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MATERIALS ENGINEERING

Delft University of Technology Department Marine and Transport Technology

Mekelweg 2

2628 CD Delft

the Netherlands

Phone +31 (0)15-2782889

Fax +31 (0)15-2781397

www.mtt.tudelft.nl

an analysis of stacking/reclaiming

methods.

Title (in Dutch) bucketwheel in- en afslag machines: een analyse van de stort- en

afgraafmethoden.

Confidential: no

This report consists of 35 pages and 8 appendices. It may only be reproduced literally and as a whole. For

commercial purposes only with written authorization of Delft University of Technology. Requests for consult are

only taken into consideration under the condition that the applicant denies all legal rights on liabilities concerning

the contents of the advice.

FACULTY OF MECHANICAL, MARITIME AND

MATERIALS ENGINEERING

Delft University of Technology Department of Marine and Transport Technology

Mekelweg 2

2628 CD Delft

the Netherlands

Phone +31 (0)15-2782889

Fax +31 (0)15-2781397

www.mtt.tudelft.nl

Supervisor (TUD): Ir. T. van Vianen Report number: 2012.TEL.7724

Supervisor (Company): Ir. D. Mooijman (EMO)

Specialization: TEL Confidential: no

Creditpoints (EC): 12

at the stockyard. For each type of material, a separate pile is

formed. Huge machines stack the materials and mostly these

machines are also equipped with a bucket wheel to reclaim the

materials afterwards, see for example Figure 1 which shows

two reclaiming bucket wheel stacker-reclaimers at the EECV

terminal in Rotterdam.

Figure 1: Reclaiming piles

These machines are able to luff the boom, slew the boom and

drive parallel to the stockyard piles. Based on combination of these rotations or movement, there can

be derived several methods to stack or to reclaim materials. This literature assignment focuses on

investigating existing stacking and reclaiming methods, generate alternative methods and evaluate all

methods.

Investigate and describe existing stacking and reclaiming methods based on literature but also

based on practical experience of the EMO terminal in Rotterdam.

What are the constraints; like the minimum and maximum stacking height, the maximum area

pressure, width of the stockyard lanes, etc.

Investigate and calculate other stacking and reclaiming methods and define selection criterias

(f.e. energy consumption, reliability, surface occupation, productivity of the machine, etc.) to

evaluate the different methods.

Evaluate the different stacking and reclaiming methods

It is expected that you conclude with a recommendation for further research opportunities based on

the results of this study.

The report should comply with the guidelines of the section. Details can be found on the website.

The professor,

Summary

Open storage of bulk solid material is mostly done in stockpiles. The material will be stored with a

stacker, sometimes in combination with wheel loaders. To reclaim the material a reclaimer is used.

Those two machines are often combined into one machine; a stacker/reclaimer. One of the most

common stacker/reclaimer types is the bucket wheel stacker/reclaimer

There are different possible methods to store and reclaim bulk materials with those bucket wheel

stacker/reclaimers.

The five most common methods for stacking are:

Cone-shell

Chevron

Strata

Windrow

Advanced block

Long travel

Bench reclaim

Block reclaim

Pilgrim step

With the last 3 reclaim methods, the reclaimer uses a slewing movement during reclaiming. For the

long travel method the travel movement is the most used movement of the machine.

The selection for a stacking method is normally based on the required blending efficiency. Whereby

the cone-shell has the lowest blending efficiency and windrow the highest.

If the blending efficiency is an important selection criterion for the stacking method, then the selection

of the reclaiming method will be based on the stacking method to avoid abolishing of the blending

efficiency.

When blending is not important, than the capacity of a reclaim method is an important selection

criterion. This capacity depends on the dimension of the stockpile.

At reclaim method the stockpile will be reclaimed in slices. The capacity can be calculated by

determining the dimensions of those slices. This can be done in two manners:

1) The current reclaim capacity (Q [m3/s]) can be determined for a specific position and time with the

cross sectional area of the slice at that point (A [m2]) multiplied with the current velocity (v [m/s]).

C = A*v

2) The reclaim capacity (Q [m3/s]) of each slice can be determined by: determine the volume (V [m3])

of each slice en divide it by the time (t [sec]) wherein the slice is reclaimed.

Q =V

t

When the reclaim velocity is inversely directly proportional with the cross sectional area of the slice

results this in a constant capacity, which is shown in the figure below for a slewing reclaim method.

Capacity

Q (m3/s)

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90

Slewing angle: [o ]

3

Summary (in Dutch)

De openopslag van stortgoederen wordt veelal gedaan in grote hopen. Deze hopen worden gestort

met een opslag machine (stacker), al dan niet ondersteund door laadschoppen. Het afgraven wordt

gedaan met een afgraafmachine (reclaimer). Veelal worden deze twee machines gecombineerd tot

n machine; een stort- afgraaf machine (stacker/reclaimer). n van de meest toegepaste varianten

hiervan is een graafwiel stacker/reclaimer.

methodes mogelijk.

De meest bekende opslag methoden zijn:

Cone-shell

Chevron

Strata

Windrow

Advanced block

Long travel

Bench reclaim

Block reclaim

Pilgrim step

Hierbij wordt bij de laatste 3 afgraafmethode gebruik gemaakt van de zwenkbeweging van de graver

en bij long travel van de rijdende beweging van de gehele machine.

De keuze voor een stort methode wordt veelal gebaseerd op het meng effect. Waarbij cone-shell het

laagste meng effect heeft en windrow het meest van de bovengenoemde stort methode.

Wanneer bij het storten het mengen van belang was, dan is bij de keuze van de afgraafmethode

meestal de stortmethode de basis van de keuze, om te voorkomen dat het meng effect niet teniet

gedaan wordt.

Als het mengen van product niet belangrijk is, dan is de capaciteit van de methode bepalend voor de

keuze van de afgraafmethode. Waarbij de afmetingen van de hoop zijn van invloed op de capaciteit.

Bij elke afgraafmethode wordt de hoop in sneden afgegraven. Met het bepalen van de afmetingen van

de sneden kan de afgraafcapaciteit bepaald worden. Dit kan op twee manieren:

1) De lokale capaciteit (Q [m3/s]) op een bepaald punt (bepaald hoek) kan bepaald worden door

doorsnede (A [m2]) van snede op dat punt te vermenigvuldigen met de lokale snelheid (v [m/s]).

Q = A*v

2) De capaciteit (Q [m3/s]) per snede kan bepaald worden door: het volume (V [m3])van de snede te

bepalen en te delen door de tijd waarin een snede afgegraven wordt (t [sec]).

Q =V

t

Wanneer de snelheid van afgraven omgekeerd evenredig is met de doorsnede van de snede resulteert

dit in een constant afgraafdebiet. Zoals in onderstaand figuur afgebeeld voor een afgraafmethode met

zwenkbeweging

Capacity

Q(m3/s)

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90

Slewing angle: [o ]

4

Contents

Summary ................................................................................................................................................................ 3

Summary (in Dutch) ............................................................................................................................................. 4

1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................... 6

1.1 Stacking and reclaiming......................................................................................................................... 6

1.2 Machines .................................................................................................................................................. 6

1.3 Goal of the research ............................................................................................................................... 8

1.4 Structure of the report ........................................................................................................................... 8

2.1 Stacking methods ................................................................................................................................... 9

2.1.1 Cone-shell....................................................................................................................................... 9

2.1.2 Chevron (chevcon) ........................................................................................................................ 9

2.1.3 Strata ............................................................................................................................................ 10

2.1.4 Windrow........................................................................................................................................ 10

2.1.5 Advanced block............................................................................................................................ 10

2.2 Reclaiming methods ............................................................................................................................. 11

2.2.1 Long travel ................................................................................................................................... 11

2.2.2 Bench reclaiming ......................................................................................................................... 12

2.2.3 Block reclaiming........................................................................................................................... 12

2.2.4 Pilgrim step .................................................................................................................................. 13

2.3 Relation between a stacking and reclaiming methods. ................................................................... 14

3.1 Reclaiming capacity with a slewing reclaiming method (m3/hr) .................................................... 16

3.1.1 Cross-sectional area of a slice ................................................................................................... 16

3.1.2 Slice Volume................................................................................................................................. 21

3.1.3 Slewing Velocity........................................................................................................................... 22

3.1.4 Time .............................................................................................................................................. 23

3.1.5 Capacity ........................................................................................................................................ 23

3.2 Reclaiming capacity using the long-travel reclaiming method)...................................................... 24

3.2.1 Capacity ........................................................................................................................................ 24

3.2.2 Cross-sectional area of a slice ................................................................................................... 24

3.2.3 Slice volume ................................................................................................................................. 24

3.2.4 Travel Velocity ............................................................................................................................. 25

3.2.5 Travel Time .................................................................................................................................. 25

3.3 Example situations................................................................................................................................ 26

3.3.1 Example 1 determination of the capacity ................................................................................ 26

3.3.2 Example 2: determination reclaim efficiency .......................................................................... 29

Conclusions .......................................................................................................................................................... 32

Recommendations and Discussion ................................................................................................................... 33

References ........................................................................................................................................................... 34

Appendix A2 (Simplification cross-sectional area of a slice)......................................................................... 38

Appendix A3 (Calculation slice thickness r) .................................................................................................. 40

Appendix A4 (Calculation h())......................................................................................................................... 42

Appendix A5 (Calculation slewing angles)....................................................................................................... 43

Appendix A6 (Volume of a slewing slice)......................................................................................................... 49

Appendix A7 (Time calculation for slewing).................................................................................................... 50

Appendix A8 (Volume of a travelling slice)...................................................................................................... 51

5

1 Introduction

A dry bulk terminal is used for the transshipment and storage of several bulk materials like coal, ore,

and agriculture products. It is a buffer between incoming and outgoing bulk materials.

This research analyses the different methods to stack and reclaim materials on an open storage.

Stacking is the process where bulk material is added to a pile. This pile can

be made longitudinal or circular (as shown in Figure 1.1 and Figure 1.2).

This report is mostly based on a longitudinal stockpile, with a certain height

(h), width (w) and length (L). Chapter 2.1 describes how a stockpile is

formed. Figure 1.1 longitudinal

Reclaiming is the process of removing the bulk material from a pile. This is mostly done by machines

that excavate the stockpile. The bulk material will be loaded in a transport facility like a vessel, train or

truck for example.

1.2 Machines

Machines used for the stacking and reclaiming processes are mainly divided in three groups; (i)

machines which only can stack (stacker), (ii) machines which only can reclaim (reclaimer) and (iii)

machines which can perform both functions (stacker/reclaimer).

The motions of the stackers and reclaimers can be classified in three directions: luffing, slewing, and

travelling. (See Figure 1.4)

Luffing is the motion whereby the boom rotates up or down. This is the height referring to a stockpile.

Slewing is the horizontal rotation of the boom around the central axis of the stacker or reclaimer.

Travelling is the motion of the entire stacker or reclaimer on the rails alongside the pile.

6

Not each stacker or reclaimer can perform all these types of motions. There are three stacker types:

Fixed stacker (no luffing and slewing. Mostly only travelling)

Fixed luffing stacker (only luffing is possible and at some machines also travelling)

Radial luffing stacker (slewing and luffing is possible and at some machines also travelling)

Figure 1.5 shows an example of a fixed stacker and Figure 1.6 an example of a redial luffing stacker.

Reclaimers can mainly be classified in three main groups: (i) Scrapers, (ii) Bridge reclaimers and (iii)

bucket wheel reclaimers.

Scrapers reclaim from one side (side scraper) (as shown in Figure 1.8) or both sides (portal scraper)

(as shown in Figure 1.9 ) of a stockpile. The only possible motions are travelling and luffing.

Bridge reclaimers (as shown in Figure 1.10) reclaim the whole cross sectional area at once and

travels perpendicular to the pile during reclaiming. The only motion is travelling.

Bucket wheel reclaimers are reclaiming with a wheel with buckets. (As the name mentioned). All the

three motions are possible. See Figure 1.11 for an example of those machines.

Scrapers

Figure 1.7 an example of a scraper Figure 1.8 Side scraper Figure 1.9 Portal scraper

Bridge reclaimers

7

Bucket wheel reclaimer

Figure 1.11; I example of an stacking stacker/reclaimer ; II operator view during reclaiming; III overview during reclaiming.

Investigate which methods exists to stack and reclaim bulk materials on a stockpile.

How the stacking and reclaiming methods are related to each other.

To give an estimation of the capacity of the different reclaim methods. (in m3/h)

The answers on those questions give more information about how to determine which method is most

useful / efficient for a specific situation.

This document will describe several stacking and reclaiming methods. The stacking methods are

useful for different stacker types. The reclaim methods are mainly for bucket wheel reclaimers.

Chapter 2.1 describes the different stacking methods and Chapter 2.2 the different reclaim methods.

Chapter 2.3 describes the relations between the stacking and reclaiming methods.

Chapter 3 compares the different reclaim methods based on capacity in m3/h

8

2 Stacking and Reclaiming methods

Stacking and reclaiming of dry bulk materials is briefly material adding to and removing from a

storage pile. For some reason it can be desirable to use a specific method for stacking and reclaiming.

For instance to get a homogeneous bulk material or larger stacking/reclaiming capacities. This chapter

describes different stacking and reclaiming methods and also the relations between those methods.

The discussed stacking methods are applicable for the most common stacker types.

Stacking is not only used to store material but can also been used to blend material to get a more

homogeneous material over time. This is mostly the main reason to select a specific method.

Generally a better method for blending is more expensive through time and energy consumption by

more movements.

Cone-shell (2.1.1)

Chevron (2.1.2)

Strata (2.1.3)

Windrow (2.1.4)

Advanced block (2.1.5)

2.1.1 Cone-shell

straight forward method to stack material. As

the name suggests, it starts with a cone, up to a

certain height. Then the machine travels a small

distance alongside the stock pile and makes a

new shell against the previous. This process is

depicted in Figure 2.1

The advantage of the cone-shell is the low

number of movements of the machine. When

the height of the first cone is reached, the only

movement that remains is the travel-movement

for a new shell. In other words, a fixed stacker Figure 2.1 Cone-shell stacking

can do this method.

This method is often used when blending is not important.

first operation is to make a small stock pile with

one material. The next step is covering this pile

with another material, and so on. In theory a

machine which only can travel can do this

method, like the cone-shell method. To prevent

dust, a stacker which can luff is used. This

makes the drop height smaller. So the stacker

travels alongside the stockpile during stacking,

at the end it will rise the boom and travels back.

If some blending is desirable this is also a

simple way to stack, only the number of travel

movements is more compared to the cone shell. Figure 2.2 Chevron stacking

Another name of chevron method used in a

circular stockpile is chevcon.

9

2.1.3 Strata

as the chevron. The first step is also to start with

a small stockpile. The next step is to cover one

side instead of both sides by the chevron. Slewing

(rotation) should be possible to realize this

method with the stacking machine.

2.1.4 Windrow

stockpiles/layers on top of each other. The stacker

travels along the stockpile. At the end the boom

slews or luffs and after that the machine travels

back. The layers are kept small to get a better

distribution. Therefore a lot of movements are

needed.

This method is a variation of the cone-shell method. The difference between those methods is that

slewing is also possible during stacking. Instead of only stack in cones one after the other, also cones

next to each other is a possibility.

Figure 2.5 shows the stacking process schematically. At first the machine will be placed such that a

cone can be created at place A. After that the desired height is reached the boom slews to point B to

stack a cone there. This process can be repeated till the maximum slewing angle, or the maximum

stockpile width is reached. (point H in Figure 2.5). Slewing of the stackerboom is the only movement

till this place H. To decrease the drop height it should also be possible to use the luffing movement of

the stacker.

When the desired height of the cone at place H is reached, the stacker travels backwards and

continues the stacking.

10

2.2 Reclaiming methods

The most important reason to choose a specific reclaim method is to prevent abolishing of a stacking

method whereby blending was important. An other reason can be the reclaim capacity or area use.

The discussed reclaiming methods are specific for a bucket wheel reclaimer.

Long travel (2.2.1)

Bench reclaim (2.2.2)

Block reclaim (2.2.3)

Pilgrim step (2.2.4)

reclaimer moves along the stockpile without

any other movements. The reclaim height and

depth is set at the begin of a stockpile and

wouldnt change during travelling. At the end

of the stockpile, the reclaim height and depth

are set again and the reclaimer would travel

backwards. Since a bridge reclaimer can only

travels is this, is the only possible method to

reclaim for that type reclaimer.

Figure 2.6 shows the process of reclaiming

using the long travel method.

Figure 2.7 shows the path of the bucket Figure 2.6 Long travel reclaiming

wheel during reclaiming.

Figure 2.7 Path of the bucket wheel using the long travel reclaiming

method

11

2.2.2 Bench reclaiming

stockpile is reclaimed slice by slice. The

reclaimer only slews during reclaiming.

When the reclaimer reached the maximum

slewing angle, or when the max width of the

stockpile is reached, the entire

stacker/reclaimer travels one step forward.

Than the reclaiming starts again during

slewing back. When a whole layer (bench

named) is reclaimed, the entire reclaimer

travels back to the begin of the stockpile, to

start with a new layer. This is necessary

because the reclaimer cannot rotates more Figure 2.8 bench reclaim

than +110o/-110o and therefore it is not

possible to reclaim during backward travelling.

Figure 2.8 shows an overview of reclaiming with a bucketwheel stacker/reclaimer, using the bench

reclaiming method.

Figure 2.9 shows the path of the bucket wheel during reclaiming.

Figure 2.9 Path of the bucket wheel using the bench reclaiming method.

reclaiming method as the bench method. The difference

between those two methods is that using the block reclaiming

method, the reclaimer reclaims not till the end of the stockpile.

There will be a layer reclaimed for a certain distance (for

example a half length) of the stockpile. Then the

stacker/reclaimer travels back and starts to reclaiming the next

layer. The advantage of this method can be the use of area. For

example, if a half stockpile has to be reclaimed the

implementation both methods is: with the bench method is the

half height of the stockpile reclaimed and the with block method

the half length of a stockpile.

12

2.2.4 Pilgrim step

The difference is that the block method reclaims a certain

block length before the reclaimer travels back. (For example a

half stockpile). The pilgrim step travels back after a certain

slew movements. This number of slewings should be an even

number because the reclaimer boom should be above the rails

during travelling back. Mostly the number of slewing

movements is 6, 8 or 10 (by ABB1)

Figure 2.12 Path of the bucket wheel using the pilgrim step reclaim method

Since the bench, block and pilgrim method are looking very similar (they use the same movements),

are these terms sometimes used interchangeable. Figure 2.13 shows clearly the differences between

those three methods. For example, if a half stockpile has to be reclaimed, then the numbers in the

figure indicate the order of reclaiming.

Figure 2.13 differences between Bench, block and pilgrim step reclaiming method

1

See reference I

13

2.3 Relation between a stacking and reclaiming methods.

The selection for a stacking method is often based on blending. To avoid abolishing of the blending

during reclaiming also the choice for a reclaiming method is indirectly based on blending.

The efficiency of blending can be calculated by:

Blending Efficiency =

Variations after Re claim i ng ( at 95% probability )

The figures Figure 2.14 and Figure 2.15 give an indication of the blending efficiencies. Figure 2.14

indicates that for a boom-type machine (a bucket wheel reclaimer). The pilgrim step reclaiming

method and the windrow stacking method result in the best blending efficiency. On the other hand,

Figure 2.15 shows the blending efficiency for bridge-type reclaimers. Those numbers are higher then

at the boom reclaimers.

So, if the blending efficiency is an important selection criterion for the stacking method, then the

selection of the reclaiming method will be based on the stacking method to avoid abolishing of the

blending efficiency.

For example, ash is stacked in windrow (because blending is important) with a stacking rate of

2000tph. A bucket wheel reclaimer with bench reclaiming method results in a blending efficiency of

2.01 On the other hand, if the reclaiming is performed by a bridge reclaimer, the blending efficiency

is already 3.7. Almost twice as good.

2

See reference III

14

Figure 2.15 Blending efficiencies bridge-type machine (By A.T. Zador2)

15

3 Determination of the reclaiming capacity

A selection criterion for a reclaiming method is the capacity. To make an estimation of the capacity for

each reclaiming method, it is necessary to determine the shape of the reclaimed volume and the

velocity of the motions of the reclaimer.

This chapter describes the reclaiming capacity with a slewing reclaiming method. The reclaimer only

slews during reclaiming, during the; bench, block and the pilgrim step reclaiming method.

During bench, block and pilgrim reclaiming, the reclaimer is mostly slewing. This results in reclaiming

the pile in slices. A slice has a so called moon shape, both seen from top- as from side view.

Figures 3.1 and 3.2 give an indication of this shape.

16

Figure 3.33 slice

= slewing angle [rad]

x = travelling step of the reclaimer [m]

r = slice thickness (depending on slewing angle) [m]

The reclaimer boom rotates and the bucket wheel follows a circular path. After a maximum rotation

(for example 900) , makes the reclaimer a (travel) step forward (x) and rotates back. The distance

between the clockwise circular path and the counter clockwise path is a distance x. Both paths are

two overlapping circles.

This ensures that a moon shaped slice arises. See Figure 3.4.

3

Picture from www.bulkcn.com

17

Figure 3.5 cross-sectional area of a slice

Where;

rb = bucket wheel radius [m]

h = reclaim height [m]

r = slice thickness (depending on slewing angle) [m]

r r

A = rb ( (2 cos 1 ( ) sin(2 cos 1 (

2

)) (3.1)

2 rb 2 rb

A h r (3.2)

Since the thickness of slice varies with the slewing angle , r = f()6

r ( ) x cos( ) (3.3)

A h x cos( ) (3.4)

4

Elabored in Appendix A1

5

Elabored in Appendix A2

6

Elabored in Appendix A3

18

The sides of the slice are slanting due to the angle of repose. This results in the reclaim height h =

f(). Therefore equation (3.4) is not valid at the begin and end of the slice where the cutting height is

not constant. The slewing angles where the condition of the height changes are:

2 = Slewing angle where maximum reclaim height is reached

3 = Slewing angle where maximum reclaim height ends

4 = Slewing angle where reclaiming ends

These angles are shown in the figures 3.6 and 3.7:

The angles 1 to 4 can be calculated. For the equations to calculate those angles see Appendix A5.

19

At the sloping parts, the height can be calculated7 with:

Where;

R = Horizontal distance between slewing/rotation center to end of the bucket wheel(boom length)

= angle of repose

= slewing angle

h=0 < 1

h = R tan( ) tan( ) 1 < < 2

h( , ) = h = hmax 2 < < 3 (3.7)

h = R tan( ) tan( ) 3 < < 4

h=0 > 4

At some point there will be no slope anymore at the end of the slice. Then 3 = 4 = max

This occurs when the rotation center of the boom passes the begin of the stockpile.

Figure 3.8 shows the cross sectional area as a function of the slewing angle.

The cross-sectional area increases during the first slewing degrees. Then it will decrease. The last few

degrees it will decrease faster when 3 > 4 (as an effect of the slant side)

7

Elabored in Appendix A4

20

3.1.2 Slice Volume

= 2

V= A r d

=0

(3.8)

V=

1 2

8

h x[x sin(2 ) + 2 x 4 R sin( )] 2 +

1 3

4

h x[x sin(2 ) + 2 x 4 R sin( )] 3

1 4

Where;

h = reclaim height [m]

x = travelling step of the reclaimer [m]

1-4 = The slewing angle where the condition of h change

21

3.1.3 Slewing Velocity

Therefore the slewing velocity has to be inversely directly proportional with the slice thickness. When

the slice thickness (r) is halved, the velocity is doubled.

Since,

r x cos( )

v0

v= 8

(3.9)

cos( )

V0= is the velocity at 0 [m/s]

= 0 cos( ) (3.10)

Equation (3.7) can lead to a higher velocity then the technically feasible velocity. The velocity

becomes then constant. See Figure 3.10

(Accelerations and decelerations are not included in those figures)

8

This is confirmed on the website off ABB, see reference IV

22

3.1.4 Time

d

=

dt

= angular velocity

ds = change of angular displacement [m]

dt = change in time [s]

t =

1

[sin(1 ) sin( 0 )]

0

3.1.5 Capacity

The current capacity can be determined for a specific position and time. This can be done with

multiplying the cross-sectional area of a slice, at that point, with the velocity at that point.

Capacity ( ) = A( ) v( )

(3.11)

= h r cos( ) v( )

The capacity over the entire slice can be plot as a function of the slewing angle, like the figure below

(Figure 3.8 multiplied by Figure 3.9)

Q (m3/min)

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90

angle (degrees)

The capacity can also be calculated as an average over time with the volume divided by the time.

V

Capacity = (3.12)

t

For the capacity over a longer time or distance can the volume of more slices be summed. Also the

time for travelling can be included.

Capacity =

V (3.13)

t

9

Appendix A7 shows the details of this calculation

23

3.2 Reclaiming capacity using the long-travel reclaiming method)

Using the long travel method, the reclaimer reclaims only during travelling and only slew/luff the

boom at the end or begin of the stockpile.

Figure 3.12 indicates a long travel reclaiming situation.

Figure 3.12 Reclaiming bulk materials using the Long travel reclaiming method

3.2.1 Capacity

The capacity calculation of the long travel reclaiming method can be done in the same way as

capacity calculation for slewing reclaiming methods.

The differences are the shape of a slice and the direction of motion.

The cross-sectional area of a slice (A [m2]) is the same as described in chapter 3.1.1.

A h r (3.14)

The difference is that the slice thickness is constant and therefore the cross-sectional area is constant

during reclaiming. Except the begin and end where the stockpile slant is.

The volume of a slice of the long travel reclaiming method can be calculated with:

h

V A (L ) 10

(3.15)

tan( )

Where;

A = cross sectional area of the slice [m2]

L = length of the reclaimed layer [m]

h = reclaim height [m]

= angle of repose [o]

The longitudinal slant sides and the corners of the stockpile influence this volume.

The corners can be include by decrease the length.

The longitudinal slant side can be include by a decrease of the height. (the first slice at the edge of

the stockpile is not reclaimed with a maximum reclaim height)

10

Elabored in Appendix A8

24

3.2.4 Travel Velocity

Since the cross sectional area is constant, the travel velocity is also constant.

Since the travel velocity is constant the time for one slice can be calculate with:

L

t = (3.16)

v

Where;

L= length of a slice [m]

v = travelling velocity [m/s]

25

3.3 Example situations.

Length = 150m

Width = 80m

Height = 24m

Angle of repose: =400

Which is reclaimed from two sides.

Reclaimer specifications:

Slew velocity: = (n = 0,0132 - 0,0928 min-1) = 0.083 0.583 rad/min

Travel velocity: v = 3-30 m/min

Length of the boom: R=50m

Bucket wheel diameter: rb=4.5m

Reclaim depth: x=1m (maximum)

Reclaim height: h=4.8 (this results in 24/4.8= 5layers

Distance from rails center to pile: Y=10m

Distance reclaimer from begin of the pile: X = 12m

Assume 0 = min

Question:

Using the Bench reclaiming method. What is the capacity of the reclaimer at this position as an

average for this slice? Reclaiming the 4th layer (height: 4.8 9.6m)

This slice is the hatched area.

150

5,7 12

80

5,7 5,7

R=

50

10

4,8

x = y =5.7m (4.8/tan(40))

Y = 10 + 5.7 = 15.7m

X = 12 + 5.7 = 17.7m

40

5,7

26

Determine the slewing angles:

Y 10 + 5.7 15.7

1 = arctan( ) = arctan( ) = arctan( ) = 0.32rad (= 18.7 0 )

R 2 Y 2 x 50 10 1

2 2

2400 1

2 = arctan( ) = arctan( ) = 0.45rad (= 25.80 )

R (Y y ) x

2 2

50 (15.7 + 5.7) 1

2 2

R 2 (x + x + X ) 2 50 2 (1 + 5.7 + 17.7) 2

3 = arctan( ) = arctan( ) = 1.07 rad (= 61.8 0 )

x+ X 5.7 + 17.7

R 2 (x + X ) 2 50 2 (5.7 + 17.7) 2

4 = arctan( ) = arctan( ) = 1.16rad (= 68.2 0 )

X 17.7

V=

1 2

8

h x[x sin(2 ) + 2 x 4 R sin( )] 2 +

1 3

4

h x[x sin(2 ) + 2 x 4 R sin( )] 3

1 4

V =

1 0.45

8

4.8 1[1 sin(2 ) + 2 1 4 50 sin( )]0.45 +

1 1.07

4

4.8 1[1 sin( 2 ) + 2 1 4 50 sin( )]1.07

1 1.18

V=116.65m3

This number is checked with a 3d-cad program. Which gives a result of 117.42m3 (See figure below)

The calculation has an error of 0.7% compared with the 3dcad-

program.

27

Check max

4

Time:

t =

1

[sin( 4 ) sin(1 )]

0

t =

1

[sin(1.19) sin(0.33)] = 7.3 min

0.083

Capacity:

The average capacity for this slice is:

t 7 .5

This number is very low compared to a real situation. This is explainable because the max slewing

velocity is not reached. For example, a higher value for 0 can be chosen.

28

3.3.2 Example 2: determination reclaim efficiency

Length = 150m

Width = 80m

Height = 24m

Angle of repose: =400

Which is reclaimed from two sides.

The volume of this stockpile is approximately 150677 m3 The half stockpile is 75338.5 m3.

Reclaimer specifications:

Slew velocity: = (n = 0,0132 - 0,0928 min-1) = 0.083 0.583 rad/min

Travel velocity: v = 3-30 m/min (acceleration for 5sec) (assume 10m/min during reclaiming and

30m/min during travel back)

Length of the boom: R=50m

Bucket wheel diameter: rb=4.5m

Reclaim depth: x=1m (maximum)

Reclaim height: h=4.8 (this results in 24/4.8= 5layers

Distance from centor of the rails to pile: Y=10m

The maximum reclaiming capacity therefore will be:

C max = v h x R / 60 = 10m / min 4.8m 1m 50m / 60

Assume 0=0.145rad/min

An efficiency for bench reclaiming and long travel reclaiming can be determined as follows:

For each slice the volume is calculated as described in chapter 3.1.2 and the time for each slice is

calculated as described in 3.1.4. summed with 5 seconds for acceleration and 5 seconds deceleration.

The average capacity is the summation of the volume of all the slices ( V [m ]) divided by the

3

Qavg =

V (3.17)

t

This average capacity divided by the maximum capacity results in a reclaim efficiency ( )

Qavg

= (3.18)

Qmax

29

Bench reclaiming results in an efficiency of 44.3%

travel-

Time reclaiming back

layer 1 358.5 6.1 minutes

layer 2 518.7 6.6 minutes

layer 3 698.1 7.1 minutes

layer 4 891.5 7.6 minutes

layer 5 1098.5

Total 3592.626 Minutes

total volume 75338.5 m3

total time 59.9 hr

avg. Capacity 1258.219 m3/hr

efficiency 44.3%

The figure below shows the reclaim capacity during the first hour.

reclaim capacity bench reclaim. Layer 1 (top layer) slice 1-35

3 500

3 000

2 500

Capacity (m3/hr)

2 000

1 500

1 000

500

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

Time (minutes)

30

Long travel reclaiming results in an efficiency of 87.3%

layer 2 237.0 minutes

layer 3 339.8 minutes

layer 4 468.7 minutes

layer 5 603.5 minutes

total 1798.9 minutes

total volume 75338.5 m3

total time 30.0 hr

avg. Capacity 2512.856 m3/hr

efficiency 87.3%

Is this case is the long travel-method more efficient then the bench reclaiming method. It is plausible

that this efficiency varies with the dimensions of the stockpile and the reclaimer parameters.

The figure below shows the reclaim capacity during the first layer.

3500

3000

2500

2000

Q [m3/hr]

1500

1000

500

0

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450

Time [minutes]

31

Conclusions

The goal of this literature study was:

To investigate which methods there exist to stacking and reclaiming bulk materials on a

stockpile.

How the stacking and reclaiming methods are related to each other.

To give an estimation of the capacity of the different reclaim methods. (in m3/h)

The five most common methods for stacking are; Cone-shell, Chevron, Strata, Windrow and Advanced

block. The choice for a method is based on blending efficiency and stacking capacity.

The five most common methods for reclaiming are: Long travel, Bench reclaiming, Block reclaiming,

Pilgrim step. The choice for a reclaiming method is based on the stacking method, to avoid abolishing

of blending during stacking. If blending is not important, the capacity or area use can be a factor.

For example, if a stockpile is reclaimed for 50% , this results in a stockpile with half the length if the

pilgrim or block reclaiming method is performed or a stockpile with half the height if the bench or long

travel reclaiming method is performed.

The capacity of all the reclaiming methods can be calculated by dividing the stockpile in reclaimed

slices and can be determined for a specific point or as an average over time.

The capacity on a local point can be calculated by multiplying the current cross sectional area of the

slice by the current velocity. Except the long travel method, are the cross sectional area (A [m2]) of a

slice and the velocity (v [m/s]) dependent on the slewing angle .

Capacity = A * v

The capacity over time can be calculated by determining the volume (V [m3]) of a slice and the

required time to reclaiming that slice (t [sec]).

Capacity = V

t

At a curtain length of the stockpile, will be the reclaim capacity/efficiency of the long travel reclaiming

method the best. Up to 97.8% 11 instead of 75% - 88% for bench/block reclaiming method and 80%

for the pilgrim step method. This is explainable by less repositioning times for the reclaimer.

11

By W. Knappe, see reference II

32

Recommendations and Discussion

Plausible is that the accelerations, during a motion, have big influences on the velocity. It is

recommended to investigate what there accelerations are. This should result in refined results for the

reclaiming capacity. The time of reclaiming will be higher than calculated in the example and therefore

the capacity will be lower.

To investigate the capacity over a longer time it would be necessary to determine the time to set the

reclaimer for a new slice. For example to determine the travel time for one step at a slewing

reclaiming method or the luffing time of the boom to switch to the next layer. Those times can also be

included in the time calculation.

For longer reclaiming times it can be useful to calculate more then one slice and sum them. It should

be noticed that at the begin of reclaiming the stockpile (at the corner of a stockpile) the values for 1

- 4 differ for each slice. Therefore it can be recommended to script this in a computer program.

At the end of a slice, the velocity of slewing motion is the highest. It would be interesting to

investigate what this means for the energy consumption. It can be interesting to slew the second part

of the slice with a constant velocity like shown in Figure 3.10.

According to W. Knappe 12 The velocity curve should be as shown in the figure below to get a

constant reclaiming capacity. To get a more detailed velocity equation then eq. 3.10, a specified

equation can be determined for the first and last part of the slice (the sloping parts from 1 2 and

3 4) .

The question that remains is, if it interesting to accelerated to a high velocity, to get a constant

reclaiming capacity, or is a decrease of reclaiming capacity no issue. The last one results in a lower

maximum velocity and energy save.

At a curtain length of the stockpile, will be the reclaim capacity/efficiency of the long travel reclaiming

method the best. Due to less repositioning times of the reclaimer. A next question is to proof the

numbers given by W. Knappe:

Long travel : up to 97.8% (travelling time include)

Block / bench : 75% - 88%

Pilgrim step reclaiming : up to 80%

Figure 0.1 ideal velocity pattern for constant capacity (By W. Knappe12)

12

See reference II

33

References

http://www.abb.com/industries/db0003db002806/e29095140f8c008fc12573b1002d9a69.aspx

?tabKey=6

II. Knappe, W: Performance of bucket wheel reclaimer, November 5th 2012 from

http://www.saimh.co.za/beltcon/beltcon8/paper820.html

III. Zador, AT: Technology and economy of blending and mixing, 1991

http://www.abb.com/industries/db0003db002806/8482fbf32c5c2411c1257315001df1f1.aspx?

productLanguage=nl&country=NL&tabKey=6

V. Trans Tech Publications: Stacking, Blending & Reclaiming of bulk materials, 1994

ISBN 0-87849-088-4

http://fam.de/english/Products/Stockyard%2520systems/index.html

http://www.thyssenkrupp-materialshandling.co.za/web/TLN_19.asp

www.bulkcn.com

http://www.aumund.de/de/schade/products/longitudinal-stockyards

http://www.metso.com/miningandconstruction/mm_bulk.nsf/WebWID/WTB-041103-2256F-

F999B

34

Appendix A1 (Detailed calculation cross-sectional area of a reclaiming slice)

The cross sectional area of a reclaimed slice arises by the movement of the bucket wheel.

This area is hatched in the figure below. The surface of this area can be calculated as described below

in this appendix.

A

C1 C2

O

D B

The overlapping area of two circles C1 and C2 can be determined with the intersection area of two

circles theory.

A

C1 C2

O

D B

ABO = arccos(OB/AB)

ABC = 2* ABO

2 ABC ABO

Area ABCD = AB = 2 AB 2 = AB 2 ABO (1)

2 2

A

C1 C2

O

D B

35

1 1

Area ABC = AB 2 sin(ABC ) = AB 2 sin(2 * ABO) (2)

2 2

A

C2

O

B

1 1

AB 2 ABO AB 2 sin(2 ABO) = AB 2 (ABO sin( 2 ABO) (3)

2 2

A

C2

O

B

The non shaded area of the circle C1 will be

1

AB 2 2 AB 2 (ABO sin(2 ABO) = AB 2 ( 2 ABO sin(2 ABO)

2

OB OB

= AB 2 ( (2 cos 1 ( ) sin(2 cos 1 ( )) (4)

AB AB

A

C1

O

D

When,

OB = 0.5*r (thickness of the slice)

36

AB = rb (radius bucket wheel)

r r

A = rb ( (2 cos 1 ( ) sin(2 cos 1 (

2

))

2 rb 2 rb

37

Appendix A2 (Simplification cross-sectional area of a slice)

On each height of the cross-sectional area the slice thinness (r) is identical. Except from the point

where the circles intersect each other.

Therefore the area can be calculate with

A h r (1)

The shaded area in de figure below is also included by calculation with formula (1) and should be

subtracted for an exact answer.

Since this shaded area is very small compared to the rest of the cross-sectional area, it can also be

neglected.

When the radius of the bucket wheel is a lot bigger then the slice thickness ( rbucketwheel >>> r )

The cross sectional area can be calculated with

A h r

For example,

Bucket wheel diameter rb= 9 m (9000mm)

Reclaim depth r = 1m (1000mm)

Reclaim height: 50% of the bucket wheel (=4500mm)

38

1000

0

R450

500

R4

4500

1000

1000

Calculated with: A h r

A 4500 1000 = 4500000mm 2

= 4 .5 m 2

r cos( ) r cos( )

A = rb ( (2 cos 1 ( )) sin(2 cos 1 (

2

))

2rb 2rb

1000 cos(0) 1000 cos(0)

= 4500 2 ( (2 cos 1 ( )) sin(2 cos 1 ( ))

9000 9000

= 4490723mm 2

= 4.49m 2

39

Appendix A3 (Calculation slice thickness r)

x = travelling step of the reclaimer [m]

R = length of the reclaimer boom [m]

r + r = R

= slewing angle [rad]

40

a 2 = b 2 + c 2 2bc cos

R 2 = r 2 + x 2 2 r x cos( )

r 2 2 x cos( ) r R 2 + x 2 = 0

2 x cos( ) (2 x cos( )) 2 4 ( R 2 + x 2 )

r=

2

cos( ) = cos( )

2 x cos( ) (2 x cos( )) 2 4 ( R 2 + x 2 )

r=

2

2 x cos( ) 2 2 x 2 cos 2 ( ) 4 ( R 2 + x 2 )

r=

2

r = x cos( ) x cos ( ) ( R 2 + x 2 )

2 2

r = x cos( ) x 2 cos 2 ( ) + R 2 x 2

r = x cos( ) x 2 (cos 2 ( ) 1) + R 2

r = x cos( ) R 2 x 2 sin ( )

r = R r

= R ( x cos( ) R 2 x 2 sin ( ) )

= R + x cos( ) R 2 x 2 sin ( ) )

x 2

= x cos( ) + R(1 1 2

sin 2 ( ))

R

Source: www.bulkcn.com

if

x 2

x cos( ) R(1 1 2 sin 2 ( ))

R

Then

r ( ) x cos( )

41

Appendix A4 (Calculation h())

= angle of repose [o]

h

tan =

b

h = b tan

if R>>b then,

b = R tan

h = R tan tan

42

Appendix A5 (Calculation slewing angles)

0 =0

1

Slewing angle where the slice begins.

43

X = R2 Y 2

Y

1 = arctan( )

X x

Y

= arctan( )

R 2 Y 2 x

Y = (width) distance from center of the reclaimer till the start point of reclaiming of a layer.

x= step distance of the reclaimer

R = Horizontal distance between slewing/rotation center to end of the bucket wheel

r = R - r (r = slice thickness)

2

Slewing angle where maximum reclaim height is reached

44

X = R 2 (Y + y ) 2

Y+y

2 = arctan( )

X x

Y+y

= arctan( )

R 2 (Y + y ) 2 x

Y = (width) distance from center of the reclaimer till the start point of reclaiming of a layer.

y = distance where h varies

x= step distance of the reclaimer

R = Horizontal distance between slewing/rotation center to end of the bucket wheel

r = R - r (r = slice thickness)

= angle of repose

45

3

Slewing angle where maximum reclaim height ends

46

Y = R 2 (x + x + X ) 2

Y

3 = arctan( )

x+ X

X = (length) distance from center point of the reclaimer till reclaimed layer. [m]

x = distance where h varies [m]

x= step distance of the reclaimer [m]

R = Horizontal distance between slewing/rotation center to end of the bucket wheel [m]

r = R - r (r = slice thickness) [m]

= angle of repose

4

Slewing angle where the slice ends

47

Y = R 2 (x + X ) 2

Y

4 = arctan( )

X

X = (length) distance from center point of the reclaimer till reclaimed layer [m]

x= step distance of the reclaimer [m]

R = Horizontal distance between slewing/rotation center to end of the bucket wheel [m]

r = R - r (r = slice thickness) [m]

48

Appendix A6 (Volume of a slewing slice)

= 2 = 2 = 2 = 2

V= A r d = h r (R r ) d = h r (R r ) d = (h r R h r ) d

2

=0 =0 =0 =0

= 2

= (h R x cos( ) h x 2

cos ( ))d

=0

1

= (h x (x sin(2 ) + 2 x 4 R sin( )

4

3

1 2 1 4

V= A r d + A r d + A r d

2 1 2 2 13

b b

A r d = h r (R r ) d

a a

b

= (h r R h r 2 )d

a

a

b b

= (h R x cos( )d h x 2 cos 2 ( ))d

a a

1

b

= [h R x sin( )] h x + sin(2 )

b 2

a

2 4 a

1 b

4

so

V=

1 2

8

h x[x sin(2 ) + 2 x 4 R sin( )] 2 +

1 3

4

h x[x sin(2 ) + 2 x 4 R sin( )] 3

1 4

49

Appendix A7 (Time calculation for slewing)

ds

v=

dt

v = velocity [m/s]

ds = change of displacement (m)

dt = change in time (s)

d

=

dt

= angular velocity [rad/s]

ds = change of angular displacement (m)

dt = change in time (s)

d

dt =

= 0 cos( )

d cos( )

dt = = d

0 0

cos( )

1

cos( )

t1

dt = d

t0 0

0

t =

1

[sin( )]1

0 0

t =

1

[sin(1 ) sin( 0 )]

0

50

Appendix A8 (Volume of a travelling slice)

A long travel reclaiming method results in slices with a shape as shown in the figure below:

h

L

The volume can be calculated by the cross sectional area * the length and then subtracting the

hatched areas

h

L

where;

L=h/tan()

= angle of repose

h

L'

V A Length A ( h )

tan

h

V A (L )

tan( )

51

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