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# ELURU COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY

## ELURU COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY

Approved by AICTE, New Delhi &Affiliated to JNTU Kakinada
Apparaopalem, Koppaka (P), Duggirala (V), Pedavegi (M). Eluru 534004, W. G. Dt., A.P.

COURSE FILE

## CLASS: III B.TECH I SEM (ME) SUB:DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY

STAFF: Sri. G.VIJAYA BHASKARA RAO CODE: RT31031

List of Contents

Syllabus
Aim and Objective of the subject
Lesson Plan
Assignment Questions
Mid Questions
University Previous Question Papers
Practical Orientation
PPTS Soft Copy
Topic beyond Syllabus
Lecture Notes

MECHANICAL DEPARTMENT
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Syllabus
III Year I SEMESTER T P C
3+1* 0 3
DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY

Course Objectives:
1. To equip the student with fundamental knowledge of dynamics of machines so that
student can appreciate problems of dynamic force balance, transmissibility of forces, isolation
of systems, vibrations.
2. Develop knowledge of analytical and graphical methods for calculating balancing of rotary
and reciprocating masses.
3. Develop understanding of vibrations and its significance on engineering design.
4. Develop understanding of dynamic balancing, flywheel analysis, gyroscopic forces and
moments.
UNIT I
PRECESSION: Gyroscopes, effect of precession motion on the stability of
moving vehicles such as motor car, motor cycle, aero planes and ships, static and dynamic force
analysis of planar mechanisms, (Demonstration of models in video show).
UNIT II
FRICTION: Inclined plane, friction of screw and nuts, pivot and collar,
uniform pressure, uniform wear, friction circle and friction axis: lubricated surfaces, boundary
friction, film lubrication.
CLUTCHES: Friction clutches- single disc or plate clutch, multiple disc clutch, cone clutch,
centrifugal clutch.
BRAKES AND DYNAMOMETERS: Simple block brakes, internal expanding brake, band
brake of vehicle. General description and operation of dynamometers: Prony, Rope brake,
Epicyclic, Bevis Gibson and belt transmission,
UNIT III
TURNING MOMENT DIAGRAMS: Dynamic force analysis of slider
crank mechanism, inertia torque, angular velocity and acceleration of connecting rod, crank effort
and turning moment diagrams fluctuation of energy fly wheels and their design.
UNIT-IV
GOVERNERS: Watt, porter and proell governors, spring loaded governors Hartnell and Hartung
with auxiliary springs. sensitiveness, isochronism and hunting.
UNIT V
BALANCING: Balancing of rotating masses single and multiple single and different planes,
use analytical and graphical methods. Primary, secondary, and higher balancing of reciprocating
masses. analytical and graphical methods, unbalanced forces and couples examination of
V multi cylinder in line and radial engines for primary and secondary balancing, locomotive
balancing, hammer blow, swaying couple, variation of tractive effort.
UNIT VI
VIBRATIONS: Free Vibration of spring mass system oscillation of pendulums, centers of
oscillation and suspension. transverse loads, vibrations of beams with concentrated and distributed
loads. Dunkerlys methods, Raleighs method, whirling of shafts, critical speeds, torsional
vibrations, two and three rotor systems, Simple problems on forced damped vibration, vibration
isolation and transmissibility.

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ELURU COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY

TEXT BOOKS :
1. Theory of Machines / S.S Ratan/ Mc. Graw Hill Publ.
2. Mechanism and machine theory by Ashok G. Ambedkar, PHI Publications.
REFERENCES :
1. Mechanism and Machine Theory / JS Rao and RV Dukkipati / New Age.
2. Theory of Machines / Shiegly / MGH
3. Theory of Machines / Thomas Bevan / CBS Publishers
4. Theory of machines / Khurmi / S.Chand.
Course outcomes:
Upon successful completion of this course the student should be able to:
1. Analyze stabilization of sea vehicles, aircrafts and automobile vehicles.
2. Compute frictional losses, torque transmission of mechanical systsms.
3. Analyze dynamic force analysis of slider crank mechanism and design of flywheel.
4. Understand how to determine the natural frequencies of continuous systems starting from
the general equation of displacement.
5. Understand balancing of reciprocating and rotary masses.

MECHANICAL DEPARTMENT
ELURU COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY

## The students completing this course are expected to understand the

branch of the theory of machines and mechanisms that studies the motion of machines and m
echanisms, taking intoaccount the forces acting on them. The dynamics of machines and mec
hanisms deals with the following basic problems:definition of the laws of motion of the comp
onents of mechanisms, control of the motion of the components, determination offrictional lo
sses, determination of the reactions in kinematic pairs, and balancing of machines and mecha
nisms.

## OBJECTIVES OF THE COURSE:

The purpose of the dynamics of machinery (aka machine dynamics) is to apply the
knowledge from the field of dynamics to specific problems in engineering. Its development is
closely linked to developments in mechanical engineering. Dynamic problems first occurred
in power and work machines. Torsional vibrations were observed in reciprocating engines,
and bending vibrations put turbine components at risk. Explaining such phenomena has long
been the only task of the dynamics of machinery, as reflected in the standard publications, e.
g. [1]. Knowledge of the dynamics of machinery is also required for designing machines that
are based on dynamic principles. This includes hammers, robots, stemmers, oscillating
conveyors, screens, vibrators, textile mandrills, centrifuges, etc. Dynamic problems stepped
into the foreground with the ever-increasing operating speed and the enforcement of
lightweight design principles in all fields of processing machines, agricultural machines,
machine tools, printing machines, and conveyors. To manage their multiplicity, it became
necessary to define and answer the basic questions, while abstracting as much as possible
from any specific machine. In this way, dynamics of machinery grew into an independent
discipline that is part of the tool set of each mechanical engineer. While 50 years ago people
thought that dealing with vibration problems will remain the domain of only a few specialists,
today we expect a large number of engineers to have a precise understanding of the dynamic
processes in a machine. High-performance machines are to be sized not just based on static,
but often primarily based on dynamic considerations. Thus, the use of calculation methods of
structural durability depends on the certainty of the load assumptions that result from a
machine dynamics calculation. An engineer has to know the physical laws that have an
influence on periodic permanent loads, impacts, starting and stopping processes in a machine.
The way in which engineers work has to be taken into account, though. It is governed by the
requirement to solve a practical problem in a short time and at economically justifiable
expenditure. Frequently, fast decisions have to be made so that waiting for the scientific
clarification of detailed questions is not an option. Instead, an engineer has to consider all
available information and adjust the solution of the problem to the existing state of the art. An
important skill that an engineer should have is to be able to apply an imperfect or incomplete
theory as long as there is no better one available. This requires, of course, a wealth of
knowledge that will not always include the entire train of thought that leads to an equation or
computer program. What is important, however, is to know their scope and make use of ways
to check the results obtained using rough estimates. The diagram below, in Fig. 0.1, outlines
the path that is followed when solving a design problem. It is desirable to have someone who
is able to go down the external path, that is, someone who glances at the machine (or listens
to it) and knows what has to be changed to obtain the desired effect. Simply put, what matters

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are decisions to change something in the structure or parameters of a specific object in such a
way that the dynamic performance of that object is improved. Since this selection of
decisions is anything but trivial, a step-by-step approach as indicated on the left-hand side of
the diagram is preferred. The essential steps include the identification of a mechanical
problem in a design (or technological) task, and the formulation of a mathematical problem
from it (which is part of modeling). One has to understand the physical behavior before
generating a model. Todays engineer is spared the many efforts that the solution of the
mathematical problems used to involve. In recent years, the interpretation of the
mathematical solution and the implementation of mechanical principles in a design solution
have become increasingly important engineering tasks. Today, dynamic phenomena can be
better calculated in advance and taken advantage of, e. g. dynamic balancing, the effects of
gyroscopes, absorbers, dampers, and nonlinear effects (e. g. self-synchronization).

Figure 0.2 shows how the field of dynamics of machinery relates to other disciplines.
Rotor dynamics, or vehicle dynamics, could be related to these disciplines in a similar way,
and they overlap with the dynamics of machinery. Unlike rotor and vehicle dynamics,
machine dynamics deals with many different objects and problems, from machine elements
to complex designs where close links to structural dynamics (and not just with regard to
foundations) exist. The theoretical foundation of the dynamics of machinery is formed by
mathematics and physics , including, of course, almost all fields of engineering mechanics
and in particular, the theory of vibrations. The findings of machine dynamics studies
influence the design and sizing of real machines, and there are close links to design theory,
machine elements, structural stability, drive engineering, and acoustics of machines. The
most closely related disciplines are drive engineering (for the drives) and structural dynamics
(for the frames) if, from a design perspective, one views a machine as a combination of a
drive and a support system. The dynamics of machinery always involves real objects that are
subjected to loads that vary over time, and that are exposed to, or take advantage of, the
effects of inertia. Frequently, the purpose is also to avoid malfunctions or damages. The
findings of the theory of vibrations provide the basis for understanding many real-world
phenomena. The technological development of many machines has influenced the theory of
vibrations in that it continuously provided new practical questions that could not be answered
using the body of knowledge and theories available. Problems of modeling in the dynamics
of machinery are closely related to system dynamics, and vibration measurement technology,
but also include methods for evaluating and assessing vibration phenomena. The dynamics of
machinery utilizes the findings in fields such as structural dynamics and multi body dynamics
that are often found implemented using numerical mathematics in commercial software
products. Quantitative improvements of the calculation models are not just achieved by

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mutual perfection of computer and measurement technology. There are cross links with
electrical engineering when it comes to electric drives and applying findings of control
engineering and computer sciences.

## PRESCRIBED TEXT BOOKS AND REFERENCE BOOKS:

TEXT BOOKS:
1. Theory of Machines / S.S Ratan / Mc. Graw Hill Publ.
2. Mechanism and machine theory by Ashok G. Ambedkar, PHI Publications.
REFERENCES :
1. Mechanism and Machine Theory / JS Rao and RV Dukkipati / New Age.
2. Theory of Machines / Shiegly / MGH
3. Theory of Machines / Thomas Bevan / CBS Publishers
4. Theory of machines / Khurmi / S.Chand.

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ELURU COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY

## SESSION PLANS & REVISION SCHEDULE

In the beginning of the every class the previous topic will be reviewed for a while,
besides, after completing each unit again the entire unit will be reviewed in a class for one
period.

STUDENTS:

## Students can approach in between 11:00AM - 11:10AM& 12:50 PM 1:25 PM in all

working days of the college.

## DISTRIBUTION OF INTERNAL & EXTERNAL MARKS:

During the semester there shall be 2 tests. The weightage of Internal marks for 30
consists of Descriptive -15, assignments -05 & Objective -10 (In Internal Evaluation, there
will be two Online Tests (objective) each of 20 Marks for 20 minutes duration). The objective
examination is for 20 minutes duration. The subjective examination is for 90 minutes
duration conducted for 30 marks this marks will be scaled to 15 marks as maximum. Each
subjective type test question paper shall contain 3 questions and all questions need to be
answered. The objective examination conducted for 20 marks will be scaled to10 Marks as
maximum and subjective examination 15 marks are to be added to the assignment marks of 5
for finalizing internal marks for 30. The best of the two tests will be taken for internal marks.
As the syllabus is framed for 6 units, Ist mid examination (both Objective and subjective) is
conducted in 1-3 units and second test in 4-6 units of each subjects in a semester.
The end semester examination is conducted covering the topics of all Units for 70
marks. Part-A contains a mandatory question (Brainstorming / Thought provoking/ case
study) for 22 marks. Part-B has 6 questions (one from each unit). The student has to answer 3
out of 6 questions in part-B and carries a weightage of 16 marks each.

MECHANICAL DEPARTMENT
ELURU COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY

LESSON PLAN

No
Unit/ Teachi
Proposed Book of
item Topic to be covered ng
date reference peri
No. method
ods
UNIT-I: PRECESSION 11
Gyroscopes 12/6/17 1
Effect of precession motion on the stability of
moving vehicles such as motor car. 13&14/6/17 2
Effect of precession motion on the stability of
1.1 moving vehicles such as two wheeler 15&16/6/17 2
Theory of BOAR
Effect of precession motion on the stability of Machines / S.S D AND
moving vehicles such as aero plane 17&20/6/17 2
Effect of precession motion on the stability of Ratan / Mc. CHAL
moving vehicles such as sea vessel 21&22/6/17 Graw Hill Publ 2 K
Static and dynamic force analysis of planar
1.2 23/6/17 1
mechanisms.
Demonstration of models in video show. 24/6 /17 1
UNIT-II: FRICTION 18
Introduction
2.1 27/6/17 1

## Friction on Inclined planes 28/6/17 1

2.2 Considering motion up the plane 29/6/17 1
Considering motion down the plane 30/6/17 1
2.3 Friction of nuts and screws 1/7/17 1
2.4 Friction of pivot and collar bearings 4/7/17 1
Design considerations in the choice of assumption
2.5 5/7/17 1
of uniform pressure and uniform wear
Friction circle and friction axis: lubricated surfaces Theory of BOAR
2.6 6/7/17 1
Machines / S.S D AND
2.7 Boundary friction, film lubrication 7/7/17 Ratan / Mc. 1
Clutches: CHAL
Graw Hill
Single plate clutch K
8/7/17 Publ
2.8 Multi plate clutch 11/7/17 5
Cone clutch To14/7/17
Centrifugal clutch
Brakes and dynamometers
Simple block brakes General description 15 &
Internal expanding brake, band brake of vehicle. 18/7/17 to
2.9 4
Dynamometers: Epicyclic Dynamometers 20/7/17
Prony, Rope brake Dynamometers
Bevis Gibson Dynamometers

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ELURU COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY

## UNIT-III: TURNING MOMENT DIAGRAMS 11

Dynamic Force analysis of slider crank 21,22&25
3.1 mechanism 3
/7/17 to
3.2 Inertia torque 26/7/17 Theory of 1
BOAR
Angular velocity and acceleration of connecting Machines / S.S
3.3 27/7/17 1 D AND
rod Ratan / Mc.
Graw Hill CHAL
28,29/7/17
3.4 Crank effort and turning moment diagrams Publ 4 K
& 1,2/8/17
3.5 Fluctuation of energy 3/8/17 1
3.6 Fly wheels and design 4/8/17 1
UNIT-IV: GOVERNERS 07
4.1 Introduction 5/8/17 1

## 4.2 Watt governer 22/8/17 Theory of 1 BOAR

Machines / S.S
Porter governer D AND
4.3 23/8/17 Ratan / Mc. 1
Graw Hill
CHAL
4.4 Proell governer 24/8/17 Publ 1 K
4.5 Hartnell governer 29/8/17 1
4.6 Hartung governer 30/8/17 1
4.7 Sensitiveness, Iso chronism, Hunting 31/8/17 1
UNIT-V: BALANCING 15
Balancing of rotating masses. 1/9/17 1
Single mass. 1/9/17 1
5.1 Multiple masses. 2/9/17 1
Theory of BOAR
Balancing of rotating masses in single plane. 4/9/17 1
Machines / S.S
Balancing of rotating masses in multiple planes. 5/9/17 1 D AND
Ratan / Mc.
Balancing of reciprocating masses. 6/9/17 Graw Hill 1 CHAL
5.2 Primary, secondary and higher balancing. 7&8/9/17 Publ 2 K
Unbalanced forces and couples. 9&11/9/17 2
12,13&14/9
5.3 Locomotive balancing. 3
/17
5.4 Hammer blow, swaying couple 15/9/17 1
5.5 Variation of tractive forces 16/9/17 1
UNIT-VI VIBRATIONS 15
6.1 Introduction 18/9/17 1
6.2 Free Vibration of spring mass system 19&20/9/17 2
Theory of BOAR
Oscillation of pendulums, centers of oscillation Machines / S.S
6.3 21&22/9/17 2 D AND
and suspension. Ratan / Mc.
Transverse loads 23/9/17 Graw Hill 1 CHAL
Vibrations of beams with concentrated and Publ K
6.4 25,26&27/9
distributed loads. Dunkerlys methods, Raleighs 3
/17
method

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## Whirling of shafts, critical speeds 3&4/10/17 2

5,6
6.5 Torsional vibrations, two and three rotor systems 3
&7/10/17
6.6 Vibration isolation and transmissibility. 9/10/17 1
TOTAL NUMBER OF CLASSES 75

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ASSIGNMENT QUESTIONS

Unit-1
1. What do you understand by gyroscopic couple ? Derive a formula for its magnitude.
2. Explain the application of gyroscopic principles to aircrafts
3. Describe the gyroscopic effect on sea going vessels
4. Explain the effect of the gyroscopic couple on the reaction of the four wheels of a
vehicle negotiating a curve.
5. Discuss the effect of the gyroscopic couple on a two wheeled vehicle when taking a turn.

Unit-2
1. Find the force required to move a load of 300 N up a rough plane, the force being
applied parallel to the plane. The inclination of the plane is such that a force of 60 N
inclined at 30 to a similar smooth plane would keep the same load in equilibrium. The
coefficient of friction is 0.3
2. The spindle of a screw jack has single start square threads with an outside diameter of 45
mm and a pitch of 10 mm. The spindle moves in a fixed nut. The load is carried on a
swivel head but is not free to rotate. The bearing surface of the swivel head has a mean
diameter of 60 mm. The coefficient of friction between the nut and screw is 0.12 and that
between the swivel head and the spindle is 0.10. Calculate the load which can be raised
by efforts of 100 N each applied at the end of two levers each of effective length of 350
mm. Also determine the velocity ratio and the efficiency of the lifting arrangement.
3. A flat foot step bearing 225 mm in diameter supports a load of 7.5 kN. If the coefficient
of friction is 0.09 and r.p.m is 60, find the power lost in friction, assuming 1. Uniform
pressure, and 2. Uniform wear.
4. A shaft has a number of collars integral with it. The external diameter of the collars is
400 mm and the shaft diameter is 250 mm. If the uniform intensity of pressure is 0.35
N/mm2 and its coefficient of friction is 0.05, estimate : 1. power absorbed in overcoming
friction when the shaft runs at 105 r.p.m. and carries a load of 150 kN, and 2. number of
collars required.
5. A single plate clutch (both sides effective) is required to transmit 26.5 kW at 1600 r.p.m.
The outer diameter of the plate is limited to 300 mm and intensity of pressure between
the plates is not to exceed 68.5 kN/m2. Assuming uniform wear and a coefficient of
friction 0.3, show that the inner diameter of the plates is approximately 90 mm.

Unit-3
1. An engine flywheel has a mass of 6.5 tonnes and the radius of gyration is 2 m. If the
maximum and minimum speeds are 120 r. p. m. and 118 r. p. m. respectively, find
maximum fluctuation of energy.
2. In a turning moment diagram, the areas above and below the mean torque line taken in
order are 4400, 1150, 1300 and 4550 mm2 respectively. The scales of the turning
moment diagram are:
Turning moment, 1 mm = 100 N-m ; Crank angle, 1 mm = 1
Find the mass of the flywheel required to keep the speed between 297 and 303 r.p.m.,
if the radius of gyration is 0.525 m.
3. A single cylinder, single acting, four stroke cycle gas engine develops 20 kW at 250
r.p.m. The work done by the gases during the expansion stroke is 3 times the work done
on the gases during the compression stroke. The work done on the suction and exhaust
strokes may be neglected. If the flywheel has a mass of 1.5 tonnes and has a radius of

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gyration of 0.6m, find the cyclic fluctuation of energy and the coefficient of fluctuation
of speed.
4. The torque exerted on the crank shaft of a two stroke engine is given by the equation:
TN-m14 5002300 sin 21900 cos
here is the crank angle displacement from the inner dead centre. Assuming the
resisting torque to be constant, determine: 1. The power of the engine when the speed
is 150 r.p.m. 2. The moment of inertia of the flywheel if the speed variation is
not to exceed 0.5% of the mean speed; and 3. The angular acceleration of the
flywheel when the crank has turned through 30 from the inner dead centre.

Unit-4
1. The length of the upper arm of a Watt governor is 400 mm and its inclination to the
vertical is 30.Find the percentage increase in speed, if the balls rise by 20 mm.
2. In a Porter governor, the mass of the central load is 18 kg and the mass of each ball is 2
kg. The top arms are 250 mm while the bottom arms are each 300 mm long. The friction
of the sleeve is 14 N. If the top arms make 45 with the axis of rotation in the equilibrium
position, find the range of speed of the governor in that position.
3. A Proell governor has all the four arms of length 250 mm. The upper and lower ends of
the arms are pivoted on the axis of rotation of the governor. The extension arms of the
lower links are each 100 mm long and parallel to the axis when the radius of the ball path
is 150 mm. The mass of each ball is 4.5 kg and the mass of the central load is 36 kg.
Determine the equilibrium speed of the governor.
4. A spring controlled governor of the Hartnell type with a central spring under compression
has balls each of mass 2 kg. The ball and sleeve arms of the bell crank levers are
respectively 100 mm and 60 mm long and are at right angles. In the lowest position of the
governor sleeve, the radius of rotation of the balls is 80 mm and the ball arms are parallel
to the governor axis. Find the initial load on the spring in order that the sleeve may begin
to lift at 300 r.p.m. If the stiffness of the spring is 30 kN/m, what is the equilibrium speed
corresponding to a sleeve lift of 10 mm?
5. The spring controlled governor of the Hartung type has two rotating masses each of 2.5
kg and the limits of their radius of rotation are 100 mm and 125 mm. The each mass is
directly controlled by a spring attached to it and to the inner casing of the governor as
shown in Fig 18.26 (a). The stiffness of the spring is 8 kN/m and the force on each spring,
when the masses are in their mid-position, is 320 N. In addition, there is an equivalent
constant inward radial force of 80 N acting on each revolving mass in order to allow for
the dead weight of the mechanism. Neglecting friction, find the range of speed of the
governor.
Unit-5
1. Four masses A, B, C and D are attached to a shaft and revolve in the same plane. The
masses are 12 kg, 10 kg, 18 kg and 15 kg respectively and their radii of rotations are 40
mm, 50 mm, 60 mm and 30 mm. The angular position of the masses B, C and D are 60,
135 and 270 from the mass A. Find the magnitude and position of the balancing mass at
2. Four masses A, B, C and D revolve at equal radii and are equally spaced along a shaft.
The mass B is 7 kg and the radii of C and D make angles of 90 and 240 respectively
with the radius of B. Find the magnitude of the masses A, C and D and the angular
position of A so that the system may be completely balanced
3. A shaft carries five masses A, B, C, D and E which revolve at the same radius in planes
which are equidistant from one another. The magnitude of the masses in planes A, C and

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D are 50 kg, 40 kg and 80 kg respectively. The angle between A and C is 90 and that
between C and D is 135. Determine the magnitude of the masses in planes B and E and
their positions to put the shaft in complete rotating balance.
4. Explain the method of balancing of different masses revolving in the same plane.

UNIT-6
1. A shaft of 100 mm diameter and 1 metre long is fixed at one end and other end carries a
flywheel of mass 1 tonne. Taking Youngs modulus for the shaft material as 200 GN/m2,
find the natural frequency of longitudinal and transverse vibrations
2. A beam of length 10 m carries two loads of mass 200 kg at distances of 3 m from each
end together with a central load of mass 1000 kg. Calculate the frequency of transverse
vibrations. Neglect the mass of the beam and take I = 109 mm4 and E = 205103 N/mm2.
3. A steel bar 25 mm wide and 50 mm deep is freely supported at two points 1 m apart and
carries a mass of 200 kg in the middle of the bar. Neglecting the mass of the bar, find the
frequency of transverse vibration. If an additional mass of 200 kg is distributed uniformly
over the length of the shaft, what will be the frequency of vibration ? Take E = 200GN/m2
4. A shaft 1.5 m long is supported in flexible bearings at the ends and carries two wheels
each of 50 kg mass. One wheel is situated at the centre of the shaft and the other at a
distance of 0.4 m from the centre towards right. The shaft is hollow of external diameter
75 mm and inner diameter 37.5mm. The density of the shaft material is 8000 kg/m3. The
Youngs modulus for the shaft material is 200 GN/m2. Find the frequency of transverse
vibration.
5. A vertical shaft 25 mm diameter and 0.75 m long is mounted in long bearings and carries
a pulley of mass 10 kg midway between the bearings. The centre of pulley is 0.5 mm
from the axis of the shaft. Find (a) the whirling speed, and (b) the bending stress in the
shaft, when it is rotating at 1700 r.p.m. Neglect the mass of the shaft and E = 200 GN/m2.

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## Rigid dynamic analysis.

Vibration dynamics and control.

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