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FACULTY MECHANICAL, MARITIME AND

MATERIALS ENGINEERING
Delft University of Technology Department Marine and Transport Technology

Mekelweg 2
2628 CD Delft
the Netherlands
Phone +31 (0)15-2782889
Fax +31 (0)15-2781397
www.mtt.tudelft.nl

Specialization: Transport Engineering and Logistics

Report number: 2012.TEL.7724

Title: Bucketwheel stacker/reclaimers:


an analysis of stacking/reclaiming
methods.

Author: K. C. van Horssen

Title (in Dutch) bucketwheel in- en afslag machines: een analyse van de stort- en
afgraafmethoden.

Assignment: literature assignment

Confidential: no

Initiator (university): prof.dr.ir. G. Lodewijks

Initiator (company): ir. D. Mooijman (EMO, Rotterdam)

Supervisor: ir. T. van Vianen

Date: March 27, 2013

This report consists of 35 pages and 8 appendices. It may only be reproduced literally and as a whole. For
commercial purposes only with written authorization of Delft University of Technology. Requests for consult are
only taken into consideration under the condition that the applicant denies all legal rights on liabilities concerning
the contents of the advice.
FACULTY OF MECHANICAL, MARITIME AND
MATERIALS ENGINEERING
Delft University of Technology Department of Marine and Transport Technology

Mekelweg 2
2628 CD Delft
the Netherlands
Phone +31 (0)15-2782889
Fax +31 (0)15-2781397
www.mtt.tudelft.nl

Student: K. C. van Horssen Assignment type: Literature


Supervisor (TUD): Ir. T. van Vianen Report number: 2012.TEL.7724
Supervisor (Company): Ir. D. Mooijman (EMO)
Specialization: TEL Confidential: no
Creditpoints (EC): 12

Subject: Stacking and reclaiming methods

In dry bulk terminals, materials are temporarily stored in piles


at the stockyard. For each type of material, a separate pile is
formed. Huge machines stack the materials and mostly these
machines are also equipped with a bucket wheel to reclaim the
materials afterwards, see for example Figure 1 which shows
two reclaiming bucket wheel stacker-reclaimers at the EECV
terminal in Rotterdam.
Figure 1: Reclaiming piles
These machines are able to luff the boom, slew the boom and
drive parallel to the stockyard piles. Based on combination of these rotations or movement, there can
be derived several methods to stack or to reclaim materials. This literature assignment focuses on
investigating existing stacking and reclaiming methods, generate alternative methods and evaluate all
methods.

Investigate and describe existing stacking and reclaiming methods based on literature but also
based on practical experience of the EMO terminal in Rotterdam.
What are the constraints; like the minimum and maximum stacking height, the maximum area
pressure, width of the stockyard lanes, etc.
Investigate and calculate other stacking and reclaiming methods and define selection criterias
(f.e. energy consumption, reliability, surface occupation, productivity of the machine, etc.) to
evaluate the different methods.
Evaluate the different stacking and reclaiming methods

It is expected that you conclude with a recommendation for further research opportunities based on
the results of this study.

The report should comply with the guidelines of the section. Details can be found on the website.

The professor,

Prof. dr. ir. G. Lodewijks


Summary
Open storage of bulk solid material is mostly done in stockpiles. The material will be stored with a
stacker, sometimes in combination with wheel loaders. To reclaim the material a reclaimer is used.
Those two machines are often combined into one machine; a stacker/reclaimer. One of the most
common stacker/reclaimer types is the bucket wheel stacker/reclaimer

There are different possible methods to store and reclaim bulk materials with those bucket wheel
stacker/reclaimers.
The five most common methods for stacking are:
Cone-shell
Chevron
Strata
Windrow
Advanced block

The four most common methods for reclaiming are:


Long travel
Bench reclaim
Block reclaim
Pilgrim step

With the last 3 reclaim methods, the reclaimer uses a slewing movement during reclaiming. For the
long travel method the travel movement is the most used movement of the machine.

The selection for a stacking method is normally based on the required blending efficiency. Whereby
the cone-shell has the lowest blending efficiency and windrow the highest.
If the blending efficiency is an important selection criterion for the stacking method, then the selection
of the reclaiming method will be based on the stacking method to avoid abolishing of the blending
efficiency.
When blending is not important, than the capacity of a reclaim method is an important selection
criterion. This capacity depends on the dimension of the stockpile.

At reclaim method the stockpile will be reclaimed in slices. The capacity can be calculated by
determining the dimensions of those slices. This can be done in two manners:

1) The current reclaim capacity (Q [m3/s]) can be determined for a specific position and time with the
cross sectional area of the slice at that point (A [m2]) multiplied with the current velocity (v [m/s]).

C = A*v
2) The reclaim capacity (Q [m3/s]) of each slice can be determined by: determine the volume (V [m3])
of each slice en divide it by the time (t [sec]) wherein the slice is reclaimed.

Q =V
t
When the reclaim velocity is inversely directly proportional with the cross sectional area of the slice
results this in a constant capacity, which is shown in the figure below for a slewing reclaim method.
Capacity
Q (m3/s)

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90
Slewing angle: [o ]

3
Summary (in Dutch)
De openopslag van stortgoederen wordt veelal gedaan in grote hopen. Deze hopen worden gestort
met een opslag machine (stacker), al dan niet ondersteund door laadschoppen. Het afgraven wordt
gedaan met een afgraafmachine (reclaimer). Veelal worden deze twee machines gecombineerd tot
n machine; een stort- afgraaf machine (stacker/reclaimer). n van de meest toegepaste varianten
hiervan is een graafwiel stacker/reclaimer.

Om met deze graafwiel stacker/reclaimer stortgoederen op te slaan en af te graven zijn verschillende


methodes mogelijk.
De meest bekende opslag methoden zijn:
Cone-shell
Chevron
Strata
Windrow
Advanced block

De meest bekende afgraafmethode zijn:


Long travel
Bench reclaim
Block reclaim
Pilgrim step

Hierbij wordt bij de laatste 3 afgraafmethode gebruik gemaakt van de zwenkbeweging van de graver
en bij long travel van de rijdende beweging van de gehele machine.

De keuze voor een stort methode wordt veelal gebaseerd op het meng effect. Waarbij cone-shell het
laagste meng effect heeft en windrow het meest van de bovengenoemde stort methode.
Wanneer bij het storten het mengen van belang was, dan is bij de keuze van de afgraafmethode
meestal de stortmethode de basis van de keuze, om te voorkomen dat het meng effect niet teniet
gedaan wordt.
Als het mengen van product niet belangrijk is, dan is de capaciteit van de methode bepalend voor de
keuze van de afgraafmethode. Waarbij de afmetingen van de hoop zijn van invloed op de capaciteit.

Bij elke afgraafmethode wordt de hoop in sneden afgegraven. Met het bepalen van de afmetingen van
de sneden kan de afgraafcapaciteit bepaald worden. Dit kan op twee manieren:

1) De lokale capaciteit (Q [m3/s]) op een bepaald punt (bepaald hoek) kan bepaald worden door
doorsnede (A [m2]) van snede op dat punt te vermenigvuldigen met de lokale snelheid (v [m/s]).

Q = A*v
2) De capaciteit (Q [m3/s]) per snede kan bepaald worden door: het volume (V [m3])van de snede te
bepalen en te delen door de tijd waarin een snede afgegraven wordt (t [sec]).

Q =V
t
Wanneer de snelheid van afgraven omgekeerd evenredig is met de doorsnede van de snede resulteert
dit in een constant afgraafdebiet. Zoals in onderstaand figuur afgebeeld voor een afgraafmethode met
zwenkbeweging
Capacity
Q(m3/s)

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90

Slewing angle: [o ]

4
Contents
Summary ................................................................................................................................................................ 3
Summary (in Dutch) ............................................................................................................................................. 4

1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................... 6
1.1 Stacking and reclaiming......................................................................................................................... 6
1.2 Machines .................................................................................................................................................. 6
1.3 Goal of the research ............................................................................................................................... 8
1.4 Structure of the report ........................................................................................................................... 8

2 Stacking and Reclaiming methods.............................................................................................................. 9


2.1 Stacking methods ................................................................................................................................... 9
2.1.1 Cone-shell....................................................................................................................................... 9
2.1.2 Chevron (chevcon) ........................................................................................................................ 9
2.1.3 Strata ............................................................................................................................................ 10
2.1.4 Windrow........................................................................................................................................ 10
2.1.5 Advanced block............................................................................................................................ 10
2.2 Reclaiming methods ............................................................................................................................. 11
2.2.1 Long travel ................................................................................................................................... 11
2.2.2 Bench reclaiming ......................................................................................................................... 12
2.2.3 Block reclaiming........................................................................................................................... 12
2.2.4 Pilgrim step .................................................................................................................................. 13
2.3 Relation between a stacking and reclaiming methods. ................................................................... 14

3 Determination of the reclaiming capacity ................................................................................................ 16


3.1 Reclaiming capacity with a slewing reclaiming method (m3/hr) .................................................... 16
3.1.1 Cross-sectional area of a slice ................................................................................................... 16
3.1.2 Slice Volume................................................................................................................................. 21
3.1.3 Slewing Velocity........................................................................................................................... 22
3.1.4 Time .............................................................................................................................................. 23
3.1.5 Capacity ........................................................................................................................................ 23
3.2 Reclaiming capacity using the long-travel reclaiming method)...................................................... 24
3.2.1 Capacity ........................................................................................................................................ 24
3.2.2 Cross-sectional area of a slice ................................................................................................... 24
3.2.3 Slice volume ................................................................................................................................. 24
3.2.4 Travel Velocity ............................................................................................................................. 25
3.2.5 Travel Time .................................................................................................................................. 25
3.3 Example situations................................................................................................................................ 26
3.3.1 Example 1 determination of the capacity ................................................................................ 26
3.3.2 Example 2: determination reclaim efficiency .......................................................................... 29

Conclusions .......................................................................................................................................................... 32
Recommendations and Discussion ................................................................................................................... 33
References ........................................................................................................................................................... 34

Appendix A1 (Detailed calculation cross-sectional area of a reclaiming slice) ........................................... 35


Appendix A2 (Simplification cross-sectional area of a slice)......................................................................... 38
Appendix A3 (Calculation slice thickness r) .................................................................................................. 40
Appendix A4 (Calculation h())......................................................................................................................... 42
Appendix A5 (Calculation slewing angles)....................................................................................................... 43
Appendix A6 (Volume of a slewing slice)......................................................................................................... 49
Appendix A7 (Time calculation for slewing).................................................................................................... 50
Appendix A8 (Volume of a travelling slice)...................................................................................................... 51

5
1 Introduction
A dry bulk terminal is used for the transshipment and storage of several bulk materials like coal, ore,
and agriculture products. It is a buffer between incoming and outgoing bulk materials.
This research analyses the different methods to stack and reclaim materials on an open storage.

1.1 Stacking and reclaiming

Stacking is the process where bulk material is added to a pile. This pile can
be made longitudinal or circular (as shown in Figure 1.1 and Figure 1.2).
This report is mostly based on a longitudinal stockpile, with a certain height
(h), width (w) and length (L). Chapter 2.1 describes how a stockpile is
formed. Figure 1.1 longitudinal

Figure 1.2 circular

Figure 1.3 Stockpile

Reclaiming is the process of removing the bulk material from a pile. This is mostly done by machines
that excavate the stockpile. The bulk material will be loaded in a transport facility like a vessel, train or
truck for example.

Chapter 2.2 explains some reclaim methods.

1.2 Machines

Machines used for the stacking and reclaiming processes are mainly divided in three groups; (i)
machines which only can stack (stacker), (ii) machines which only can reclaim (reclaimer) and (iii)
machines which can perform both functions (stacker/reclaimer).

The motions of the stackers and reclaimers can be classified in three directions: luffing, slewing, and
travelling. (See Figure 1.4)
Luffing is the motion whereby the boom rotates up or down. This is the height referring to a stockpile.
Slewing is the horizontal rotation of the boom around the central axis of the stacker or reclaimer.
Travelling is the motion of the entire stacker or reclaimer on the rails alongside the pile.

Figure 1.4 movements of a bucketwheel stacker/reclaimer

6
Not each stacker or reclaimer can perform all these types of motions. There are three stacker types:
Fixed stacker (no luffing and slewing. Mostly only travelling)
Fixed luffing stacker (only luffing is possible and at some machines also travelling)
Radial luffing stacker (slewing and luffing is possible and at some machines also travelling)
Figure 1.5 shows an example of a fixed stacker and Figure 1.6 an example of a redial luffing stacker.

Figure 1.5 fixed stacker Figure 1.6 Radial luffing stacker

Reclaimers can mainly be classified in three main groups: (i) Scrapers, (ii) Bridge reclaimers and (iii)
bucket wheel reclaimers.

Scrapers reclaim from one side (side scraper) (as shown in Figure 1.8) or both sides (portal scraper)
(as shown in Figure 1.9 ) of a stockpile. The only possible motions are travelling and luffing.
Bridge reclaimers (as shown in Figure 1.10) reclaim the whole cross sectional area at once and
travels perpendicular to the pile during reclaiming. The only motion is travelling.
Bucket wheel reclaimers are reclaiming with a wheel with buckets. (As the name mentioned). All the
three motions are possible. See Figure 1.11 for an example of those machines.

Scrapers

Figure 1.7 an example of a scraper Figure 1.8 Side scraper Figure 1.9 Portal scraper

Bridge reclaimers

Figure 1.10 examples of bridge reclaimers

7
Bucket wheel reclaimer

Figure 1.11; I example of an stacking stacker/reclaimer ; II operator view during reclaiming; III overview during reclaiming.

1.3 Goal of the research

The goal of this research is:


Investigate which methods exists to stack and reclaim bulk materials on a stockpile.
How the stacking and reclaiming methods are related to each other.
To give an estimation of the capacity of the different reclaim methods. (in m3/h)
The answers on those questions give more information about how to determine which method is most
useful / efficient for a specific situation.

1.4 Structure of the report


This document will describe several stacking and reclaiming methods. The stacking methods are
useful for different stacker types. The reclaim methods are mainly for bucket wheel reclaimers.
Chapter 2.1 describes the different stacking methods and Chapter 2.2 the different reclaim methods.
Chapter 2.3 describes the relations between the stacking and reclaiming methods.
Chapter 3 compares the different reclaim methods based on capacity in m3/h

8
2 Stacking and Reclaiming methods
Stacking and reclaiming of dry bulk materials is briefly material adding to and removing from a
storage pile. For some reason it can be desirable to use a specific method for stacking and reclaiming.
For instance to get a homogeneous bulk material or larger stacking/reclaiming capacities. This chapter
describes different stacking and reclaiming methods and also the relations between those methods.
The discussed stacking methods are applicable for the most common stacker types.

2.1 Stacking methods

Stacking is not only used to store material but can also been used to blend material to get a more
homogeneous material over time. This is mostly the main reason to select a specific method.
Generally a better method for blending is more expensive through time and energy consumption by
more movements.

The five most common methods for stacking are:


Cone-shell (2.1.1)
Chevron (2.1.2)
Strata (2.1.3)
Windrow (2.1.4)
Advanced block (2.1.5)

2.1.1 Cone-shell

De cone-shell stacking method is the most


straight forward method to stack material. As
the name suggests, it starts with a cone, up to a
certain height. Then the machine travels a small
distance alongside the stock pile and makes a
new shell against the previous. This process is
depicted in Figure 2.1
The advantage of the cone-shell is the low
number of movements of the machine. When
the height of the first cone is reached, the only
movement that remains is the travel-movement
for a new shell. In other words, a fixed stacker Figure 2.1 Cone-shell stacking
can do this method.
This method is often used when blending is not important.

2.1.2 Chevron (chevcon)

A chevron pile is build up in different layers. The


first operation is to make a small stock pile with
one material. The next step is covering this pile
with another material, and so on. In theory a
machine which only can travel can do this
method, like the cone-shell method. To prevent
dust, a stacker which can luff is used. This
makes the drop height smaller. So the stacker
travels alongside the stockpile during stacking,
at the end it will rise the boom and travels back.
If some blending is desirable this is also a
simple way to stack, only the number of travel
movements is more compared to the cone shell. Figure 2.2 Chevron stacking
Another name of chevron method used in a
circular stockpile is chevcon.

9
2.1.3 Strata

The strata method is more or less the same idea


as the chevron. The first step is also to start with
a small stockpile. The next step is to cover one
side instead of both sides by the chevron. Slewing
(rotation) should be possible to realize this
method with the stacking machine.

Figure 2.3 Strata stacking

2.1.4 Windrow

A windrow stockpile is build up in several smaller


stockpiles/layers on top of each other. The stacker
travels along the stockpile. At the end the boom
slews or luffs and after that the machine travels
back. The layers are kept small to get a better
distribution. Therefore a lot of movements are
needed.

Figure 2.4 Windrow stacking

2.1.5 Advanced block

This method is a variation of the cone-shell method. The difference between those methods is that
slewing is also possible during stacking. Instead of only stack in cones one after the other, also cones
next to each other is a possibility.
Figure 2.5 shows the stacking process schematically. At first the machine will be placed such that a
cone can be created at place A. After that the desired height is reached the boom slews to point B to
stack a cone there. This process can be repeated till the maximum slewing angle, or the maximum
stockpile width is reached. (point H in Figure 2.5). Slewing of the stackerboom is the only movement
till this place H. To decrease the drop height it should also be possible to use the luffing movement of
the stacker.
When the desired height of the cone at place H is reached, the stacker travels backwards and
continues the stacking.

Figure 2.5 Movements advanced block operation (by ABB)

10
2.2 Reclaiming methods

The most important reason to choose a specific reclaim method is to prevent abolishing of a stacking
method whereby blending was important. An other reason can be the reclaim capacity or area use.
The discussed reclaiming methods are specific for a bucket wheel reclaimer.

The five most common methods for reclaiming are:


Long travel (2.2.1)
Bench reclaim (2.2.2)
Block reclaim (2.2.3)
Pilgrim step (2.2.4)

2.2.1 Long travel

With the long travel reclaiming method a


reclaimer moves along the stockpile without
any other movements. The reclaim height and
depth is set at the begin of a stockpile and
wouldnt change during travelling. At the end
of the stockpile, the reclaim height and depth
are set again and the reclaimer would travel
backwards. Since a bridge reclaimer can only
travels is this, is the only possible method to
reclaim for that type reclaimer.
Figure 2.6 shows the process of reclaiming
using the long travel method.
Figure 2.7 shows the path of the bucket Figure 2.6 Long travel reclaiming
wheel during reclaiming.

Figure 2.7 Path of the bucket wheel using the long travel reclaiming
method

11
2.2.2 Bench reclaiming

By the bench reclaiming method the


stockpile is reclaimed slice by slice. The
reclaimer only slews during reclaiming.
When the reclaimer reached the maximum
slewing angle, or when the max width of the
stockpile is reached, the entire
stacker/reclaimer travels one step forward.
Than the reclaiming starts again during
slewing back. When a whole layer (bench
named) is reclaimed, the entire reclaimer
travels back to the begin of the stockpile, to
start with a new layer. This is necessary
because the reclaimer cannot rotates more Figure 2.8 bench reclaim
than +110o/-110o and therefore it is not
possible to reclaim during backward travelling.
Figure 2.8 shows an overview of reclaiming with a bucketwheel stacker/reclaimer, using the bench
reclaiming method.
Figure 2.9 shows the path of the bucket wheel during reclaiming.

Figure 2.9 Path of the bucket wheel using the bench reclaiming method.

2.2.3 Block reclaiming

The reclaimer uses the same movements with the block


reclaiming method as the bench method. The difference
between those two methods is that using the block reclaiming
method, the reclaimer reclaims not till the end of the stockpile.
There will be a layer reclaimed for a certain distance (for
example a half length) of the stockpile. Then the
stacker/reclaimer travels back and starts to reclaiming the next
layer. The advantage of this method can be the use of area. For
example, if a half stockpile has to be reclaimed the
implementation both methods is: with the bench method is the
half height of the stockpile reclaimed and the with block method
the half length of a stockpile.

Figure 2.10 Block reclaim

12
2.2.4 Pilgrim step

The pilgrim step method is a variation of the block method.


The difference is that the block method reclaims a certain
block length before the reclaimer travels back. (For example a
half stockpile). The pilgrim step travels back after a certain
slew movements. This number of slewings should be an even
number because the reclaimer boom should be above the rails
during travelling back. Mostly the number of slewing
movements is 6, 8 or 10 (by ABB1)

Figure 2.11 Pilgrim step method

Figure 2.12 Path of the bucket wheel using the pilgrim step reclaim method

Since the bench, block and pilgrim method are looking very similar (they use the same movements),
are these terms sometimes used interchangeable. Figure 2.13 shows clearly the differences between
those three methods. For example, if a half stockpile has to be reclaimed, then the numbers in the
figure indicate the order of reclaiming.

Figure 2.13 differences between Bench, block and pilgrim step reclaiming method

1
See reference I
13
2.3 Relation between a stacking and reclaiming methods.

The selection for a stacking method is often based on blending. To avoid abolishing of the blending
during reclaiming also the choice for a reclaiming method is indirectly based on blending.
The efficiency of blending can be calculated by:

Variations before Stacking (at 95% probability )


Blending Efficiency =
Variations after Re claim i ng ( at 95% probability )

The figures Figure 2.14 and Figure 2.15 give an indication of the blending efficiencies. Figure 2.14
indicates that for a boom-type machine (a bucket wheel reclaimer). The pilgrim step reclaiming
method and the windrow stacking method result in the best blending efficiency. On the other hand,
Figure 2.15 shows the blending efficiency for bridge-type reclaimers. Those numbers are higher then
at the boom reclaimers.
So, if the blending efficiency is an important selection criterion for the stacking method, then the
selection of the reclaiming method will be based on the stacking method to avoid abolishing of the
blending efficiency.
For example, ash is stacked in windrow (because blending is important) with a stacking rate of
2000tph. A bucket wheel reclaimer with bench reclaiming method results in a blending efficiency of
2.01 On the other hand, if the reclaiming is performed by a bridge reclaimer, the blending efficiency
is already 3.7. Almost twice as good.

Figure 2.14 Blending efficiencies boom-type machine (By A.T. Zador2)

2
See reference III
14
Figure 2.15 Blending efficiencies bridge-type machine (By A.T. Zador2)

15
3 Determination of the reclaiming capacity
A selection criterion for a reclaiming method is the capacity. To make an estimation of the capacity for
each reclaiming method, it is necessary to determine the shape of the reclaimed volume and the
velocity of the motions of the reclaimer.

3.1 Reclaiming capacity with a slewing reclaiming method (m3/hr)

This chapter describes the reclaiming capacity with a slewing reclaiming method. The reclaimer only
slews during reclaiming, during the; bench, block and the pilgrim step reclaiming method.

3.1.1 Cross-sectional area of a slice

During bench, block and pilgrim reclaiming, the reclaimer is mostly slewing. This results in reclaiming
the pile in slices. A slice has a so called moon shape, both seen from top- as from side view.
Figures 3.1 and 3.2 give an indication of this shape.

Figure 3.1 slice pattern (top view)

Figure 3.2 slice in 3d

16
Figure 3.33 slice

h = reclaim height [m]


= slewing angle [rad]
x = travelling step of the reclaimer [m]
r = slice thickness (depending on slewing angle) [m]

The reclaimer boom rotates and the bucket wheel follows a circular path. After a maximum rotation
(for example 900) , makes the reclaimer a (travel) step forward (x) and rotates back. The distance
between the clockwise circular path and the counter clockwise path is a distance x. Both paths are
two overlapping circles.
This ensures that a moon shaped slice arises. See Figure 3.4.

Figure 3.4 slice, top view

3
Picture from www.bulkcn.com
17
Figure 3.5 cross-sectional area of a slice

Figure 3.5 indicates a cross sectional area of a slice.

Where;
rb = bucket wheel radius [m]
h = reclaim height [m]
r = slice thickness (depending on slewing angle) [m]

The cross-sectional area of a slice can be calculated4 in detail with:


r r
A = rb ( (2 cos 1 ( ) sin(2 cos 1 (
2
)) (3.1)
2 rb 2 rb

A simplification5 for the cross-sectional area is:

A h r (3.2)

Since the thickness of slice varies with the slewing angle , r = f()6

r ( ) x cos( ) (3.3)

Formula (3.3) combined with (3.2):

A h x cos( ) (3.4)

4
Elabored in Appendix A1
5
Elabored in Appendix A2
6
Elabored in Appendix A3
18
The sides of the slice are slanting due to the angle of repose. This results in the reclaim height h =
f(). Therefore equation (3.4) is not valid at the begin and end of the slice where the cutting height is
not constant. The slewing angles where the condition of the height changes are:

1 = Slewing angle where reclaiming starts.


2 = Slewing angle where maximum reclaim height is reached
3 = Slewing angle where maximum reclaim height ends
4 = Slewing angle where reclaiming ends
These angles are shown in the figures 3.6 and 3.7:

Figure 3.6 slice, front view

Figure 3.7 top view

The angles 1 to 4 can be calculated. For the equations to calculate those angles see Appendix A5.

19
At the sloping parts, the height can be calculated7 with:

h( , ) = R tan( ) tan( ) (3.6)

Where;
R = Horizontal distance between slewing/rotation center to end of the bucket wheel(boom length)
= angle of repose
= slewing angle

h=0 < 1
h = R tan( ) tan( ) 1 < < 2

h( , ) = h = hmax 2 < < 3 (3.7)
h = R tan( ) tan( ) 3 < < 4

h=0 > 4

At some point there will be no slope anymore at the end of the slice. Then 3 = 4 = max
This occurs when the rotation center of the boom passes the begin of the stockpile.

Figure 3.8 shows the cross sectional area as a function of the slewing angle.
The cross-sectional area increases during the first slewing degrees. Then it will decrease. The last few
degrees it will decrease faster when 3 > 4 (as an effect of the slant side)

Figure 3.8 Cross sectional area as function of the slewing angle

7
Elabored in Appendix A4
20
3.1.2 Slice Volume

The volume of a slewing slice can be calculated with:


= 2

V= A r d
=0
(3.8)

V=

h x[x sin(2 ) + 2 x 4 R sin( )] 1 +


1 2

8
h x[x sin(2 ) + 2 x 4 R sin( )] 2 +
1 3

4
h x[x sin(2 ) + 2 x 4 R sin( )] 3
1 4

Where;
h = reclaim height [m]
x = travelling step of the reclaimer [m]
1-4 = The slewing angle where the condition of h change

21
3.1.3 Slewing Velocity

It is desirable to have a constant reclaiming capacity.


Therefore the slewing velocity has to be inversely directly proportional with the slice thickness. When
the slice thickness (r) is halved, the velocity is doubled.

Since,
r x cos( )

v0
v= 8
(3.9)
cos( )
V0= is the velocity at 0 [m/s]

or in terms of angular velocity;

= 0 cos( ) (3.10)

0= is the velocity at 0 [rad/s]

Figure 3.9 shows the velocity () as a function of the slewing angle ()


Equation (3.7) can lead to a higher velocity then the technically feasible velocity. The velocity
becomes then constant. See Figure 3.10
(Accelerations and decelerations are not included in those figures)

Figure 3.9 velocity

Figure 3.10 velocity with maximum velocity

8
This is confirmed on the website off ABB, see reference IV
22
3.1.4 Time

Time calculation9 for slewing


d
=
dt
= angular velocity
ds = change of angular displacement [m]
dt = change in time [s]

t =
1
[sin(1 ) sin( 0 )]
0

3.1.5 Capacity
The current capacity can be determined for a specific position and time. This can be done with
multiplying the cross-sectional area of a slice, at that point, with the velocity at that point.

Capacity ( ) = A( ) v( )
(3.11)
= h r cos( ) v( )

The capacity over the entire slice can be plot as a function of the slewing angle, like the figure below
(Figure 3.8 multiplied by Figure 3.9)
Q (m3/min)

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90
angle (degrees)

Figure 3.11 Capacity (as function of the slewing angle)

The capacity can also be calculated as an average over time with the volume divided by the time.

V
Capacity = (3.12)
t

For the capacity over a longer time or distance can the volume of more slices be summed. Also the
time for travelling can be included.

Capacity =
V (3.13)
t

9
Appendix A7 shows the details of this calculation
23
3.2 Reclaiming capacity using the long-travel reclaiming method)

Using the long travel method, the reclaimer reclaims only during travelling and only slew/luff the
boom at the end or begin of the stockpile.
Figure 3.12 indicates a long travel reclaiming situation.

Figure 3.12 Reclaiming bulk materials using the Long travel reclaiming method

3.2.1 Capacity

The capacity calculation of the long travel reclaiming method can be done in the same way as
capacity calculation for slewing reclaiming methods.
The differences are the shape of a slice and the direction of motion.

3.2.2 Cross-sectional area of a slice

The cross-sectional area of a slice (A [m2]) is the same as described in chapter 3.1.1.

A h r (3.14)

The difference is that the slice thickness is constant and therefore the cross-sectional area is constant
during reclaiming. Except the begin and end where the stockpile slant is.

3.2.3 Slice volume

The volume of a slice of the long travel reclaiming method can be calculated with:

h
V A (L ) 10
(3.15)
tan( )

Where;
A = cross sectional area of the slice [m2]
L = length of the reclaimed layer [m]
h = reclaim height [m]
= angle of repose [o]

The longitudinal slant sides and the corners of the stockpile influence this volume.
The corners can be include by decrease the length.
The longitudinal slant side can be include by a decrease of the height. (the first slice at the edge of
the stockpile is not reclaimed with a maximum reclaim height)

10
Elabored in Appendix A8
24
3.2.4 Travel Velocity

Since the cross sectional area is constant, the travel velocity is also constant.

3.2.5 Travel Time

Since the travel velocity is constant the time for one slice can be calculate with:

L
t = (3.16)
v

Where;
L= length of a slice [m]
v = travelling velocity [m/s]

25
3.3 Example situations.

3.3.1 Example 1 determination of the capacity

Assume a stockpile with:


Length = 150m
Width = 80m
Height = 24m
Angle of repose: =400
Which is reclaimed from two sides.

Reclaimer specifications:
Slew velocity: = (n = 0,0132 - 0,0928 min-1) = 0.083 0.583 rad/min
Travel velocity: v = 3-30 m/min
Length of the boom: R=50m
Bucket wheel diameter: rb=4.5m
Reclaim depth: x=1m (maximum)
Reclaim height: h=4.8 (this results in 24/4.8= 5layers
Distance from rails center to pile: Y=10m
Distance reclaimer from begin of the pile: X = 12m

Acceleration is neglected for now.


Assume 0 = min

Question:
Using the Bench reclaiming method. What is the capacity of the reclaimer at this position as an
average for this slice? Reclaiming the 4th layer (height: 4.8 9.6m)
This slice is the hatched area.

150

5,7 12
80

5,7 5,7

R=
50
10

Figure 3.13 example situation

The distances of the slant sides are:


4,8

x = y =5.7m (4.8/tan(40))
Y = 10 + 5.7 = 15.7m
X = 12 + 5.7 = 17.7m
40

5,7
26
Determine the slewing angles:
Y 10 + 5.7 15.7
1 = arctan( ) = arctan( ) = arctan( ) = 0.32rad (= 18.7 0 )
R 2 Y 2 x 50 10 1
2 2
2400 1

Y+y (15.7 + 5.7)


2 = arctan( ) = arctan( ) = 0.45rad (= 25.80 )
R (Y y ) x
2 2
50 (15.7 + 5.7) 1
2 2

R 2 (x + x + X ) 2 50 2 (1 + 5.7 + 17.7) 2
3 = arctan( ) = arctan( ) = 1.07 rad (= 61.8 0 )
x+ X 5.7 + 17.7
R 2 (x + X ) 2 50 2 (5.7 + 17.7) 2
4 = arctan( ) = arctan( ) = 1.16rad (= 68.2 0 )
X 17.7

Determine the volume:

V=

h x[x sin(2 ) + 2 x 4 R sin( )] 1 +


1 2

8
h x[x sin(2 ) + 2 x 4 R sin( )] 2 +
1 3

4
h x[x sin(2 ) + 2 x 4 R sin( )] 3
1 4

V =

4.8 1[1 sin( 2 ) + 2 1 4 50 sin( )]0.32 +


1 0.45

8
4.8 1[1 sin(2 ) + 2 1 4 50 sin( )]0.45 +
1 1.07

4
4.8 1[1 sin( 2 ) + 2 1 4 50 sin( )]1.07
1 1.18

V=116.65m3
This number is checked with a 3d-cad program. Which gives a result of 117.42m3 (See figure below)
The calculation has an error of 0.7% compared with the 3dcad-
program.

Figure 3.14 Volume check 3d-cad program

27
Check max

= 0 cos( ) = 0.083 cos(1.19) = 0.22rad / min max = 0.583rad / min


4

The velocity does not exceed the maximum velocity.

Time:

t =
1
[sin( 4 ) sin(1 )]
0
t =
1
[sin(1.19) sin(0.33)] = 7.3 min
0.083

Capacity:
The average capacity for this slice is:

V = 116.65 = 15.55m 2 / min = 933m 3 / hr


t 7 .5

This number is very low compared to a real situation. This is explainable because the max slewing
velocity is not reached. For example, a higher value for 0 can be chosen.

28
3.3.2 Example 2: determination reclaim efficiency

Assume a stockpile with:


Length = 150m
Width = 80m
Height = 24m
Angle of repose: =400
Which is reclaimed from two sides.
The volume of this stockpile is approximately 150677 m3 The half stockpile is 75338.5 m3.

Reclaimer specifications:
Slew velocity: = (n = 0,0132 - 0,0928 min-1) = 0.083 0.583 rad/min
Travel velocity: v = 3-30 m/min (acceleration for 5sec) (assume 10m/min during reclaiming and
30m/min during travel back)
Length of the boom: R=50m
Bucket wheel diameter: rb=4.5m
Reclaim depth: x=1m (maximum)
Reclaim height: h=4.8 (this results in 24/4.8= 5layers
Distance from centor of the rails to pile: Y=10m
The maximum reclaiming capacity therefore will be:
C max = v h x R / 60 = 10m / min 4.8m 1m 50m / 60

Assume 0=0.145rad/min

An efficiency for bench reclaiming and long travel reclaiming can be determined as follows:
For each slice the volume is calculated as described in chapter 3.1.2 and the time for each slice is
calculated as described in 3.1.4. summed with 5 seconds for acceleration and 5 seconds deceleration.
The average capacity is the summation of the volume of all the slices ( V [m ]) divided by the
3

summation of the times for all slices ( t [hr]).


Qavg =
V (3.17)
t
This average capacity divided by the maximum capacity results in a reclaim efficiency ( )

Qavg
= (3.18)
Qmax

29
Bench reclaiming results in an efficiency of 44.3%

travel-
Time reclaiming back
layer 1 358.5 6.1 minutes
layer 2 518.7 6.6 minutes
layer 3 698.1 7.1 minutes
layer 4 891.5 7.6 minutes
layer 5 1098.5
Total 3592.626 Minutes

max capacity 2880 m3/hr


total volume 75338.5 m3
total time 59.9 hr
avg. Capacity 1258.219 m3/hr
efficiency 44.3%

The figure below shows the reclaim capacity during the first hour.
reclaim capacity bench reclaim. Layer 1 (top layer) slice 1-35

3 500

3 000

2 500
Capacity (m3/hr)

2 000

1 500

1 000

500

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
Time (minutes)

30
Long travel reclaiming results in an efficiency of 87.3%

layer 1 149.8 minutes


layer 2 237.0 minutes
layer 3 339.8 minutes
layer 4 468.7 minutes
layer 5 603.5 minutes
total 1798.9 minutes

max capacity 2880 m3/hr (=4.8m*1m*10m/min)


total volume 75338.5 m3
total time 30.0 hr
avg. Capacity 2512.856 m3/hr
efficiency 87.3%

Is this case is the long travel-method more efficient then the bench reclaiming method. It is plausible
that this efficiency varies with the dimensions of the stockpile and the reclaimer parameters.

The figure below shows the reclaim capacity during the first layer.

Reclaim capacity long-travel method

3500

3000

2500

2000
Q [m3/hr]

1500

1000

500

0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450
Time [minutes]

31
Conclusions
The goal of this literature study was:
To investigate which methods there exist to stacking and reclaiming bulk materials on a
stockpile.
How the stacking and reclaiming methods are related to each other.
To give an estimation of the capacity of the different reclaim methods. (in m3/h)

The five most common methods for stacking are; Cone-shell, Chevron, Strata, Windrow and Advanced
block. The choice for a method is based on blending efficiency and stacking capacity.

The five most common methods for reclaiming are: Long travel, Bench reclaiming, Block reclaiming,
Pilgrim step. The choice for a reclaiming method is based on the stacking method, to avoid abolishing
of blending during stacking. If blending is not important, the capacity or area use can be a factor.
For example, if a stockpile is reclaimed for 50% , this results in a stockpile with half the length if the
pilgrim or block reclaiming method is performed or a stockpile with half the height if the bench or long
travel reclaiming method is performed.

The capacity of all the reclaiming methods can be calculated by dividing the stockpile in reclaimed
slices and can be determined for a specific point or as an average over time.
The capacity on a local point can be calculated by multiplying the current cross sectional area of the
slice by the current velocity. Except the long travel method, are the cross sectional area (A [m2]) of a
slice and the velocity (v [m/s]) dependent on the slewing angle .

Capacity = A * v

The capacity over time can be calculated by determining the volume (V [m3]) of a slice and the
required time to reclaiming that slice (t [sec]).

Capacity = V
t

At a curtain length of the stockpile, will be the reclaim capacity/efficiency of the long travel reclaiming
method the best. Up to 97.8% 11 instead of 75% - 88% for bench/block reclaiming method and 80%
for the pilgrim step method. This is explainable by less repositioning times for the reclaimer.

11
By W. Knappe, see reference II
32
Recommendations and Discussion
Plausible is that the accelerations, during a motion, have big influences on the velocity. It is
recommended to investigate what there accelerations are. This should result in refined results for the
reclaiming capacity. The time of reclaiming will be higher than calculated in the example and therefore
the capacity will be lower.

To investigate the capacity over a longer time it would be necessary to determine the time to set the
reclaimer for a new slice. For example to determine the travel time for one step at a slewing
reclaiming method or the luffing time of the boom to switch to the next layer. Those times can also be
included in the time calculation.

For longer reclaiming times it can be useful to calculate more then one slice and sum them. It should
be noticed that at the begin of reclaiming the stockpile (at the corner of a stockpile) the values for 1
- 4 differ for each slice. Therefore it can be recommended to script this in a computer program.

At the end of a slice, the velocity of slewing motion is the highest. It would be interesting to
investigate what this means for the energy consumption. It can be interesting to slew the second part
of the slice with a constant velocity like shown in Figure 3.10.

According to W. Knappe 12 The velocity curve should be as shown in the figure below to get a
constant reclaiming capacity. To get a more detailed velocity equation then eq. 3.10, a specified
equation can be determined for the first and last part of the slice (the sloping parts from 1 2 and
3 4) .
The question that remains is, if it interesting to accelerated to a high velocity, to get a constant
reclaiming capacity, or is a decrease of reclaiming capacity no issue. The last one results in a lower
maximum velocity and energy save.

At a curtain length of the stockpile, will be the reclaim capacity/efficiency of the long travel reclaiming
method the best. Due to less repositioning times of the reclaimer. A next question is to proof the
numbers given by W. Knappe:
Long travel : up to 97.8% (travelling time include)
Block / bench : 75% - 88%
Pilgrim step reclaiming : up to 80%

Figure 0.1 ideal velocity pattern for constant capacity (By W. Knappe12)

12
See reference II
33
References

I. ABB: S/SR Reclaiming/stacking methods, November 5th 2012 from


http://www.abb.com/industries/db0003db002806/e29095140f8c008fc12573b1002d9a69.aspx
?tabKey=6

II. Knappe, W: Performance of bucket wheel reclaimer, November 5th 2012 from
http://www.saimh.co.za/beltcon/beltcon8/paper820.html

III. Zador, AT: Technology and economy of blending and mixing, 1991

IV. ABB: bucket wheel excavator, November 24th 2012 from


http://www.abb.com/industries/db0003db002806/8482fbf32c5c2411c1257315001df1f1.aspx?
productLanguage=nl&country=NL&tabKey=6

V. Trans Tech Publications: Stacking, Blending & Reclaiming of bulk materials, 1994
ISBN 0-87849-088-4

VI. FAM: Stockyard systems, November 29th 2012 from


http://fam.de/english/Products/Stockyard%2520systems/index.html

VII. Thyssenkrupp-materialshandling: Stockyard equipment, November 29th 2012 from


http://www.thyssenkrupp-materialshandling.co.za/web/TLN_19.asp

VIII. Bulkonline: Oktober 13th 2012 from


www.bulkcn.com

IX. aumund: Frdertechnik. November 29th 2012 from


http://www.aumund.de/de/schade/products/longitudinal-stockyards

X. Metso: Mining and construction. January 13th 2013 from


http://www.metso.com/miningandconstruction/mm_bulk.nsf/WebWID/WTB-041103-2256F-
F999B

34
Appendix A1 (Detailed calculation cross-sectional area of a reclaiming slice)

The cross sectional area of a reclaimed slice arises by the movement of the bucket wheel.
This area is hatched in the figure below. The surface of this area can be calculated as described below
in this appendix.
A
C1 C2

O
D B

The overlapping area of two circles C1 and C2 can be determined with the intersection area of two
circles theory.

A
C1 C2

O
D B

The shaded area part ACD can be calculated with:

ABO = arccos(OB/AB)
ABC = 2* ABO
2 ABC ABO
Area ABCD = AB = 2 AB 2 = AB 2 ABO (1)
2 2
A
C1 C2

O
D B

35
1 1
Area ABC = AB 2 sin(ABC ) = AB 2 sin(2 * ABO) (2)
2 2
A
C2

O
B

Area ADC = area ABCD (1) area ABC (2)


1 1
AB 2 ABO AB 2 sin(2 ABO) = AB 2 (ABO sin( 2 ABO) (3)
2 2

A
C2

O
B

The shaded area between ABCD is 2* area ADC


The non shaded area of the circle C1 will be
1
AB 2 2 AB 2 (ABO sin(2 ABO) = AB 2 ( 2 ABO sin(2 ABO)
2
OB OB
= AB 2 ( (2 cos 1 ( ) sin(2 cos 1 ( )) (4)
AB AB

A
C1

O
D

Formula (4) describes the non shaded area of circle C1.


When,
OB = 0.5*r (thickness of the slice)

36
AB = rb (radius bucket wheel)

r r
A = rb ( (2 cos 1 ( ) sin(2 cos 1 (
2
))
2 rb 2 rb

37
Appendix A2 (Simplification cross-sectional area of a slice)

On each height of the cross-sectional area the slice thinness (r) is identical. Except from the point
where the circles intersect each other.
Therefore the area can be calculate with
A h r (1)

The point where r becomes smaller is the intersection point.


The shaded area in de figure below is also included by calculation with formula (1) and should be
subtracted for an exact answer.
Since this shaded area is very small compared to the rest of the cross-sectional area, it can also be
neglected.

When the radius of the bucket wheel is a lot bigger then the slice thickness ( rbucketwheel >>> r )
The cross sectional area can be calculated with
A h r

For example,
Bucket wheel diameter rb= 9 m (9000mm)
Reclaim depth r = 1m (1000mm)
Reclaim height: 50% of the bucket wheel (=4500mm)

38
1000

0
R450
500
R4
4500

1000

1000

Calculated with: A h r
A 4500 1000 = 4500000mm 2
= 4 .5 m 2

Calculated with the more detailed method:


r cos( ) r cos( )
A = rb ( (2 cos 1 ( )) sin(2 cos 1 (
2
))
2rb 2rb
1000 cos(0) 1000 cos(0)
= 4500 2 ( (2 cos 1 ( )) sin(2 cos 1 ( ))
9000 9000
= 4490723mm 2
= 4.49m 2

39
Appendix A3 (Calculation slice thickness r)

r = slice thickness [m]


x = travelling step of the reclaimer [m]
R = length of the reclaimer boom [m]
r + r = R
= slewing angle [rad]

The length r can be determined with the cosin rule.

40
a 2 = b 2 + c 2 2bc cos

R 2 = r 2 + x 2 2 r x cos( )
r 2 2 x cos( ) r R 2 + x 2 = 0
2 x cos( ) (2 x cos( )) 2 4 ( R 2 + x 2 )
r=
2
cos( ) = cos( )
2 x cos( ) (2 x cos( )) 2 4 ( R 2 + x 2 )
r=
2
2 x cos( ) 2 2 x 2 cos 2 ( ) 4 ( R 2 + x 2 )
r=
2
r = x cos( ) x cos ( ) ( R 2 + x 2 )
2 2

r = x cos( ) x 2 cos 2 ( ) + R 2 x 2
r = x cos( ) x 2 (cos 2 ( ) 1) + R 2
r = x cos( ) R 2 x 2 sin ( )

r = R r
= R ( x cos( ) R 2 x 2 sin ( ) )
= R + x cos( ) R 2 x 2 sin ( ) )
x 2
= x cos( ) + R(1 1 2
sin 2 ( ))
R
Source: www.bulkcn.com

if
x 2
x cos( ) R(1 1 2 sin 2 ( ))
R
Then
r ( ) x cos( )

41
Appendix A4 (Calculation h())

h = maximum reclaim height [m]


= angle of repose [o]

h
tan =
b
h = b tan

if R>>b then,

b = R tan
h = R tan tan

42
Appendix A5 (Calculation slewing angles)

0 =0

1
Slewing angle where the slice begins.

43
X = R2 Y 2
Y
1 = arctan( )
X x
Y
= arctan( )
R 2 Y 2 x
Y = (width) distance from center of the reclaimer till the start point of reclaiming of a layer.
x= step distance of the reclaimer
R = Horizontal distance between slewing/rotation center to end of the bucket wheel
r = R - r (r = slice thickness)

2
Slewing angle where maximum reclaim height is reached

44
X = R 2 (Y + y ) 2
Y+y
2 = arctan( )
X x
Y+y
= arctan( )
R 2 (Y + y ) 2 x

Y = (width) distance from center of the reclaimer till the start point of reclaiming of a layer.
y = distance where h varies
x= step distance of the reclaimer
R = Horizontal distance between slewing/rotation center to end of the bucket wheel
r = R - r (r = slice thickness)
= angle of repose

45
3
Slewing angle where maximum reclaim height ends

46
Y = R 2 (x + x + X ) 2
Y
3 = arctan( )
x+ X

X = (length) distance from center point of the reclaimer till reclaimed layer. [m]
x = distance where h varies [m]
x= step distance of the reclaimer [m]
R = Horizontal distance between slewing/rotation center to end of the bucket wheel [m]
r = R - r (r = slice thickness) [m]
= angle of repose

4
Slewing angle where the slice ends

47
Y = R 2 (x + X ) 2
Y
4 = arctan( )
X

X = (length) distance from center point of the reclaimer till reclaimed layer [m]
x= step distance of the reclaimer [m]
R = Horizontal distance between slewing/rotation center to end of the bucket wheel [m]
r = R - r (r = slice thickness) [m]

48
Appendix A6 (Volume of a slewing slice)

= 2 = 2 = 2 = 2

V= A r d = h r (R r ) d = h r (R r ) d = (h r R h r ) d
2

=0 =0 =0 =0
= 2

= (h R x cos( ) h x 2
cos ( ))d
=0

1
= (h x (x sin(2 ) + 2 x 4 R sin( )
4
3
1 2 1 4
V= A r d + A r d + A r d
2 1 2 2 13
b b

A r d = h r (R r ) d
a a
b
= (h r R h r 2 )d
a

= (h R x cos( ) h x 2 cos 2 ( ))d


a
b b
= (h R x cos( )d h x 2 cos 2 ( ))d
a a

1
b

= [h R x sin( )] h x + sin(2 )
b 2
a
2 4 a

= h x[x sin(2 ) + 2 x 4 R sin( )]a


1 b

4
so
V=

h x[x sin(2 ) + 2 x 4 R sin( )] 1 +


1 2

8
h x[x sin(2 ) + 2 x 4 R sin( )] 2 +
1 3

4
h x[x sin(2 ) + 2 x 4 R sin( )] 3
1 4

49
Appendix A7 (Time calculation for slewing)

ds
v=
dt
v = velocity [m/s]
ds = change of displacement (m)
dt = change in time (s)

d
=
dt
= angular velocity [rad/s]
ds = change of angular displacement (m)
dt = change in time (s)

d
dt =

= 0 cos( )
d cos( )
dt = = d
0 0
cos( )
1
cos( )
t1

dt = d
t0 0
0

t =
1
[sin( )]1

0 0

t =
1
[sin(1 ) sin( 0 )]
0

50
Appendix A8 (Volume of a travelling slice)
A long travel reclaiming method results in slices with a shape as shown in the figure below:

h
L

The volume can be calculated by the cross sectional area * the length and then subtracting the
hatched areas

h
L

The volume of the hatched area is Area*L


where;
L=h/tan()
= angle of repose
h

L'

V A Length A ( h )
tan
h
V A (L )
tan( )

51