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Escherichia coli

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?Escherichia coli

Status konservasi
Status konservasi: Aman

Klasifikasi ilmiah
Superdomain: Phylogenetica Filum: Kelas: Ordo: Famili: Genus: Spesies: Proteobacteria Gamma Proteobacteria Enterobacteriales Enterobacteriaceae Escherichia

E. coli Nama binomial Escherichia coli
T. Escherich, 1885

Escherichia coli, atau biasa disingkat E. coli, adalah salah satu jenis spesiesutama bakteri gram negatif. Pada umumnya,
bakteri yang ditemukan oleh Theodor Escherich ini dapat ditemukan dalam usus besar manusia. Kebanyakan E. Coli tidak berbahaya, tetapi beberapa, seperti E. Coli tipe O157:H7, dapat mengakibatkan keracunan makanan yang serius pada manusia. E. Coli yang tidak berbahaya dapat menguntungkan manusia dengan memproduksi vitamin K2, atau dengan mencegah baketi lain di dalam usus. E. coli banyak digunakan dalam teknologi rekayasa genetika. Biasa digunakan sebagai vektor untuk menyisipkan gengen tertentu yang diinginkan untuk dikembangkan. E. coli dipilih karena pertumbuhannya sangat cepat dan mudah dalam penanganannya.

Saccharomyces cerevisiae From Wikipedia. (June 2009) Saccharomyces cerevisiae S. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. the free encyclopedia This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. cerevisiae under DIC microscopy Scientific classification Kingdom: Fungi Phylum: Ascomycota Subphylum: Saccharomycotina Class: Saccharomycetes Order: Saccharomycetales Family: Saccharomycetaceae Genus: Saccharomyces Species: S. cerevisiae Binomial name .

cerevisiae comes from Latin and means "of beer". It is believed that it was originally isolated from the skins of grapes (one can see the yeast as a component of the thin white film on the skins of some dark -colored fruits such as plu ms. saccharo. It is the microorganism behind the most common type of fermentation. these proteins include cell cycle proteins. It is one of the most intensively studied eukaryotic model organisms in molecularand cell biology. much like Escherichi coli as the model prokaryote. cerevisiae short form of the scientific name B w ' y Al y       t though other species are also used in brewing t Top-fermenting yeast Baker's yeast B dding yeast  This species is also the main source of nutritional yeast and yeast extract. S cerevisi ecells are round to ovoid. signaling proteins. and protein -processing enzymes. Hansen times in baking and brewing. Many proteins important in human biology were first discovered by studying their homologs in yeast. § Saccharomyces cerevisiae i a species of buddi yeast It is perhaps the most useful yeast owi to its use si ce ancient ¥ ¦¥ ¦¥ ¢ ¢ ¡   ¤ £ .Sacchar m ce cerevi iae Meye ex E. Other names for the organism are: ¨ © ¨ © ¨ © ¨ ¨       S.C.being the combining form "sugar-" and myces being "fungus". Antibodies against S cerevisi e are found in 60±70% of patients with Crohn's disease and 10±15% of patients with ulcerative colitis. 5 ±10 micrometres in diameter. It reproduces by a division process known as budding. The petite mutation in S cerevisi e is of particular interest. "S ccharomyces" derives from Latinized Greek and means "sugar mold" or "sugar fungus". it exists among the waxes of the cuticle).

Histidine. but under conditions of stress can undergo sporulation. growth on other sugars is variable. They can also utilize most amino acids. S cerevisiae does not excrete proteases so extracellular protein cannot be metabolized. Some strains cannot grow anaerobically on sucrose and trehalose. All strains can utilize ammonia and urea as the sole nitrogen source. small peptides and nitrogen bases as a nitrogen source.3 Other tools in yeast research 3 Yeast in commercial applications o o 3.1 Brewing 3. and under conditions of high stress will generally simply die.1 CO2 injection by yeast for planted aquaria [edit]Biology [edit]Life cycle There are two forms in which yeast cells can survive and grow: haploid and diploid.2 Nutritional require ents 1.2 Uses in aquaria 4 See also 5 References 6 Line notes 7 External links o 7. The ability of yeasts to use different sugars can differ depending on whether they are grown aerobically or anaerobically. entering meiosis and producing a variety of haploid spores. not readily utilized.   . maltose. The haploid cells undergo a simple life cycle of mitosis and growth.Contents [hide] 1 Biology o o o o 1.1 Life cycle 1. and trehalose and fail to grow on lactose and cellobiose. however. which can proceed on to mate.1 A model organism 2. It was shown that galactose and fructose were two of the best fermenting sugars.2 Genome sequencing 2. The diploid cells (the preferential 'form' of yeast) similarly undergo a simple life cycle of mitosis and growth.4 Cell cycle 2 Yeast in biological research o o o 2. However. [edit] utritional requirements  All strains of S cerevisiae can grow aerobically on glucose. cystine and lysine are. glycine.3 Mating 1. but cannot utilize nitrate since they lack the ability to reduce them to ammonium ions.

Furthermore. which is assimilated as a dihydrogen phosphate ion. $ #  As a eukaryote. they look for several traits. and are significant tools in the study of DNA damage and repair mechanisms. [edit]Mating Main article: Mating of yeast Yeast has two mating types. a and (alpha). accessibility. In rapidly growing yeast cultures. These are all positive characteristics in that they allow for the swift production and maintenance of multiple specimen lines at low cost. where they come from (from a molecular biology point of view).5 ±2 hours at 30 °C) and . For more information on the biological importance of these two cell types. cells lacking buds can be seen and bud formation only occupies a part of the cell cycle. see Mating of yeast. manipulation.Yeasts also have a requirement for phosphorus. S cerevisiae shares the complex internal cell structure of plants and animals without the high percentage of non-coding DNA that can confound research in higher eukaryotes. Both mother and daughter cell can initiate bud formation before cell separation has occurred. as a result of its established use in industry. which reaches the size of the mature cell by the time it separates from the parent cell. and potential economic benefit.[2] S cerevisiae has developed as a model organism because it scores favorably on a number of these criteria. which show primitive aspects of sex differentiation. Some metals like magnesium.[1] The alpha-factor of S cerevisiae. at least initially. #  S cerevisiae can be transformed allowing for either the addition of new genes or deletion through homologous recombination. has been compared to the liphophilic peptide created by the fungus Tremella mesenterica. these two species diverged approximately 300 to 600 million years before present. "  As a single celled organism S cerevisiae is small with a short generation time (doubling time 1. genetics. S. all the cells can be seen to have buds since bud formation occupies the whole cell cycle. The cell cycle in yeast normally consists of the following stages ²G1. zinc also are required for good growth of the yeast. and are hence of great interest. [edit]Cell cycle Growth in yeast is synchronised with the growth of the bud. G2 and M²which are the normal stages of mitosis. The ability to grow S cerevisiae as a haploid simplifies the creation of gene knockouts strains. generation ! time. %  S cerevisiae research is a strong economic driver. iron. and sulfur. [edit]Yeast [edit]A in biological research model organism hen researchers look for an organism to use in their studies. and details of the process of mating type switching. which can be assimilated as a sulfate ion or as organic sulfur compounds like the amino acids methionine and cysteine. calcium. The yeast species S pombe and S cerevisiae are both well studied. In yeast cultures which are growing more slowly. conservation of mechanisms. ! ! ! can be easily cultured. Amon g these are size.

It is one of the major types of yeast used in the brewing of ale.800 of these are believed to be true functional genes. and this application is often used in a beer style known as "steam beer". along with Saccharomyces pastorianus which is used in the brewing of lager. 1996.[edit]Genome & sequencing S cerevisiae was the first eukaryotic genome that was completely sequenced. Top-fermenting yeasts are fermented at higher temperatures than lager yeasts and the resulting ales have a different flavor than the same beverage fermented with a lager yeast. or if the fermentation temperature of the beverage fluctuates during the process. [edit]Yeast ' in commercial applications [edit]Brewing Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used in brewing beer.275 genes. . It is estimated that yeast shares about 23% of its genome with that of humans . Since then. A project underway to analyze the genetic interactions of all double deletion mutants through synthetic genetic array analysis will take this research one step further.156. Various approaches have been devised to allow proper absorption of the gas into the water. The genome is composed of about 12. where ale yeast becomes dormant. Lager yeast normally ferments at a temperature of approximat ely 5 °C (40 °Fahrenheit). These include yeast two-hybrid for studying protein interactions and tetrad analysis. [edit]Ot & er tools in yeast research ' The availability of the S cerevisiae genome sequence and the complete set of deletion mutants has further enhanced the power of S cerevisiae as a model for understanding the regulation of eukaryotic cells. [3] The genome sequence was released in the public domain on April 24.677 base pairs and 6. Approaches have been developed by yeast scientists which can be applied in many different fields of biological and medicinal science. when it is sometimes called a top-fermenting or top cropping yeast. compactly organized on 16 chromosomes. CO2 injection by yeast is one of the most popular DIY approaches followed by aquaculturists for providing CO 2 to underwater aquatic plants. The yeast culture is generally maintained in plastic bottles and typical systems provide one bubble every 3 ±7 seconds. Only about 5. This database is a highly annotated and cross-referenced database for yeast researchers. "Fruity esters" may be formed if the ale yeast undergoes temperatures near 21 °C (70 ° Fahrenheit). It is so called because during the fermentation process its hydrophobic surface causes the flocs to adhere to CO 2 and rise to the top of the fermentation vessel. [edit]Uses in aquaria Owing to the high cost of commercial CO 2 cylinder systems. Lager yeast can be fermented at a higher temperature normally used for ale yeast. Another important S cerevisiae database is maintained by the Munich Information Center for Protein Sequences (MIPS) . regular updates have been maintained at the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD).

aureus Nama binomial Staphylococcus aureus .Sta hylococcus aureus Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia. ensiklopedia bebas Belum Diperiksa ?Staphylococcus aureus Klasifikasi ilmiah Domain: Bacteria Kerajaan: Eubacteria Filum: Kelas: Ordo: Famili: Genus: Spesies: Firmicutes Bacilli Bacillales Staphylococcaceae Staphylococcus S.

pneumonia. oleh karena itu bakteri ini disebut piogenik[1] . Koagulase diasosiasikan dengan patogenitas karena penggumpalan fibrin yang disebabkan oleh enzim ini terakumulasi di sekitar bakteri sehingga agen pelindung inang kesulitan mencapai bakteri dan fagositosis terhambat[1] . i ndividu sehat biasanya hanya berperan sebagai karier ( [1] . dengan diameter sekitar ( ( 0. luka. dan koagulase. enzim yang menyebabkan fibrin berkoagulasi dan menggumpal[1] . S. bersifat aerob fakultatif. atau perlakuan menggunakan steroid atau obat lain yang mempengaruhi imunitas sehingga terjadi pelemahan inang [1] . yaitu enzim yang mengkonversi H 2O2 menjadi H2O dan O2. adanya penyakit.8-1. meningitis. ( [3] [3] S aureus merupakan mikroflora normal manusia . umumnya tumbuh berpasan gan maupun berkelompok. aureus juga menghasilkan katalase. dan arthritits[1].0 µm. diantaranya bisul. Infeksi S aureus diasosiasikan dengan beberapa kondisi patologi. ( .47 jam. Infeksi serius akan terjadi ketika resistensi inang melemah karena adanya perubahan hormon. Keberadaan S aureus pada saluran pernafasan atas dan kulit pada individu jarang menyebabkan penyakit. tidak menghasilkanspora dan tidak motil. Bakteri ini biasanya terdapat pada saluran pernafasan atas dan kulit [1][4] . jerawat. Sebagian besar penyakit yang disebabkan oleh bakteri ini memproduksi nanah.Rosenbach 1884 Staphylococcus aureus (S aureus) adalah bakteri gram positif yang menghasilkan pigmen kuning.[1][2] S aureus tumbuh dengan optimum pada suhu 37oC dengan waktu pembelahan 0.

mulut.[3] [sunting]Faktor 2 1 1 [sunting]Koagulase 4 S aureus produksi enzim koagulase yang berfungsi unuk menggumpalkan firinogen di dalam plasma darah sehingga S aureus terlindung dari fagositosis dan respon imun lain dari inang.2 Protein A 2.Daftar isi [sembunyikan] 1 Mikrobiologi o 1.5 Leukocidin 2.1 oagulase Virulensi A .[3] [sunting]Quorum Sensing S aureus memiliki kemampuan Quorum sensing menggunakan sinyal oligopeptida untuk memproduksi toksin dan faktor virulensi . hidung.6 Exfoliatin 3 Resistensi o o 0 3. di mana pada keadaan sistem imun normal. [sunting]Protein 3 [3] Letak protein A ada pada dinding sel S aureus dan dapat mengganggu sistem imun inang dengan mengikat antibodi immunoglobin G (IgG).[3] Habitat alami S aureus pada manusia adalah di daerah kulit.4 Enterotoksin 2.1 Resisten penisilin 3.[3] 5 ) o 2. dan dapat hidup pada konsentrasi NaCl sekitar 3 Molar. dan usus besar. yaitu bakteri yang dapat hidup di lingkungan dengan rentang konsentrasi zat terlarut (contohnya garam) yang luas.3 Eksotoksin sitolitik 2.1 Quorum Sensing 2 Faktor Virulensi o o o o o 2. S aureus tidak bersifat patogen (mikroflora normal manusia).2 Resisten Metisilin (Methicillin-resistant S. aureus/MRSA) 4 ontrol 5 Lihat Pula 6 Referensi [sunting]Mikrobiologi S aureus termasuk bakteri osmotoleran.

aureus[2] . -toksin. enterotoksin (A. dan -toksin menyerang membran sel mamalia [2] . Sementara itu. -toksin juga menyebabkan leukolisis sel inang[1] . muntah dan shock [1]. contohnya nafcillin atau ok sasilin[2] . contohnya mencuci tangan[2] . C. dan -toksin dapat menyebabkan hemolisis [1] . 8 [sunting]Lihat Pula . dan E) menginduksi diare. Kontrol infeksi lebih ditujukan pada tindakan menjaga kebersihan. Salah satu contoh antibiotik yang digunakan terhadap MRSA adalah vankomisin[5] [sunting]Kontrol Tidak ada vaksin yang efektif terhadap S aureus[2]. aureus/MRSA) Sebagian isolat S aureus resisten terhadap methisilin karena adanya modifikasi protein pengikat penisilin [2] . dapat digunakan penisilin yang bersifat resisten -laktamase. Hal ini disebabkan oleh keberadaan enzim -laktamase yang dapat merusak struktur -laktam pada penisilin [2] . [sunting]Exfoliatin Exfoliatin termasuk dalam superantigen juga. [sunting]Resisten 8 Metisilin (Methicillin-resistant S. [sunting]Leukocidin Toksin ini memusnahkan leukosit sel inang[1] . Untuk mengatasi hal ini. [sunting]Resistensi [sunting]Resisten penisilin 7 Hampir semua isolat S aureus resisten terhadap penisilin G[2]. Protein ini mengkode peptidoglikan transpeptidase baru yang mempunyai afinitas rendah terhadap antibiotic -laktam. -toksin. -toksin. [sunting]Enterotoksin 6 nterotoksin menyebabkan keracunan makanan[2] . Enterotoksin merupakan superantigen yang lebih stabil pada suhu panas jika dibandingkan dengan S. -toksin menyebabkan terbunuhnya sel inang[1] . menyebabkan sindrom kulit melepuh pada anak -anak[2] .[sunting]Eksotoksin sitolitik -toksin. B. -toksin. sehingga terapi -laktam tidak responsif [2]. D.