Delta functions

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Delta functions

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Drew Rollins

August 27, 2006

Two distinct (but similar) mathematical entities exist both of which are

sometimes referred to as the Delta Function. You should be aware of what

both of them do and how they differ. One is called the Dirac Delta function,

the other the Kronecker Delta. In practice, both the Dirac and Kronecker delta

functions are used to select the value of a function of interest, f (x) at some

specific location in the respective functions domain (i.e. to evaluate f (x) at

some point x = x0 ). This happens by placing f (x) next to the appropriate delta

function inside of an an integral (Dirac) or within a summation (Kronecker).

Mathematically:

Z

f (x0 ) = dx (x x0 )f (x) (1)

X

an = i,n ai (2)

i

1 Kronecker Delta

The Kronecker Delta i,j is a function of the 2 arguments i and j. If i and j are

the same value (i.e. i = j) then the function i,j is equal to 1. Otherwise the

Kronecker Delta is equal to zero. Formally this is written:

1 i=j

i,j = (3)

0 i 6= j

So for example 1,1 = 1,1 = 2006,2006 = 1, while 0,1 = 1,1 = 1,27 = 0.

Get it? Dont forget of course that the variables i and j dont always have to be

specifically the letters i and j. They could be m and n or whatever letters the

author likes. Furthermore, some authors prefer to leave out the comma entirely,

i.e.

i,j = ij

So what is this thing used for? It most often appears inside of a summation

next to a vector. Say you had the vector: ~a = (4, 5, 6). If you wanted to simply

total the components of the vector, you could write:

1

3

X

ai = a1 + a2 + a3 = 4 + 5 + 6 = 15

i=1

Great. Just for kicks lets investigate the action of the Kronecker Delta on this

expression. If we stick a Kronecker Delta next to the vector in the sum and set

j = 2 we get:

3

X

ai i,2 = a1 1,2 + a2 2,2 + a3 3,2 = 4 0 + 5 1 + 6 0 = 5

i=1

Dont forget, the index i is called a dummy variable meaning that it only

serves to allow for indexing in the sum. So I could change all of the is to ns

and the result would be the same. Equivalently I could have set i = 2 at the

beginning and summed over j which would look like:

3

X

aj 2,j = a1 2,1 + a2 2,2 + a3 2,3 = 4 0 + 5 1 + 6 0 = 5

j=1

with the same result. If I wanted to really be confusing I could write the

Kronecker Delta as j,i and do the sum like:

3

X

aj j,2 = a1 1,2 + a2 2,2 + a3 3,2 = 4 0 + 5 1 + 6 0 = 5

j=1

The point here being that traditionally it is written i,j but all that really mat-

ters is that you pay attention to which of the dummy variables is changing when

the sum is carried out.

X

ik kj

k

Finally, one actually useful application for Kronecker Delta is in doing a vec-

tor inner product. Say you had two vectors: ~a = (a1 , a2 , a3 ) and ~b = (b1 , b2 , b3 ).

If you wanted to calculate their inner product you could write:

3

X

~a ~b = ai bi (4)

i=1

But if you wanted to get a little fancier with it and use Kronecker Delta you

could write:

3 X

X 3

~a ~b = ai bj i,j (5)

i=1 j=1

If you get all of these points then you should be pretty safe with the Kronecker

Delta.

2

2 Dirac Delta

The Dirac Delta function is a function of 1 variable, typically written (x). This

function is defined as:

x=0

(x) = (6)

0 otherwise

The value of x at which the delta function becomes infinite can be controlled

by substituting x x0 for x so that:

x = x0

(x x0 ) = (7)

0 otherwise

One useful way to think of the Dirac Delta function is that of the limit of a

normalized Gaussian as the width goes to zero.

1 x2

(x) = lim e 22 (8)

0 2

cause it is normalized (total area under the curve integrates to numeric value 1)

as it is squeezed in the width the height has to increase. If you make it infinitely

thin then it has to be infinitely tall to compensate, but the total area is always

1.

might represent, lets consider some more mathematical properties of this func-

tion. Just as the Kronecker Delta usually appears inside a sum, The Dirac Delta

usually appears in an integral. Perhaps the most useful definition of the delta

function is:

3

Z

f (x)(x x0 )dx = f (x0 ) (9)

which works for any function f (x) that is continuous around x = x0 . This is the

most common way that you will see the dirac delta function used, and really

the only way to evaluate the function since infinitys really dont have physical

meaning.

Exercise 2.1. Using the definition of a Dirac Delta function given in equation

(9), prove that the Dirac Delta function has to be normalized. i.e. prove:

Z

(x)dx = 1

Another way that you can think of the Dirac Delta function is as the deriva-

tive of the step (Heaviside) function, H(x). This function looks like:

1 H(x)

x

x0

You can see that the slope of this function is zero everywhere except at x0 . At

x = x0 the function makes a discontinuous vertical step, so the functions slope

at this point is infinite.

This is probably enough information for you to manipulate the dirac delta

function mathematically. The physical use of a Dirac Delta function will become

more clear after you have done some quantum mechanics. In quantum mechanics

you will use the gaussian function a lot to represent the probability distribution

of some physical observable. As a physical observable becomes very well

constrained the distribution starts to look like a Dirac Delta function. With

this in mind, the Dirac Delta function is used to talk about physical observables

that are arbitrarily well constrained to a certain value.

Z

f (x)(x x0 )dx = f (x0 )

1

(ax) = (x)

|a|

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