flow.

French franc, sometimes just FF is used


FFR
(Abbreviation).
FIELD 1. Set of rocks containing hydrocarbons.

2. Term that designates a reservoir.


3. Place of work outside of an office, e.g. In
the field.
Build up of mud solids on the wall of a well.
This helps seal and stabilize the rock face,
FILTER CAKE/FILTRATE but too much can cause sticking of the drill
string. See also Differential Pressure and
sticking.
A fish is any unwanted object down a well,
commonly the lower end of a drill string that
has broken off. The term "Fishing"
FISH/FISHING describes the attempts to recover the Fish,
using various attachments to the drill stem
or wireline. These attachments are known
as fishing tools.
This is the general term used to describe
parts such as flanges, crossovers etc. than
FITTINGS can be fitted onto other pieces of
equipment.

Flanges are a method of connecting two


pieces of equipment together. For instance
FLANGES & STUDDED BLOCKS two pipes with flanged ends could be
connected together by bolting.

A flange without a bored center, used to


completley close of a flanged end/ outlet
FLANGE (BLIND)
connection.

A flange not intended to be made integral


with another peice of API spec 6A
equipment. Under this heading you could
FLANGE (LOOSE)
find blind, threaded, spacer, welding neck,
studded, adapter and more.

A flange with a sealing face on one side,


and a thread on the other (female).used to
FLANGE (THREADED)
join flanged connections to threaded ends.

A flange that has a neck on the side


opposite the sealing face prepared with a
FLANGE (WELDING NECK)
bevel to weld to pipe etc.

Flapping part of check valve, the flapper in


FLAPPER VALVE a check valve allows flow in only one
direction.
FLARE BLEEDER Device that burns and evacuates unused
gases.
Assesses the volatility of a substance. The
lowest temperature under very specific
conditions at which a combustible
FLASH POINT substance will give off sufficient vapor to
form a flammable mixture with normal air.
The flash point is determined using a
standard sized vessel.
Member of drilling crew who works on the
FLOOR MAN
floor of the derrick, also called slip puller.
Calibrated orifice used to measure effluent
FLOW BEAN
flow.
FLOWING BOTTOM HOLE Bottom hole pressure measured at a given
PRESSURE flow rate.
Free on board. FOB prices exclude all,
FOB
insurance and freight charge (Acronym)
FOD Fuel Oil Domestique (Acronym)
Penetration rate in drilling. For instance the
number of feet drilled divided by the time
taken. Footage Rate may also be a form of
FOOTAGE/FOOTAGE RATE
remuneration under a drilling contract.
Often referred to as ROP (Rate of
Penetration).
FOR Free On Rail (Acronym).
Elbows that are forged have significant
FORGED ELBOWS
advantages over their welded counterparts.
By using heavy and expensive forging
machinery pup joints can be created from a
FORGED PUP JOINTS single piece of bar. A pup joint is a length of
pipe with a connecting end.

Plastically deformed metal shaped by a


forging method. Forgings are shaped via
FORGING compression making them superior than
castings.

A rock / mineral deposit or structure


covering an area with the same physical
FORMATION
properties. The formation will be of
homogeneous origin and appearance.
Damage to the reservoir rock around a well
FORMATION DAMAGE due for example to plugging with mud, or
water infiltration from the well.
This was the first substantial oil field in the
FORTIES
British sector of the North Sea.
FOT Free On Truck (Acronym).
FR France (Abbreviation).
FR. ATL. French Atlantic (Abbreviation).
Fracturing is the process of cracking open
the rock formation around a well bore to
increase productivity. Applying hydraulic
FRACTURING
pressure down the well bore normally does
this, though other methods are often
applied.
A cross-shaped fitting with the advantage
that it does not induce high levels of
FULL FLOW CROSS
turbulence. And such does not affect the
flow as much as an ordinary cross.
G
TOP

Holes drilled and tapped into API6A


equipment through which internal pressure
GAGE & TEST PORT may be measured or through which
pressure may be applied to test the sealing
mechanisms

G/L Grams per liter (Abbreviation).


Gallon, imperial unit of measurement for
GAL
liquids (Abbreviation).
Upper portion of reservoir rock of a gas
containing field. To boost recovery the gas
GAS CAP extracted during oil production is sometimes
injected into the gas cap in order to boost
hydrocarbon recovery.
Increase of down-hole pressure greater
than that exerted by the column of drilling
GAS KICK fluid in a well, allowing gas to escape to the
surface. If the gas kick is not controlled it
could develop into a blowout.
The proportional amount of gas to oil
GAS/OIL RATIO (GOR) occurring in production, usually expressed
as cubic feet per barrel.
An intermediate distillate product used for
diesel fuel, heating fuel and sometimes as
GASOIL
feedstock. Term is often used
interchangeably with No. 2 heating oil.
The part of a gate valve that can be
GATE
lowered to stop the flow of fluid through it.
In an Anson E type gate valves the gate is
guided positively by the valve body and
GATE GUIDES
close fitting stainless steel skirts

Gate Valves have a rising and lowering


gate, when the gate is lowered it will shut
GATE VALVE
off the flow, the gate acts to block the flow.

All Anson gate valves are produced to


API6A, follow the link to find out more about
GATE VALVE SPECIFICATIONS
Anson Gate Valve Specifications.

GAUGE Used for measurement.


GBP Pound sterling (Abbreviation).
A toothed wheel, sometimes referred to as
GEAR
a cog.
Term used for the way in which oil was
GENESIS formed, stems from the first book of the Old
Testament.
Study of the structure and evolution of the
GEOLOGY
earths crust.
Study of the physical properties of the
GEOPHYSICS
earth.
In seismic exploration this is the acoustical
GEOPHONE
sensor for collecting reflected waves.
GIIP = Gas Initially in Place. Description of
the total hydrocarbon content of a reservoir,
as distinct from 'Reserves' which can be
'recovered' or produced. Oil or gas in place
GIIP
(OIP, GIP) before the start of production is
known as Oil or Gas Originally in Place or
Initially in Place. (e.g. STOOIP = Stock Tank
Oil Originally in Place).
GLOBE VALVE Similar to a Ball valve
Gasoil Moteur -- French gasoil spec.
GOM OR G.M.
(Abbreviation).
A manifold fitting supposedly shaped like a
GOOSENECK 160 DEGREE
gooses neck.
WITH TOP OUTLET

A manifold fitting supposedly shaped like a


GOOSENECK WITH TOP gooses neck. The Bullplug means that one
INTEGRAL BULLPLUG of the ends is deliberately blocked.

GPS Global Positioning System. Gives


coordinates for any position on earth via
satellite.
Measure of the intensity of gravity, used by
GRAVIMETRY
geophysicists.
Force of attraction related to the mass of an
GRAVITY object. As the earth has a very large mass
bodies close to it are attracted to it.
Environmental activists opposed to many
GREENPEACE
activities related to petroleum.
Formerly three railroad companies in Tulsa,
Oklahoma. Group 3 now refers to the
GROUP 3
pipeline price of petroleum commodities
from Tulsa to Minnesota.
1990's war which began with the invasion of
GULF WAR Kuwait by Iraq. Many commentators have
since viewed this war as a war for oil.
H

H/P High pour

Used to join (union) two parts together. The


Lug refers to the nut that can be hit with a
hammer to uncouple the union. Sometimes
HAMMER LUG UNIONS
referred to as Wing Unions, Couplings,
Sleeves or just Unions.

Sour Gas Unions are manufactured in


H2S (SOUR GAS) HAMMER LUG accordance with NACE Standard MR-01-75
UNION (Latest Revision).

A low-pressure general purpose threaded


union suitable for air, water, oil or gas
service. ANSON Fig.100 unions are
manufactured from steel, not cast iron. This
has enabled us to reduce the weight and
HAMMER LUG UNION FIGURE
physical dimensions, at the same time
NUMBER 100
retaining interchangeability with our
competitors inferior brands.The Figure 100
gets its name from its ability to withstand
1,000 psi cwp (69 bar).

HAMMER LUG UNION FIGURE


NUMBER 1002 The Figure 1002 union is a high-pressure
low alloy steel union fitted with a
replaceable elastomer seal ring.In sizes
between 1 and 4 " the figure 1002 is
designed for 10,000 psi, at sizes of 5" and
6" it covers a respectable 7,500 psi. The 1
inch through to 4 inch sizes have lip type
seals and the 5 inch and 6 inch utilize 'O'
rings. The 5-inch and 6 inch are available in
Butt Weld only.

All Fig.1003 Unions are misaligned types


and will allow for a misalignment of up to
7.1/2 off the center line, 15 included. The
exception is the 2-inch which has an
included maximum of 7 or 3.1/2 off the
HAMMER LUG UNION FIGURE
centerline. Available as Line Pipe Threaded
NUMBER 1003
or Butt Weld with 5-inch unions available
Butt-Weld only. Both 2 and 3 inch allow for
10,000 psi cwp (690 bar), the 4 and 5-inch
sizes allow for 7,500 psi cwp (483 bar).

The 5 inch and 6 inch Fig. 1002 Unions


utilize elastomer 'O' rings for sealing
purposes. This type of union must be made
up perfectly square and if not it can be
troublesome. To improve matters ANSON
HAMMER LUG UNION FIGURE have introduced two new sizes of Butt Weld
NUMBER 1004 Unions that utilize lip type elastomer seals
similar to those fitted into the smaller
unions. We have called them "Figure 1004".
They are available in Standard Service or
Sour Gas trim.

With the ability to superbly handle 15,000-


psi cwp, the Fig.1502 Union is probably the
most widely used end connection of the
hammer union family. It is used in a wide
range of applications due to its rugged
construction. The figure 1502 is available
HAMMER LUG UNION FIGURE
with Line Pipe Threads or Butt Weld ends,
NUMBER 1502
in standard or Sour Gas trim. ANSON have
introduced a 5 inch and 6 inch Figure 1502
(Butt Weld only) for those applications
where modern demands are calling for
greater flow rates at high pressure.

HAMMER LUG UNION FIGURE A general purpose, all steel constructed


NUMBER 200 union designed to meet a variety of
applications up to and including service at
2000 pounds per square inch. The Figure
200 is a compact and economical union,
available with Threaded and buttweld ends.

Standard Service Figure 2002 Unions are


manufactured throughout from the finest of
steels selected to give the ultimate in
HAMMER LUG UNION FIGURE
performance. Lip type elastomer seals with
NUMBER 2002
anti-extrusion rings are supplied with this
union. Available Butt-Weld only.

The Figure 206 is the Figure 200 with a


secondary seal to supplement the metal-to-
HAMMER LUG UNION FIGURE metal ball and cone seat. All dimensions
NUMBER 206 and weights are the same as for the Figure
200 range of unions.

Figure 207 Blanking Caps and unions are


fully interchangeable with Figure 200 and
206 unions. For use where the blanking off
HAMMER LUG UNION FIGURE
at the end of a line is desirable. The cap is
NUMBER 207
fitted with an 'O' ring to ensure a leakproof
seal.

The Figure 2202 Sour Gas Union is


ruggedly proportioned and manufactured to
the highest quality standards to ensure
safety and reliability in service. Lip type
elastomer seals with stainless steel anti-
extrusion rings are fitted as standard. All
HAMMER LUG UNION FIGURE H2S Service Unions manufactured by
NUMBER 2202 Anson are subjected to vigorous
examination to ensure the latest
requirements of N.A.C.E. are adhered to
and the product is fit for purpose. Anson are
active members of the National Association
of Corrosion Engineers. (NACE).

The Anson suction and low pressure Figure


50 is manufactured from steel throughout
and is available Threaded or Socket Weld
in 4 inch or 5 inch sizes. The same nut and
HAMMER LUG UNION FIGURE 'O' ring are used in both sizes, male and
NUMBER 50 female blanking caps are also available.The
Anson Figure 50 is so named because it is
designed to withstand 500-psi cold working
pressure (35 bar).
The Figure 600 is designed to easily
perform at 6000 psi (414 bar).It is a bronze
seated union designed to combat rust and
HAMMER LUG UNION FIGURE corrosion on lines where a metal-to-metal
NUMBER 600 seal is desirable and condensation is a
problem. The Fig.600 is ideal for steam
service.

The specifications for all of the standard


hammer lug unions are compared on the
HAMMER LUG UNION SPECS
hammer lug union page of the Anson site.

The portion of a casing which is attached to


the tubular string by a threaded connection,
HANGER MANDREL
that forms the upper end of the tubular
string.
Hydrodealkylation, this is the process used
HDA for making benzene from toluene.
(Abbreviation).
CAST LOT, Material originating from a final
melt. For remelted alloys it is defined as the
HEAT
raw material originating from one remelted
ingot.
HAZ, The part of the metal whose
HEAT AFFECTED ZONE mechanical properties may have been
altered by the heat of welding/cutting.
Device installed on a SSV actuator. Closes
HEAT SENSITIVE LOCKOPEN
with heat.
DEVICE

Controlled heating/ cooling of materials that


HEAT TREATMENT
change a materials properties.
The lower the API gravity, the heavier the
HEAVY CRUDE OIL oil. Heavy crude oil generally has API
gravity lower than 28 degrees.
These are forged fittings of a compact
HEAVY DUTY BLOCK FITTINGS nature with sharp corners.

HELIUM Lighter than air gas, element He.


HINGE VALVE See Check Valve.
HKD Hong Kong dollar (Acronym).
HLS Heavy Louisiana Sweet (Acronym).
HO Heating oil (Acronym).
The time that the product is subjected to
HOLD PERIOD pressure and isolated from the pressure
source.
Directional drilling in which the hole is
HORIZONTAL DRILLING
drilled horizontally.
An Anson Patented device used for hoisting
HOSE LIFTER hose via cranes etc.

Also known as loops, they contain swivel


joints, unions and pipe and can therefore be
HOSES
unraveled to make flexible hose.

HS High sulfur (Acronym).


HSFO High sulfur fuel oil (Acronym).
Compound formed from Carbon and
HYDROCARBON
Hydrogen, for example oil and gas.
Lightest of gases H2. Combined with
HYDROGEN oxygen = water, combined with carbon =
hydrocarbons. Element H
When performing seismic exploration at sea
HYDROPHONE an acoustical sensor is used to collect
reflected waves.
I

IMPERMEABLE ROCK A rock without significant or poorly


communicating pore spaces, such that fluid
will not flow through.
A well that is used to inject water or gas in
INJECTION WELL order to maintain pressure, or to bring a
field back under pressure.
In line check valves are a compact way of
IN LINE CHECK VALVE ensuring fluid flows in only one direction.

Description of the total hydrocarbon content


of a reservoir, as distinct from 'Reserves'
which can be 'recovered' or produced. Oil or
gas in place (OIP, GIP) before the start of
IN PLACE
production is known as Oil or Gas Originally
in Place or Initially in Place. (e.g. STOOIP =
Stock Tank Oil Originally in Place; GIIP =
Gas Initially in Place).
IOC Indian Oil Corp. (Acronym).
International Petroleum Exchange
IPE
(Acronym).
Used to describe the various steel fittings
and pipes associated with oilfield
IRON
production.

International Standards Organization.


Model for Quality Assurance in Design &
ISO 9001
Development, Production, Installation and
Servicing
A line on a map or chart that connects
points at which an event occurs
ISOCHRONE
simultaneously or which represents the
same time or direction.
A gasoline blendstock made in an
ISOMERATE
isomerization unit
This is the chemical process by which a
compound is transformed into any of its
IZOMERISATION isomeric forms, e.g. molecules that have
identical elementary composition, but have
a different atomic structure.
ITT In-tank transfer (Acronym).
J
TOP

Character from the soap opera "Dallas",


J.R. first shown in 1980. A fictional
representation of a Texan oil baron.
Steel structure placed at the bottom of the
JACKET sea, the deck supports drilling / production
facilities.
Down hole tools inserted in the drill-string
when fishing to jerk or jar the fish (object in
JARS well) free by repeated sudden blows. They
may also be used while drilling to avoid the
drill-string becoming stuck. (see fishing)
Aircraft fuel, obtained via distillation and
JET FUEL
sweetening. Jet fuel is transparent.
A single length of pipe. Coupled or welded
to other lengths, joints become a string. The
JOINT term joint may also refer to the couplings or
joints themselves.

JOINTS (FORGED PUP) The coupling ends of Joints can be


manufactured via forging allowing correctly
contoured grain flow and thus very strong
joints.

Fabrication methods such as welding can


JOINTS (WELDED PUP) also be used to create pup joints.

Any unwanted object 'lost' down a well.


JUNK
Fishing may have to be done to remove it.
K
TOP

KELLY
Kerosene, commonly referred to as paraffin
KERO
in some places (Abbreviation).
Well thats inclination and orientation are
KICK OFF determined to reach an area that is not
directly below the well. I.e. a deflected well.
KILL To shut down a well.
Metric measurement (SI unit, as opposed to
imperial) meaning 1000 i.e. 1000 grams,
KILO
abbreviated to kg. (Kilograms). For example
kilometer (km) = 1000 meters.
One thousand metric tons see Kilo.
KT
(Abbreviation).
L
TOP

L.A. Los Angeles, Californian city.


LAKE Inland stretch of water
Stretch of seawater between the coast and
LAGOON
the mainland.
L/P Low pour
The cost of oil off-loaded at a port. Similar
LANDED COST (OF OIL) to CIF, but would also include any duties
fees or taxes.
A 45-degree tee shaped fitting. Available
with cushioned ends thus making them
LATERAL BLOCK FITTING
somewhat like a 45-degree elbow.

Attached to a pipe and to the hook of a


LIFTER crane, allows pipes to be quickly lifted up
and placed.
LIFTING Tankers and barges loading petroleum at a
terminal or transfer point.
Light Crude Oil has an API gravity higher
LIGHT CRUDE OIL than 33 degrees. The higher the API gravity,
the lighter the crude oil.
The groups of petroleum products with
LIGHT PRODUCTS, LIGHT ENDS lower boiling temperatures including
gasoline (petrol) and distillate fuels.
ANSON Lip and 'O' Ring type Seals are
available for standard service in Nitrile and
Fluroelastomer for use in Sour Gas Service.
Manufacture is closely monitored so as to
guarantee the correct Shore hardness and
LIP SEALS
composition. Sour Gas 'Superseals' are
molded in special materials to resist
explosive decompression for safety and
reliability.

The study of rocks and therefore the


LITHOLOGY description of different formations
encountered by a well
LLS Light Louisiana Sweet (Acronym).
LNG Liquefied natural gas (Acronym).
Installations required to export crude oil to a
LOADING FLANGE
refinery.
A series of threaded pins extending through
LOCK SCREWS the wall of a tubing/ casing head, used to
lock down hangers or energize seals.
There are various definitions, but chiefly:

1. Written chronological records such as


shift logs, maintenance logs, and mud logs
which also record cuttings recovered from a
well.
LOG/LOGGING ETC
2. Devices for taking measurements of
formations, physical conditions, and fluids
encountered by a well, together with the
records produced by them. The main types
of well logs are Electrical, Mechanical,
Magnetic, Sonic, Nuclear.
LONG RADIUS FEMALE
Type of swivel joint manufactured by Anson.
THREADED ENDED SWIVEL
JOINT
LONG RADIUS HAMMER UNION Type of swivel joint manufactured by Anson.
ENDED SWIVEL JOINT
LONGLIFE SWIVEL JOINT A field proven swivel joint design
Loop is the term used to describe
circulating hose in its storage configuration.
The hammer lug unions on the loop can be
LOOPS quickly separated, unraveling the loop leads
to a flexible hose that can be positioned in
any direction.

Steel containing less than 5% alloying


LOW ALLOY STEEL
elements, or less than 11% chromium.
Liquefied petroleum gases such as propane
and butane produced at refineries or at
LPG natural gas processing plants, including
plants that fractionate raw natural gas plant
liquids. (Acronym).
LRP Lead Replacement Petrol (Acronym)
LS Low sulfur (Abbreviation).
LSFO Low sulfur fuel oil (Acronym).
Low sulfur waxy residual fuel oil
LSWR
(Abbreviation).
LVN Light virgin naphtha (Acronym)
M
TOP

MAGNETIC FIELD Area where magnetic phenomena occur

MAGNETOMETRY Magnetic field measurements by geologists


MAKE AND BREAK To connect and disconnect a connection.
To assemble/screw together the sections of
MAKE UP/BREAK OUT joints of a string of pipe. 'Breaking out' is the
opposite, i.e. to disassemble.
MANIFOLD FITTINGS ANSON Full Flow High Pressure Manifold
Fittings are manufactured from wrought
steel. Crosses and tees are closed die
forged to ensure they have a well defined
and correctly contoured grain flow, high
integrity and uniformity of shape. Elbows
(90 degree and 45 degree) are produced
from tubulars or hollow bar, hot formed on
purpose-made bending machines or forged
in closed dies.Most other manufacturers'
fittings are made from castings or 'token
forged plate'. Correctly forged fittings
manufactured by ANSON give that extra
assurance that is so critical when quality,
integrity, strength, durability and cost are
the requisite criteria.

Type of manifold fitting, a cross but with


MANIFOLD FITTINGS : FULL
smooth insides.
FLOW CROSS

MANIFOLD FITTINGS : LONG Type of manifold fitting.


SWEEP 90 DEGREE ELBOW
MANIFOLD FITTINGS : LONG Type of manifold fitting.
SWEEP FULL FLOW TEE
MANIFOLD FITTINGS : LONG Type of manifold fitting.
SWEEP TEE
Type of manifold fitting. The bullplug end
MANIFOLD FITTINGS : LONG
means that one of the ends of the tee is
SWEEP TEE WITH TOP
blocked.
INTEGRAL BULLPLUG

MANIFOLD FITTINGS :
Type of manifold fitting.
LONGSWEEP 45 DEGREE
ELBOW
MANIFOLD FITTINGS :
Type of manifold fitting.
STANDPIPE GOOSENECK 160
DEGREE WITH TOP OUTLET
Type of manifold fitting. The bullplug end
MANIFOLD FITTINGS :
means that one of the ends of the tee is
STANDPIPE GOOSENECK WITH
blocked.
TOP INTEGRAL BULLPLUG

MANIFOLD FITTINGS
Type of manifold fitting.
SPECIFICATION MENU
Set of pipes and valves directing fluid.
MANIFOLDS

Set of pipes and valves directing fluid


MANIFOLDS FOR CEMENT specifically cement.

Set of pipes and valves directing and


MANIFOLDS FOR CHOKE AND
controlling fluid flow.
KILL

1. Impermeable layer over a reservoir, the


mantle prevents the hydrocarbons
MANTLE contained in it from migrating to other rocks.
2. The Earths Mantle is the part of the
Earth between the crust and the core.
A well, development, etc. whose
commercial profitability is in doubt. If the
MARGINAL
well is marginal it may not become a
commercial well.
MED Mediterranean (Abbreviation)
Molecules containing sulfur, very light
MERCAPTAN
because of low molecular weight.
A standard measurement: averages 7.33
METRIC TON barrels of crude oil. The mass of one metric
ton is equal to 1000 kg (see kilo)
Unleaded gasoline with an 89 R+M/2
MIDGRADE UNLEADED
octane rating.
1. Hydrocarbons are often found in
formations other than those in which their
organic source was deposited. This
movement of hydrocarbons, often over
considerable distances is known as
MIGRATION
migration.
2. Migration is also a process applied to
data recorded, e.g. in a "3-D" seismic
survey, to adjust for the effects of the
"oblique" angle at which it was gathered.
Darcy is a measurement of rock
MILLIDARCY permeability, (a millidarcy is one thousandth
of a Darcy)
Abbreviation for motor gasoline
MOGAS
(Abbreviation).
Chemically linked atoms, generally
MOLECULE
electrically neutral.
MON Motor Octane Number (Acronym)
The rock in which hydrocarbons are formed,
MOTHER ROCK
also known as source rock.
MT Metric ton (Abbreviation).
Methyl tertiary butyl ether -- an octane
MTBE booster and oxygenate used for gasoline
blending. (Acronym)
MTH Month (Abbreviation).
MUD Mud is drilling fluid. Mud consists mainly as
a mixture of water, or oil distillate, and
'heavy' minerals such as Bentonite or
Barites. Mud is pumped into a well at
densities calculated to provide a hydrostatic
pressure sufficient to overcome downhole
formation pressures such as gas kick. The
mud is continuously circulated down to the
bit, and returns in the annular space outside
the drill-string, bringing with it rock cuttings
for inspection and keeping the well clean.
Mud is also engineered to maintain a thin
protective layer of filter-cake on the bore
hole wall, but without excessive weight
which would decrease the weight on the bit
and hence penetration (see Drill String).
Wrongly configured mud could also possibly
lead to differential sticking and formation
damage. Mud is pumped from the mud pit /
tank into the drill stem. On return from down
hole the mud is recovered and the shale
shakers remove rock cuttings, it can then
be re-circulated.
A Mud Log is the record of mud make-up
MUD LOG
and analysis of cuttings recovered.
Standpipe Mud Manifolds utilize a range of
mud valves and forged manifold fittings. At
7500 psi as compared to 20000psi, Mud
MUD MANIFOLDS (STANDPIPE)
manifolds experience less pressure than
Cement manifolds.

Mud is pumped from the mud pit / tank via


the standpipe, rotary hose and gooseneck
MUD PIT / TANK to the swivel, and into the drill stem. This is
the sump filled with mud that feeds the
circulation cycle
Provide resilient sealing in harsh
applications. They are purpose made for
mud, cement, fracturing and water service.
MUD VALVE
Mud valves are particularly suited to
abrasive applications.

Connection with more than one restricted


MULTISTAGE CROSSOVER area sealing means to provide suitable
SPOOL means to suspend and seal around many
inner rings of casing at several stages.
N

N/A Not applicable (Abbreviation).

N+A Naphthenes and aromatics (Abbreviation).


National Association of Corrosion Engineers
NACE
(Acronym)
National Measurements Accreditation
NAMAS
Service. (Abbreviation)
Straight-run gasoline fractions. Used as a
NAPHTHA feedstock for reforming and as a
petrochemical feedstock.
NAPHTHENIC A high naphthenes content
NAPHTHENIC NAPHTHA Usually favored as reformer feedstock.
Natural gas liquids. Includes ethane,
NGL propane, butane and condensate.
(Acronym).
A nitride coating is a very hard coating that
will increase the hardness and thus wear
NITRIDE life of a surface. Useful when abrasive
substances come into contact with
equipment, e.g. mud valves.
Nitrile has excellent resistance to mineral
oils and is specially formulated to give low
NITRILE SEALS temperature flexibility coupled with
resistance to most oil well fluids.

Simple nonmetallic element that constitutes


NITROGEN
approximately 80% of the air. Symbol N.
The general name given to conventional
onshore wellhead production beam pumps.
NODDING DONKEY The nodding action of the donkeys head
shaped counter weight gives the pump its
name.
NOR Notice Of Readiness (Acronym)
NPH Naphtha (Abbreviation)
NS ISO.9001 Norske Standard, as ISO9001.
Norske Standard Specification for Design
NS.5801 Development, Production, Installation and
Servicing
NWE Northwest Europe (Abbreviation).
NYMEX New York Mercantile Exchange (Acronym).
O
Lip and 'O' Ring type Seals are available for
standard service in Nitrile and
Fluroelastomer for use in Sour Gas Service.
Manufacture is closely monitored so as to
'O' RING SEALS guarantee the correct Shore hardness and
composition. Sour Gas 'Superseals' are
molded in special materials to resist
explosive decompression for safety and
reliability.

A measure of the detonation quality of


gasoline. The higher the octane number,
OCTANE NUMBER the higher the resistance to engine knock,
i.e. the fuel ignites when the piston is in the
correct part of the cylinder, not before.
Designates oil fields and production at sea,
OFFSHORE
opposite of onshore.
Rock containing voids pores, or a network
OIL BEARING RESERVOIR
of cracks, in which fluids can circulate.
The vertical distance between the two
OIL COLUMN/GAS COLUMN points of highest and lowest known oil (or
gas) contained in a reservoir.
Facilities used for storing oil and natural
OIL TERMINAL gas as well as loading and unloading
facilities.
The lower end of the oil column in a
reservoir with underlying water. This
OIL/WATER CONTACT oil/water contact may be graduated or may
occur in formations where it is difficult to
detect.
Description of the total hydrocarbon content
of a reservoir, as distinct from 'Reserves'
which can be 'recovered' or produced. Oil or
gas in place (OIP, GIP) before the start of
OIP , GIP
production is known as Oil or Gas Originally
in Place or Initially in Place. (e.g. STOOIP =
Stock Tank Oil Originally in Place; GIIP =
Gas Initially in Place).
A group of chemicals characterized by their
straight or branched structure. Includes
OLEFINS
ethylene, the largest volume petrochemical,
and butadiene and propylene.
When production is flowing, or plant is in
ON STREAM operation, i.e. when everything is working to
plan.
Allows hydrocarbons to travel in only one
ONE WAY VALVE direction.

In 1973 a fourfold increase in the price of oil


was brought about by the Organization of
Petroleum Exporting Countries. By raising
or lowering production OPEC can control
OPEC
the price of oil. OPEC countries include:
Venezuela, Ecuador, Algeria, Libya, Nigeria,
Gabon, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Iran, Kuwait,
Quatar, United Arab Emirates, Indonesia
Describes producing a well without chokes
OPEN FLOW or beans. Unrestricted production normally
for testing or maintenance purposes.
OPEN HOLE A section of well borehole without casing.
Having to do with living matter. Organic
ORGANIC chemistry covers all substances containing
carbon, hence it covers hydrocarbons.
The quantity of oil that is unloaded from a
OUT-TURN
vessel at a discharge point.
Oxygen-containing blend stocks that are
favored for their octane and their clean
OXYGENATE
burning quality. Includes ethanol and
MTBE.
P

P/C Part-cargo (Abbreviation).

A seal used to isolate a section of a well,


e.g. production from one of several
PACKER formations or for testing. Packers are also
used in operations such as acidizing and
cementing.
Petroleum Allocation for Defense District. A
group of five geographic areas in the US
PADD
used in reference to petroleum distribution.
(Acronym)
PARAFFINIC A high paraffin content.
Usually favored quality of naphtha for
PARAFFINIC NAPHTHA ethylene plant feedstock because of a high
paraffin content.
PAY ZONE/HORIZON A formation containing hydrocarbons.
Percent (Abbreviation). Usually % symbol is
PCT
used.
Holes punched in the casing of a well at the
pay zone to be produced, to allow oil or gas
to enter the well. A Perforating Gun is a
PERFORATION/PERFORATING
cylindrical tool loaded with explosives that
GUN
are triggered opposite the pay zone, the
explosions perforate the casing in many
places.
The degree to which a body of rock will
permit a fluid to flow through it. Permeability
is a function of the shape of the capillary
PERMEABILITY
pore spaces and the degree to which pores
are connected. Impermeable rock is not
permeable.
Chemicals derived from petroleum; i.e.
feedstock for the manufacture of plastics
PETROCHEMICALS and synthetic rubber etc. Petrochemicals
include benzene, toluene, xylene, styrene,
and methanol.
In the UK (and some other countries) petrol
PETROL has the same meaning as Gasoline does in
the United States.
Means Stone oil from the Latin petra
oleum, an inflammable liquid varying in
PETROLEUM color (yellow-black), consisting mainly of
hydrocarbons. Petroleum is found in
sedimentary strata of the Earths crust.
His job is to design and propose a variety of
possible reservoir development
PETROLEUM ARCHITECT
architectures (wells, effluent treatment,
surface installations etc.)
The study of rocks, their origin, their
PETROLOGY chemical and physical properties and their
distribution.
Persian Gulf (Occasionally referred to as
PG Arab Gulf--AG). Sea surrounded by middle
eastern oil producing countries.
As in pin and box, the pin is the male
PIN
coupling end of a drillpipe.
The thinning out and disappearance over a
distance of a formation, for example an oil
PINCH OUT
bearing sandstone between layers of
impermeable rock.
PIPE Tube used in a drill string.
PIPE FITTINGS The fittings associated with pipework.
More information
PIPELINE Length of pipes carrying oil.
Racks or frames are often used to store
tubulars horizontally in yards and or
offshore decks, and when transporting them
PIPE RACK offshore. Pipe racks are also used where
stands of drill pipe are stacked vertically in
a derrick ready for use.

Hydraulic rams in a blowout preventer


(BOP) which are shaped to fit around the
drill-stem and seal the annulus. Blind Rams
PIPE RAMS are designed for extreme emergencies,
they will only be used when it is necessary
to shear through the drill pipe and seal the
well completely.
A tragic accident occurred on this north sea
PIPER ALPHA
platform when it was engulfed in flames.
Set of facilities used to extract oil from sea
PLATFORM
fields. The platform rises above the sea.
A valve with a cylindrical rotating center,
through the cylinder is a hole. When the
hole is correctly lined up fluid can flow
PLUG VALVE
through the valve. Similar to a stopcock but
on a larger scale.

To completely seal a well, or part of a well


with cement, e.g. before producing from a
PLUG/PLUG AND ABANDON higher formation, sidetracking, or leaving
the well permanently sealed and
abandoned.
Hydrocarbon chains made from monomers.
The most common include widely traded
POLYMERS
plastics like, polypropylene, polyethylene
and polystyrene.
Paraffin, Olefins, Naphthenes and
PONA
Aromatics content. (Acronym).
An Oil Pool is a reservoir or group of
POOL reservoirs sharing the same pressure
system
The volume of free space between the
grains of a rock capable of holding fluid,
POROSITY
(gas or liquid). Porosity is expressed as a
percentage of total gross rock volume.
POSTED PRICE A statement of the price requested by a
seller of crude oil or products. Commonly
referred to as the "list price."
POST WELD HEAT TREATMENT Heat treatment after welding.
PPM Parts per million (Acronym).
PPT Prompt (Abbreviation).
PREM Premium (Abbreviation).
Premier Flanged Plug Valves to API.6A are
available with either full or regular bore with
corresponding face to face
dimensions.Manufactured from closed die
'PREMIER' PLUG VALVE forged steel, they can be supplied in any of
the API material classes suitable for
Temperature Classification P through to U
as standard or K, L or X to order.

Force acting on a given surface. I.e. force


PRESSURE
divided by area, see PSI.
A down hole pressure recording capsule. A
PRESSURE BOMB
pressure bomb is used for well monitoring.
PRI Plastic and Rubber Institution.
Phase of commercial operation of an oil
PRODUCTION
field.
The innermost steel lining of a well,
cemented in place, in the pay zone the
PRODUCTION CASING STRING casing is perforated for production.
Production tubing is inserted inside this
casing.
A production test concerns the capability of
a well to produce, (productivity) and also its
effects on the reservoir. A production test
PRODUCTION TESTING
may continue for several months. Extensive
data is necessary prior to the final
commitment of development expenditures.
The string of pipe installed inside the
production casing string of a production
well. The tubing is installed to a point just
PRODUCTION TUBING STRING
above the reservoir. It may be 2" to 5"
diameter or more, depending on the
production flow and pressures anticipated.
PRODUCTION A development well specifically for the
WELL/PRODUCER extraction of reservoir fluids.
PRODUCTION WELLHEAD AND The assembly of casing head, tubing head,
TREE connections and well-control valves fitted to
a producing well. The "Christmas Tree" is
the name given to the complete assembly
of valves, connecting flanges etc that sits
on top of the wellhead.
The continuous productive capacity of a
well. The Index is measured as rate of
PRODUCTIVITY/PRODUCTIVITY volume produced (e.g. barrels per day)
INDEX divided by the drop in pressure (p.s.i.) to
achieve that flow rate. The productivity
index starts with a "shut in" pressure.
Underground area where geologists believe
PROSPECT there is a good chance of finding something
of value.
Pounds per Square Inch. Force in pounds
divided by area in square inches over which
the force acts. Imperial unit of measurement
used to denote pressure. Used to measure
PSI
the pressure of a fluid acting on its
container. Other units of pressure
measurement include the Bars and the
Pascal. (Acronym).
PTFE
Retrieving and stacking the drill-string on
PULLING OUT
reaching target depth.
A joint of pipe of non-standard length, to
make up a string of tubulars to an exact
PUP JOINT
required total length.

A joint of pipe of non-standard length, to


make up a string of tubulars to an exact
required total length. These are available
PUP JOINTS FORGED
with forged ends that ensure correctly
contoured grain flow for maximum strength.

Welded pup joints are pup joints with


PUP JOINTS WELDED
fabricated ends.
Pyrolysis gasoline. Pygas is a naphtha-
range product with a high aromatics content
used either for gasoline blending or as a
PYGAS feedstock for a BTX extraction unit.
Pyrolysis gasoline is produced in an
ethylene plant that processes naphtha,
butane or gasoil. (Abbreviation).
R
Research Octane Number plus Motor
R+M/2 Octane Number halved. A gasoline octane
designation commonly used in the United
States of America. (Abbreviation).
RAAD VOOR DE CERTIFICATION Netherlands (Dutch) certification councils
(RVC) accreditation.
Selling to petroleum jobbers or other
resellers at the refinery, with the customer
picking up transportation charges. Rack
RACK PRICING
Pricing is the price of petroleum products at
the refinery loading rack; i.e. cash and carry
at the refinery's loading dock.
The maximum internal pressure equipment
RATED WORKING PRESSURE is designed to contain, not to be confused
with test pressure.
A hole in the drilling floor in which the Kelly
RATHOLE
joint is kept when it is not being used.
Inserting the drilling, testing or logging
RE ENTRY
string etc. into the wellhead.
The ratio between the volumes of oil (or
gas) produced and producible from a
RECOVERY FACTOR
reservoir and the oil (or gas) originally in
place.
Plant where hydrocarbons are separated
REFINERY and transformed into more marketable
products.
The difference in value between the
REFINING MARGINS products produced by a refinery and the
value of the crude oil used to produce them.
The process of converting crude oil into a
REFINING
more valuable commodity.
A high-aromatics / high-octane product
REFORMATE made in a reformer and used to blend
aviation gasoline or motor gasoline.
Rather than breaking up molecules as in
cracking, reforming is aimed at improving
REFORMING
gasoline quality via changing the chemical
characteristics.
Regular gasoline. Usually contains lead.
REG
(Abbreviation).
REG UNL Regular unleaded gasoline. (Abbreviation).
Viewing an area via satellite, geological
REMOTE VIEWING evidence of mineral and oil deposits can be
gathered in this way
Oil or gas that can be produced. Technical
Reserves are theoretical at a gross
operating margin by e.g. normal primary or
RESERVES/RECOVERABLE
secondary recovery methods, while
RESERVES
Commercial Reserves are restricted to
volumes recoverable at an acceptable
profitability.
A porous or fractured rock formation with a
geological seal thus forming a trap for
producible hydrocarbons. A common
RESERVOIR
exploration maxim is that a prospective
reservoir must possess a related Source
rock, Structure and Seal.
The pressure at reservoir depth for a shut-
RESERVOIR PRESSURE
in well. See productivity index.
RESIDS Residual fuel oils (Abbreviation).
RETAINED FLUID The actual fluid produced by a well.
Maintenance work on a well to stimulate
production. This may involve cleaning out
REWORKING A WELL
silt deposits or other stimulation techniques
such as fracturing or acidizing.
A collective term to describe the permanent
equipment needed when drilling a well. It
has come to include the onshore and
RIG offshore vehicles, mobile platforms, or
vessels on which the equipment is installed.
Offshore platforms are often referred to as
oilrigs.
The stem is the part of a valve turned by the
handwheel that moves the gate up and
RISING STEM MUD VALVE down. In some Anson mud valves the stem
moves up and down also.

RNR Rate Not Revealed (Abbreviation).


A rotary drilling bit which works by
ROLLER BIT
pulverizing the rock with its toothed wheels.
RON Research Octane Number (Abbreviation).
Rate Of Penetration i.e. speed of drilling,
ROP
see footage (Acronym)
The heavy turntable at the center of a
drilling-rig floor. The rotary table is rotated
ROTARY TABLE
by the main rig power supply, and in turn
rotates the kelly.
ROUGH NECKS Offshore oil workers, also refereed to as
riggers. Rough Necks was the name of a
BBC series chronicling the lives of workers
on board a North Sea platform.
Recovering the drill string from the bottom
of the well to the surface and returning it to
continue drilling. This may be to replace the
ROUND TRIP
drill bit. So-called "Tripping" is time
consuming and interrupts the process of
"making hole".
RSFO Regular Sulfur Fuel Oil (Acronym)
Reid Vapor Pressure, a measure of a
RVP
gasoline's volatility. (Acronym).
S

SABS South African Bureau of Standards


(Acronym)
Small quantity of rock removed, often by
SAMPLE
coring, for analysis.
1. An impermeable stratum or fault of rock
beneath or behind which hydrocarbons can
accumulate. See Reservoir
SEAL
2. A rubber or other material used to
prevent leaking.

The geological period spanning the


SECONDARY ERA
Triassic, Jurassic and cretaceous periods.
Porosity developed after the original
deposition of a formation, for example by
SECONDARY POROSITY the action of water on soluble components
of the rock or by way of well stimulation
techniques.
Terrain consisting of sedimentary rock
SEDIMENTARY BASIN
deposited over the course of many eras.
Particles coming from erosion of old rocks
SEDIMENTS or other matter. With time sediments will
become sedimentary rocks.
SEISMIC Seismic data can be interpreted to show the
structure and deposits that are under the
ground. The method is to generate elastic
waves methodically and to study their
progression through the subsoil. Waves will
be distorted as they travel through various
rock strata, these distortions can be
detected by geophones.
An offshore drilling platform that is fitted
with buoyancy tanks. The buoyancy tanks
SELF-RAISING PLATFORM
can be flooded to keep the rig stable in the
sea swell
In Refining this is the first stage. Consists of
separating hydrocarbons via their boiling
SEPARATION
points, the process takes place in the
distillation column.
A process vessel used to separate gases
and various liquids. A Wellhead Separator is
SEPARATOR the first process vessel in a production
operation, the wellhead separator operates
at or near wellhead pressures.
SFR Swiss Franc (Abbreviation).
SGD Singapore dollar (Abbreviation).
Oil obtained from Shale, currently non-
SHALE OIL (OIL SHALE) profitable but potentially a huge source of
future oil. See also synfuels and tar sand.
Screens for extracting rock cuttings from
SHALE SHAKERS
the circulating drilling mud. See Mud
The strong fitting on the lower end of a
SHOE string of casing to protect the tubular and
help direct the cement to the annulus.
Evidence of hydrocarbons in a formation for
SHOW example fluorescence in cuttings, or gas in
the mud returning from down hole.
The pressure in a shut-in well; static
SHUT-IT PRESSURE
pressure. See productivity index.
A well re-drilled from the side at any depth.
Wells are re-directed or sidetracked for
SIDE-TRACK/SIDE-TRACKED
various reasons. The most common reason
WELL
will generally be because of technical
problems deeper in the original well.
Obtaining rock samples from the sides of a
SIDEWALL CORING borehole using a special sidewall-coring
tool.
Singapore Monetary Exchange
SIMEX
(Abbreviation).
SLEEVE See coupling.
SLICK If an oil tanker runs aground or sinks an
environmental disaster known as an "oil
slick" will probably occur. An oil slick is a
layer of oil floating on water, this can be
devastating to marine life and very costly to
clean up. Estimates suggest 2 million
barrels are lost every year in this way.
Part of a drill shirttail that guides the drill
SLOT
tube.
SOLUTION GAS See Associated Gas
Hole for obtaining data concerning the
SOUNDING WELL
characteristics of a field.
SOUR CRUDE 'high sulfur crude.
H2S Di-hydrogen Sulfide, dangerous gas
SOUR GAS
found when producing oil.
Special equipment is essential when
SOUR GAS (H2S) HAMMER LUG dealing with sour gas, Light green is the
UNION conventional color of sour gas equipment.

The degree of a given crude's sulfur


SOUR/SWEET CRUDE content. Sour refers to high sulfur and
sweet to low-sulfur.
A pressure containing peice of equipment
SPACER used to connect and provide separation
between other peices of equipment.
Manufacturers like Anson are capable of
SPECIAL UNIONS producing both small and large pieces of
equipment to suit customer requirements.
Specific gravity is a measure of density,
SPECIFIC GRAVITY / SG
usually calculated by comparing with water.
Strategic Petroleum Reserve in the US.
SPR
(Acronym).
SPUD To start drilling a new well
Inserting cement under pressure into the
SQUEEZE poorly sealed annulus of a well, the cement
must squeeze past the existing material.
Corrosion resistant steel, more than 11%
STAINLESS STEEL
chromium.
A short length of drill pipe stored vertically in
the derrick pre-assembled to save time in
STAND OF PIPE operations and ready for use. Usually the
stand of pipe is assembled in to lengths of
three joints.
STANDPIPE GOOSENECK 160 Manifold fitting supposedly in the shape of a
DEGREE WITH TOP OUTLET gooses neck.
STANDPIPE GOOSENECK WITH Manifold fitting supposedly in the shape of a
TOP INTEGRAL BULLPLUG gooses neck. The bullplug denotes that
(MANIFOLD FITTINGS) one of the ends is blocked.
STANDPIPE MUD MANIFOLDS Standpipe mud manifolds utilize a range of
mud valves and forged manifold fittings and
are therefore suited to the use of abrasive
materials.
Seals in which no motion exists.
STATIC SEAL

A petrochemical plant that produces olefins,


STEAM CRACKER particularly ethylene, and, in some cases,
aromatics.
Jamming of the drill string in the well
borehole, caused usually by a high
STICKING
differential pressure and a build-up of mud
solids on the rock face.
STOOIP = Stock Tank Oil Originally in
Place. Description of the total hydrocarbon
content of a reservoir, as distinct from
'Reserves' which can be 'recovered' or
STOOIP
produced. Oil or gas in place (OIP, GIP)
before the start of production is known as
Oil or Gas Originally in Place or Initially in
Place. (e.g. ; GIIP = Gas Initially in Place).
STORAGE Set of facilities for storing oil.
A rubber packer or seal isolating a section
STRADDLE PACKER
of a well for production testing.
Substance which has come straight from an
atmospheric distillation unit and has not
STRAIGHT-RUN been cracked or reformed, and which is
usually used as a feedstock or as a utility
fuel.
Rock layers making up the terrain both
STRATA
above and below ground.
STRESS CORROSION Cracking due to a combination of corrosion
CRACKING and stress.
Stratum of terrain, mineral deposits in
STATUM
superposed layers.
See Joint, Drill-string, Casing, pup joint etc.
STRING Any number of connected joints of tubulars
run in the well.
Injecting water or steam into the distillation
STRIPPING residue to recover light molecules. Stripping
is a separation process.
STRUCTURE 1. A geological formation which, if sealed
against leakage, could be a potential trap
for hydrocarbons.
2. A man-made load-bearing construction,
such as an offshore platform, usually
designed by structural / civil engineers.
Large solid blocks are bored out to make
blocks onto which flanges can be attached
STUDDED BLOCKS
via studs.

Flanges end and outlet connections in


STUDDED FLANGE which thread anchored studs screwed into
CONNECTIONS tapped holes replace the holes for bolt
studs.
Part of the earths crust located below the
SUBSOIL
surface.
Cracking of metallic materials due to
SULPHIDE STRESS CRACKING
exposure to hydrogen sulphide.
Top part of the earths crust. The surface of
SURFACE
the ground.
SSV, Automatic wellhead valve which
SURFACE SAFETY VALVE closes upon loss of power.

A well, usually a successful discovery well


that is left temporarily sealed or plugged. A
SUSPENDED WELL
suspended well will be re-entered for further
testing or for production purposes.
Reducing pressure to clean or stimulate a
SWABBING
well.
SWEET CRUDE Low sulfur crude.
Joint between two pipes (or other fittings)
that can be freely rotated to change the
SWIVEL JOINT
direction of flow.

Synthetic petroleum products produced


SYNFUEL from coal, natural gas, shale, tar sands or
other sources.
T

Used to transport oil around the world.


TANKER Super tankers are huge ships with
enormous oil holding capacity.
Another substance from which petroleum
can be recovered, large deposits are
TAR SAND
currently mined in Canada. Tar Sand is a
synfuel.
TC Time charter (Acronym)
TECHNICAL RESERVES Technical Reserves are theoretical at a
gross operating margin by e.g. normal
primary or secondary recovery methods
The movement of tectonic plates that make
TECTONICS
up the Earths crust.
TEE (LONG SWEEP FULL FLOW Symmetrical tee shaped manifold fitting.
MANIFOLD FITTINGS)
TEE (LONG SWEEP MANIFOLD Asymmetrical tee shaped manifold fitting.
FITTINGS)
Smaller with sharper corners than the
TEE BLOCK FITTING longsweep manifold fitting.

Asymmetrical tee shaped manifold fitting.


TEE WITH TOP INTEGRAL The bullplug denotes that one of the ends is
BULLPLUG (LONG SWEEP completely blocked, therefore it will act like
MANIFOLD FITTINGS) an elbow.

Measurement of heat. Kelvin K is an


absolute scale starting at absolute zero.
TEMPERATURE
Celsius/ centigrade and Fahrenheit are
more commonly used.
Plant and equipment designed to process
TERMINAL crude oil or gas to remove impurities and
water.
A hammer lug union is a coupling consisting
of a male a female and a nut. Rather than
being welded onto its connection threaded
THREADED HAMMER LUG
hammer lug unions are made so that they
UNION
thread onto the part they are connecting
with.

The amount of raw materials processed by


THROUGHPUT
a plant in a given time.
Connecting one pipeline to another or to
TIE-IN equipment. Hence "pipeline tie in"
commonly describes the connection itself.
A contoured map of a subsurface geological
TIME MAP formation based on the time taken to reflect
seismic impulses.
On the futures market work is performed
after the order is paid, this makes it possible
TIME SETTLEMENT
to trade goods before taking possession of
them.
The name given to the chief engineer of a
TOOLPUSHER drilling crew, the man with overall
responsibility for the rig in the field.
The uppermost fitting of a christmas tree
TOP CONNECTOR
that allows full bore access.
With this sort of check valve the valve
doesnt have to be removed from its
TOP ENTRY CHECK VALVE
position in order to be checked.

The primary distillation phase of a refinery


TOPPING
process.
1. The target depth for a well.
TOTAL DEPTH (T.D) 2. The drilled depth in a well at any one
time.
As in Tour of Duty.

1. Drilling or other shift - usually 12 hours.


TOUR
2. Any longer period of duty for example 14
days offshore, or a period of assignment to
a remote or foreign location.
The ability for parts to be identified and their
origins found. Traceability of Anson
TRACEABILITY products means that throughout the supply
chain you can be assured of only the
highest quality.
The common slang name given to pup
TREATING IRON joints etc.

Set of procedures for separating the various


TREATMENT components of the effluent in order to
obtain crude oil.
As in Surface Test Trees and Christmas
TREES
Trees.
High-pressure gas in a well that must be
TRIP GAS kept under control when withdrawing the
drill string, i.e. making a trip.
The steel tubular elements in the center of
the well, by which the effluent is evacuated
TUBING to the surface. Tubing is nornally
differentiated from casing by the fact that it
is not always permanently installed.
TUBING HANGER, The Tubing hanger is a mechanism used to
threaded/mandrel support a tubing string in a tubing head.
Adapts the uppermost connection of a
TUBING HEAD ADAPTER tubing head to the lowermost valve of the
christmas tree.
TUBING HEAD SPOOL Attaches to the uppermost casing head (or
smallest casing string).Suspends the tubing
and seals the annulus.
An extremely hard coating used in tools,
TUNGSTEN CARBIDE
abrasives and wear resistant parts.
Breaking the drill pipe due to either fatigue
TWIST OFF
or excessive torque.
U

UKC United Kingdom Continent (Acronym).


Ultra large crude carrier; has capacity for
ULCC
320,000 to 600,000 dwt. (Acronym)
Valve used in an underwater wellhead
UNDERWATER SAFETY VALVE location which closes upon loss of power,
uses a USV actuator.
1. See hammer lug union.
UNION 2. Group of workers, i.e. members of a
union.
UNL Unleaded. (Abbreviation).
An area of a structure where the top of the
UPDIP formation is higher than the point under
consideration
The process of developing oil fields,
exploring for oil, and producing oil from oil
UPSTREAM
fields. Downstream is the opposite of
upstream.
USAC United States Atlantic Coast (Acronym).
United States dollar (Acronym), dollar sign
USD
commonly used ($).
USG United States Gulf (Acronym)
USWC United States West Coast (Acronym)
Set of plants to produce everything needed
UTILITIES (water, electricity, and other) to operate a
field in production.
V
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A device for regulating the flow of fluid


VALVE
through a system.
The flow through the bore can be shut off
via such mechanisms as, gates, balls,
VALVE BORE SEALING
plugs, poppets, flappers and their
respective seats.
VALVE : 'COMPACT' PLUG A small version of the plug valve that works
by having a plug that rotates to reveal a
hole through which fluid can travel.

The uppermost valve on the vertical bore of


VALVE : CROWN the christmas tree, above the flowline
output
A valve whose closure mechanism has the
VALVE : FULL BORE
same bore dimensions as the valve body.
A valve that works by lowering a gate to
block the flow of fluid, the gate can be lifted
VALVE : GATE
to resume the flow of fluid.

A valve that can regulated the direction of


VALVE : IN LINE CHECK the flow of fluid in one direction.

The lowermost valve on the vertical bore of


VALVE : MASTER the christmas tree. It is used to completley
shut in the well.
A valve that acts under the same principles
as the gate valve. The mud valve is
VALVE : MUD specifically suitable to abrasive applications
such as the control of mud.

The premier plug is a larger plug valve than


VALVE : 'PREMIER' PLUG the compact plug valve.

A valve with either a venturi or other


VALVE : REDUCED OPENING
opening through the closure mechanism.
VALVE : SWAB See VALVE: CROWN.
A valve that can regulated the direction of
the flow of fluid in one direction. It can be
VALVE : TOP ENTRY CHECK checked for maintenance purposes by
unscrewing the top.

Has a reduced opening and is well


VALVE : VENTURI streamlined to reduce pressure loss. In
someways similar to a crossover.
Valve that can be used to shut off well flow,
VALVE : WING located on the christmas tree but not on the
vertical run.
VALVE ACTUATOR (DA, DAO) Double acting hydraulic actuators are
designated DA for double acting and DAO
for double acting with manual override, they
do not use a spring return like the FSC and
FSO.
Gate valves fitted with hydraulic fail safe
spring return actuators are designated FSC
for fail-safe closed and FSO for fail safe
VALVE ACTUATOR (FSC AND
open. They offer a flexible solution to
FSO)
surface safety and fail safe valve
applications.

Elemental metal present in certain types of


VANADIUM
fuel
To avoid dangerous excess pressures
VENT building up a gas safety-exhausting system
is required.
Vacuum gasoil, known commonly as cat
feed. Feedstock for fluid catalytic cracker
VGO
also used to make gasoline, No.2 oil and
other byproducts. (Abbreviation).
This is a thermal cracking process. Like
catalytic cracking, it breaks up large
VISBREAKING molecules into smaller ones. Visbreaking is
applied to the residue of vacuum distillation
as part of an overall conversion process.
Viscosity. The resistance of a fluid to flow,
due to the mutual adherence of its
molecules. A measure of a liquid's
VISCOSITY
resistance to flow. Several viscosity scales
are used depending on the type of oil being
measured.
Very large crude carrier; capacity for
VLCC
200,000 to 320,000 dwt. (Acronym)
Examines internally, i.e radiography or
VOLUMETRIC NDT
ultrasonic testing.
W
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Water in the pore spaces of a reservoir.


WATER SATURATION Usually measured as a proportion. See
Porosity.
Period of time during which the weather
service thinks fair weather will last long
WEATHER WINDOW enough to carry out a weather dependant
operation. For example maneuvering a
platform.
A fusion of materials, with or without the
WELD
addition of filler materials.
Elbows are fittings that change the direction
of flow of the fluid. They are bent in the
shape of an elbow. One of the methods of
WELDED ELBOWS
making a strong elbow from a forging is to
fabricate it via welding.

Pup Joint is the term used to describe a


length of pipe/ tubing / joint of any length.
One of the methods of making a strong
WELDED PUP JOINTS
pupjoint from a forging is to fabricate its
hammer union ends via welding.

Testing in an exploration or appraisal well is


WELL TESTING to estimate the reserves in that well, in
addition to well productivity.
Some use the term "Wellhead" as a
description of a location or function rather
than a specific item of equipment. However
Anson refers to its production wellheads as
WELLHEAD simply wellheads. See also Production
Wellhead. API6A says that a wellhead is all
permanent equipment between the
uppermost portion of the the surface casing
and the tubing head adapter connection.
more information
If a surface will ever be in contact with
WETTED SURFACE
pressurised well fluid it is a wetted surface.
Lighter products from the top end of the
WHITE OIL refining process. So called because of their
transparent appearance.
An exploration well in an unproved area.
WILDCAT WELL Drained one or more miles from a proven
well.
WING UNION See hammer lug union.

A flexible cable and reel is used to lower log


or maintenance equipment down a well,
WIRE LINE rather than a rigid drill string. Using a
wireline means considerable savings of
equipment, manpower and time.

Maintenance job on a well, generally to


WORKOVER replace equipment or to stimulate
production.
Describes products or materials made via
WROUGHT forging. A wrought structure is said to
contain no cast dendritic structure.
West Texas Intermediate. The WTI spot
WTI price of crude is reported from Cushing,
Oklahoma. (Acronym)
WTS West Texas Sour (Acronym)
WYO SWT Wyoming Sweet (Abbreviation).
X
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Oil industry term for a wellhead, specifically


XMAS TREES the top of the wellhead where there is a
collection of valves and fittings.

The stress level at which material plastically


YIELD STRENGTH
deforms.
The area between two depths in a well
ZONE containing a reservoir or other
characteristics.
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