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**As it has already been explained, a logic gate is either a model of a physical component or the actual
**

component which implements a Boolean function. In other words, it performs a logical operation on

one or more logic inputs and produces a single logic output. There are two sets of logic gate symbols

in common use, both now defined by ANSI/IEEE Std 91-1984 and its supplement ANSI/IEEE Std 91a-

1991. The one based on traditional schematics is known as "distinctive" or "military" base shape. It is

used for simple drawings and for describing the complex logic functions of digital circuits with

schematic symbols. The "rectangular shape" set, based on IEC 60617-12, has rectangular shapes for

all types of gates and allows for the representation of a wider range of devices than the traditional

symbols. IEC 617-12 and its successor IEC 60617-2, the standard adopted in Europe, do not include

the "distinctive shape" symbols.

During this course, The ANSI/IEEE rectangular shape symbols will be used for showing real

schematic circuits, while the ANSI/IEEE distinctive shape symbols will rather be used for explaining

Boolean algebraic concepts or for Boolean simplifications. The following table shows those symbols.

However, the individual gates will be presented one by one in the exercises that follow.

**ANSI/IEEE Distinctive ANSI/IEEE Rectangular
**

Operation IEC 60617-12 Symbol

Shape Shape

NOT

AND

OR

NAND

NOR

XOR

XNOR

Boolean TTL IEC 60617-12 ANSI/IEEE ANSI/IEEE Recta Algebra Operation Family IC Symbol Distinctive Shape ngular Shape Expressio Example n x=Ā NOT 74XX04 x = ¬A The NOT operation is different from other operations because it can be applied to only one input variable. In this course. As you can see on the table.NOT In the following experiment. . you will observe the outputs of a NOT gate according to its inputs and determine the Boolean expressions which define its behaviour. The output has the opposite logical value of the input. The NOT operation is also called inversion or complement. Assemble the circuit as shown in the diagram and animation. both A and ¬A mean inversion (negation). both of them will be used with no difference in meaning.

.I15 .Q15 following circuit as shown in the diagram and animation. Variable(s) State Logic value Outputs Q0.... Inputs I0.Open the virtual instrument Digital Input/Output Display via the menu option Instruments | Digital | Input and Output or by clicking on the image below.Q15 Assemble the Outputs Q0.I15 Inputs I0.....

.

For all other cases. TTL Boolean Family Operati IEC 60617-12 ANSI/IEEE Distinctive ANSI/IEEE Rectangul Algebra IC on Symbol Shape ar Shape Expressi Exampl on e x=A•B AND x = A B 74XX08 x = AB The AND operation logically multiplies its inputs.AND In the following experiment. The output of an AND gate is high only when all its inputs are high. you will observe the outputs of an AND gate according to its inputs and determine the Boolean expressions which define its behaviour. Assemble the circuit as shown in the diagram and animation. . the output is expected to be low.

I15 Inputs I0.Q15 Outputs Q0..I15 .... Variable(s) State Logic value Outputs Q0.Open the virtual instrument Digital Input/Output Display via the menu option Instruments | Digital | Input and Output or by clicking on the image below...Q15 Inputs I0...

Now you will make the connections for performing two simple experiments which together with the previous results will help you derive four simple rules concerning AND operators. A•A .

A·A .

. TTL Boolean IEC 60617-12 ANSI/IEEE ANSI/IEEE Rectangular Family Operation Algebra Symbol Distinctive Shape Shape IC Expression Example x=A+B OR 74XX32 x = A B The OR operation logically adds its inputs. you will observe the outputs of an OR gate according to its inputs and determine the Boolean expressions which define its behaviour. Assemble the circuit as shown in the diagram and animation. OR In the following experiment. The output of an OR gate is high when either or both of its inputs are high and low when both inputs are low.

I15 ..Q15 Outputs Q0.Open the virtual instrument Digital Input/Output Display via the menu option Instruments | Digital | Input and Output or by clicking on the image below........I15 Inputs I0.Q15 Inputs I0. Variable(s) State Logic value Outputs Q0.

A+A .Now you will make the connections for performing two simple experiments which together with the previous results will help you derive four simple rules concerning OR operators.

A+A .

This small circle denotes the inversion operation. Assemble the circuit as shown in the diagram and animation. but let us corroborate this with the following experiments. you will observe the outputs of a NAND gate according to its inputs and determine the Boolean expressions which define its behaviour. Therefore. except that a small circle at the output is added. the NAND gate operates as an AND gate followed by a NOT gate. . NAND (Not AND) In the following experiment. as you can already imagine. Boolean TTL IEC 60617-12 ANSI/IEEE ANSI/IEEE Rectangular Operation Algebra Family IC Symbol Distinctive Shape Shape Expression Example x= A•B NAND x = A B 74XX00 x = AB As you have probably noticed. the NAND gate's symbol is almost the same as that for the AND.

. Variable(s) State Logic value Outputs Q0...I15 Inputs I0..Open the virtual instrument Digital Input/Output Display via the menu option Instruments | Digital | Input and Output or by clicking on the image below.Q15 Inputs I0....I15 ..Q15 Outputs Q0.

Assemble the circuit as shown in the diagram and animation and answer the questions below. .

Assemble the circuit as shown in the diagram and animation and answer the questions below. .

except that a small circle at the output is added. Therefore. Assemble the circuit as shown in the diagram and animation. the NOR gate operates as an OR gate followed by a NOT gate. the NOR gate's symbol is almost the same as that for the OR. ANSI/IEEE Distinctive ANSI/IEEE Rectangul Algebra IC on 12 Symbol Shape ar Shape Expressi Examp on le x= A+B 74XX0 NOR 2 x = A B As you have probably noticed.NOR (Not OR) In the following experiment. This small circle denotes the inversion operation. you will observe the outputs of a NOR gate according to its inputs and determine the Boolean expressions which define its behaviour. but let us corroborate this with the following experiments. . as you can already imagine. TTL Boolean Family Operati IEC 60617.

Q15 Outputs Q0...Open the virtual instrument Digital Input/Output Display via the menu option Instruments | Digital | Input and Output or by clicking on the image below.I15 Inputs I0...Q15 Inputs I0..I15 ... Variable(s) State Logic value Outputs Q0..

Assemble the circuit as shown in the diagram and animation and answer the questions below. .

Assemble the circuit as shown in the diagram and animation and answer the questions below. .

one of us is gonna have to leave... Additional Boolean Functions: XOR and XNOR In the following experiment. TTL Boolean ANSI/IEEE ANSI/IEEE Rectangular Family Operation IEC 60617-12 Algebra Distinctive Shape Shape IC Expression Example x=AB XOR (also 74XX86 EXOR) x = A B The XOR operation is also known as exclusive OR. Assemble the circuit as shown in the diagram and animation. you will discover it with the following experiment....Stranger. . either YOU or ME". you will observe the outputs of an XOR gate according to its inputs and determine the Boolean expressions which define its behaviour.. Can you guess why? If not. The exclusive OR might be thought of as the "John-Wayne OR": ". this town ain't big enough for both of us.

Open the virtual instrument Digital Input/Output Display via the menu option Instruments | Digital | Input and Output or by clicking on the image below....I15 .Q15 Inputs I0.Q15 Outputs Q0.I15 Inputs I0. Variable(s) State Logic value Outputs Q0......

Notice that in this case. TTL ANSI/IEEE ANSI/IEEE Rectangular Boolean Operation IEC 60617-12 Family IC Distinctive Shape Shape Algebra Example XNOR x=AB (also 74XX266 EXNOR) x=AB The XNOR operation is also known as exclusive NOR or exclusive Not OR and you will discover why in the following experiment. Assemble the circuit as shown in the animation. the circuit for an XNOR gate was indirectly built using an XOR and a NOT gate. However. . the XNOR IC circuit for the TTL family is available with the number 74LS266. for example.

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