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Asymptotic (Internal) Stability: Zero-input

Stabilizability response.

Input-Output Stability or Bounded-Input-

M. Sami Fadali Bounded-Output (BIBO) Stability: Zero-

Professor of Electrical Engineering state response.

University of Nevada

1 2

How sensitive is the system to small

perturbations in its equilibrium?

Solve Unstable

= equilibrium state

For nonlinear systems, multiple states Stable

behavior after a perturbation from the

equilibrium. Asymptotically

stable

3 4

Stability Stable System

Definition: For any there exists a

constant such that implies

Unstable: not stable (cannot stay arbitrarily

close to the equilibrium.

: = open ball of radius

: = open ball of radius

5 6

Exponential Stability

Asymptotically Stable

Definition: There exist positive constants

Definition: Stable equilibrium and it is such that implies

possible to choose such that

implies Global exponential stability: property holds

Converges to equilibrium by starting for any initial state .

sufficiently close to it. Length of state vector decays faster than an

Globally asymptotically stable: converges exponential function.

to equilibrium from any initial state. For linear systems, decay is always

exponential.

7 8

Exponential Stability Linear Time-invariant Systems

1

0.9

For a nonsingular state matrix

0.8

0.7

if and only if

0.6 Only one equilibrium point at the origin.

0.5

For a singular state matrix

0.4

0.3

,

0.2 Rank deficit=number of linearly independent

0.1

Infinitely many equilibrium points on

0

0 5 10 15

9 10

Stability for LTI Systesm LTI Systems

Theorem: LTI system is asymptotically stable if

the zero-input response converges to zero for any

initial state.

Response is bounded for distinct eigenvalues on LTI system is asymptotically stable if and only if

the imaginary axis (stable). all eigenvalues are in the open LHP.

Response is unbounded for repeated LTI: asymptotic stability implies global

eigenvalues on the imaginary axis (unstable). exponential stability.

11 12

State Trajectories Example

3

Is the system asymptotically stable?

2

Stable

>> A=[3,-2,0;8,-3,-4;0,4,-9];

1

>> eig(A)

ans =

0

-1.0000

Asymptotically stable

-1

-3.0000

-2 -5.0000

Yes. All poles in the open LHP.

-1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1

13 14

Is the system stable? Definition For any bounded input, the output is

>> A=[-5,5,-5;-20,20,-20;-20,20,-20]; bounded.

>> eig(A)

ans = Definition can be generalized to time-varying

0 MIMO systems using ||.|| (norm) in place of |.|

-5 Definition can be generalized to distributed

0 parameter systems.

No. Repeated pole on the imaginary axis.

15 16

Contradiction

Theorem 1: BIBO Stability Proof Theorem 1 BIBO Stability

A SISO LTI system is BIBO stable if and only Sufficiency (if)

if its impulse response satisfies

Condition can be generalized to time-varying violated and let

MIMO systems using ||.|| (norm) in place of |.|

Condition can be generalized to distributed

parameter systems.

17 18

,

LTI SISO system is BIBO stable if and only if all its

transfer function poles are in the open LFP.

Proof (Necessity)

The integral of diverges for any transfer LHP poles (not all ) BIBO stability.

function pole is in the closed RHP . 19 20

Relationship Between Internal

Kalman Decomposition Stability BIBO Stability

Y(s)

U(s) Controllable BIBO stability is equivalent to open LHP poles

Any system can be Observable

Internal stability implies BIBO stability (since

decomposed into four Y(s) poles are a subset of the eigenvalues).

Uncontrollable

subsystems as shown Observable

Some eigenvalues may cancel in the transfer

in the figure:

Us) function and are not poles.

Unobservable Mode Controllable

Unobservable BIBO stability does not , in general, imply internal

stability

Uncontrollable Mode Uncontrollable

Unobservable With no cancellation, {poles}={eigenvalues}

BIBO stability is equivalent to internal stability

21 22

Important Relations

Definitions

x2 Internally stable systems are stabilizable

Observable

Detectable: all unstable Subspace and detectable (no unstable modes).

modes are observable Unobservable

Subspace

y Observable systems are detectable (no

(i.e. all unobservable (stable)

x1 unstable unobservable modes).

modes are stable).

Controllable systems are stabilizable (no

Stabilizable: all unstable x2 Controllable unstable uncontrollable modes).

modes are controllable Uncontrollable Subspace

(stable) u and internal stability are equivalent

modes are stable). x1

{poles}={eigenvalues}.

23 24

Example Example (continued)

s 1 s 1 1 s 1 s 1 1

G( s) 2 G( s) 2

s 1s 1 s 1 s 1 s 1s 1 s 1 s 1

1 0 BIBO stable 1 0 BIBO stable

Controllable Form : without cancellation Observable Form : without cancellation

0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1

A B C 1 1 O A B C 1 0 C

1 0 1 1 1

1 0 1 1 1

Controllable (phase var. form) but not observable. Observable (observer form) but not controllable.

BIBO stable but not internally stable. BIBO stable but not internally stable.

Stabilizable but not detectable. Detectable but not stabilizable.

25 26

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