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Historical Development of
Applied Kinesiology
and its
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Usage

David Leaf, D.C. , DIBAK

Appendix Compendiums by
Scott Cuthbert, D.C.

Contents Proposed Neurological Mechanisms for
Introduction 3 A.K. Pain Relief 106
The Beginning 5 Inflammation & Prostaglandins 108
Muscle Testing 17
Deltoid 19 Appendix A
Five Factors of the Intervertebral Partial List of Additional Procedures taught
Foramina 31 and developed in Applied Kinesiology
Muscle Proprioceptors 33 Muscle Related Therapies 111
Reactive Muscles 34 Antagonist Reactive Muscle Pattern 111
Spinal Extensor Muscle Ligament Interlink 111
Weakness Pattern 36 Gait Testing 111
Aerobic / Anerobic Muscle Testing 39 Synchronization 111
Challenge 51 Right - Left Brain Activity 112
Neurolymphatic Reflexes 54 Gait Inhibition 112
Neurovascular Reflexes 55 Biological Closed Electrical Circuit 112
Meridian - Muscle Relationships 60 Repeated Muscle Activation (RMA) 113
Pulse Points 61 Spinal Related Therapies 113
Alarm Points 62 Vertebral Fixations 113
Associated Points 63 Hologramic Subluxation 113
Category II Pelvic Subluxations 65 Category I & II 113
Rectus Femoris 68 Category III 114
Sartorius 68 Sacral Wobble 114
Gracilis 68 Iliolumbar Ligament 114
Gluteus Maximus 69 Meningeal Release - Coccyx 114
Hamstrings 69 Spondylogenic Reflex 114
Abdominal Oblique 70 Cervical Compaction 114
Gluteus Medius 70 Hidden Cervical Disc 115
Muscle Testing and Upper Extremity P. L. U. S. 115
Peripheral Nerve Entrapments 71 Piriformis Gait Inhibition 115
Costoclavicular Syndrome 71 Pitch Roll Yaw-Tilt 116
Pectoralis Minor Syndrome 72 Stride Length 116
Suprascapular Nerve Syndrome 72 Jugular Decompression 116
Pronator Teres Syndrome 73 Cranial Dural Torque 116
Supinator Syndrome 73 Meridian Related Therapies 117
Ulnar Sulcus Syndrome 73 Then and Now 117
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome 74 Muscle Meridians 117
Cranial Motion 77 Beginning and End Technique 117
Respiratory Challenge 82 Visceral Related Therapies 117
A Brief Discussion of the Neurology of Visceral Manipulation 117
Cranial Manipulation 83 Ileocecal Valve Disorders 118
Cranial Nerve Examination 85 Malabsorption 118
Oral Nutrient Testing 89 Respiratory Procedures 118
A Pilot Study Showing Efficacy For Lymphatic Disorders 118
Applied Kinesiology Muscle Testing Robert Fulford Concepts 118
Procedures as a Screening Tool Anatomy Trains 119
For Immune System Appendix B
Mediated Food Allergy Patterns 91 Applied Kinesiology Status Statement 121
Melzack & Wall Gate Control 97 Appendix C
Mental Recall 99 Links to Applied Kinesiologys Published
Injury Recall Technique 100 Research Papers as of June, 2012 124
Alternative Pain Control Technique 102
Acupunture Meridian Head Points
Pain Relief Techniques 104


Applied kinesiology began as a simple observation The purpose of this book is to give you an overview
by the inquisitive mind of a very talented doctor. of how applied kinesiology came to be. Starting
Many think of applied kinesiology as solely the with my original observation that, in most cases,
work of George Goodheart. Dr.. Goodheart made the strength of a weak muscle can be changed
three independent observations and these are almost instantly, to the latest procedures in
applied kinesiology, these procedures are based on
1. A muscle can change strength principles of neurology and physiology. Most of the
rapidly if properly treated procedures and techniques in applied kinesiology
2. There is an organ muscle were observations or developments of other health
relationship care professionals. The problem was that most of
3. Therapy localization these techniques did not have a diagnostic test for
their use. They were empirically used. What we
Every other technique or procedure in applied have done is to develop a diagnostic test using the
kinesiology came from other sources and muscle patient and muscle testing.
testing was applied to improve the usefulness of
the procedure. The beauty of applied kinesiology is that it aids any
practitioner to become better at analyzing what
From the field of medicine come the works of treatment procedure is the best for the patient.
Travell, Sutherland, Jones, Wirt, Perk, Nord- Too often, the patient is fit to the treatment. In
strom, Mann, and the list goes on. For over 40 applied kinesiology, we have refined over 40
years, Dr. Goodheart and others in the interna- different treatment options that can be tested
tional College of Applied Kinesiology have looked for their appropriate usage using muscle testing.
to improve the works of others. The procedures enhanced by this run the gamut
from physical therapy, osteopathy, chiropractic,
This book has been written with a goal of expos- medicine and oriental medicine.
ing you to the concepts of applied kinesiology. It
is not intended to teach you how to do applied I hope that this course lights a fire in you, as it
kinesiology. The ICAK has developed an introduc- has in so many others. Applied kinesiology is not
tory course and advanced courses to accomplish the work of one but the findings and hard work of
that. The purpose here is to demystify applied many. The use of applied kinesiology, as taught by
kinesiology. the ICAK, has spread in dentistry and medicine.
It is now a subspecialty of medicine in Austria
The book borrows on the works of Walther, and is spreading in these professions throughout
Schmitt, Powers, Belli, Grossman and Goodheart. Europe, Russia, Japan and Korea.
The other parts are from a book that I have written
The Flowchart Manual of Applied Kinesiology. In closing, I would like to leave you with one
thought. When confronted with a problem patient,
Dr. Scott Cuthbert has done and continues to do a ask Why? This was a lesson my father taught
yeomans work at keeping all of the research pa- me in my first years in practice and it is a question
pers on applied kinesiology organized for you to I have asked myself for years. This is the reason
find. that this body of knowledge happened, simply by
asking Why and then searching for an answer.
After exposing yourself to the benefits of applied
kinesiology, we hope that you will pursue your George Goodheart, D.C.
knowledge and discover how the principles of ap-
plied kinesiology can aid every doctor and their

David W. Leaf, D.C.

I would like to thank the following authors for giving permission to use
their works in compiling this book. These include George Goodheart,
David Walther, Kathleen Powers, Walter Schmitt, Richard Belli,
Scott Cuthbert and Jason Grossman.

This book was designed to expose the student to the development of

applied kinesiology and to be used along with demonstrations of its
use by the instructor.

It is beyond the scope of this book to actually teach the procedures

needed to apply the principles of applied kinesiology.

The International College of Applied Kinesiology has developed

courses for the student to become trained in accurate muscle testing
and the procedures introduced here.

It has been my privilege and honor to have known Dr. Goodheart for
over 35 years and be able to bring this material to you.

David Leaf, D.C.

All rights reserved. No part of this book can be

used without the written consent from ICAK-USA.

Published by ICAK-USA

Copyright 2012 by ICAK-USA 6405 Metcalf Ave.,

Suite 503 Shawnee Mission, KS 66202

The Beginning was a stocky young man who was quite well
built, and had recently been discharged from
by George Goodheart D.C. the paratroopers, but despite apparent good
Reprinted from Youll Be Better health he was suffering from a rapid hair loss.

I graduated from the National College of Examination revealed a hyperthyroid problem,

Chiropractic in Chicago, Illinois in 1939, and at that time we were measuring the
and previously attended pre-chiropractic at thyroid function as we still do, by measuring
the University of Detroit. I began practice the speed of the Achilles tendon reflex. The
in association with my father late in 1939. Achilles tendon is put on a stretch and tapped
However, the advent of World War II didnt with a testing hammer; then the speed of the
give me much time to practice. I went through Achilles as it moves, just as your knee would
the Air Corps Cadet Program in 1941, during jerk under the knee jerk test, is measured by
the early war years, but through a happy its path through a photo-electric beam. This
series of fortunate events became involved impulse is transferred electrically to an EKG,
in innovative air operations research, so my which then gives a printout of the degree of
active practice really began in 1946 following functional capacity of the Achilles tendon to
my release as a Major from the United States respond to the tap.
Air Force. Having left the Air Force in 1946,
I resumed active practice in association with
my father until his death in the early 60s. The normal time is 330 milliseconds, and
his was abnormally fast, approximately 220
ms. 220 milliseconds was quite fast, and
Because of my fathers background in general nutritionally I had learned that natural
practice, ours was a general practice, and we amounts of Vitamin A and a source of
saw many patients with many problems. As Thymus, a small gland around the windpipe
is usually the case, the further along I got which is associated with auto immunity, were
in practice the more intelligent my father practically specific for hyperthyroid problems,
seemed to become-the obvious fact being that along with regular chiropractic care. Upon
I became more aware of my inadequacies and administering this nutritional support and the
his excellent qualities; and I grew in stature proper treatment mechanically, he showed a
and development because of my association tremendous response in about two weeks. His
with his very, very practical and superb hairline stopped receding, for which he was
diagnostic and clinical work. very grateful and pleased, and he asked me
advice about another problem.

My time in the Air Force had given me a taste

for innovative opportunities, and also had He mentioned that he couldnt get a job in any
taught me a practical method of dealing with of the factories in our town because he was
problems, and this was to stand me in good unable to pass the physical-and the reason
stead later on. he was unable to pass the physical was his
inability to press in a forward direction
with one of his arms. One of his shoulder
Not long after my fathers passing, a young man blades stuck out in a rather unusual fashion,
presented himself at the office complaining protruding from the chest wall. He asked
of a relatively common problem, although me if I could do anything about it. I said,
at a very early age. He was losing his hair. Well, probably its some type of anomaly, a
He had a rapidly receding widows peak, and variation in a probably normal function. We
at the age of 24 seemed quite concerned. He did some x-rays to prove this potential which
revealed no abnormality, and I could offer him of inactivity that occurs, for example, if you
no further advice as to why this particular keep your arm in a cast and the muscles
condition was present. wither from lack of activity.

Either fortunately or unfortunately, depending Upon palpating the muscle I felt an unusual
upon your point of view, I was able to procure nodulation at the attachment of the muscle
a job for him with one of the companies in the to the anterior and lateral aspects of the rib
building where we had our offices, a nutritional cage, which I didnt feel on the other side. The
company with whom we. did a lot of business. small nodulations were quite apparent to the
He would come into our office, and quite often palpating finger, and in an effort to identify
in a crowded waiting room would ask me in their nature I pressed on them. They were
a loud voice, When are you going to fix my not painful other than minimally so, and they
shoulder?. This embarrassed me somewhat, seemed to disappear as I pressed on them
and I motioned. him to come into the inner with my palpating pressing finger.
office quickly, away from the sight and scene
of my embarrassment, and I would tell him Encouraged by the apparent disappearance of
that there wasnt much I could do about it. the first one or two, I continued to press on all
of the small areas which we later learned to
be avulsive in character, a tearing away of the
Having been embarrassed for the last time by muscle from the periosteum. The attachment
his frequent inquiry, I resurrected a book that of the muscle to the covering of the bone,
had been given me by a colleague of mine, Dr. the periosteum, was producing a nodulation
Raymond Koshay, a very fine chiropractor which is characteristic in these cases of micro
in Port Huron, Michigan whom I had been avulsion. They are small tearings away of
able to help with a knee problem; and for muscles from their attachment.
Christmas he had given me a copy of the book.
I remembered that there was a muscle that
pulled the shoulder blade forward so that it Having palpated and pressed on all the
would lie flat on the chest wall, but something small nodulations which coincided with the
like the old adage-what you dont use you attachments of the muscle to the rib cage, I
lose - I knew the muscle existed but I wasnt then surveyed the muscle. It felt the same,
sure of its actual origin and insertion. When I but this time I noticed his scapula (shoulder
applied myself to the .book he had given me, blade) was lying in a normal position on the
MUSCLE. TESTING by Kendall & Kendall, posterior chest wall.
I soon found the muscle that pulled the
shoulder blade forward on the chest wall was
the anterior serratus. There was a method for Surprised but pleased, I repeated the test,
testing it which involved placing the patients having him place his hands in front of him
hand on the wall, and then pressing on the against a plywood panel that separated
spine in a forward direction, and the shoulder one section of the office from another, and I
blade immediately stuck out. pressed hard on his spine. The shoulder blade
did not pop out, and he looked at me with an
inquiring glance and said, Why did you not
In an effort to identify the cause of the problem do that before? I looked back at him, serious
I palpated the muscle. He said he had the of face and direct of eye, and said, Well, you
condition as long as he could remember-15 have to build up to a thing like this. You didnt
or 20 years-yet when I palpated the muscle get sick over night. It was an automatic
left and right, on the side of involvement, I response, but all I could think of at the time.
found no atrophy of disuse-the usual pattern
technic, he had been unsuccessful in relieving
He was pleased, I was delighted. It was an the patients pain or changing the disability
unusual thing to see this quick a response. which was diagnosed by the pattern of muscle
testing. The muscle would test consistently
weak on the side of involvement: tested by
In an effort to identify this unusual reaction, requesting the patient to abduct, moving the
yet not reveal my surprise, I requested him leg sideways, and then requesting the patient
to return to the office the next day so I could to resist the pressure to take it medially. This
check his hair loss. He advised, surprised, was accomplished while the patient was in
that he hadnt lost any hair in six months. I the supine, back lying position.
mentioned that he could never be too sure,
so he showed up the next day. I looked at
his hair and said it looked fine. Then I said Because of the unusual history, I felt that this
By the way, lets test that muscle. I tested was an involvement of the lymphatic system,
the muscle, and it remained strong-and it which is the sewer or drainage system of the
has remained strong ever since! I have seen body. It is drained by a variety of modes, but
this patient from time to time since that first fundamentally it is drained by the squeezing
incident, which occurred in 1964. action of the muscles on the lymph system.
Because walking relieved it, indicating this
possibility, I palpated the lymph glands on
Emboldened by this unusual success, I began the lateral aspect of the thigh and felt nothing
to test muscles by the method of Kendall & unusual in comparison to the uninvolved left
Kendall, a method which is used by military, side.
civil and government agencies to rate disability
and is a standard method of diagnosis. I found
many patients showed muscle weakness. I palpated also for the potential of any
Many patients also denied a history of sacroiliac disturbance, because occasionally
trauma, but many patients responded to the we get lymph nodulation in the region of
hard heavy pressure at the origin insertion, the sacroiliac joint if there is a sacroiliac
although many did not. disturbance. I found none of these, and
the patient was in a great deal of distress
while lying on his back. After palpating for
Fundamentally, my rate of success with diagnostic information, which I did not find,
patients was rising and I had communicated the patient looked up at me and said, Thats
this method of testing along with the the first relief Ive ever gotten. I looked at
rather primitive method of treatment to him and said, very bravely, Thats what you
my colleagues. One of those colleagues, Dr. came here for, indicating that it was not the
Pat Finucan, sent me a patient who had an surprise to me that it was.
unusual type of sciatic neuritis, a painful
problem involving the lower limb that would
cause severe pain if he were to stand, sit or Astonished by this rather quick success and
lie down, but would disappear when he would yet not understanding the basis, I continued to
walk. Dr. Finucan had found a weakness of initiate the palpation which I had accidentally
the fascia lata, the muscle covering the lateral used to relieve his pain. He remarked that
portion of the thigh associated with movement the pain which he had experienced for many,
outward of the leg. many months was now completely absent,
and subsequent investigation and diagnosis
revealed a complete disappearance of the
Despite efforts to correct it mechanically at the long-standing and chronic irritation of the
spine and locally, using the origin insertion sciatic nerve.
CHAPMANS REFLEXES, the second edition,
which had been reprinted by the Academy of
My secretary, who had been with me for Applied Osteopathy, copyrighted May 6, 1946.
many years and who was a very fine German It had originally been copyrighted in 1937 by
woman, had quite a bit of sinus trouble and Charles Owens, . D.O., and was a book on
would consistently show a head tilt when she the diagnostic and therapeutic application of
would have a sinus disturbance; and despite neurological reflexes that had been the work
the fact that I could find a weakened muscle of Frank Chapman. Both Dr. Chapman and
which I associated with the head tilt, the Dr. Owens had postulated the existence of
original technic that had been used on the a reflex called the neurolymphatic reflex-a
young man with the hair loss did not produce cutaneous visceral reflex that had been under
any muscle strengthening, nor did it affect investigation at the Kirksville College of
the sinus involvement. Osteopathy and Surgery.

Thinking that one had to simple palpate and The surface changes that are present in a
treat the muscle, such as had been done to Chapmans reflex are palpable. Dr. Owens
the sciatic patient earlier that afternoon, I spoke of the changes found in the deep fascia
tested her neck flexors by having her raise her as well as the superficial tissues located
head and turn it slightly to one side, and they at specific points (loci) and consistently
showed immediate weakening on testing. I associated with the same viscera. These little
attempted to repeat the procedure that had tissue changes, which began in the form of
helped the sciatic patient, running my hand contractions, are located anteriorly in the
along the lateral aspect of the muscle, the intercostal spaces between the ribs near
sternocleidomastoid muscle that runs from the sternum. They may vary in size from a
the back of the head bone to the collarbone. I half of a BB shot to that of a small shot gun
felt nothing different on palpating and testing pellet, and are generally multiple. This type
the muscle, using the technic that I had of tissue change is apparent in some of the
palpated and tested earlier on the gentleman reflexes found in the pelvis; but the ones
with the sciatic neuritis. found in the lower extremity, associated with
the colon, broad ligament and prostate, vary
in character.
I tried triumphantly to test her neck muscles
again, and to my chagrin her neck muscles By trial and error, testing muscles and then
were possibly even weaker than before, and comparing areas that Chapman had originally
I almost injured her head by the sudden talked about, we found which circuits affected
collapse of her neck to the testing direction of
which muscles. Then, by trial and error
my hand. I said rather despairingly, It sure
and also by examination of a particular
seemed to work on that fellow this morning. I
patient who had Hodgkins Disease, and who
cant understand why it doesnt work on you exhibited nodulations and lymphatic gland
now. characteristics inherent as characteristic
of Hodgkins Disease, we found that many
of the nodulations corresponded precisely
Then I thought, perhaps what I pressed on to the areas that Chapman had originally
was something unassociated with the muscle postulated; and by trial and error, and also
itself, but associated with, possibly, some by the discovery of nodulations in areas that
lymphatic circuit breakers which had been Chapman had not discussed, we were able
postulated by an osteopath named Chapman. to find the neurolymphatic reflexes for most
This had later on been discussed in a text, muscles.
breaker if closing the panel did not already
By now I was becoming convinced that there do so. In other words, she would have to do
was a relationship between muscles and two things: rearrange the rug structure, so to
particular viscera or organs. A moderately speak, and then also set a circuit breaker.
weak muscle on testing appeared to be
associated with a weak viscera or organ, but
every time I could see evidence of a weak We postulated that the lymphatic centers
pancreas, or a weak stomach, or a weak were circuit breakers in this sort of anal ago us
liver or a weak kidney dysfunction-of those context. This proved to be a valuable system
organs which would be measured by x-ray or of analysis and the response rate continued
by biochemistry or by some other accepted to rise in patients, and we started to see more
biological test-I would find a corresponding and more patients upon whom we did more
weakened muscle. This relationship, although and more muscle testing.
rather tenuous at first, became more and more
evident as time went on.
An Italian woman came to see me and
complained of a headache for 30 of her 49
This began to explain, at least somehow, the years, and on testing the muscles I observed
visceral response that occurred from muscular some muscles to be weakened on both the
skeletal corrections and made a little more right and left sides of her body. I noticed
sense out of the observations that patients used that in an effort to maintain a response to
to make following treatment for a muscular testing of certain muscles, if she took a deep
skeletal problem, and with the spontaneous breath some muscles, for example on her
resolution of the visceral or organ problem. I right side, strengthened; but the same deep
found a strong relationship to exist between breath seemed to weaken the muscles on her
the spinal level of neurolymphatic activity left side. But instead of taking a deep breath
and structural aberrations of the spine, but and producing strengthening on her left side,
this was not always the case. letting the air OUT seemed to strengthen the
muscles on her left side.

It was just as if there might have been an

original subluxation or lesion of the spine, She also exhibited a rather unusual
a functional disturbance of the spine, configuration in terms of analysis of the level
that somehow was either self corrected of her head. Looking at the position of her ears
spontaneously or corrected by manipulation; in relationship to her head, her ear was lower
but the long term effects of that disturbance on the right than it was on the left, as was
continued to remain. For example: if you have her occiput, the bones of her skull. Looking
a home washer-dryer and perhaps place a at her from the rear confirmed this position,
heavy object such as a rug in it, as it starts lower on the right, but looking at her on a
to spin it dry, the rugs eccentric position in .face view, head on, an anterior look showed
the spinning washer causes a vibration, then her eyebrow and eye to be higher on the right
the vibration sensor in the washer turns and lower on the left, just the opposite of
the washer off to prevent damage from the what I had observed looking at her from the
eccentric rotation. This usually sets an alarm posterior view.
going as well as turning the washer off, and
the housewife then attends to the problem by Thinking perhaps that her ears were in an
opening the panel on the washer, and seeing altered position, I compared her ear position
the rug in an eccentric position rearranges the by measuring down from the vertex and I
rug. Then she closes the panel on the washer found that the ears were equally spaced an her
and many times must then reset a circuit head measuring from the top down, yet there
was an obvious discrepancy between the level Well, thats what you come here for, to again
of her ears and the level of her eyes, instead of disguise my surprise at her rapid response.
making a parallel pattern they made a wedge
pattern, which was very confusing.
We then began to test muscles against phases
of respiration, and we found many muscles
I had been aware of the work of William responded to inspiration, some responded to
Garner Sutherland, an osteopath who had expiration, and interestingly enough some
postulated the concept that the bones of the responded to half a breath taken out, some
skull move as you breathe like the gills of a responded only to a breath taken only at
fish. He developed the concept that there the nostrils and some responded to a breath
was a vestigial gill mechanism in the skull, taken only at the mouth. Some responded to
and by long experimentation with himself, breathing through one nostril as opposed to
using many ingenious devices, had attempted the other, and some responded in an opposite
to limit the motion. He observed his own fashion.
response, and published an original text based
on his observations entitled, THE CRANIAL
BOWL, by William Garner Sutherland. We soon found fourteen basic cranial faults
His work had later been documented and which will be discussed later, but the primary
revised by Harold Magoun, D.O., entitled investigation method was to find a weakened
Both the first and second editions of Dr.
Magouns books are available.
We had the patient take a deep breath in or
out. If the muscle was found to be weak and
The concept that the bones of the skull had responded to inspiration, the mastoid process
motion seemed contrary to my anatomical on the side of the skull that the muscle
and osteological training, yet in an effort to weakened was located and pressed forward at
understand the problems produced by the the temporal bone mastoid process with the
patient I was examining, I attempted to move thenar eminence of the hand, with about 4 or
the mastoid process on one side of her head 5 pounds of pressure coincident with 4 or 5
in a forward direction while she took deep deep inspirations.
inspirations, and at the same time moved the
mastoid process in a backward direction while
she took a deep expiration-in other words, If the muscles found weak responded to
using a counter-torque motion with the fleshy expiration, the thenar eminence of the hand
part of my thumbs, the thenar portion of the was placed anterior to the mastoid process of
palm of the hand-and the forward motion the temporal bone and the mastoid process
and the backward motion were accomplished of the temporal bone was pressed backward
simultaneously on this 49-year-old Italian towards the occiput coincident with 4 or 5 deep
woman. expirations using 4 or 5 pounds of pressure.

After 4 or 5 deep inspirations and expirations, This resulted in many, many cases improving
despite the fact that she had attempted from many, many conditions, and they
these before, but not with the concomitant postulated a concept of a cerebral spinal fluid
skull pressure, she looked at me and her flow rate something like a dual irrigation
eyes widened, and she said, Thats the first ditch-with someone turning the rheostat down
relief Ive ever gotten. I looked at her, again on the pump, and the tomato vines withering
serious of face, and with true sincerity said, somewhat, and then when someone turned
the rheostat up on one side or the other, the
tomato vines thriving due to an increased flow By now we had the original methods of
of the irrigation fluid. muscle testing with the concept of micro
avulsion origin insertion technic; we now
had the possibility of lymphatic blockage-
Investigation revealed that not only did the in other words, the muscle couldnt flush its
bones of the skull move in a predetermined own lymphatic toilet; we now had the concept
fashion, but so also did the vertebral segments of cranial technic, respiratory systems; and
in which vertebrae went through a rocking we also had, prior to the development of
type of motion-the tip of the spinous process cranial technic, the system which we call
of a vertebra involved moving in an inferior neurovascular response.
direction towards the feet with inspiration
and a superior direction with expiration. The I was lecturing in Rochester, New York
spinous process moves inferior, footward, with discussing the original method of hard, heavy
inspiration and headward with expiration. pressure at the origin insertion of the muscle
in case of weakness caused by micro avulsion,
and also demonstrating the lymphatic technic
We soon found there was also a sacral motion, for finding the source of blockage in the
the tip of the sacrum at the coccyx moving lymphatic range of muscles. I was asked to
forward with inspiration, toward the front of treat a young boy with asthma who was having
the body, and moving backward, toward the an acute attack and who did not respond to
back of the body, with expiration. We found the usual medications. He was having some
a reverse movement to exist in the coccyx, a response to chiropractic technic by a young
counter movement between the sacrum and chiropractor attending the lecture, but he was
the coccyx. We also found a counter movement suffering an acute asthmatic episode at the
between the total pelvis, the pelvis moving time of the lecture, during the lunch period.
backward as the sacrum moved forward and
the pelvis moving forward as the sacrum
moved backward, coincident each time with By now we had found that the adrenal glands
phases of respiration. were responsible to a great extent for failure
to produce adequate adrenalin, agreeing with
the medical approach-the crisis care type of
This new cranial finding coincident with approach to asthma seemed time honored, at
a method of diagnosis aided greatly in the least pharmaceutically. We would find a weak
application of the cranial concept. The sartorius gracilis muscle which time had
original Sutherland concept, as well as those shown to be related to potential failure of the
that followed, used topographical, anatomical lymphatics of the adrenal gland to flush its
changes for cranial corrections; but the own toilet, so to speak-its lymphatic toilet. But
addition of respiration added a measure of investigation of the neurolymphatic reflexes
diagnostic certainty and also safety to this and treatment for them did not change the
relatively new science. weakness that we found on testing of the
sartorius muscles.
Time has shown that a respiratory relationship
exists in the spinal fluid flow rates, and a
critical factor in the production of routine The young boy was lying on this back, one foot
cranial correction was to correlate muscle pointing straight up and the other foot lying
weakness to strengthen with respiration. loosely to one side. In an effort to correct the
More of this will be discussed later on in problem I had already used the neurolymphatic
chapters on cranial technic. reflex and had attempted an origin insertion
technic without any success. I knew that
occasionally the lymph system was sluggish more insistent and more persistent and more
because of failure of the lymph system itself evident in strength, until finally the young
to drain, and I was using what was called a man gradually stopped his labored breathing,
lymphatic pump. The operators fist first was took a deep breath, began to breathe easily,
placed on the sternum of the individual and and simultaneously his foot rotated up into a
moderate pressure was exerted spineward parallel position with its opposite member.
while the patient attempted to take a deep
breath. At the middle of the attempt to take
a deep breath the fist was suddenly removed, The doctor attending the youngster, who
causing the succussion of the chest, changing had asked me to see the patient, looked at
the pressures within the chest, and literally me and said, Good gracious, Doctor, thats
succussing or shaking the thoracic duct, marvelous. And I looked at the doctor, very
allowing better lymphatic drainage potential. serious of face, and said, Thats what you
come here for.

This too was unsuccessful, but at that time

I was aware of a primitive cranial technic We now had developed another method, called
of simply spreading the cranial sutures as the neurovascular technic, for the correction
advocated by Dr. James Alberts, Sr., a very of muscle weakness.
fine chiropractor in the southwest.
In the embryo there is no heart, and for
the first three or four months the mothers
In attempting to spread the cranial sutures placental circulation is augmented by a
in a very simplified fashion, I did not see network of vascular circuits which, as the
any change, and in an effort to evaluate the tissues grow, exert slight traction on the
problem I sat down and re-attempted to blood vessel which then causes the blood
spread the sagittal sutures. From experience vessels muscles themselves to pulsate in
I had learned that this was of some value an augmented fashion, aiding the mothers
occasionally in lymphatic blocks. My index placental circulation.
fingers were resting on the posterior fontanel
area with the rest of my fingers spreading the
sagittal suture which runs vertically along the At about the fourth month the heart is formed,
top of the skull, separating the two halves of and many times the mother is delighted to hear
the skull and joining the parietal bones of the the heart beat that her obstetrician allows her
skull together. I felt that insistent pulsation, to listen to. At the advent of the heart beat,
very faint at first, at the posterior fontanel; the heart takes over part of the burden of
and despite the fact that his carotid arteries supplying circulation to the growing embryo,
were beating at the rate of about 120 and his and the neurovascular circuit of supply and
respirations were at least 40, I noticed that demand circuitry goes on a standby basis-
the pulsations that I experienced with my something like a generator behind a hospital
fingertips were at the rate of 72 beats per in case of power failure, which can be turned
minute. on for emergency use.

Thinking the beating was perhaps in my own These neurovascular receptors were first
fingers, I removed my fingers and placed them discovered by a chiropractor in California
on a wall to identify if the 72 rate beating named Terence Bennett, who developed a
was in my own fingers. I noticed no change. I foundation for teaching his material and
reapplied my fingers to the posterior fontanel who wrote extensively in the early 30s and
and felt the continued pulsation, which became 40s of their use. Upon his departure from
active practice, and upon his death, Dr. Floyd We find that many muscles lack a
Slocum, one of the early pioneers in the thermostatic configuration which allows
American Chiropractic Association, took over them to function when under stress, and
his activity and the Neurological Research attention to the neurovascular receptors
Foundation continues to be active under the by a light tugging touch allows much better
auspices of Dr. Martin King from California. circulation to the muscle.

When a light tugging touch was applied to We continue to observe the muscle-
the vascular circuits a pulsation was felt organ relationship and we were becoming
beneath the finger. The light tugging touch increasingly convinced of the reasonably
is maintained for 20 or 30 seconds minimum frequent relationship between weak organ-
time, the muscle is tested before and after, weak muscle, although we were not convinced
and many times this coincides with the need of the contrary relationship of the weak
for cranial fault correction. But in any event, muscle-weak organ.
the light tugging touch is maintained for a
variable period of time, a minimum of 20 or
30 seconds, and the muscle tested before and We now had four options for strengthening
after to ascertain the return of strength. weak muscles. W~ had the hard heavy
pressure described earlier, the activation
of the lymphatic reflexes, the application of
It is just as if the neurovascular receptor cranial technic, and the use of neurovascular
acts as a thermostat. If the thermostat is receptors.
set too low the muscle doesnt get its proper
circulation and the muscles lactic acid and
other products of mechanical contraction of The subject of acupuncture has long been a
the muscle are not flushed or washed out, and point of interest, but not much was-known of
the muscle therefore is clogged with its own this concept until the early work of Bennett
waste products and shows weakness. Cerf, who published in Random House
publications the book, ACUPUNCTURE,
Roger Bannister, who ran the first four minute by Felix Mann, an English physician. Some of
mile, became a vegetarian - not through the early Jesuits who had been missionaries
embracing of the vegetarian concept, but in China had spoken of the unusual responses
because the vegetarianism put less of a load that were obtained in many instances from the
on his liver and he was able to oxidize excess practice of acupuncture, the insertion of tiny
lactic acid produced by the increased effort to needles of metal or bamboo into prescribed
run the four minute mile. Lactic acid, as it is areas on the skin of the sick patient.
produced by the muscle in function, causes
the capillaries to dilate; and finally there is
a status quo reached by the lactic acid level To quote Felix Mann in his acknowledgements
producing the greatest amount of capillary at the beginning of his book, ACUPUNCTURE,
dilation. When the lactic acid reaches higher ANCIENT CHINESE ART OF HEALING
level, there is no further capillary dilation now published by James Heineman Company,
until the liver goes into overdrive and Medical Books Ltd., London, All European
attempts to oxidize off the excess lactic acid; acupuncturists owe Soulie de Morant a
and here, then, the muscle can resume a debt for his original translations of Chinese
normal function. treatises. He developed much understanding
of the subject and its practical application
during the time he associated with Dr. Ferey
Rolles. Those who read Chinese are few, but which included many of the aspects of
many may be greatly benefited by the French acupuncture, giving four points to tonify or
and German books on acupuncture mentioned stimulate the area and four points to sedate if
in the bibliography. the organ was overactive.

Acupuncture is an ancient Chinese system of In an effort to relate these points to

medicine in the practice of which a fine needle kinesiological parameters, we attempted
pierces the skin to a depth of a few millimeters stimulating the points for tonification and
and is then withdrawn. The only thing of real found occasional responses in muscles. We
importance in the study of acupuncture is attempted to sedate other points and found
to know at what point to pierce the skin in occasional responses in muscles. Insertion of a
relationship to which disease. needle at the so-called first point invariably
would produce a strengthening of a muscle if
found weak on testing, and insertion of a needle
The notion that a pin prick, often in a part at the first point of sedation would invariably
of the body far removed from the seat of the cause weakness of the muscle if the muscle
disease, can cure ills is alien to conventional was strong. We soon found that touching the
thinking. It is unfortunately the case that first two points for tonification would result in
many doctors, even when faced with several strengthening of a weak muscle. The converse
former patients who have been cured by was also true. Touching the first two points for
acupuncture where other efforts have proved sedation and simultaneously the second two
fruitless, have refused to believe the evidence. points for sedation would weaken the muscle.

Acupuncture is not the exclusive possession We wrote the first book on acupuncture in 1966,
of the Chinese. The papyrus ebers of 1150 showing its relationship kinesiologically, and
B.C., one of the most important of the ancientthis was the only research manual that did
Egyptian medical treatises, refers to a book on
not go through a second reprinting, because
the subject of muscles which would correspond the concept was too new at the time. However,
to the 12 meridians of acupuncture. since that time it has grown to be a standard
portion of Applied Kinesiology and forms a
The Bantu sometimes scratched certain parts basis of much of the information we have been
of the body to cure disease. In the treatment able to identify about acupuncture.
of sciatica some Arabs cauterize with a hot
metal probe a part of the ear. Some Eskimos We now have five arrows, so to speak, in
practice simple acupuncture with sharp our quiver. We could shoot the arrow along
stones. An isolated cannibalistic tribe in the origin insertion, the neurolymphatic,
Brazil shoots tiny arrows with a blow pipe at the neurovascular, the cranial, and now the
certain parts of the body. acupuncture path. Each of these develop
their own special set of rules and special set
of circumstances.
A patient, and a good friend, had returned
from Hawaii and brought me one of the first How The Body Heals Itself
copies published by Random House of Felix
Manns book. By now we have become pretty Applied Kinesiology is based upon the fact that
well convinced of the relationship between body language never lies. The opportunity of
viscera and muscle. In the chapter of Felix understanding the body language is enhanced
Manns book entitled The Five Elements on by the ability to use the muscles as indicators
page 92, he spoke about an organ relationship for body language. The original method for
testing muscles and determining function, by
the methods of muscle testing first advocated
by Kendall and Kendall, is a prime diagnostic
device. Once muscle weakness has been
ascertained, a variety of therapeutic actions
are available which are too numerous to
enumerate here. The opportunity to use the
body as an instrument of laboratory analysis is
unparalleled in modern therapeutics because
the response of the body is unerring. If one
approaches the problem correctly, makes the
proper and accurate diagnosis and treatment,
the response is adequate and satisfactory both
to the doctor and the patient. The name of the
game, to coin a phrase, is to get people better.
The body heals itself in a sure, sensible,
practical, reasonable, observable, predictable
manner. The healer within can be approached
from without. Man possesses a potential
for recovery through innate intelligence or
the physiological homeostasis of the human

This recovery potential with which he is

endowed needs the hand, the heart, and the
mind of a trained individual to bring it to
potential being, and allow the recovery to take
place which is mans natural heritage. This
benefits man. It benefits him both individually
and collectively, but it also benefits the doctor
who has rendered the service and allows the
force that created the structure of the body to
operate unimpeded. This benefit to man can be
compounded by knowledge with physiological
facts and with predictable certainty.

Muscle Testing

History force depends upon the relative strength and

health of the person you are testing.
Muscle testing is the basic tool used in applied
kinesiology. Kendall and Kendall wrote the 7. Instruct the patient to apply pressure against
first book on manual muscle testing in the late your hand. When you feel the patient apply
40s based on their work with polio victims. the pressure, increase your resistance against
They used a five point system for grading their pressure. When there is no increase in
muscle strength. In applied kinesiology, we pressure, apply an additional force in the test-
use a muscle test that has been described by ing direction.
the Institute of Sports Medicine and Athletic
Trauma, as a break test technique method. You are testing the patients ability to react and
adapt to the additional force applied.
The basic concept of muscle testing is to chal-
lenge the ability of the muscle to adapt to an
increase in force after the patient has reached
maximal contraction of the muscle. Muscle
testing is an art as well as a science and it takes
time to become proficient in learning muscle
testing. The rules are rather simple.

1. Approximate the origin and insertion of the

muscle and place the body part in a position
that minimizes other muscles that can contract
to support or recruit during the contraction of
the prime mover.

2. Supply adequate support to the person being

tested so that they do not move or alter their
position during the test.

3. Use a broad flat contact with the fleshy por-

tions of your hands so that you do not cause
pain or discomfort where you test or stabilize
the patient.

4. The testing pressure is applied at a 90-de-

gree angle to the arc of movement of the body
part. Another way of saying this is that the
pressure is applied at the tangent to the arc of
the movement of the body part.

5. Try to keep your forearm in line with the

direction of force.

6. Testing should be done using your weight not

your hand or forearm strength. The amount of

The top picture shows the starting position
of testing of the psoas muscle.

Stabilization is given to the opposite pel-

vis upper thigh. A broad contact is used.
Recruitment usually begins as a change in
the angle of the pelvis or rotation of the fe-
mur. The stabilizing hand can detect these
changes in the pelvis. The testing hand
will detect the attempt of the subject to
rotate the femur so as to recruit with the

The soft portion of the hand is applied over

the lower leg taking care to avoid any hard
contact over the malleolus.

The angle of the test can be varied along the

arc of the motion of the leg.

The graph to the right shows the normal

response to muscle testing. Pressure is ap-
plied and resistance given until you reach
a maximum level. Additional stress is then
applied and the patient is able to adapt to
that stress.

The lower graph shows failure to adapt to

the additional stress. The part being tested
appears to break away: thus the name
Break Test.



Abduction of the humerus. The anterior and

posterior portions aid in flexion and extension
respectively. The anterior and posterior sections
can function synergistically with each other or
in an antagonistic fashion.

Applied Kinesiology: Manual of inhibition of the motor neuron.. A muscle is
Muscle Testing and the Motor simply contractile tissue that is depolarized
by an efferent signal from the motor neuron.
A weak muscle simply means that the muscle
being tested is not appropriately depolarized
Richard Belli, D.C.
by the motor neuron. Therefore, a more
appropriate term would be a neurologically
Manual muscle testing has been a tool for
inhibited muscle. Hence one who uses
medical and chiropractic evaluation for
manual muscle testing as an analysis tool
decades. The use of manual muscle testing
needs to realize that muscle testing is simply
as a tool in the medical community is mainly
a test of the function of the motor neuron.
limited to evaluation of pathology whereas,
in the chiropractic community it has been
The anterior horn of the spinal cord is the
used for evaluation of functional disorders.
location of the cell body of the motor neuron.
It took the genius of George Goodheart, D.C.
The functional state of the anterior horn
to see the value of manual muscle testing as
is maintained by convergence of multiple
an evaluative tool for functional disorders of
ascending and descending pathways.
the human system. His discovery earmarked
The descending pathways originate at
the beginning of Applied Kinesiology (AK).
suprasegmental levels both pyramidally and
Years later, Walter Schmitt Jr., D.C. coined
extra pyramidally. The ascending pathways
the term, muscle testing as functional
are sensory pathways that are either of
neurology, that started the era of describing
somatic or visceral origin. The descending
the functional neurological aspects of manual
pathways can be of conscious origin in
muscle testing, and realization of the breadth
which the subject voluntarily motivates the
of possibilities that manual muscle testing
muscle, or it can be of reflexogenic origin
that is involuntary. Ascending pathways
may be sensory from a variety of origins
Over the decades that muscle testing has
ranging from mechanoreceptors in skin and
been used as an analytical tool, there have
joints to nociceptive fibers from soma and
been a multitude of meanings attached to a
viscera. In an occurrence of a weak muscle,
weak muscle. These include dysfunction of
the total effect of the converging pathways
the electromagnetic system, the lymphatic
may shift the anterior horn so far towards
system, the cranial respiratory system, and
hyperpolarization that the neuron cannot be
many more. But whatever you name the
brought to its firing threshold, thus when the
zebra, a zebra is a zebra, and the bottom line
examiner tests the muscle the subject cannot
in AK is that a weak response to a muscle
resist the force of the examiner.
test means that the muscles motor neuron is
not functioning normally, limiting the ability
There are a variety of reflexes indigenous
of the subject to contract the muscle. In other
to the human system that are necessary
words, if the motor neuron is shifted too far
to maintain life and limb. If there is either
towards hyperpolarization then the subject
somatic or visceral tissue dysfunction there
cannot depolarize the motor neuron enough to
will be an associated reflex affecting motor
provoke a muscle contraction and the muscle
neurons and muscle function. A classic
tests weak. This leaves us with the question,
example is an inflamed appendix in which
What does a weak muscle mean?
the patient cannot extend the right hip. This
flexion contraction is a withdrawal reflex that
The term weak muscle, in respect to AK,
is a consequence of tissue irritation and a
is actually a misnomer. The muscle itself is
nociceptive driven withdrawal reflex. For every
not actually weak. Assuming there is no end
hypertonic muscle due loss of appropriate
organ pathology, the weakness is the result
inhibition of its motor neuron, there will be
a reflexogenic inhibition or weakness of its
opposing muscle. As a result, nearly every
visceral or somatic dysfunction will result
in a neurologically inhibited muscle. Lesser
degrees of this example come in the form of
the weak muscles that are examined with
manual muscle testing.

The nervous system monitors and drives

virtually all the systems in the human
body. When there is dysfunction of any part
of the human system the central nervous
system knows about it, and attempts to
respond accordingly. The soma and viscera
communicate with the central nervous system
both chemically and neurologically. Therefore
it is reasonable to say that both chemical and
neurological dysfunction can be analyzed with
manual muscle testing.

Regardless of the name of the technique

used, whether it is acupuncture meridian
stimulation, neurolymphatic technique, spinal
adjusting or other osseous manipulation,
if it strengthens a muscle it is bringing the
anterior horn and associated motor neuron to
a more normal state of function.

Hardly a single human function takes place

without involvement of muscles. With that in
mind, and proficient knowledge of the human
nervous system, the use of manual muscle
testing in the form of Applied Kinesiology can
provide an almost limitless tool for functional
analysis of the nervous system and all that
effects it.

The Ventral Horn Cell
What Happens When Muscle Strength Changes

Kathleen M. Power, D.C., DIBAK, DABCI, DACNB

these are both excitatory and inhibitory. Some
presynaptic pathways to the ventral horn cells
THE VENTRAL HORN CELL are segmental and some are suprasegmental.
The ability of the ventral horn cell to summate
When we test a muscle we are testing a and reach an action potential depends upon
number of parameters. We are testing the the addition of all excitatory and inhibitory
patients ability to listen and interpret what influences from all of these pathways at a
our request is. We are testing the capacity of specific moment in time.
the patients nervous system to translate our
request into a motor event the resistance of SEGMENTAL INFLUENCES
the muscle to our test pressure. The integrity
of the motor response depends upon the Many of the local or segmental inputs into
ability of the motor neuron to reach a state the ventral horn cell are associated with
of excitation sufficient to create an action what we call the stretch reflex. In textbooks
potential. When we change the ability of it is described as a simple phenomenon -- an
the muscle to respond to our test pressure afferent arc from the muscle spindle and an
we have changed the ability of the neuron to efferent arc from the ventral horn cell to the
reach its excitation threshold. Everything we muscle -- but it is in reality very complex. It is
do to, or for, a patient which has an impact on complex because there are many collaterals to
the strength of the muscle is related to this many other areas of the nervous system. Some
fact. In this article we will look at some of theof the collaterals from the spindle receptors go
factors involved in the ability of the neurons to other ventral horn cells to bring them closer
to reach an action potential and fire to its to threshold or to allow them to fire. Other
target organ, the muscle fiber. collaterals fire to segmental autonomic supply.
Still others ascend to suprasegmental systems
The efferent nerve is composed of large alpha which eventually modulate ventral horn cell
motor neurons and small gamma motor output through descending pathways.
neurons. The cell bodies of both of these are
arranged in longitudinal columns at the
anterior portion of the gray matter of the Segmentally, when the spindle receptor fires,
spinal cord, the anterior or ventral horn. The it fires to the muscle in which it is located and
alpha motor neuron supplies the primary to its synergists. It fires to muscles associated
contractile tissue of the muscle. The gamma with it in a gait type of configuration. For
motor neuron supplies the contractile portion example, if the PMC on the right is stretched,
of the polar ends of the spindle receptors which the ventral horn cells to that muscle and its
are embedded within the muscle tissue. Dr. synergists and to the contralateral anterior
Goodheart has spoken of spindle receptors for lower extremity muscles will be excited; so
many years. When the gamma motor neuron will the ventral horn cells to the contralateral
fires, the ends of the spindle contract, thus upper extremity posterior muscles and the
preloading it. In a more contracted state, ipsilateral posterior muscles. In addition,
the spindle is more likely to fire with less interneurons which have an inhibitory action
stretch upon the muscle. will be fired to inhibit the antagonists of the
PMC on the right, to the left PMC, to the
The motor neurons have thousands of right anterior hip and leg muscles, etc. We
synapses on their dendrites and cell bodies; may observe this when we find a muscle

which tests weak; we may increase its ability in the nervous systems of our patients. We
to resist test pressure by asking the patient may change resistance to test pressure
to contract a muscle whose reflex connections by harnessing segmental synergists and
cause increased strength in the muscle. For antagonists. We may change resistance by
example, a patient may present with a weak affecting descending pathways. Right sided
posterior deltoid on the right, but contracting effects may be best produced by increasing
the PMC on the left will increase resistance to afferent stimulation from the left: light, sound,
test pressure of the posterior deltoid. stretch, etc., may be helpful. Cognitive types
of activities may be used such as visualization,
SUPRASEGMENTAL INFLUENCES or specific left or right brain activities.

The primary presynaptic influences are

descending suprasegmental inputs from many In Dallas, at the Modules in Neurology taught
areas of the higher nervous system. These by Prof. Carrick, I have been privileged to
descending pathways change the ability of witness the use of many creative applications
the ventral horn cells to summate; therefore, using these pathways to change ventral horn
they modulate the ability of the stretch reflex cell function. Rather than use volitional
and other reflexes to occur. muscle testing to determine ventral horn
cell activity, he often uses EMG. It is an
We all learned in our neurology courses in effective tool particularly when there is such
chiropractic college that motor function is poor muscle activity that our standard AK
initiated in the contralateral cortex; this is testing modalities cannot be utilized, such as
essentially true although it has been shown in paralysis, motor neuron disease., etc We
that the cerebellum on the side of movement have watched the EMG oscilloscope as muscle
actually fires first. There are also ipsilateral activity increased when a spinal cord injury
cortical influences to motor function which patient was asked to contract the reflexly-
are very important to ventral horn cell associated muscles on the contralateral
summation. Areas of the cortex called (good) extremity while visualizing normal
neocortex (only humans have this area) fire activity of the injured nerve/muscle pathway.
down to brainstem areas which then fire down We have seen an immediate decrease in
into the cord. Their functional effects are abnormal ventral horn cell activity and
to increase summation in ventral horn cells fasciculations in a group of upper extremity
ipsilaterally, especially in upper extremity muscles when a patient diagnosed with a
posterior muscles and lower extremity potentially fatal motor neuron disease was
anterior muscles. asked to perform specific eye movements to
harness pathways associated with ventral
The neocortex responds to environmental horn cell function.
input from the contralateral side (with the
exception of smell). It also responds to cognitive
The therapeutic applications available to
processes initiated in the contralateral us, whether we call it AK or Neurology,
cerebellum. When the neocortex increases include supplying appropriate environmental
its firing, both the alpha and gamma motor stimulation to the patient to allow for the best
neurons are affected. function of his/her nervous system. Whether
we test a muscle manually or stick EMG
WHAT THIS MEANS TO needles into it, the immediate changes we
APPLIED KINESIOLOGISTS witness are reflective of changes in nervous
system function. To be neurologically correct
The good news about all of this is that as we say that muscle testing is examining
AK practitioners we may learn to harness the ability of the muscle to resist the test
these pathways to effect positive changes pressure and represents the ability of the
specific segmental activity to occur as it is
modulated by suprasegmental activity. And
whatever therapeutic modalities we choose,
if we monitor the autonomic nervous system
for indicators of increased or decreased
sympathetic and parasympathetic activity
as discussed in the previous articles, then we
may be certain that our corrections will serve
the patient in the long run.

We are fortunate in AK that we have trained

ourselves to interpret the ability of a muscle
to resist test pressure and we therefore may
monitor the effects of stimulations we give to
an individual. We must guard against simple
explanations as to how that stimulation
affected the muscle, however. There are
many integrated factors and we must realize
that a single muscle test is associated not
only with the stretch we place upon the
muscle, but the position and activation of
muscles reflexogenically associated with our
test muscle and the summative effect of all
descending influences the sound, light, smell,
temperature and cognitive environment of
the patient as well. Rubbing a point activates
certain pressure receptors, but also has a
cognitive effect, perhaps an emotional effect,
a visual effect as the patient moves his or her
eyes to follow you, etc. A muscle which gets
stronger may do so as a consequence of any of
these inputs probably as a consequence of all
of them acting together upon pools of neurons
which impact the summative capacity of the
ventral horn cell.

AK works, but we need to appreciate that

testing a muscle and the response to sensory
stimuli as determined by changes in muscle
testing is multifactorial.

History of Applied Kinesiology
George Goodheart, D.C.

Applied kinesiology is the child of the inquisitive mind of George Goodheart. In the early
1960's, he began to research the causes and effects of muscular weaknesses. Each year new
and important findings have been added to the body of knowledge known as applied kinesiology
by Dr. Goodheart.


The International College of Applied Kinesiology was formed in 1976 to advance the study of
applied kinesiology in health care professionals. There are chapters around the world with
members in all professions.

Developmental Milestones

High points in the development were:

1964 first book on muscle testing

1966 neurolymphatic research
1967 neurovascular research
1969 basic cranial motion-corrections
1970 basic acupuncture relationships
1973 fascial technique
1974 therapy localization
1976 temporomandibular joint corrections
1980 PRY technique
1982 strain counterstrain
1988 spondylogenic reflexes
1998 myogelosis
2003 anatomy trains

Since 1964, over 40 different treatment options have been found. Added to this are spe-
cial tests that allow the doctor to test the patient using tools like muscle testing, range of
motion, tenderness, challenges and others that allow accurate diagnosing of exactly what
procedures are indicated for a specific patient.

Strain Counterstrain

This condition will create areas of pain similar For multiple trigger points, test for the need
in nature to those described by Travell in her of glycine or folate.
books and articles on myofascial pain. The
major difference between the two lies in the
type of treatment needed to alleviate the pain
pattern. Jones procedure is based on trial
and error to determine if his procedure of pos-
tural positioning is indicated. Goodheart has
devised a system for evaluating the muscles
to determine if Jones procedure of static posi-
tioning is indicated. The area of trigger point
tenderness must be located by palpation.
Check for fascial involvement by stretching
the muscle that is associated with the region
found and correct any imbalances. Check for
fascial involvement by stretching the muscle
and retesting for weakness. If weakness is
found, treat accordingly.

Fully contract the muscle by having the pa-

tient approximate the origin and the insertion
as far as possible, and retest the muscle for
weakening. Weakness found after this proce-
dure indicates a need for the strain - counter-
strain technique.

Strain - Counterstrain Procedure

While palpating the tender trigger point, the

parts of the body where the trigger point is
located will be positioned so that the great-
est reduction in tenderness is achieved. As a
general rule, if the trigger point is on the front
of the body, the body part will be placed into
flexion. If the trigger point is on the poste-
rior aspect of the body, extension will be em-
ployed. The farther from the midline that the
trigger point is located, the more rotation will
be needed to reduce the tenderness.

Using Jones procedure, this position is held

for up to 180 seconds for alleviation of the
trigger point pain. Goodheart suggests that
while the position is being held, a stretching
of the spindle cells in the belly of the muscles
be done. This will decrease the length of time
that the position must be held.
Fascial Technique
Fascia are sheets of avascular, transparent,
elastic connective tissue covering and encasing Multiple muscles showing a need for fascial
each muscle and visceral organ. By connecting technique are a good indication of need the of
together, fascial tissues subdivide the body B-12 supplementation.
into functional units. Normally, the fascia and
underlying muscle should be the same length.
This allows the two to function as an integral
unit. If the fascia shortens in relationship to
the potential length of the muscle, it creates
a neurological imbalance in the control of the
muscular contraction.

Janet Travell, M.D. researched fascial prob-

lems for over 40 years. She wrote a two volume
set on the effects of trigger points and fascial
problems. Unfortunately, she had no diagnostic
test except the areas of complaint of the person
and the finding that if you irritated a trigger
point is would sometimes cause referred pain
to specific areas. Goodheart found that if a
strong muscle was stretched and it weakened,
it would respond to the treatment options that
Travell advocated.

Here is his procedure:

Test a muscle for strength and if weak strength-

en by normal means.

Stretch the muscle to its normal limit of motion.

If the muscle is a weight bearing muscle, this is
done slowly. Non-weight bearing muscles are
tested by stretching the fibers quickly.

After stretching, the muscle is quickly retested

for weakening. If found weak, involvement of
the fascia is diagnosed.

Utilizing a hard heavy pressure, iron out the

fascia using pressure in the line of the under-
lying muscle fibers. Massage from either the
origin towards the insertion or from the inser-
tion towards the origin.

B-12 in low dosages, with the associated stom-

ach and liver extracts which supply the intrinsic
and extrinsic factors, is many times indicated.

Five Factors of the Intervertebral Foramina

By 1970, George Goodheart had determined body, and at least one of these five factors will
that six major imbalances or defects in the be functioning abnormally.
body could cause muscular weakness and ac-
companying organ malfunction. One of these According to Dr. Goodheart, at each interver-
was a nutritional imbalance and was therefore tebral foramina there is:
a chemical cause. The others were structural
problems and have been labeled the five fac- 1. a nerve
tors of the IVF. 2. a blood vessel
3. a lymphatic vessel
Alterations in the chemical, emotional or struc- 4. cerebrospinal fluid
tural homeostasis of the body will be manifested 5. an acupuncture meridian connector
by weakness in the muscle structure of the
Malfunction of any one of the above can and
does cause a weakness to occur in the body.


Acupuncture N
Meridian Neurolymphatic
Connector Reflex


Cerebrospinal CSF NV
(Cranial - Sacral Fault)

Muscle Proprioceptors

This technique is indicated in any traumatic Most tendons are supplied with stretch recep-
injury. tors which are located near the attachment of
the muscle and the tendon. Tension on the ten-
Spindle cells are found in nearly all muscles don distorts these receptors stimulating them.
and are more numerous in the muscles of They are called golgi tendon organs or GTOs.
the limbs than those of the trunk. They are
located throughout the muscle, but are more Stimulation of stretch receptors in a muscle
concentrated in the center portion of the muscle. reflexly excites contraction of the muscle while
Because the long axis of the spindle is parallel stimulation of stretch receptors in the tendon
with the long axis on the muscle, it is stimulated inhibits the contraction of the muscle.
by stretch. This results in nerve impulses in
the afferent nerve fibers. These specialized Pressure applied against the tendon towards
cells are responsible for informing the brain onthe origin or the insertion of the muscle has the
the degree of stretch that the muscle is under. effect of weakening or inhibiting the function
of the muscle. Pressure applied against the
Pressure, applied as to approximate together tendon is a direction towards the belly of the
the fibers of the muscle in its linear length, muscle, as if to lengthen the tendon, has the
has the effect of relaxing or weakening the effect of strengthening or increasing the force
muscle. Pressure, applied as to stretch the of contraction of the muscle.
muscle fibers, has the effect of increasing the
strength of a muscle.

To turn down and weaken a muscle press the spindle cells together and push towards
the origin and insertion at the tendons.

To turn up and strengthen a muscle pull the spindle cells apart and push towards the
belly of the muscle at the tendons.

Reactive Muscles

This refers to the weakening of a muscle fol- Muscle Interlink

lowing testing of another muscle.
This term is used to describe the relationship
This weakness occurs because of improper of muscles that interact as reactive muscles in
proprioceptor communication between the re- a pattern similar to that of the ligaments in
lated muscles. the ligament interlink condition.

A suspected muscle is tested to determine if it There appears to exist a correlation between

is strong. If the muscle is found to be weak, the opposite muscle groups on a joint basis.
treat it in the normal fashion. For example, the biceps relate to the opposite
quadriceps, the hamstrings to the opposite
Test a related strong muscle, for example a triceps, etc.
synergist to the original muscle, and then
quickly retest the original muscle. Treatment involves correcting the spindle
cell mechanism (testing and treating as for
If the reactive pattern is present, the original reactive muscles). This simple observation
muscle will now test weak. of muscle findings opened the door for other
techniques to both examine and treat gait
Treat the spindle cells of the muscle that when patterns.
tested caused the weakening of the original
muscle. The spindle cells are stimulated as if
to weaken the muscle. Imagine that the mus-
cle is set too strong and therefore over powers
the second muscle creating the weakness.

Retest the muscle testing sequence to make

sure that the muscle stays strong after treat-
ing the spindle cell.

In todays language, these reactive muscle

patterns fall under the heading of propriocep-
tive neuromuscular facilitation problems.

In the hands of athletic trainers and physio-

therapists, patterning is done to normalize
these spindle cell imbalances done in a global
way around the joints in question. This meth-
od requires 15 - 20 minutes of patterning for
this to occur.

Using the Goodheart - applied kinesiology

method, this can be done more specifically
and faster.

Spinal Extensor Muscle Weakness Pattern

On standing, weight causes a spreading of sertion to correct the golgi involvement.

the interphalangeal joints of the feet and a
stretching of the interosseous muscles. Miscellaneous

The proprioceptors of the feet then cause an This condition is found frequently in chronic
inhibition of the spinal extensors when they back patients.
are stretched sufficiently.
If the patient is prone, squeezing the foot will
In Understanding the Scientific Basis of Hu- cause weakening of the gluteus maximus,
man Movement, OConner and Gardner de- hamstrings, and the neck extensors.
scribe the reflex from the proprioceptors in
the plantar muscles and joints that cause this
extensor inhibition pattern.

This pattern is easily demonstrated by testing

a strong spinal extensor like the upper tra-
pezius, middle trapezius or latissimus dorsi
and having the subject lean forward loading
the metatarsal arch. At one point, the mus-
cle will become inhibited and explains why
swimmers or sprinters commonly fault at the
starting line.

Observe the patient standing. Visually draw

a vertical line extending down from the exter-
nal auditory meatus. This line should bisect
the shoulder, the acetabulum and the exter-
nal malleolus.

If this alignment is not found, test an exten-

sor muscle of the spine. The mid-trapezius,
upper trapezius or the neck extensors are
easily tested.

If weakness if found, have the patient remove

the weight from the foot on the side being
tested and retest the prior weak muscle. If
the plantar muscles are in a state of hyper-
tonicity, then the muscle will test strong and
weak again if the weight is reapplied.

Treat by correcting the spindle cell and golgi

apparatus that are involved by applying pres-
sure towards the center of the muscle in the
belly, to correct the spindle cell, and by pull-
ing away from the belly on the origin and in-
In treating common ache or pain patterns aberrant muscle patterns.
that patients present, there are three major
options that can be used. The two most com- The PNF procedure requires prolonged pat-
mon in applied kinesiology involve finding terning to coordinate the muscle function.
the specific muscles that are over contracting
causing the abnormal inhibition pattern. The In all cases, examination and correction of a
third option is using a PNF (proprioceptive related spinal imbalance significantly aids in
neuromuscular facilitation) procedure that a more permanent correction.
generally addresses normalization of these

Aerobic / Anerobic Muscle Testing
Aerobic Muscles

These are slow-firing muscles like the dark In scoliotic patients, examine and determine
meat of turkey. They exhibit great elasticity which muscles are not supporting the spine,
and great endurance. They are fueled by oxi- as they should. A common finding is a unilat-
dative metabolism of fats. Myoglobin holds eral weakness of the psoas.
the oxygen in the muscle for the oxidative pro-
cess. Many times these muscles will test strong on
a single test.
Anerobic Muscles
Retest using the aerobic type of repeated test-
These are fast-firing muscles like the white ing and usually the psoas, for example, will
meat of turkey. They are less elastic and fa- show weakness.
tigue easily. They are fueled by the consump-
tion of sugars in the Krebs cycle. They de- After correcting the lymphatic reflexes,
pend upon large glycogen storage. the spine will many times show a dramatic
Test for and correct muscle weakness, if
found, in the normal fashion.
Use of these types of muscle tests can aid in
For aerobic muscles, the muscles of support the establishment of an effective rehabilita-
retest in a rhythmic, slow repetitive manner. tion program. Determining the number of
Do this testing at least twenty times. repetitions that can be performed before the
muscle fails sets limits on the number of rep-
If weakness occurs, treat the neurolymphatic etitions that are positive for the patient.
reflexes and test for the need of iron to replen-
ish myoglobin levels.

For anerobic muscles, the fast-firing muscles

of the upper extremity, retest in quick, rapid
succession at least twenty times.

If weakness occurs, treat the neurolymphat-

ic reflexes and supplement with pantothenic
acid to augment the breakdown of glycogen in
the Krebs cycle.

If the muscle tends to cramp during the test-

ing procedure, have the patient hold the neu-
rolymphatic reflex. This will many times
increase the blood flow and prevent the

Muscle-Organ/Gland Association

By David Walther, D.C., DIBAK The next factor introduced into applied
Excerpted from Synopsis kinesiology with specific organ/gland
Systems DC Pueblo CO 1988 association was the meridian system. When
treatment was applied, the stomach meridian
Early in applied kinesiology Goodheart improved the pectoralis major (clavicular
detected some consistency of specific muscle division) muscle, the small intestine meridian
dysfunction with specific organ or gland improved the quadriceps muscles, and the
dysfunction. For example, when the pectoralis large intestine meridian improved the tensor
major (clavicular division) muscle tested fascia lata muscle.
weak, there was often stomach dysfunction.
When the quadriceps muscles tested weak, The muscle-organ/gland association of applied
there was often small intestine dysfunction. kinesiology is clinically valuable in helping
When the tensor fascia lata tested weak, there find the primary areas of dysfunction when
was often colon dysfunction. (The complete combined with other diagnostic disciplines.
muscle-organ/gland association is included in The muscle-organ/gland association should
the muscle testing section of this text.) The not be considered absolute. For example,
observation of muscle-organ/gland association there may be local muscle dysfunction
was strengthened as new examination and causing the quadriceps muscles to test weak,
therapeutic approaches were introduced into with no dysfunction in the small intestine.
applied kinesiology . On the other hand, an individual may have
a gastric ulcer confirmed by radiology but the
Treatment to Chapmans reflex for the pectoralis major (clavicular division) may not
stomach, now called a neurolymphatic test weak. As one becomes more advanced
reflex, strengthened the pectoralis major in applied kinesiology, it is seen that nearly
(clavicular division) muscle. Treating the always there is dysfunction of the pectoralis
neurolymphatic reflex for the small intestine major (clavicular division), but the body has
improved quadriceps muscle function, and many ways of adapting to dysfunction. With
the colon neurolymphatic reflex stimulation advanced applied kinesiology techniques,
strengthened the tensor fascia lata muscle. The it may be found that the pectoralis major
Bennett reflexes, now called the neurovascular (clavicular division) muscle tests strong in
reflexes, had a similar correlation. Stimulating the presence of an ulcer because there is
the small intestine reflex improved the weak over activity of the stomach meridian as an
quadriceps muscles. Treatment to the colon adaptive healing effort by the body. Research
reflex improved the tensor fascia lata muscle on the muscle-organ/gland association is
when it had previously tested weak. A similar ongoing, with much yet to be learned. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
correlation was found in the neurovascular
reflex treatment that improved function of 1 Burdine, C., The reactivity of muscle
the pectoralis major (clavicular division) strength to visceral stimulation and
muscle. It was discovered that stimulation neurolymphatic point pressure. Independent
of Bennetts emotional reflex affected the Research, unpublished, University of Illinois,
pectoralis major (clavicular division) muscle. Jun 1982
Reflecting that emotions are often considered 2 Carpenter, S.A., J. Hoffman & R. Mendel,
as the cause of stomach problems, especially An investigation into the effect of organ
ulcers, one can readily see a tie-in. irritation on muscle strength and spinal
mobility, Thesis, Anglo-European Coll Chiro,

Bournemouth, England, 1977
3 Corneal, J.M. & R. Dick,An attempt to
quantify muscle testing using meridian
therapy/acupuncture techniques Proceedings
of Winter Meeting, ICAK Palm Desert, CA,
4 Jacobs, G.E., T.L. Franks & P.G.
Gilman,Diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction:
Applied kinesiology compared to clinical
observations and laboratory tests, J Manip
Physiol Ther, Vol 7, No 2 (Jun 1984)
5 Leaf, D.W., Nutrient Testing Evaluation
Proceedings of Summer Meeting , ICAK,
Santa Monica, CA 1985
6 Wing, T.W., Applied kinesiology, related
organs, meridians, and auricular therapy,
Chiro Econ, Vol 21, No 4 (Jan/Feb 1979)

Introduction on Applied Kinesiology and Nutrition

By David Walther, D.C., DIBAK about nutrition may provide seven, eight,
Excerpted from Synopsis or even ten diverse philosophies leading to
Systems DC Pueblo CO 1988 different therapeutic approaches, or perhaps
to no treatment at all. Extremes range from
A system for evaluating nutritional effects on the belief that if a person eats balanced
body function has been developed in applied meals no nutritional supplements are ever
kinesiology by Goodheart. 28, 29 The system needed to recommendations of so many
appears to provide additional information high-potency supplements that one would
about how nutrition, or possibly adverse hardly need eat regular food, except for fiber.
substances, may work with or affect body Philosophies about nutrition vary from mega-
function. It is designed for use in conjunction dosages of numerous supplements to low-
with the physicians general knowledge potency products of natural origin only. Some
of nutrition, and laboratory and physical recommend that specific nutritional products
diagnostic findings. It is important that the routinely be given with certain medications
examiner using this technique be thoroughly to offset any side effects1, others recommend
knowledgeable about the usual methods for no medication, with nutrition taking its place;
determining nutritional needs. still others recommend minuscule dosages
of homeopathic remedies for the treatment
Applied kinesiology nutritional testing of disease. There are vitamins, minerals,
appears to reflect the nervous systems isolation of natural food products (such as the
efferent response to the stimulation of the essential fatty acids), herbs to treat almost
gustatory and olfactory nerve receptors by any condition, and Bach flower remedies for
various substances. The nerve pathways mental and emotional conditions. 2, 3, 4
causing change in muscle function as
observed by manual testing are unclear; Why are there so many philosophies with
however, there is considerable evidence in different treatment approaches to something
the literature of extensive efferent function as essential to our life as the food we eat?
throughout the body from stimulation to The answer cannot be put into a simple
the gustatory and olfactory receptors. There statement. There are many reasons for the
is also evidence of afferent modification of confusion that reigns among nutritional
gustatory sensitivity and central nervous authorities. Paramount among these is that
system interpretation of gustatory impulses all nutritional factors have not even been
ultimately modifying functional change as a discovered yet, and it is not known exactly
result of oral stimulation. Applied kinesiology how the body uses many nutritional products.
nutritional testing enables a physician to give As we progress with our discussion, keep in
individual consideration to each patients mind that the first description of treating
nutritional needs. To properly apply this scurvy with ascorbic acid was done only fifty
method of testing, one should be thoroughly years ago, by Parsons. 5
familiar with the nervous systems role in
nutrition, and also be proficient in manual The applied kinesiology method of evaluating
muscle testing. changes in body function as the result of
nutritional stimulation fills a specific void
As one begins a serious study of nutrition in the question of nutritional deficiency
outside applied kinesiology, it is easy to diagnosis. The method consists of stimulating
become very confused. Consulting ten the gustatory or olfactory nerve receptors
different authorities on specific questions by having the patient chew or inhale30 the
substance to be evaluated, and then manually evaluating nutrition have sunk so low that
testing a muscle for change. The muscle this writer once heard a woman at a nearby
may appear stronger or weaker, depending table in a restaurant say, If you dont believe
upon the type of evaluation being made and me, let me show you. She then had a man at
the muscles neurologic association with the the table stand up and hold a sugar dispenser
substance stimulating the nerve receptors. in his hand. She proceeded to have him hold
This system of testing is controversial. his other arm out and attempted to pull it
One reason for this is that there have been down. He was a strong individual, and she
many modifications of Goodhearts original almost lifted herself off the floor before she
description. Some, rather than have the patient was able to pull his arm down. Then came the
stimulate the gustatory or olfactory receptors statement, See - I told you it would make you
with the substance being tested, have the weak.
individual hand-hold the substance or lay it
on the belly; some even have the patient hold Applied kinesiology nutritional evaluation is
a bottle containing the substance to be tested. indeed a revolutionary method of determining
6, 7, 8, 9, 10
These modified systems are frequently nutritional needs. In my twenty-seven years of
taught to lay people 6, 7, 8, 11, 12 who often do not practice, I have seen many changes take place
have the anatomical knowledge necessary for in what is considered the routine nutritional
accurate muscle testing, nor do they have a approach for health problems. Twenty-five
nutritional background or general diagnostic years ago I was increasing fiber content in
ability. the diet of patients with colon disturbances.
On three different occasions when I took
The testing of nutrition as advocated by the patients off the bland, refined carbohydrate
International College of Applied Kinesiology diet prescribed by their allopaths, I was called
is a discipline limited to stimulating the a stupid quack and accused of endangering
gustatory or olfactory nerve receptors with the lives of my patients. Fortunately, the
the substance to be evaluated, combined patients continued my therapeutic approach
with accurate and specific muscle testing. and had uneventful recoveries, in spite of
The information derived from these tests the diatribe against me and my procedure.
must then be correlated with a standard Today, even television commercials and the
diagnostic work-up by a person licensed in National Cancer Institute13 emphasize the
the healing arts to be a primary health care need for fiber in the diet. Those same doctors
provider. The approach discussed in this who called me a quack now use the approach
text is designed to be an adjunct to standard I used twenty-five years ago.
nutritional evaluation, not to take the place of
it. Those who have the expertise to properly There are many reasons that nutritional
test nutrition, as described by the ICAK, needs should be evaluated on an individual
should not use this method as a sole approach basis. Applied kinesiology adds to the
in evaluating nutrition and/or substances physicians nutritional knowledge the ability
harmful to the body. to determine, to a certain extent, the effects
of various nutritional products on the specific
This writer believes that the modified testing individual being considered. Furthermore, it
procedures for nutrition - including hand- enables one to evaluate the difference between
held, laying it on the skin, touching various nutritional products that may appear to be the
areas of the skin, and teaching the material same according to the products descriptive
to lay people - may lead to errors in diagnosis label, but act differently from individual to
and are potentially detrimental to the health individual.
of the subject being evaluated.
People are different. Everyone does not
The abuses of manual muscle testing in require the same nutritional program
regarding the food eaten and possible body wisdom was adequate in regulating
supplementation taken. Williams14 points food intake to an less than 1/20 of 1%.
out that researchers must begin considering There is abundant data indicating that man
biochemical individuality in the study of and animals have innate self-selections to
nutrition. Individuality may have a genetic determine quantities and quality of food that
basis with different body composition, will provide optimal health. Although this
enzymatic patterns, and endocrine balance. mechanism is constantly functioning to some
Williams presents a hypothetical group of ten degree and will be discussed later, it is not an
men (group 1), all of average height, with the answer to the nutritional question; there are
same foot size. They have the same amount of many factors that interfere with proper self-
hair on their heads, and an average tendency selection.
to put on body fat. They consume the same
amount of alcoholic beverages, have the same In-depth study of nutrition is done to indicate
sex urges, and their digestive tracts react the the nutritional products needed for optimal
same to food. They all have normal teeth, health and for the treatment of various types
without cavities or plaque buildup. Finally, of body dysfunction and disease processes.
they all have the same emotional reactions to Why do many of the studies end with opposing
the same daily stresses. conclusions? If complete data is available, one
may find that one study used a natural vitamin
Contrast this group with another hypothetical product while the other used a synthetic one.
population of ten men (group 2). In this One may have used a higher potency vitamin
group is one man who has lost all his hair. than the other, or the studies were biased by
Another seems to gain weight just by thinking group selection. Conflicting conclusions may
about food. Another has long, narrow feet be traced to the differences in manufacturing
and fingers. One supervises 100 men on a nutritional products. One company may use
production line, with a very tight productivity heat in processing, and another cold. Keep in
schedule to meet. Another has no sex drive, mind that all nutritional cofactors have not
and still another is a salesman with his two- yet been discovered.
martini lunch schedule.
Applied kinesiology nutritional testing,
It seems that the minimum and maximum like the other considerations, is not all-
daily requirement of nutritional complexes encompassing and must be correlated with
can be easily figured for group 1, but what are other methods to determine nutritional need.
the needs for group 2? If there is considerable In a status statement published in 1983 15,
individuality among people, how has man 16 and updated in 1988, the International
survived for so long before there was any College of Applied Kinesiology states,
study of his nutritional needs? Is there an Nutritional and chemical evaluation [by
innate self-selection of the food needed by the muscle testing] should only be done with the
body? Williams points out the bodys wisdom substance stimulating the subjects olfactory
with the illustration of an individual who has or gustatory receptors. It is also necessary
no knowledge about nutrition and little or no to evaluate other factors that may influence
tendency to gain weight. If, during a ten-year the perceived muscle strength. Confirming
period, he gains five pounds, his self-selection diagnostic criteria for the need of any
of food has regulated his caloric intake to a nutrition should be present from the patients
minimum error. During this period, if he were other diagnostic work-up, which may include
moderately active he would have consumed history, type of dysfunction, laboratory tests,
approximately 12,000 pounds of moist food. physical diagnosis, and dietary inadequacies.
If there was a 1% error of caloric intake over . . . An adequate educational background is
the ten years, he would have gained or lost needed in evaluating nutritional needs and
120 pounds. With the five-pound gain, his
manual muscle testing. The use of manual
muscle testing by lay salespeople has created The primary method of testing nutrition in
problems due to their untrained nature and applied kinesiology is to have the patient chew
enthusiasm to sell their products. the substance to be tested. The influence on the
Some have described the testing of nutrition by body appears to be the result of stimulating
manual muscle testing as a simple procedure, the gustatory and olfactory receptors. Oral
8, 9, 11, 12
which it certainly is not. One must be absorption may also influence the body.
aware of the various factors that influence
manual muscle testing, such as subluxations, In simple daily observation, one can see many
lymphatic drainage, intrinsic neurologic instances in which chewing nutrition quickly
dysfunction, balance of the meridian system, changes an individual. A hungry, crying child
and function of the cranialsacral primary quiets immediately upon nursing or obtaining
respiratory system. These are only a few of other food. An irritable hypoglycemic
the many factors that have been found to individual calms immediately upon chewing
influence the manual muscle test. They must food, long before there can be any rise in the
be taken into consideration when evaluating blood sugar level from the substance.
an individual for his nutritional needs.
The importance of the gustatory system on
Nutritional testing with the modified methods health is illustrated in a report by Pangborn
of holding the nutrition in the hand, laying 19 about a Russian study by Murskii wherein
it on the body, holding a bottle that contains dogs were killed, then resuscitated. Early
the substance, and touching various reflex recovery of the gustatory function was always
points about the body is often the main subject associated with successful resuscitation.
of a book or booklet produced for general In cases where recovery was difficult and
public reading. In some instances, these cortical cells did not regain full function, the
procedures are taught at weekend seminars ability to distinguish food from non-foods was
that may be sponsored by companies trying to sometimes disturbed. The early development
sell their nutritional products. In fact, some of taste sensation emphasizes the importance
nutrition companies have taught lay people of gustatory function. The newborn human
to do muscle testing to convince prospective infant is able to distinguish water from
customers to buy the product. When one tries sugar solutions. 20, 21 Fetal sheep can taste,
to prove something to another individual as measured at the chorda tympani nerve,
with manual muscle testing, errors often as early as 100 days into the gestation period
result. The examiner may unconsciously (term = 147 days).22
change the parameters of the test (or may
not even know what the parameters are), and When chewing nutrition changes muscle
make the test come out the way he expects function as perceived by the manual muscle
due to his enthusiasm for the procedure.17 test, the change is almost immediate. It seems
In no way should the modified procedures be evident that the effect is due to stimulation
confused with applied kinesiology methods. of the gustatory and olfactory receptors. Oral
The skilled applied kinesiologist uses manual absorption of some of the chewed material
muscle testing to evaluate nutrition as an may stimulate remote receptors. As will be
adjunct to standard laboratory and physical discussed later, certain substances enter
diagnostic methods. All factors of the the bloodstream almost immediately by oral
examination should correlate, or something absorption.
is being missed. Research sponsored by the
ICAK 18 points out that manual muscle testing Most of the research done on testing nutrition
to evaluate nutrition, whether chewed or held by applied kinesiology methods has been
in the hand, is not a viable approach in and of clinical correlation of muscle testing results
itself. when specific nutrition is chewed, in correlation
with the clinical and laboratory examinations
previously mentioned. The literature has How a substance tastes to an individual does
many examples of how gustatory receptors not appear to have any bearing on applied
and oral absorption change body function. kinesiology nutritional testing. The results of
Research shows widespread interaction the test appear to depend on how the nervous
within the nervous system and the body in system reacts physiologically to the substance.
general from nutritional stimulation. Most of The sensation of taste as subjectively
the research discussed here was done prior to evaluated by the subject is a hedonic one and
the clinical knowledge of the effect chewing appears to be evaluated on another level. 26
nutrition has on manual muscle testing. The attractiveness of food, its texture, and an
Further research must be done, taking into individuals previous experience playa major
consideration the influence of nutritional role in what he chooses to eat. A fresh apple is
products on the nervous system and the identified as such by its odor. Peel and mash
great amount of neuromuscular, organ, and a raw apple and a potato to eliminate the
gland interaction. Most of the basic research texture characteristics. It will be difficult to
has been done on the control of food and determine which is which when each is tasted
water intake under normal and abnormal with the nose and eyes closed. Cold milk, beer,
conditions. There have been group and and soup are distinctly different in taste from
isolated studies done on innate self-selection hot milk, beer, and soup. One easily recognizes
and its effect on health and diseased states. the optimal temperature of wine or meat.
While these studies have nearly all indicated Changing the visual stimulation of the food
that self-selection enhances health, we will by adding tasteless food coloring increases
also consider how education, environment, or decreases its attractiveness. Try serving
emotions, and status satisfaction override blue-yolked eggs or black cereal! The change
proper innate self-selection. in desire is due to a learned response, not the
dark color, since black caviar and olives rank
Progressive research on applied kinesiology among the most desired delicacies.
nutritional testing should not be limited to the
gustatory receptors. Food and water intake Stimulation of the gustatory receptors elicits
is regulated by a combination of peripheral specific preferences in drinking or eating or - on
and central systems. Stevenson 23 presents an the other hand - in rejecting particular foods.
overview of this integration. Chemoreceptors, Pfaffmann, 27 in discussing the pleasures of
such as the glucoreceptors in the hypothalamus sensation, emphasizes the hedonic aspects
and liver and liporeceptors monitoring the of sensory stimulation and suggests that
fat deposits, provide information about the sensory input to the hypothalamus and
bodys reserves. It has been suggested that other structures of the limbic system may be
glucoreceptors provide a short-term control involved in hedonic and reinforcing features
of food intake relative to immediate energy of stimulation, as compared with cognitive
needs, while the liporeceptors provide a long- and arousal functions. Some items tested
term control for the maintenance of body with applied kinesiology methods fit into
weight. Additionally, the osmoreceptors, the pleasurable realm, while others are
stretch receptors, and baroreceptors reflect distinctly unpleasurable. Typically, sugar
blood volume and extracellular fluid will cause a hypoadrenic individual to test
volume. Even thermoreceptors playa role in weak on its ingestion, while a vile-tasting
regulating food intake. It is well-known that product for adrenal supplementation will
the environmental temperature influences cause a previously weak associated muscle
food intake in man and animals. Hypo- or to strengthen. Those who use manual
hyperactivity of endocrine glands, such as muscle testing to evaluate nutrition should
the thyroid 24 and adrenal,25 modifies taste be thoroughly familiar with the nervous
sensation and reaction to stimulation. systems role in nutrition. Although much of
the basic research was done prior to the use of
manual muscle testing to evaluate nutrition, 13 Wynder, E. L., Cancer Prevention,
it provides a foundation for further basic and in 1981 Medical and Health Annual, ed E.
clinical research to understand the action Bernstein (Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica,
taking place. 1980)
1 Roe, D. A., Drug Induced Nutritional 14 Williams, R. J., Biochemical Individuality
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Co. Inc. 1976) (Austin, TX: Univ of Texas Press, 1956)

2 Adolph, E. F., Urges to eat and drink in 15 International College of Applied

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3. Chancellor, P. M., ed, Handbook of the Vol 26, No 3 (Nov/Dec 1983)
Back Flower Remedies (London: The C W
Daniel Co Ltd. 1971) 16 International College of Applied
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Edward Bach, Physician (New Canaan, Ct. 1984)
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17 Schwrtz, J. P., Some dangers in the
5 Parsons, L. G., Scurvy treated with development of new techniques in applied
ascorbic acid, Clin Orthop, No 222 (Sept kinesiology. Proceedings of Winter Meeting ,
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6 Barton, J.E., How to take Care of 18 Triano, J. J., Muscle strength testing
yourselves Naturally (Medford, OR: as a diagnostic screen for supplemental
Harman Press, 1977 nutritional therapy: A blind study, J Manip
Physiol Ther, Vol 5, No 4 ( Dec 1982)
7 Barton, J. E. & Barton, M., Which
Vitamin? Nutritional Care through Muscle 19 Pangborn, R. M., Some aspects of
Testing ( E. Longmeadow, MA: Celecom chemoreception in human nutrition in The
Corporation, 1979) Chemical Senses and Nutrition, ed M.R.
Kare & O. Mailer (Baltimore: The Johns
8 Fischman, W., & Grinims, M. MRT (New Hopkins Press, 1967)
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20 Mailler, O.,& Desor, J. A., Effect of taste
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with Nutrition (Riverside, CA: Color Coded Sensation and Perception Development
Systems, 1977) in the Fetus and Infant, ed J.F. Bosma
(Bethesda: U.S. DHEW, 1973)
10 Peshek, R. J., ed, Nutrition for a
Healthy Heart for the Treatment of Pain ( 21 Nisbett, R. E., Gurwitz, S. B., Weight,
Riverside, CA: Color Coded Charting, 1979) sex and the eating behavior of human
newborns, J Comp Physiol Psychol, Vol 73,
11 Sheinkin, D. M., Schacter & Hutton, R., No 2 (1970)
The Food Connection ( Indianapolis: The
Bobbs-Merrill Co. 1979) 22 Bradley, R.M., & Mistretta, C.M.,
Investigations of taste function and
12 Thie, J. F., Touch for Health, revised ed swallowing in fetal sheep, in Oral
(Marina del Rey, CA: DeVorse & Co., 1979) Sensations and Perception Development
in the Fetus and Infant, ed J.F. Bosma
(Bethesda: U.S. DHEW, 1973)

23 Stevenson, J.A.A., Sensory mechanisms

and multi-factor regulation of food and water
intake, Ann NY Acad Sci (May 15, 1969)

24 Hoshisima, H. et al., The mechanism

of insulin secretion after oral glucose
administration, Diabetologist, Vol 8 (Apr

25 Fregly, M.J., Specificity of the sodium

chloride appetite of adrenalectomized rats;
substitution of lithium chloride for sodium
chloride, Am J Physiol, Vol 195, No 3 (Dec

26 Kare, M.R., Some functions of the sense

of taste, J Agr Food Chem, Vol 17, No 4 (Jul/
Aug 1969)

27 Pfafmann, C. The pleasures of

sensation, Psych Rev, Vol 67, No. 4 (1960)

28 Goodheart, G. J., Jr., The Cranial

Sacral and Nutritional Reflexes and Their
Relationship to Muscle Balancing ( Detroit:
privately published, 1968

29 Goodheart, G.J., Jr., Structural

imbalance and nutritional absorption ( a new
route to the brain), Chiro Econ, Vol 13, No 3
(Nov/Dec 1970)

30 Brimhall, J.W., Inhalation therapy,

Proceedings of Summer Meeting, ICAK,
Detroit, 1979

Structural Challenge
One of the three original findings of Goodheart
is the concept of challenge. Using muscle This is a method of testing that will deter-
testing or other biomechanical indicators, the mine if a vertebra, when pressed in a specific
body is challenged for the positive or negative direction, can return to its normal position in
affects of different stimuli. a state of equilibrium. It is used to determine
the direction of a subluxation of a vertebra.
In nutritional testing, substances that may
be detrimental to a person can be insalivated If a subluxated vertebra is pressed in a direc-
or challenged by smelling and strong muscles tion that reduces the subluxation and is held
will weaken or you may find increased muscle in that position, a muscle that was previously
tenderness or decreases in range of motion. weak due to that subluxation will now test
The same negative effects can be monitored strong. When the vertebra is released, the
by changes in vital capacity and/or changes in intrinsic muscles of the spine will contract
pulse rate. and temporarily pull the vertebra further into
subluxation and any previously strong muscle
The challenge concept is easy to understand will now test weak.
in relationship to muscle weakness related
with nerve problems. If they muscle is weak Test and find a convenient strong muscle. A
due to a nerve entrapment, correction of the force of 1 - 3 pounds is applied is a specific
nerve entrapment will cause the muscle to vector. Quickly, within five seconds, retest
strengthen. Likewise twisting, rotating or the muscle and determine if the muscle has
stretching the nerve may produce weakness weakened.
if there is in involvement along the pathway
of the nerve. Apply pressure in any and all directions that
the vertebra in question can subluxate and
Challenge can be used with either a strong retest the muscle. Record all directions that
muscle or a weak muscle. If you start with a cause weakness to occur.
weak muscle then only those factors, which are
related to that muscle weakness, will cause a The vertebra is in a position opposite to that of
change or improvement in the strength of the any vector of force which causes a weakening
muscle. of the indicator muscle. Correction must be
made into the direction that caused the greatest
In discussing the challenge mechanism, weakness. Correction should be made on the
it is common to refer to a strong indicator phase of respiration that abolishes the weak-
muscle. This is a muscle which is strong and ness induced by the challenge.
can easily be inhibited by using techniques
such stimulating the spindle cells as to turn If the subluxation is chronic, check for involve-
down the strength, the sedation point of the ment of the intrinsic muscles of the spine. If
related acupuncture circuit, placing a battery the challenge direction is straight lateral, then
over the related meridian or simply tracing the rotatory brevis will be the major muscle
the meridian in the opposite direction of its involved. Lateral but superior direction is
normal flow of energy to produce a temporary indicative of rotatory longus involvement,
weakness. and superior-inferior directions indicate the
interspinalis muscles.

Pressure applied to a vertebra causes the

muscles to react, opposing this motion and

further subluxating the vertebra. This has the pressure, the muscles momentarily contract,
been termed rebound. rebounding the atlas in a direction exactly
opposite the original pressure. If the atlas
For example, pressure applied to the atlas on was originally subluxated in this direction,
the right lateral mass will cause the capitis the resultant rebound will cause the atlas to
muscles to resist the pressure. On removing move into a position of greater subluxation and
weaken a strong indicator muscle.


When dealing with weak muscle organ necessary to produce cortisol. If the patient
related problems, consideration must be presents with symptoms of hypoadrenia and
given to the biochemical factors that are has a weak gracilis muscle, then questions
necessary for proper organ function. For and challenges for the above factors will
example, Goodheart found that the gracilis help isolate those nutrients that the patient
muscle is related with adrenal cortex specifically needs. One interesting factor
involvement. The adrenal cortex produces is that when the correct nutrients are
steroid hormones. Cholesterol is the basic introduced and chewed by the patient, related
raw ingredient. The initial cofactors that are organ or muscle tenderness patterns will be
necessary for cholesterol to transform and dramatically reduced.
stimulate the biochemical pathway are niacin
and or niacinamide. Other cofactors such as
vitamin E and zinc are necessary to produce
testosterone and estrogen. Pantothenic acid,
vitamin C, folic acid and B-12 are cofactors

Neurolymphatic Reflexes

History These were first discovered by Frank Chapman D.O., in the 1930s as
reflexes that would affect the lymphatic drainage of specific organs in
the body. His system was to treat the area associated with an organ

In 1965, Goodheart related the lymphatic reflex points to specific muscle-

organ dysfunctions.

Location There are both anterior and posterior reflexes occurring in pairs for each
muscle-organ relationship.

The reflexes are located over the muscles of the neck, back, chest, abdo-
men, and thighs.

Treatment The reflexes are contacted with a firm pressure and manipulated in a
rotary fashion.

Time of treatment can vary from a few seconds to eight to ten minutes.

Try not to over stimulate, as this will fatigue the point and cause the
patient discomfort.

Symptoms Aside from the obvious symptoms of edema, whether pitting in nature
or localized as in joint trauma, the following are indications of possible
lymphatic congestion.

Tenderness of muscles or organs

Infections such as tonsillitis, otitis, lung infections, etc.

Weakness upon prolonged exertion, like stair climbing

Decreased organ function.

Neurovascular Reflexes

History These reflexes were first reported by Terrence Bennett, D.C., in the
1930s, as empirical points that would affect circulation to specific or-
gans in the body.

In 1966, Goodheart related the vascular points to specific organ-muscle


Physiology The vasomotor center is located in the lower third of the pons and the
upper two-thirds of the medulla. The upper lateral sections control
vasoconstriction while the rest inhibits the action controlling vasodila-
tation. The continuous working of these areas controls vasomotor tone.

The control of vasodilatation and vasoconstriction can be influenced by

higher centers in the brain, and it is through the use of the Bennett
reflexes, somatoautonomic reflexes, that circulation is influenced.

Location These reflexes are almost entirely located on the skull.

They consist of small localized areas that embryologically have a vas-

cular relation with the associated muscle-organ complex.

Treatment The points are contacted with a light tugging of the skin overlying the
point. Vary the direction of the contact until a maximum pulsation is

The rate of pulsation should be between 70 and 74 beats per minute

and will vary only slightly in relationship to the patients heart rate.

The length of time is usually from 20-30 seconds, however, thermal

biofeedback work has shown the need for selected points to be held for
up to five minutes.

Partial list of commonly used lymphatic reflexes

Lung - Deltoid
Liver - Pectoralis sternal
Stomach - Pectoralis clavicular
Pancreas - Latissimus Dorsi

Adrenals - Sartoirius/Gracilis
Bladder - Tibialis anterior

Neurovascular reflexes

Meridian Therapy

Goodheart became aware of the concepts of

acupuncture from the book written by Felix 1. Stimulation of meridian points to balance
Mann of England. the energies of the body.

This book outlined the basic concepts devel- 2. Dietary changes as well as the use of
oped by the Chinese. It described the basic herbs.
theories and the usage of the meridian points.
This book and the one by Mary Austin formed 3. Manipulation of the spine.
the basis of the ideas developed by Goodheart.
4. Psychotherapy through meditation and
One of the most important sentences in the introspective analysis.
book was one that stated that every time
there is a meridian imbalance there would be Energy, chi, flows through the body in distinct
a spinal problem at a specific spinal level re- pathways called meridians. Chi is defined as
lated to the median. the energy of life. Without it, we are dead.
Chi has a positive, yang, nature and a nega-
The primary intent of the acupuncturist is to tive, yin, nature. Both aspects of chi are es-
prevent sickness and disease. sential to health, but a delicate balance must
be maintained between them.
The doctor who treats disease is considered
a secondary practitioner. The higher doctor Imbalances, in the meridian system, result in
prevents the disease. too much chi in one meridian and too little chi,
energy, in one or more meridians. Imbalanc-
The oldest known reference is The Yellow es can arise from dietary imbalances, trauma,
Emporerors Classic of Internal Medicine or environmental factors, seasonal changes, or
the Nei Ching. This was supposedly written emotional upsets. Imbalances of energy are
by Huang Ti, the Yellow Emperor, who ruled corrected by stimulating acupuncture points
from 2696 to 2598 B.C. on the meridian pathways and manipulating
the spine at a specific spinal level. Dietary ad-
The Nei Ching is a dialogue between Huang vice is also given to aid in the correction of the
Ti and his minister Chi Po. In this discus- imbalance.
sion, the emperor poses questions and the
minister branches into answers that turn into There are twelve major and two minor merid-
long discourses on health. ians. The major ones are located on each side
of the body and form a continuous pathway
Acupuncture, meridian therapy, has been that energy is supposed to pass through daily.
practiced in China for over 5,000 years. These meridians are mostly named for organs.

The basic philosophy is that man is a small Goodheart was able to confirm one of his pri-
universe and the natural laws of positive and or observations, that muscles can be related
negative that control the universe also control with organs, by sedating a meridian and test-
man. ing the muscle that he felt related to that me-
Classical acupuncture consists of four basic
methods of treatment:

Meridian - Muscle Relationships

The meridians are pathways that energy travels over. This energy appears
to be electromagnetic as placing a battery or magnet over the meridian will
"short" the meridian and the associated muscles will test weak. Research
done at the National College of Chiropractic showed that there is an electri-
cal resistance in the meridians that is related to the number of points that
the Chinese believed the meridian contained.

Meridian Code Associated Muscles

Lung Lu Deltoids, Anterior Serratus, Coracobrachialis

Large Intestine LI Tensor Fascia Lata, Hamstrings, Quadratus


Spleen/Pancreas SP Latissimus Dorsi, Triceps, Mid and Lower Trapezius

Stomach ST Pectoralis clavicular, Neck Flexors and Extensors,

Sternocleidomastoid, Biceps, Brachioradialis,
Supinator, Pronator Teres, Masseter, Temporalis,
Internal and External Pterygoid

Triple Warmer TW Teres Minor, Infraspinatus

Circulation/Sex Cx Sartorius, Gracilis, Gluteus Maximus, Gluteus

Medius, Adductors, Piriformis,

Small Intestine SI Quadriceps, Abdominals

Heart Ht Subscapularis

Gall Bladder GB Popliteus

Liver Lv Pectoralis Sternal, Rhomboid

Bladder Bl Tibialis Anterior, Peroneus Longus& Brevis,


Kidney K Psoas, Iliacus, Upper Trapezius

Pulse Points
Use Pulse points are used to diagnose imbalances in the meridians.

Location They are located on both wrists on the radial artery.

Classically, there are 12 pulses, six on each wrist with three superficial and
three deep.

One other pulse position has been found by Goodheart. This position is
diagnostic for imbalances in the Vessel of Conception and the Governing

Therapy Pulse points are normally therapy localized by the patient.
Pulse points can also be therapy localized by the doctor. Care must
therefore be exercised, when testing the arm that no contact is made by the
doctor over the pulse points. If the pulse points are contacted, erroneous
information may be ascertained.

When a pulse point positively therapy localizes, an imbalance may exist,

in either the superficial or deep meridian. To determine which, test the
associated muscle or therapy localize to the Alarm Points to determine which
(or both) is involved.

Circulation/sex (S)
Triple warmer (D)
Bladder (S)
Kidney (D)
Stomach (S)
Gall Bladder (S)
Spleen/Pancreas (D)
Liver (D)
Lung (S)
Small Intestine (S)
Large Intestine (D)
Heart (D)
Governing Vessel
Governing Vessel
Conception Vessel
Conception Vessel

The exact points are located by having the patient touch

the first point and then just slightly separate the fingers so
that they do not touch. There are in classical acupuncture
superficial (S) and deep (D) pulses.

Alarm Points

Location Six are singular points for both the right and the left meridians, while six
meridians have both right and left alarm points. There are also two additional
points for the Governing Vessel and the Vessel of Conception meridians.

Use Therapy localization to the alarm points will cause a strong muscle to weaken if
there is an imbalance in the meridian associated with the alarm point.

If a weak muscle is strengthened by having the patient contact an alarm point,

then treatment of the indicated meridian will help restore normal function to
the indicated muscle-organ combination.

Alarm points will be tender if there is an imbalance in the associated meridian.

Alarm points are not treatment points. They are strictly diagnostic points.

Cv -17 Circulation/sex
Triple Warmer
Superior Point

Lung Lu - 1 Cv - 15 Pericardium
discovered by
Gall Bladder GB - 23 Soulie de Morant
Secondary ----- Cv - 14 Heart
Liver Lv - 14 Cv - 12 Triple warmer
Middle point
Gall Bladder GB - 24 (Stomach)
Main ----- Cv - 7 Triple warmer
Spleen/Pancreas Lv - 13 Inferior point

Cv - 5 Triple warmer
Kidney GB - 25 Main point
on back -- Cv - 4 Small Intestine
Large Intestine St - 25 Cv - 3 Bladder

FELIX MANN MB - BChir (Cambridge), LMCC (McGill)

President of the Medical Acupuncture Society

Associated Points

Location Each meridian has an associated point on each side of the spine. The
points lie between two vertebrae, and can indicate a subluxation of either

Use Felix Mann has stated in his book on Acupuncture, that every time there
is a meridian imbalance, there is a spinal subluxation at the level of the
associated point of the involved meridian.

Goodheart confirmed this finding and also determined that a spinal

subluxation can cause a meridian imbalance.

Research, performed by Robert Perolman, has shown that this subluxation

will be found at the level of the excess meridian.

Associated points will also be tender to palpation if there is an imbalance in

the associated meridian.

Every time that a meridian imbalance is found, after correcting the energy
flow by treating the appropriate points, the spine must be challenged and
adjusted at the level of the blocked meridian and its corresponding Lovetts

T3-4 Lung

T4-5 Circulation/Sex

T5-6 Heart

T 9 - 10 Liver

T 10 - 11 Gall Bladder

T 11 - 12 Spleen/Pancreas

T 12 - L - 1 Stomach

L1-2 Triple Warmer

L2-3 Kidney

L4-5 Large Intestine

S-1 Small Intestine

S-2 Bladder

Category II Pelvic Subluxations
Definition should be challenged and corrected including
nutritional support.
This refers to a sacroiliac
misalignment or subluxation. The pelvic misalignment can be corrected
The category system was by either placing a block at the level of the
first described by DeJarnette. crest of the ilium on the short leg side and
Goodheart correlated muscle one on the opposite side below the buttocks
imbalances with the different to raise the ischial tuberosity, and have the
possible misalignments of the patient lie supine until the pelvis no longer
pelvis. This correlates with the therapy localizes or challenges with the blocks
marking system developed by removed; or place the patient in a side lying
Gonstead. position and adjust the ilium in the challenge

Therapy localization Anterior Ilium

(Posterior Ischium) - Long Leg
With the patient either standing or in a
supine position, the patient contacts first Tenderness is found on the lateral thigh, the
one sacroiliac joint and then the other and obturator foramina and the first rib attachments
a strong muscle is tested for weakening (one anteriorly and posteriorly with the anterior
hand to one joint). If this causes weakening ilium (posterior ischium).
of a strong indicator muscle, respiration can
be used to help determine if the innominate Weakness of the biceps femoris and the vastus
is rotated. The abdominals are inhibited on lateralis will be found and all associated
inspiration. This allows medial rotation of reflexes should be challenged and corrected.
the posterior superior iliac spins (PSIS). On Occasionally, abdominal weakness is a
expiration, the abdominals contract and the contributing factor.
PSIS is pulled laterally. Consequently, if the
positive therapy localization is changed by The pelvic subluxation can be corrected by
either full inspiration or expiration, a rotation placing the patient in a side lying position
of the pelvis is present. If the strengthening and adjusting the ischium or through the use
occurs on inspiration, the PSIS has moved of the blocks as described above. An alternate
lateral and needs to be corrected medially. If blocking procedure is to have the patient
the strengthening occurs on expiration, then stabilize the blocks and first flex the short
the PSIS needs to be corrected in a lateral leg to ninety degrees and then rotate the leg
direction. away from the body and then straighten the
leg. The long leg is then flexed and rotated
Posterior Ilium - Short Leg across the body and then returned to its
normal position.
Tenderness is found at the origin and
insertion of the sartorius and the gracilis as Internal - External Iliac Rotation
well as at the first rib head at the sternum
and at the attachment of the first rib and the Positive therapy localization of the sacroiliac
first thoracic vertebra. joint may indicate either internal or external
rotation of the ilium.
Weakness will be found of the sartorius
and/or the gracilis. All associated reflexes An internal ilium may be found to be associated

with weakness of the transverse and obliqueIn both cases, correction is obtained by
abdominals. adjusting the patient in a side lying position.
The direction of force is determined by
An external rotation of the ilium is found challenging the ilium to determine the vector
associated with a weakness of the gluteus of force that strengthens the indicator muscle
medius/minimus on the same side. the most.

Tenderness is found along the origin of the

gluteus medius in external rotation and along
the insertion of the oblique abdominals at
the crest of the ilium when the innominate is
internally rotated.

Tenderness patterns

First rib
At both its anterior and
posterior ends

Abdominal Oblique
Internal rotation

Gluteus medius
External rotation

Iliotibial band
Anterior ilium

Posterior ilium

Rectus Femoris
Flexes the thigh on the pelvis and extends the
lower leg on the femur. It is the muscle that
initiates the forward motion of the femur in
walking after toe off. The muscle is more ac-
tive than other sections of the quadriceps in
climbing stairs.


During the swing phase of gait it contributes

to hip flexion. Aids in knee flexion. Aids the
prime movers of thigh abduction, flexion and
lateral rotation. The muscle is extremely active
in running, jumping, throwing, cycling, the
tennis serve and in baseball batting.


Functions in adduction of the thigh

Assist in thigh flexion.
Assists in knee flexion if the knee is
Assists in medial rotation of the tibia when
the knee is flexed.

Gluteus Maximus

Extends and laterally rotates the thigh. The

upper fibers of the muscle aid in abduction of
the thigh . It functions during walking only
with long strides as in running or in jumping.
It functions along with the hamstring to decel-
erate the leg when using a long stride and aids
in stabilization of the knee after heel strike.


When the leg is free to move, they flex the knee

and extend the thigh on the pelvis. With the leg
fixed, they assist in maintaining erect posture
while walking, and aid in the deceleration of
the leg at the end of the swing phase of gait.
The medial hamstrings aid in medial rotation
and the lateral in lateral rotation of the thigh.

Gluteus Medius

This is the primary abductor of the femur. It

stabilizes the pelvis on the femur as the weight
is being transferred over the foot at mid stance.
Assists in medial rotation of the thigh.

Abdominal Oblique

The muscle supports the abdominal viscera,

aids in rotational support for the pelvis. It aids
in the respiratory process through its reflex
relaxation during inspiration and its contrac-
tion during forced expiration.

Muscle Testing and Upper Extremity Peripheral Nerve

David W. Leaf, D.C. pain from the shoulder to the hand and cold
hands with symptoms similar to Raynauds
Abstract: Muscle testing can be used as a phenomenon. The entrapment of the brachial
diagnostic key to determine the existence of plexus causes sensory symptoms on the
peripheral nerve entrapments. This paper ulnar side of the hand. Travell reports that
discusses the basic entrapment syndromes of trigger points in the scalene muscles will
the upper extremity and the related findings cause referred pain on the radial aspect of
using muscle testing. the hand. On inspection, the small muscles
of the hand may appear to have atrophied.
Muscle testing will usually reveal no overt
In examining a patient, symptoms in the upper signs of weakness unless the anterior
extremity are often confused and improperly scalenes are stressed. The stress is applied
related to a spinal causative factor. Especially by varying the position of the patient,
following any fall or automobile accident standing, leaning over and fully inspiring
the upper extremity must be examined for or having the patient elevate the head while
peripheral; entrapment syndromes. The lying supine. Examination of the anterior
major entrapment syndromes are presented scalene will uncover an intact muscle that
here with their symptomatic picture and has trigger points. These are usually the
muscle testing findings. result of another weak muscle. Frequently
the latissimus dorsi is found involved.

Discussion If weakness is found in the arm with the

patient sitting or standing, raising the arm
Anterior Scalene above the shoulder with anterior rotation of
Syndrome the shoulder elevates the clavicle reducing
any neurovascular entrapment. This same
position can be used in the following three
syndromes to decompress the neurovascular
Compression of the brachial plexus, the bundles.
subclavian artery and the subclavian vein
between the anterior and medial scalene
muscles and the first rib can cause symptoms Costoclavicular Syndrome
throughout the arm. The muscle fibers, if
continually contracted or hypertrophied,
first affect the lower sections of the brachial This syndrome
plexus. When this becomes chronic, the entire refers to entrap-
plexus, composed of nerve roots from C - 5 ments of the bra-
to T - 1 can be affected. Vascular symptoms chial plexus, the
occur due to the compression of the artery subclavian artery
and/or vein. and/or the subcla-
vian vein as they
Symptoms reported by the patient will traverse beneath
usually begin with numbness in the hand the clavicle and
and fingers radiating up into the forearm, over the first rib.

The classical test for entrapment of the axil-
Symptoms of entrapment are usually transient lary artery is the Wright maneuver where
and brought on by motions of the clavicle or the the arm is placed in external rotation and the
first rib. The symptomatic pattern is the same shoulder is abducted. This same position will
as in the anterior scalene syndrome. elicit weakness if the costoclavicular syndrome
is present.
Muscle testing will reveal no overt weakness
patterns until the clavicle or the first rib is Muscle testing will reveal no overt weakness
stressed. Hand muscles can be tested for patterns in some positions. Creation of the
weakening. There are two different positions weakness depends upon the contraction or
that can elicit a weakness pattern. First, the relaxation of the pectoralis minor muscle. If
arm is flexed to 140 degrees and arm or hand the latissimus dorsi is weak allowing eleva-
muscles are tested. This motion rotates the tion and anterior rotation of the shoulder, the
clavicle involving the subclavius muscle. The pectoralis minor will be shortened with trigger
shoulder can also be rotated posteriorly with points in the belly of the muscle. In this case,
the arm extended to 30 degrees. This shoulder testing in the standing or sitting posture will
position is similar to the position used in the reveal weakness of the hand muscles that will
military. Finally, the patient is asked to fully immediately strengthen if the arm is elevated
inspire. This activates the scalene muscles above the horizontal with slight flexion of the
elevating the first rib. If the clavicle has been arm. Care should be taken not to maximally
displaced inferiorly or the first rib is superior elevate the arm, as that will cause the weak-
a weakness pattern will be created in the arm. ness pattern to return.

Pectoralis Minor Syndrome

In this syndrome,
neurovascular en-
trapment of the Suprascapular Nerve Syndrome
brachial plexus, the
axillary artery and
the subclavian vein This is a very com-
can occur between monly overlooked
the fibers and ten- syndrome that can
don of the pectoralis lead to atrophy of the
minor muscle, the infraspinatus and
head of the hu- the supraspinatus
merus and the coracoid process of the scapula. muscles. The supra-
scapular nerve is com-
Symptoms of entrapment are usually transient. posed of fibers arising
The symptomatic pattern is the same as in the from either the C - 5
anterior scalene syndrome. However, these pa- or C - 6 nerve roots. It traverses through the
tients have more vascular symptoms as well as suprascapular fossa and the scapular notch to
signs of lymphatic blockage. This differs from arrive at the supraspinatus fossa. After sup-
the scalene involvement where venous block- plying fibers to the supraspinatus muscle, the
age is paramount. Commonly, this is found in acromioclavicular joint and the subacromial
people who work over their heads or who have bursa, it twists around the base of the spine
excessively developed the pectoral muscles. of the scapula and enters the infraspinatus
Symptoms are aggravated by sleeping with fossa. Due to this tortuous path, the nerve is
the arm elevated or by carrying heavy objects. stretched as the scapula moves if there is any
scapula instability.
Symptoms, reported by patients, will run
the gamut from diffuse shoulder pain that is Supinator Syndrome
hard to localize to complete atrophy of the in-
fraspinatus first and then the supraspinatus In this entrapment
muscles. Symptoms are usually aggravated by syndrome the radial
any activity that requires extensive motion of nerve becomes com-
the scapula. promised as it passes
beneath the supina-
In most cases, there is no overt weakness tor muscle.
pattern. However, if the scapula stabilizers
are weak, especially the serratus anterior or Symptoms occur dur-
rhomboids, the infraspinatus will test weak if ing repeated motions
tested with the arm flexed to 90 degrees with of the forearm. The
anterior rotation of the shoulder. This position throwing motion uses
creates additional torsion on the suprascapular all of these. These can
nerve and if the scapula has inadequate sup- include pronation,
port, the infraspinatus will weaken. wrist flexion and fore-
arm extension. The
pain pattern is described as deep on the pos-
terior aspect of the forearm. Hand weakness
is reported.
Pronator Teres
Syndrome The easiest muscle to test for this syndrome is
the extensor carpi ulnaris. If it is found weak,
This entrapment the head of the radius is approximated to the
syndrome is of the ulna and the muscle is retested. The exten-
median nerve as it sor carpi ulnaris can also be tested when the
passes between the supinator is placed in a strain counterstrain
ulnar and radial position. This position fully relaxes the muscle.
heads of the prona-
tor teres muscle. Af-
ter the nerve passes Ulnar Sulcus Syndrome
the pronator teres,
it divides and sup- The ulnar nerve passes
plies the flexor mus- down the posterior sur-
cles of the wrist and face of the humerus
hand except for the flexor carpi ulnaris and the and passes through a
ulnar portion of the flexor digitorum profundus. sulcus on the medial
epicondyle of the hu-
merus. The epicondylo-
Symptoms reported by the patient will include olecranon ligament sta-
loss of strength throughout the hand, difficulty bilizes the ulna and the
writing, paresthesia throughout the hand and humerus. It also stabilizes the ulnar nerve at
especially the palm. the sulcus and prevents it from moving during
forearm motions.
Muscle testing will reveal weakness of the
finger flexors that resolves when the radius When the ligament is hypertrophied or
and the ulna are approximated just distal to stretched, entrapment of the ulnar nerve
the elbow. occurs. The nerve supplies the flexor carpi
ulnaris, the ulnar portion of the flexor digi-
torum profundus, the interos- median nerve
sei and hypothenar muscles, at the fibro-
the adductor pollicis and the osseous canal
deep head of the flexor pollicis at the wrist.
brevis. The tunnel
is formed by
Symptoms include paresthe- four major
sia and pain over the ulnar bony promi-
nerve distribution and weak- nences, the
ness of the above muscles. pisiform, the
navicular, the
Testing of the flexor carpi hamate and
ulnaris with the elbow first the trapezi-
in extension and then in flex- um. Between
ion may uncover entrapment these bony prominences runs the transverse
of the ulnar nerve. If found, carpal ligament. After this tunnel, the median
the relationship between the nerve gives sensory branches to supply the
humerus and the ulna needs palmar surfaces of the first and second fingers
further inspection. Any chronic subluxation, and motor branches to the opponens pollicis,
dislocation or avulsion can create ulnar nerve abductor pollicis brevis and the superficial
entrapment. After correcting any imbalances, head of the flexor pollicis brevis. Compression
direct attention should be applied to the integ- of the contents of the tunnel can occur due to
rity of the ligament. edema, local subluxation, fracture, etc.

Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Syndrome The patient reports symptoms ranging from
paresthesia, thenar atrophy and weakness.
As the ulnar nerve leaves the sulcus, it These symptoms worsen as the condition
descends between the two heads of the becomes chronic.
flexor carpi ulnaris muscle. The muscle
has a tendinous arch that is formed by the As noted above, the median nerve innervates
arcuate ligament. This runs from the medial the opponens pollicis muscle. Weakness of
epicondyle to the olecranon. this muscle becomes the diagnostic key to
isolating the problem. The muscle should be
The symptomatic pattern is exactly the same tested with the forearm and wrist in a neutral
as the syndrome of the ulnar sulcus. This position, full pronation, full supination, wrist
makes differential diagnosis difficult without extension and wrist flexion.
muscle testing.
Ulnar Tunnel
Accurate testing of the adductor pollicis with Syndrome
the forearm first in a neutral state, then with
full contraction of the flexor carpi ulnaris and
then with a relaxed approximated (strain The ulnar nerve
counterstrain) position of the flexor carpi can become
ulnaris allows insight into the status of the compressed at
ulnar nerve as it passes between the heads of the level of the
the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle. proximal carpal
bones. This tun-
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome nel is bordered
by the pisiform
This syndrome consists of compression of the and the hamate
as well as the transverse carpal ligament and The suprascapular nerve supplies the
the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle. There are two supraspinatus before it bends and winds itself
entrapment syndromes in this area. These cor- around the spine of the scapula. Instability
respond to the superficial and deep branches of the scapula, especially a loss of posterior
of the ulnar nerves that run through the ul- support can lead to stretching of this nerve and
nar tunnel. These nerves supply the sensory subsequent weakness of the infraspinatus.
distribution to the palmar aspect of the fifth
finger and the ulnar side of the fourth finger. The axillary nerve supplies the deltoid and
The deep branch of the ulnar nerve supplies the teres minor muscles. Note that before
the interossei muscles the small muscles of the the nerve bifurcates to supply these muscles,
fourth finger and the adductor pollicis muscle. branches are given off to the subscapularis,
latissimus dorsi and the teres major muscles.
Weakness of either the flexor digiti minimi or Again, these are primary muscles to be used
the opponens digiti minimi muscles is the key in ascertaining the existence of a peripheral
that indicates entrapment of the ulnar nerve nerve entrapment in the area of the shoulder
at the wrist. Once the weakness is found, direc- girdle.
tional pressure is applied against the pisiform
and the hamate until a vector is found that As you progress farther down the arm, the
strengthens the weak muscle. pronator teres is the last muscle supplied
superior to the elbow by the median nerve.
Knowing the status of the pronator teres
Neurology review aids in diagnosing problems arising from
entrapment syndromes inferior to the elbow.
A review of the muscular innervation of the For example, if the flexor carpi radialis is
upper extremity will aid in reviewing the weak and the pronator teres is strong, then
muscle testing sequence for determining the median nerve is involved at the elbow.
nerve entrapments
When the ulnar nerve is entrapped at the
Radial palsy has been reported after elbow, the flexor carpi ulnaris is the first
repetitive forceful contractions of the upper muscle supplied inferior to the elbow. The
arm muscles. Weakness of the deltoid, integrity of the muscle is important if the
especially the middle and posterior sections is flexor digit minimi or opponens digiti minimi
commonly found in acromioclavicular strains. is found weak. Weakness of muscles above
Severe thoracic outlet syndromes can entrap and below the carpal bones indicates an
the superior sections of the brachial plexus entrapment syndrome at the elbow and not
creating weaknesses in the deltoids and the just at the wrist.
teres minor.
When examining the radial nerve, important
There are three muscles innervated by the muscles to test include the supinator, the
musculocutaneous nerve in the upper arm. extensor digitorum muscles and the abductor
Weaknesses of all three of these muscles, the and/or extensor pollicis muscles. Entrapment
coracobrachialis, biceps and the brachialis syndromes as the radial nerve passes downs
may indicate a thoracic outlet syndrome. the forearm will create weakness patterns
relative to the level of the first muscle found
Notice that the ulnar nerve does not supply weak. Generally, all of these muscles will be
any muscles until it is well down the humerus weak if the radial nerve is entrapped.

On the posterior aspect of the shoulder, the In the hand, weakness patterns of the
major missed entrapment syndromes involve opponens pollicis, with a finding of strength in
inadequate stabilization of the scapula. the muscles innervated superior to the wrist
by the median nerve, indicates the probable MUSCLES Testing and Function, Baltimore,
presence of a carpal tunnel syndrome. A MD Williams and Wilkins 1983
common testing procedure will find the flexor Streib, E. Upper arm radial nerve palsy
digitorum superficialis and profundus strong after muscular effort: report of three cases,
and the opponens pollicis weak. If all three Neurology. Vol 42 No 8 Aug. 1992
muscles are found weak, the entrapment Travell, Janet; Simons, David, Myofascial
syndrome is at the elbow or mid forearm Pain and Dysfunction The trigger point
Manual, Baltimore, MD., Williams and
Testing of the ulnar nerve at the wrist Wilkins, 1983
consists of testing for the relative strength of Walther, David, Applied Kinesiology
the opponens digiti minimi or the flexor digiti Synopsis, Pueblo, CO., Systems DC, 1981
minimi in comparison with the strength of the
flexor carpi ulnaris. If the flexor carpi ulnaris
is weak along with the muscles of the fourth
finger, then the ulnar nerve is entrapped at
the level of the elbow or above. Weakness of
the finger muscles in the presence of strength
of the flexor carpi ulnaris indicates a problem
of entrapment at the level of the carpal bones.
Note the innervation of the adductor pollicis.
Improper testing of the opponens pollicis will
result in recruitment of the adductor pollicis
and erroneous findings.


Muscle testing is an art as well as a science. One

of the best uses of muscle testing is in aiding
your examination procedures. Reproducible
results depend on consistent testing. This
testing must not only be reproducible from
one examination of another, but must also be
done accurately. A common error is improper
testing of the opponens pollicis muscle. If
this test is properly performed, you are
testing median nerve function. If the test is
done improperly, you could be testing the
ulnar nerve or a combination test that would
challenge the integrity of the median as well
and the ulnar nerve.


Cravens, G.; Kline, D., Posterior interosseous

nerve palsies, neurosurgery, Vol27, No. 3
(Sep. 1990)
Gray, Henry; Goss, Charles, Anatomy of
the Human Body, Philadelphia, PA, Lea &
Frebiger 1966
Kendall, Florence; McCreary, Elizabeth,
Cranial Motion

By David Walther, D.C., DIBAK

Excerpted from Synopsis The plastic nature of bone in vivo is illustrated
Systems DC Pueblo CO 1988 in a study by Stowe et al. 2 Orthogonal x-ray
beams were used to measure the absolute and
One who works with the cranial-sacral relative movements and consequent torsion of
primary respiratory mechanism is often the adult human forearm in vivo during its
confronted with the question, Do the bones of rotation from maximum voluntary supination
the skull really move? Although the question to maximum voluntary pronation. A torsion
becomes an irritant to those knowledgeable of 69 was observed in the ends of the radius;
about cranial function, it is a reasonable 34 was seen between the ends of the ulna.
one to ask since most persons trained in the
healing arts are taught that the primary The histology of a suture is that of a joint
purpose of the skull is to protect the brain and designed for motion. Pritchard et al. 3 found
provide a place to hang the face. In addition, five distinct layers of cells and fibers between
students are exposed to the skull as a dried the edges of the adjoining bones in human
osteologic specimen, or in a cadaver wherein specimens. They concluded that. . . histology
little study is usually made of the skull and of the sutures suggests that it has two main
its mechanisms. functions, viz. that it is a site of active bone
growth and that it is at the same time a firm
This writer has spent hundreds of hours bond of union between the neighboring bones,
studying the disarticulated bones of the skull which nevertheless allows a little movement.
for initial education, and hundreds more The first of five layers making up the suture
while doing photography for a textbook.1 I is bone. The cambial layer is the growth
cannot understand how anyone can study the center that thins as growth ceases, and the
pivot points, angles of articulation, lines from capsular layer is light cartilage that provides
bones sliding on each other, and gear-train protection. The middle aspect in the suture
mechanisms of a disarticulated skull and not is a vascular layer similar to the synovial
conclude that it is designed for motion. The joint cavity. Finally, covering the suture is
ossification of sutures that occurs in some the uniting layer that is the homologue of the
skulls in later life is a pathologic process, not fibrous capsule.
a natural one.
Upledger et al. 4 studied specimens taken from
In addition to the joints of the skull, one must living adult skulls at the time of neurosurgical
recognize the flexibility of living bone. What craniotomies. Along with connective tissue,
is not considered in most doctors education the sutures were shown to have the presence
is that the skull in vivo is a dynamic, plastic of viable myelinated and unmyelinated nerve
structure that has additional organized fibers and nerve receptor endings.5, 6 One
activity. Studying the skull from a dried method of examining the cranium for faults is
specimen or in a cadaver is similar to studying for the applied kinesiologist to apply pressure
a telephone pole as if it were a living tree. to various portions of the skull and observe
The telephone pole is rigid, the sap is dried, for a manual muscle test change. It appears
there is no living flow, and an effort to bend that stimulation of the neurostructures in the
it could cause it to break. A living tree, on the suture is responsible for some of the remote
other hand, has water and nutrients in its muscle changes observed. Motion of the skull
veins. It bends and sways with the breeze bones has been objectively measured. The
and progresses through its life cycle from year first study was made by Frymann.7 When
to year. she applied transducers to a subjects head,
she found a rhythmic autonomous motion condition has been present for a considerable
supporting Sutherlands 8 original observation time the teeth may have changed position
of 10-14 cycles per minute. by the natural process of remodelling, thus
locking in the cranial faults. In this case it
Further motion studies have been done to may be necessary to consult a dentist for a bite
eliminate effects of intervening tissue between plane, and perhaps eventual equilibration of
the transducer probe and the skull. Michael the teeth.
and Retzlaff 9 attached force transducers to
a screw eye placed in the parietal bone of The pelvis and sacrum are intricately involved
anesthetized monkeys. A cyclic cranial bone in the cranial primary respiratory mechanism,
displacement of 5-7 cycles per minute was and may require chiropractic correction to
observed that could not be attributed to either eliminate temporomandibular joint or occlusal
respiration or heart rate. problems. A short leg has been indicted as a
cause of malocclusion. Strachan and Robinson,
The position of cranial bones in relation to 13 of the Chicago College of Osteopathy, were
each other can be observed on accurately the first to observe a short legs influence
positioned x-rays. 10 Cranial nerve V angles on malocclusion. Evaluating the pattern of
over the petrous apex of the temporal bone. masticatory muscles with electromyography,
Gardner 11 measured the height of the petrous they removed a 3/8 heel lift from a standing
apex by x-ray and found that trigeminal subjects shoe and found an altered firing
neuralgia occurred three times more often on sequence of the muscles of mastication during
the side of the high petrous apex than on the chewing. When the lift was worn, the muscles
low side. showed the firing pattern of normal occlusion;
with it removed, the firing pattern was one of
Cranial distortion may change the dental a severe malocclusion. In applied kinesiology,
occlusion by mandibular movement change an apparent short leg is quite often found to
or by disrelation of the cranial bones. be a result of pelvic distortion. The leg usually
Malocclusion is a common complaint following balances with pelvic correction. In any event,
an auto accident with whiplash dynamics their study reveals the importance of remote
to the neck and head. Many doctors fail to postural imbalance on the stomatognathic
appreciate this because the patient often does system.
not discuss it with the orthopedically-inclined
physician. If the patient discusses the matter The stomatognathic system is very active
with a dentist who is not knowledgeable about in the dynamic motions of the body. During
cranial motion, the teeth may be equilibrated walking the sternocleidomastoid and upper
to match the distorted skull; this locks in the trapezius muscles are alternately inhibited
cranial faults and makes correction difficult or and facilitated, providing a rhythmic pull on
impossible without further dental attention. cranial bones. Because of the stomatognathic
Baker 12 found a 0.0276 increase in the systems muscle interaction with the rest of
distance between the second molars following the body, improper gait and other dysfunction
cranial manipulation. may be the perpetuating cause of recurrent
cranial faults.
It is important to understand all of the aspects
that can be involved in dysfunction of the
stomatognathic system. A patient may come Integration of the Stomatognathic System
to a chiropractor for a whiplash-type injury to
the cervical spine. This condition often relates
with cranial faults that may in turn cause With normal function there is predictable
malocclusion. Correcting the cranial faults movement of the cranial bones. It continues
may correct the malocclusion; however, if the throughout life, cycling 10-14 times per
minute, and is called the primary respiratory of the frontal bone move medially. In applied
mechanism.8 The motion is separate from kinesiology this is called external frontal
the heart or breathing rate; however, cranial rotation, as if the metopic suture area were
motion is enhanced by thoracic respiration. moving externally. This is confusing, because
Although this influence is always present, an external frontal in DeJarnettes sacro
relaxed breathing and primary respiration do occipital technique 14, 15 is called an internal
not always parallel. frontal in applied kinesiology, and vice versa.

Cranial motion is a combination of bending The rest of the bones of the skull and face have
bone and suture motion. The motion between specific movement in relation to sphenobasilar
the sphenoid and the occiput is in the sagittal flexion and extension. There is continuity in
plane. There is a flexion and extension of the movement by way of pivot points, gear
the sphenobasilar junction. Prior to the trains, sliding action, and lever mechanisms;
approximate age of twenty-five, the motion is this interaction constitutes a closed kinematic
at the synchondrosis between the bones. After chain. In any closed kinematic chain, when
ossification, the motion is flexion and extension one portion moves the entire chain must
of the cancellous bone. Sphenobasilar flexion move. This can be demonstrated by a system
consists of raising the sphenobasilar junction of levers or gears, both of which are present
and separating the superior portions of in the cranial closed kinematic chain. The
the occipital squama and greater wings of occipitomastoid suture acts like teeth on
the sphenoid. Sphenobasilar extension is a gear. The vomer is a lever mechanism
dropping of the sphenobasilar junction and between the rostrum of the sphenoid and the
approximation of the superior portion of the intermaxillary and palatine sutures of the
occipital squama and greater wings of the maxillary and palatine bones.
sphenoid. Sphenobasilar flexion is enhanced
by a deep phase of inspiration; extension is There is a synchronous movement between
enhanced by expiration. Often sphenobasilar the sphenobasilar junction and the sacrum.
movement is called sphenobasilar inspiration The connection is the dura mater, which has a
or expiration. firm attachment at the foramen magnum and
2nd and 3rd cervical vertebrae. Attachment
The general axis of temporal bone rotation along the rest of the spinal column is loose,
is through the petrous portion, which is until the dura and arachnoid firmly attach
at approximately a 60 angle with the at the 2nd sacral segment. The general axis
temporal bones squamous. The apex of the of sacral rotation is at the level of the 2nd
petrous portion rises on inspiration with the sacral segment about its transverse axis.
sphenobasilar junction, and the petrous ridge Motion of the sacrum consists of lifting the
rotates anterolaterally, causing the squamous anterior portion of the 2nd sacral segment as
of the temporal bone to rotate externally. the sphenobasilar junction lifts in inspiration;
The mastoid process moves posteriorly and thus, the apex of the sacrum moves anteriorly
medially with inspiration. and the base posteriorly with inspiration, and
opposite with expiration.
The frontal bone, in most subjects, ossifies at
the metopic suture. In some cases a remnant The innominate bones also have a primary
or the entire suture persists throughout life. movement organized with cranial function. If
Motion on sphenobasilar flexion (inspiration) one compares the innominate with the temporal
spreads the frontal bones squamous portion. bone, the comparative parts move in the same
In applied kinesiology this is called internal direction with inspiration and expiration.
frontal motion, as if the metopic suture The ilium is compared with the squama of
were moving internally. On sphenobasilar the temporal bone; it moves anterolaterally
extension (expiration), the squamous portions with inspiration. The ischium, compared with
the mastoid process, moves posteromedially. the cervical spine may ultimately become
Pressure from the abdominal contents and the involved. They also point out the potential
abdominal muscles contributes to this motion. hazard of the conventional treatment of
On inspiration the abdominal contents move cervical bracing and traction on the TMJ,
downward, putting pressure on the ilium which is not designed to be a pressure-bearing
to move the anterior iliac spine laterally, joint. 20
anteriorly, and inferiorly. Simultaneously
with inspiration, the abdominal muscles relax
to permit this motion. During expiration, the 1 Walther, D.S., Applied Kinesiology, Volume
abdominal muscles contract, reversing the II - Head, Neck, and Jaw Pain and Dysfunction
motion of the ilia. - The Stomatognathic System (Pueblo, CO:
Systems DC,
Organization between the closed kinematic 2 Stowe, R.S., L.L. Lavoy, & N.A Frigerio,
chain of the cranium, with its movement of Measurement of bone torsion in vivo via
the pelvis by the dura mater and abdominal biostereoroentgenography, XIII lnt Congress
muscle contribution, emphasizes how Photogrammetry (JuI11-13, 1978).
integrated the motion of the stomatognathic 3 Pritchard, J.J., J.H Scott, & F.G. Girgis,
system is with the rest of the body. The structure and development of cranial
and facial sutures, J Anat, Vol 90 (Jan 1956).
Within the stomatognathic system as Shore 16 4 Upledger, J.E., E.W. Retzlaff, & J.D.
defines it - from the shoulder girdle up - there Vredevoogd, Diagnosis and treatment of
is further integration and another closed temporoparietal suture head pain, Osteo
kinematic chain. This is a muscular closed Med (JuI1978).
kinematic chain made up of the cervical flexors 5 Retzlaff, E.W. et aI., Nerve fibers and
and extensors, hyoid muscles, and muscles endings in cranial sutures, JAOA, Vol 77
of mastication. The original presentation of (Feb 1978).
the muscular closed kinematic chain of the 6 Retzlaff, E.W. et aI., Temporalis muscle
stomatognathic system was described in a action in parietotemporal suture compression,
program of the University of Illinois 17 in JAOA, Vol 78 (Oct 1978).
1949. Mintz 18 discusses the interaction of 7 Fryman, V.M., A study of the rhythmic
this closed kinematic chain and its correlation motions of the living cranium, JAOA, Vol 70
with the rest of the body. Disturbance here No 9 (May 1971)
can cause a chain reaction throughout 8 Sutherland, W.G., The Cranial Bowl
the musculoskeletal system. On the other (Mankato, MN: privately published, 1939).
hand, remote musculoskeletal imbalance or 9 Michael, D.K., & E.W. Retzlaff, A
dysfunction can disrupt the harmony within preliminary study of cranial bone movement
the stomatognathic closed kinematic chain. in the squirrel monkey, JAOA, Vol 75 (May
In an article directed toward the legal 10 Greenman, P.E., Roentgen findings in
profession, Moses and Skoog 19 draw attention craniosacral mechanism, JAOA, Vol 70 No 1
to the similarity of symptoms between (Sep 1970)
cervical whiplash and temporomandibular 11 Gardner, W.J., Trigeminal neuralgia,
joint conditions, indicating that either may be Clin Neurology, Vol 15 (1967)
caused by an auto accident. Recognizing the 12 Baker, E. G., Alterations in widge of
interplay within the stomatognathic system, maxillary arch and its relation to sutural
it is entirely reasonable that there are movement in cranial bones. JAOA, vol
similar symptoms. Often when the cervical 70, no 6 (Feb 1971) Reprinted in Dental
spine is injured, the temporomandibular Orthopedics, ed H.E. Ravins (Beverly Hills,
joint ultimately becomes involved; if the CA: Preventative Dental Res, 1981)
jaw is injured, affecting TMJ dysfunction, 13 Strachan, W.F., & M.J. Robinson, New
osteopathic research ties leg disparity to
malocclusion, Osteo News, Vol 6, No 2 (Ape
14 DeJarnette, M. B., Cranial Technique
1968 (Nebraska City, NE:privately published,
15 DeJarnette, M. B., Cranial Technique
1979 1980 (Nebraska City, NE:privately
published, 1979)
16 Shore, N.A, Temporomandibular Joint
Dysfunction and Occlusal Equilibration, 2nd
ed (Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Co, 1976).
17 Current Advances in Dentistry, Telephone
Extension Program, Univ. of Illinois College
of Dentistry (1949).
18 Mintz, V.W., The orthopedic influence,
in Diseases of the Temporomandibular
Apparatus - A Multidisciplinary Approach, ed
D.H. Morgan et al. (St. Louis: The C.V. Mosby
Co, 1982).
19 Moses, AJ., & G.S. Skoog, Cervical
whiplash and TMJ - similarities in symptoms,
Trial (Mar 1986).
20 Robinson, M., The temporomandibular
joint: Theory of reflex controlled nonlever
action of the mandible, JADA, Vol 33 (Oct 1,

Respiratory Challenge

Strong muscle weakens on a specific phase of respiration indicates the following cranial
fault on the side of the skull that the muscle was tested on.

Maximal Inspiration Sphenobasilar Expiration

Normal Inspiration Expiration Assist

1/2 Inspiration Parietal Descent

1/2 Expiration Temporal Bulge

Normal Expiration Inspiration Assist

Maximal Expiration Sphenobasilar Inspiration

Weak muscle strengthens on the following phase of respira-

tion indicates the following cranial fault

Maximal Inspiration Sphenobasilar Inspiration

Normal Inspiration Inspiration Assist

1/2 Inspiration Temporal Bulge

1/2 Expiration Parietal Descent

Normal Expiration Expiration Assist

Maximal Expiration Sphenobasilar Expiration

A Brief Discussion of the Neurology of
Cranial Manipulation
Richard Belli, D.C., D.A.C.N.B. the cranium is believed to function as a closed
kinematic chain, in other words you can not
For years clinicians have observed marvelous affect a bone as a single entity, manipulation
results from cranial bone manipulation, but of one bone will affect all of them.
along with these observations have come a
great deal of conjecture and debate as to the The dura is supratentorially innervated by
mechanism. This discussion covers some of the the trigeminal nerve and infratentorially
plausible neurological mechanisms for these by the vagus nerve. This makes it enticing
observations. These mechanisms include for cranial practitioners believe that cranial
tonic labyrinthine reflexes, dural innervation, manipulation may have it therapeutic
postural modulation by vestibulospinal responses via the afferents of these nerves.
projections, and vestibular projections to Another school of practitioners finds it
the reticular formation, thalamus, and irresistible to believe that changes in
hypothalamus. The most striking observation cranial motion and normalizing of the flow
of cranial manipulation is the diversity of of cerebrospinal fluids leads to therapeutic
physiological and therapeutic response. For changes. And finally, some practitioners
decades clinicians have observed resolution of believe that normalization of the temporal
everything from low back pain to tachycardia. bone relationship to each other accounts for
These observations, because they are so the therapeutic effect. Lets now look at these
diverse have given cranial manipulation an suspected mechanisms and determine which
almost mystical connotation, how else could can explain the spectrum of clinical change.
such diverse responses be explained? Logic would tell us that the modality that
encompasses the neurological pathways that
The debate has raged among anatomist explain the broad spectrum of clinical change
and clinicians as to whether cranial bones would be our prime candidate. Looking at
do in fact move or if the sutures are fused the dura we have to take into consideration
making the cranium an immovable vault. It the sensory innervation and such aspects as
has been well documented by Upledger that dural tension. As previously mentioned the
there is a cranial respiratory mechanism. dura is innervated supratentorially by the
Many anatomist and clinicians claim that trigeminal nerve and infratentorially by the
the cranium in vivo is wet and flexible, thus vagus nerve. When the vagus and trigeminal
allowing for movement. This all leaves us with nerves are brought to threshold by some sort
a preponderance of evidence that the cranium of mechanical pressure the axons project to
in vivo is an alive and movable mechanism. the sensory nuclei of each one of these nerves
The aforementioned leads us to the discussion These include the sensory nucleus for the
as to what mechanically happens when the trigeminal nerve and the solitary nucleus
cranium is manipulated. Keeping it simple, for the vagus nerve. In theory the vagal and
and without getting into specific techniques, trigeminal afferent input will facilitate via
we assume that cranial techniques generally collaterals the motor nuclei for the reticular
restore normal juxtaposition relationships formation and other bulbar nuclei facilitating
and movement to the cranial respiratory visceral and somatic efferents. This in theory
mechanism. By restoring normal motion can account for visceral changes seen with
and function, one would assume that there cranial manipulation. The question at hand
is a change in the dura, or better said in is whether the amount of movement that
dural tension, as well as a normalization of the cranial manipulation imparts is enough
the bilateral temporal bone relationship. As to bring the sensory aspects of the dura to
discussed by Walther, Upledger, and others, threshold? Also we must consider that the
majority of these afferents are nociceptive has are not restricted to blood pressure
in nature. As Upledger describes there ischanges.a The reticulospinal pathways
great deal of movement in the cranial sacral drive the intermediolateral cell column and
respiratory mechanism. If this movement subsequently
is the autonomic system. The
not enough to bring these afferents to threshold
reticular formation involvement alone can
it is not likely that cranial manipulation will.
account for visceral as well as somatic changes.
However, this constant motion of the cranial There are abundant vestibular projections to
sacral mechanism may be enough to maintain the cerebellum. The cerebellum has projections
a base line level of mechanoreceptor barrage to the reticular formation, and directly and
from the dura. If this is the case, then indirectly
in to the thalamus. These projections
theory, if there is a change in cranial sacral can account for autonomic changes via the
motion then the afferent barrage from the thalamohypothalamo pathways, and cortical
dura to the sensory nuclei of the trigeminal changes from projections from the thalamus
nerve and the solitary nucleus of the vagus to the cortex. Also, the cerebellum modulates
nerve would change. In other words, movement a via cerebellobasalganglionic and
normal amount of cranial sacral motion will cerebellothalamocortical projections. And
maintain a normal amount of afferent input finally, the reticulospinal and vestibulospinal
to vital centers. Looking at cerebral spinal pathways modulate trunk flexion and
fluid flow as a candidate one must question extension. Additionally, the vestibular
the actual changes that take place in pressure mechanism projects directly to the thalamus
from normal abdominal and thoracic cavity and hypothalamus. The thalamic projections
pressure changes. The CSF pressure ranges are thought to account for cortical appreciation
from 50 to 150 mm Hg. Keeping this in mind of position changes. And the hypothalamic
it is not likely that the subtle changes that projections are thought to be necessary for
are made with cranial manipulation are going autonomic response to movement. After
to have a significant effect on the overall examining the three possible mechanism for
pressures. the effect of cranial manipulation it is easy
to see that the vestibular apparatus has
The vestibular system is of primary the largest potential for affecting change on
importance in maintaining upright posture, the central neuraxis and consequently the
muscle tone and eye movement. The two overall physiology. However I also find it
vestibular apparati do not function properly difficult to completely ignore the possibilities
unless they are in normal juxtaposition with of dural feedback from the mechanoreceptors
each other. If their positional relationship located
is there. So the conclusion that I would
lost, the vestibular output is of two differentdraw, with the available information, is that
messages, which makes accurate central the vestibular mechanism is the primary
processing impossible. The central pathways mechanism with the dural mechanoreceptor
of the vestibular system are principally motor mechanism secondary.
reflex connections to nuclei innervating
extraocular muscles, the motor reticular If one takes into account the vast neuronal
formation, the spinal motor neurons, and the network affected by the vestibular mechanism
cerebellum. With this in mind one can see it is easy to account for the far reaching
there is an enormous amount of potential effects that cranial manipulation can have on
for affecting physiological function. The the health of the patient. If the practitioner
vestibular projections to the motor reticular has these pathways to memory and available
formation are multipurpose in nature. When for explanation it will be effortless for him
you consider that blood pressure needs to to explain to other practitioners why he
change with position and muscle tone needs is getting such fabulous results from his
to change with position it is easy to see the treating techniques. This should be another
necessity of these projections. Additionally, the
example as to why we need to have a greater
autonomic effect that the reticular formation understanding of what we are accomplishing
84 when we are using manipulative therapies.
Cranial Nerve Examination
Eye motion
Vertical oculomotor
Olfactory Down and in motion -Trochlear
Cranial Faults
Type Frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, temporal
Sensory Exits
Function Supra Orbital fissure
Cranial Fault Oculomotor
Frontal- ethmoid Passes between the attached and free
Exits borders of the tentorium cerebelli
Cribiform plate
Olfactory Trochlear
Sensory cells end in upper posterior Supplies the superior oblique muscle
portion of the nasal cavity Follows along free border of the
Passes through the cribiform plate tentorium cerebelli
Dura mater covers the tract
Supplies the lateral rectus muscles
Passes lateral to the dorsum sellae of
Optic the sphenoid bone
Traverses the superior portion of the
Type petrous portion of the temporal bone
Function Eye motions
Vision Lateral -
Cranial Faults Lateral rectus VI
Sphenoid Medial
Exits Medial rectus III
Optic foramen Medial & superior
Superior rectus III
Optic Medial & inferior
Three coverings Inferior rectus III
Outer from the Lateral & superior
dura mater Superior oblique IV
Middle from the arachnoid mater Lateral & inferior -
Inner from the pia mater Inferior oblique III
Nerve lies in a canal of the lesser wing
of the sphenoid
Trigeminal V

Oculomotor 3, Trochlear 4, Function
Abducens 6 Opthalmic - Sensory
Nose, forehead, scalp
Type Maxillary - Sensory
Motor Cheek, nose, upper lip
Function Mandibular - Mixed
Mandible, lower lip, Muscle of Zygomatic
mastication Jaw reflex Zygomaticotemporal -
Cranial Faults skin side of forehead
Frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid Zygomaticofacial -
Exits skin over zygomatic arch
Motor - Foramen ovale Greater Palatine -
hard palate and gums
Infraorbital canal -
alveolar socket and non-molar teeth
- floor of nasal cavity
Opthalmic Fascial -
lower eyelid, side of nose, upper lip
mouth mucous membranes
Mandibular Nerve Branches
Exits through foramen ovale
Sensory - Superior orbital fissure Ramus meningeus -
dura - mastoid air cell mucous
Trigeminal Reenters skull through the foramen
Semilunar ganglion lies spinosum
in a recess of the dura Medial Pterygoid -
mater near the apex of internal pterygoid, tensor veli
the petrous portion of the palatini, tensor tympani
temporal bone
Mandibular Nerve Branches
Exits through foramen ovale
Anterior division -
Opthalmic Nerve Branches muscles of mastication -
enter by superior orbital fissure skin and mucous membranes
Lacrimal of the cheek
Lacrimal gland Masseteric - masseter
Frontal Deep temporal - temporalis
Supratrochlear - conjuctiva, medial Lateral pterygoid - lateral pterygoid
upper lid, lower & middle forehead Buccal -
Supraorbital - skin of cheek, mouth mucous
upper eyelid, scalp, frontal sinus membranes, gums
External nasal - Facial
skin of apex and vestible of the nose
Infratrochlear - Type
skin of side of nose & eyelids Mixed
Ethmoid -
ethmoid & sphenoidal sinuses Function
Internal nasal Taste anterior
Maxillary Nerve Branches Facial
Exits through foramen rotundum expressions
Cranial - dura of the middle cranial fossa Cranial Faults
Pterygopalatine fossa branches Temporal bone
Exits Cranial faults
Stylomastoid foramen Temporal/occipital
Supplies Exits
Buccinator, platysma, stylohoid and Jugular foramen
posterior belly of the digastric
Lacrimal and salivary glands Spinal Accessory
Membranes of the palate, nasal
pharynx and nasal cavity Type
Type Trapezius / SCM
Function Cranial Faults
Hearing / Temporal/occipital
equilibrium Exit
Cranial Fault Jugular foramen
Temporal bone
Exit Hypoglossal
Temporal bone
IX Function
Mixed Cranial Faults
Function Occitput - occiput/atlas
Taste posterior
Muscles of
Cranial Faults
Jugular foramen


Sensory -
Visceral organs,
Muscles - Larynx.
Palate reflex
Autonomic -
Control gastric motility, Blood
pressure, respiration, Heart rate

Cranial nerve function can be evaluated in a
more objective manner using muscle testing.
The procedure is to first determine a normal
testing muscle that you will use for the testing.
The muscle will be tested for inhibition while
the cranial nerve is either stimulated or
caused to increase its function.

Usual findings will be a combination of

positive tests that are related to the location
where the cranial nerves exit the skull. The
cranial nerves can be divided into four groups.
The first is olfaction that is an extension of
the brain. Imbalances in the bones between
the frontals may be found.

The next group of cranial nerves, II - VI,

is adversely affected by imbalances in the
sphenoid and the frontal bones.

The next group, VII and VIII, is related with

temporal bone problems.

The final group, IX - XII, is related to

imbalances of the occiput.

A common finding is to have positive findings

on one side of the skull. If this is the case,
have the patient place himself or herself
in a gait position, one leg forward and the
opposite shoulder rotated anterior, and retest
for changes in the positive findings. If this
position changes the inhibition pattern, it
indicates the effects of dural torque.

Dural torque refers to mechanical problems

where the dura mater attaches firmly. These
can include coccyx, sacral, upper cervical
or cranial problems like sphenobasilar and
TMJ imbalances. Testing needs to be done to
determine the location of the mechanical fault
and proper correction given.

It is not uncommon to find dramatic changes in

functioning of the cranial nerves after proper
correction of the cranial and spinal faults.

Oral Nutrient Testing
us represent three cranial nerve ganglia (CN
by Jayson Grossman, D.C. VII, IX and X). These axons carrying taste
information extend via the rostral/gustatory
In 1968, Goodheart introduced testing nutri- portion of the nucleus solitarius to the ven-
tional substances by monitoring muscle test- tral posteromedial nucleus (VPM) of thala-
ing responses associated with gustatory stim- mus. The third order neuron in the pathway
ulation by nutritional substances. ascends to the ventral lateral portion of the
postcentral gyrus, areas 3, 1, and 2. This
Placing substances on the tongue, such as nu- pathway, the Solitariothalamic tract remains
trients in which the patient is lacking, were ipsilateral.
associated with a conditional facilitation of
otherwise inhibited muscles.

Placing offensive substances on the tongue,

such as toxic substances, overdosed medica-
tions, and food allergens, were found to be as-
sociated with a conditional inhibition of oth-
erwise facilitated muscles.

Neurophysiological Rationale

Taste receptors are found within taste buds

located not only on the tongue but also on the
soft palate, pharynx, larynx, epiglottis, uvula
and first one third of the esophagus.

Taste buds are continually bathed in saliva, It is thought that there are projections from
and excessive dryness can distort taste per- the primary somatosensory region in the post-
ception. This effect is commonly observed, for central gyrus (parietal lobe) to the primary
example, with gustatory receptor stimulation motor cortex located within the precentral gy-
using syrup of ipecac, which induces an im- rus of the frontal lobe.
mediate and violent motor response, which
induces the patient to vomit. These projections essentially modulate the
central integrative cortical state thereby cul-
Afferents from the taste bud receptors of minating in a net inhibition or facilitation of
cranial nerves VII, IX, and X synapse in the the motor axon pool.
nucleus of the tractus solitarius with ongoing
projections to the thalamus, hypothalamus
and cortex. The information is then sent via the descend-
ing efferent motor pathways and is demon-
Changes in muscle testing outcomes following strated by the strengthening of a previously
taste bud receptor stimulation is hypothesized weak muscle (facilitation) or the weakening of
to be associated with changes in the central a previously strong muscle (inhibition).
integrative state (CIS) in the hypothalamus,
cortex, or both. Clinical Rational

Oral nutrient testing is widely used by Ap-

The axons within the rostral tractus solitari- plied Kinesiology practitioners to aid the cli-
nician in making the best choice of nutrition-
al substances, medications, herbs, and other
substances when there are numerous possi-
bilities from which to choose.

It is also widely employed as a screening test

to identify which laboratory evaluation may
be best suited to a patient. For example, a
patient who shows a strengthening response
to insalivation of an anti-histamine would be
considered a candidate for allergy testing, re-
gardless of what symptoms are displayed.

In this manner, the clinician may efficiently

identify dysfunctional physiological processes
at the root of patients symptoms, rather than
merely give the symptoms a named diagnosis.

A single blinded, uncontrolled pilot study

of AK and allergy testing was performed by
Schmitt and Leisman (1998). In this study,
19 of 21 foods associated with muscle weak-
ness on oral challenge showed a subsequent
elevation of serum IgE, IgG, and/or IgG im-
mune complexes.

A Pilot Study Showing Efficacy For Applied Kinesiology Muscle
Testing Procedures as a Screening Tool For Immune System
Mediated Food Allergy Patterns

by Walter H. Schmitt, Jr., D.C FIGURE 1

4 types of hypersesitivity response
Abstract: Seventeen patients were found (Gell - Coombs)
positive on applied kinesiology (A.K.) muscle ANTIBODY MEDIATED IMMUNITY
testing screening procedures indicating food TYPE I - IgE - ANAPHYLACTIC TYPE
hypersensitivity (allergy) reactions. Each TYPE II - IgG (and IgM) - CYTOTOXIC
patient showed muscle weakening (inhibition) RESPONSE
reactions to oral provocative testing of one TYPE III - IMMUNE COMPLEXES
or two foods for a total of 21 positive food CELL MEDIATED IMMUNITY
immune complex, and IgG immune complex TYPE IV -DELAYED
assays were performed for all 21 of the A.K. HYPERSENSITIVITY
positive testing foods. 19 of the 21 foods
(90.5%) positive for hypersensitivity response IgG (or IgE) combines with antigen to form
on muscle testing showed one or more positive an antigenantibody complex. One antigen
blood tests. can bind at least two IgG molecules together.
This sets up the potential for chains of these
INTRODUCTION antigen-antibody molecules which are called
The four classic hypersensitivity reactions immune complexes. IgG is converted to IgG
which describe allergic reactions to foods, immune complex which should be cleared
airbornes, and other antigens are called the by the liver and/or the spleen. When these
Gell-Coombs Types I, II, III, and IV reactions. immune complexes build up, this is the basis
(See Figure 1.) In hypersensitivity reactions for Type III reactions.
of the Gell-Coombs types I and II, higher
than normal amounts of IgE (type I) or IgG The rate of formation and clearing of IgG
(type II) are produced by plasma cells when immune complexes affects both the levels of
they encounter antigens. (IgM or IgA can also IgG and its immune complex. In other words,
be produced in a type II reaction.) Immune IgG may be rapidly produced, but just as
complexes which are produced and are not rapidly converted to immune complex form.
adequately broken down (by the liver and/ This can result in low IgG while IgG immune
or the spleen) will be elevated in type III complexes may be severely elevated. Likewise,
reactions. A typical type IV reaction is the IgG may be elevated while IgG immune
tuberculin skin test. Type IV reactions will complexes may be adequately cleared. This
not be discussed further in this paper. explains the necessity of measuring as many
parameters as possible before ruling out
immune hypersensitivity reactions.

The type I reactions result in rapid

(anaphylactoid) type reactions. Histamine
release by mast cells is the major symptom
producing factor. The half-life of IgE is
2 1/2 days. The type II IgG type reaction
is complement mediated and results in a
slower onset of symptoms (a type of delayed
hypersensitivity). IgG has a half-life of 21 Lebowitz 3 and this author. 4 These included 1)
days, hence its effects are much longer lasting a weak muscle strengthening on insalivation
than an IgE reaction. of the natural anti-histamine, yakriton, 2)
a strengthening response on insalivation of
Immune complex formation is potentially the copper, 3) a positive therapy localization (T.L.
most tissue destructive as these complexes - causing a weak muscle to strengthen) to the
settle in tissues and cause microthrombi thymus area over the angle of Louis on the
formation, complement cascade which can sternum, 4) a positive T.L. to thymus with
result in tissue damage, and leukocyte copper in the mouth, and/or 5) a strong muscle
chemotaxis with the subsequent release of weakening during simultaneous T.L. to the
inflammatory mediators. Immune complexes thymus while a copper antagonist supplement
have been implicated in autoimmune disease (Cop Out) is in the mouth. These screening
processes. Applied kinesiology procedures tests are listed in Table 1 under pre-test
involve muscle testing as a functional findings. Patients who were positive on one
evaluation of patterns of inhibition and or more of these tests were further tested
facilitation in the nervous system. for muscle testing reactions to common food
allergens. These included whole wheat flour,
Many clinical factors have been found to cornmeal, soy flour, brewers yeast, bakers
effect neuromuscular function and result yeast, cows milk powder, powdered , egg,
in patterns of inhibition which induces potato flour, and others.
reversible weakness of muscles to standard
testing procedures. One factor which is said to While the food was held in the patients
affect changes in muscle strength is the oral mouth, various strong muscles were tested to
insalivation of allergic foods. A.K. procedures observe for changes in strength. A weakening
involve a particular type of provocative testing of strong muscles to oral challenge with a food
for food hypersensitivity which is based on the is an A.K. finding suggestive of food sensitivity
patient insalivating a food substance and the to that food. With the weakening food in the
doctor performing muscle testing to various patients mouth, several additional factors
muscles. were tested to identify possible negation of
the weakening response.
A weakening reaction of the muscle induced
by the patients insalivation of the food is These factors were 1) placing yakriton in the
suggested to be indicative of a neuromuscular mouth (with the food), 2) T.L. to the thymus
hypersensitivity (allergic) reaction to that area, 3) T.L. to the liver neurolymphatic reflex
food. Although this type of provocative (NL), and 4) placing the spine . in a right foot
testing procedure to identify food allergies or gait torque pattern (called a CCW torque) by
hypersensitivities is widely employed by A.K. placing orthopedic wedges under the right hip
doctors, only one study has been performed and the left shoulder. If a patient was negative
to test this hypothesis. 2 This project was to the CCW torque of the spine, other spinal
designed as a pilot study to identify if, in positions were checked for negating the food
fact, the reported weakness on provocative induced muscle weakness.
oral neuromuscular hypersensitivity to foods
is due to food allergy or hypersensitivity as One patient (#14) was found to have the
identified by measurements of standard weakness negated by a left convex lateral
immune system blood assays. flexion of the spine. These findings are listed
in Table 1 under with food in mouth. When
MATERIALS AND METHODS a weakening response to oral food challenge
is observed, blood was drawn prior to further
Patients were tested using food allergy treatment. The patients serum was sent to
screening tests developed by Dr. Michael Immuno Nutritional Clinical Laboratories in
Van Nuys, California 5 where it was analyzed pre-test findings and findings with the food in
for levels of IgE (RAST test), IgG (RAST test), the mouth were recorded for all patients.
IgE immune complexes, and IgG immune
complexes for the suspected food(s). Table 2

For several foods, only IgE and IgG are SEVERITY OF TYPE OF REACTION TOTALS
available. Patients were included in the study REACTION IgE IgG E-IC G-IC
only when all four tests were available for the EQUIVOCAL 2 2 0 4 8
food(s) to which they showed sensitivity by MODERATE 1 5 0 3 9
neuromuscular hypersensitivity testing. SEVERE 2 7 0 3 12
TOTALS 5 14 0 10 29
The laboratory reports results as either as
reactive in one of three categories: equivocal, DISCUSSION
moderate, or severe, or nonreactive. These
results are included in Table 1 under The results suggest that applied kinesiology
laboratory results. muscle testing procedures are an excellent
screening test for positive IgE (Type I), IgG
RESULTS (Type II), and IgG immune complex (Type
III) mediated hypersensitivity reactions. The
17 patients with positive muscle testing percentage of positive laboratory findings
findings had their blood tested for all four was 90.5% (19 of 21) of the foods which
immune parameters. 15 patients showed showed positive to provocative muscle testing
positive blood tests which paralleled their procedures. A 95% confidence interval of
muscle testing findings. Four patients had (.777, 1.00) was calculated for the data. The
two positive foods by muscle testing findings formula employed was: ... d t\- Y I -n -- n
which were compared with blood testing. where y = number of laboratory positives (19)
Therefore, there were a total of 21 foods which n = number of foods tested (21).
were muscle tested and blood tested. 19 of the
foods which were positive to neuromuscular
hypersensitivity provocative testing also
showed positive blood tests.

The results are shown in Table 1. Of the 21 Further research is definitely indicated.
foods tested, the following positive reactions Three specific directions are recommended.
were found: IgE - 5, IgG - 14, IgE immune First, a self-controlled pilot study using
complexes - 0, IgG immune complexes - 10. muscle testing to identify both positive and
The total number of positive blood reactions negative hypersensitivity testing foods needs
is 29 because a number of patients had to be performed. This can tell us whether
multiple positive reactions. The severity of muscle testing is predicting only positives
the reactions was as follows: equivocal - 8, or if it can be used to identify non-reactive
moderate - 9, severe - 12. These findings are foods as well. Secondly, a multi-center study
summarized in Table 2. needs to follow up on this study and the one
just proposed. Thirdly, follow up studies on
The pre-test findings and findings with the patients who have already been tested as
food in the mouth were included in the study positive with both muscle testing and blood
to attempt to identify any diagnostic trends. testing should be performed after applied
None were observed, but the data is included kinesiology desensitization techniques have
in Table 1 also. Due to the nature of this study been administered. . The pilot study for
being compiled based on regular patients in comparing both positive and negative muscle
our office during regular office hours, not all testing findings with positive and negative
blood test reactions is being formulated
in our office as of the writing of this paper.
We are also planning follow-ups on as many
patients in this study as possible following
desensitization techniques.


1. Roitt, Ivan M., Brostoff, Jonathon, Male.

David K. Immunology. St. Louis: C.V. Mosby.

2. Scopp, Al, An experimental evaluation

of kinesiology in allergy and deficiency
disease diagnosis. Journal of orthomolecular
psychiatry 7:2, 1978. pp. 137-8.

3. Lebowitz, Michael, A technique to abolish

all food sensitivities. I.C.A.K. collected papers,
1988-89, volume II.

4. Schmitt, Walter H., Jr. Applied kinesiological

observations of allergic patients - Parts I and
II. Digest of chiropractic economics 27: 1, July-
August, 1984 and 27:2, September-October,

5. Immuno Nutritional Clinical Laboratory,

6700 Valijean Avenue, Van Nuys, California
91406. (818) 780-4720.



pt Yak. Cu mus Thym Out Food Yak Thym Liv CTS IgE IgG- E-IC
1. S 0 0 0 0 SOYBEAN + 0 + CCW E E 0 0
2. 0 W 0 S 0 MILK 0 + 0 CCW S S 0 0
3. S S 0 S W BR. YEAST + 0 0 CCW 0 S 0 E
4A. 0 0 0 S W WHEAT + 0 + CCW 0 M 0 E
4B MILK + 0 + CCW S M 0 0
5. 0 S 0 - W MILK 0 + + 0 0 M 0 M
6. 0 0 S - W BR. YEAST 0 + + CCW 0 S 0 M
7. 0 S 0 - 0 BR. YEAST 0 + + CCW 0 S 0 0
8. S S 0 - W BR. YEAST + 0 0 CCW 0 S 0 0
9A. 0 0 0 S W CORN 0 + 0 CCW 0 M 0 0
9B. MILK 0 + + CCW M S 0 E
10. 0 0 0 S W BR. YEAST 0 + + CCW 0 S 0 E
11. 0 NA NA NA NA CORN 0 + + NA 0 0 0 S
12. 0 0 0 S NA *CORN NA + NA NA 0 0 0 0
13. 0 0 0 S W CORN NA + NA CCW 0 0 0 0
14A. 0 S S - W MILK NA + NA ) E 0 0 0
14B. CORN NA + 0 CCW 0 E 0 0
15. 0 0 0 S W WHEAT NA + NA CCW 0 M 0 0
17A. S 0 0 S NA CORN NA 0 NA NA 0** 0** 0 S
17B WHEAT NA + NA NA 0** 0** 0 S
TOT 16 16 15 15 13 13 21 14 17 21 21 21 21
S=4 S=6 S=2 S=9 W=10 +=5 +=15 +=9 CCW=15 5 14 0 10
W=1 )=1
* Corn oil only weakened; cornmeal tested OK
** General screening test for 6 grains including corn and wheat
Yak. = Antronex in mouth strengthens a weak muscle Cu = Copper in mouth strengthens a
weak muscle
Cu+Thymus = Copper in mouth plus T.L. to thymus Cop Out = Cop Out in mouth plus thy-
mus T.L.
Thymus = T.L. to thymus (angle of Louis) strengthens a weak muscle

S = Strengthens W = Weakens a = No effect on muscle

NA = Not tested - = Not applicable since copper strengthened
weak muscle


Yak = Antronex in mouth Thym = Thymus T.L.
Liv = Liver NL T.L. + = Negated weakening effect of food in mouth
CTS = Centering the spine-spinal position which negates food induced weakness
CCW = Counterclockwise pelvic torque negated weakening effect of food in mouth
) = Lateral flexion convex to left negated weakening effect of food in mouth

IgE = IgE RAST test 0 = Non-reactive
IgG = IgG RAST test E = Equivocal positive reaction
E-IC = IgE Food Immune Complex Assay M = Moderate positive reaction
G-IC = IgG Food Immune Complex Assay S = Severe positive reactiousing

Oral or olfactory testing of nutrients is one no relation with thyroid function. One had
of the controversial elements in applied nutrients related to thyroid production. The
kinesiology due to its abuse. nutrients were tested by insalivation and by
holding them in the hand. These vials were
masked and labeled A, B, C, and D with
The system of nutrient testing for both positive neither the tester nor the person doing the
and negative effects has been misrepresented testing knowing the ingredients. The results
by both professionals and non-professionals. of this test were as follows:
Demonstrations of holding substances,
pointing at them, visualization, or of having 1. There was no strengthening of the
the testing person hold the substance are teres minor by holding the nutrients in
commonplace. the hand
2. Those patients who reported less than
To test for this, a study was done using a 4 symptoms out of 25 did not show
poisonous substance, The testing method was any correlation with the supplement
that four different sample groups masked so designed to aid thyroid function.
that the persons doing the testing and those 3. Those who marked between 5 and 20
being tested would not know what was in the of the symptoms related to thyroid
bag. There were four containers, one of which malfunction tested positive for the
contained the poison. A strong muscle, the nutrient.
rectus femoris was tested and the person being 4. Those who marked over 75 percent of
tested held the masked container against their the symptoms, 23 or more out or 30,
solar plexus, a common place used by those tested positive for 2 or more of the
using muscle testing in this manner. All four nutrient supplements.
samples were tested and the results recorded
by another person. Neither the testing person The proper use of muscle testing to aid in
or the person being tested knew whether they nutritional work depends upon knowledge
were testing sample A, B, C or D. of physiology, diagnosis, pathology and
Doctors with over 5 years of experience testing
muscles tested over 300 persons. There was no Goodheart coined the phrase 51 percenter. The
correlation between muscle weakness and the changing of the strength of a muscle means
poison sample. This paper is being prepared little in itself. The change in the function of
for publication. the muscle must be correlated with other
Triano published a paper showing no
correlation between the latissimus dorsi and Finding a weak latissimus dorsi, related
nutrients that were supposed to be related with the pancreas, could mean a problem
to that muscle. The substances chosen were with blood sugar maintenance, but it could
whole food products consisting of many macro also indicate an injury to the muscle itself, a
and micronutrients. They were chosen from a problem with the nerve supply to the muscle,
list produced by a company that related specific a reflex inhibition related to plantar muscle
nutrients with specific muscle weakness. contraction, or even a problem with the
production of digestive enzymes.
Leaf published a paper with the following
design. Persons with a weakness of the teres
minor were asked to fill out a questionnaire
with 30 possible symptoms related to thyroid
dysfunction. The subjects were then tested
with four different nutrients. Three had
Melzack & Wall Gate Control
Professors Ronald Melzack and Patrick Wall, 6. The gate regulates the amount of informa-
of Montreal and London, proposed in 1965 that tion going to the brain.
painful stimulations traveling up the spinal
column are modulated by a gate mechanism. 7. Pavlov observed that afferent signals from
If the gate is open, all of the nerve impulses the nervous system must be identified, evalu-
are allowed to pass, and if the gate is closed or ated in relation to prior experience, localized
partially closed, then only a few or none of the and inhibited before the action system for pain
impulses are allowed to pass. perception and response is exceeded by the
dorsal horn transmission neurons.
Pain is transmitted up the spinal column by
the activation of the T cell, and this cell can be Goodheart discovered that stimulation of
activated by either large of small fibers. Cells in certain acupuncture points would exhibit an
the substantia gelatinosa (SG cell) can inhibit inhibitory reaction at the spinal gate and thus
of block the transmission of the T cell thereby help to control pain.
acting as a "Gate". The SG cell is activated by
the large diameter fibers, the A-beta fibers. Do a pulse diagnosis to determine the meridian
These are stimulated by light touch or vibra- imbalance. In pain patients, you will usually
tion. The small fibers, C fibers, are stimulated find only one meridian out of balance. Test
by heavy pressure or painful stimulation. These to find the deficient side as exhibited by the
fibers activated the SG cell opening the gate weak associated muscle. Tap the tonification
and allowing passage of the painful sensation point four to five times and retest the weak
to the brain. muscle for strengthening. If the weak muscle
strengthens, tap for two to three minutes and
1. Nerve impulses from the afferent fibers to test for a reduction in pain. You may have to
the spinal cord neurons are modulated by a tap the associated point for the meridian along
spinal gate mechanism located in the substantia with the tonification point to achieve results. If
gelatinosa of the dorsal horns. this reduces pain, stimulation of the sedation
point will cause the pain to return.
2. The gate mechanism is influenced by activity
in the large and small diameter fibers. Stimula- If normal therapy localization does not disclose
tion of the large fibers inhibits the transmission a known problem, pinch or spray, with a coolant
by closing the gate. Small fiber activity opens spray, the dermatome over which the suspected
the gate facilitating nerve transmission. problem exists. These actions will open the
spinal gate and aid in finding hidden problems.
3. The brain influences the gate mechanism
through efferent fibers. In treating chronic problems, the brain may
contain a pattern of memory that needs to be
4. At higher levels, there exists a central control accessed to complete treatment. For example,
of large diameter, rapid conducting fibers, that if you cut yourself in opening a letter, the first
modulates the spinal gate through cognitive thing that you do is to move your other hand
processes. to protect the injured hand. The second action
is head orientation towards the area injured.
5. When a threshold level over the spinal cord This action is followed by looking at the area.
transmission neurons is exceeded, an action Vocalization is the next sequential action and
system is activated that produces set patterns this is followed by remembering a similar injury
of behavior and experiences of pain. from the past.

In a chronic problem, therapy localize the area
and treat all indicated reflexes. Then, have
the patient therapy localize and with the head
turned towards the area look at the area or
in that direction and retest. The area should
now therapy localize and if it does, retreat all
reflexes. This action is followed by having the
patient looking at the area and opening their
mouth as to speak and again retesting and
treating if indicated. The final procedure is to
have the patient therapy localize, look at the
area, open the mouth, and finally think of the
injury and retest and treat all indicated reflexes.

To the brain
Stimulation of the large fibers
Large fibers (A - beta) by vibration (tapping) closes the
gate mechanism

A - delta fibers Pain

Stimulation of the small fibers
by pinching or cold opens the
Small fibers (C)

Mental Recall
Goodheart states that if emotional or physical 2. Have the patient visualize the trauma and
trauma is out of the awareness of the body, the retest for weakening. Observe the eyes for
body cannot repair it. rapid eye movements (REM'S).

After correcting all imbalances in a chronic area, 3. Hold the neurovascular contacts for
consider that the mind may not be aware that emotional stress above the orbits. Palpate
a problem exists. For some reason the trauma for a pulsation.
has been blocked.
4. Ask the patient to again visualize the
Ask the patient to remember the first instance trauma and imagine that they have a
of pain or trauma. Treat any structures found movie of their life. Place the images in the
weak while the patient is remembering the movie where they belong and then turn
trauma or occurrence of symptoms. the projector on fast forward and quickly
go through their life until they reach the
This mental recalling of the emotional event present. Have them open their eyes when
aids the mind in the correction of the problem if they reach the present.
the structural corrections are performed while
the recall is being done. 5. Visualize the trauma again and test for
weakening of a strong indicator muscle. It
1. Test and treat all weaknesses and spinal should now test strong.
This technique appears to remove the psycho-
2. Have the patient recall the trauma, either somatic link between the emotional stress and
emotional or physical, and retest for the the physical body.
weak indicators.

3. Treat all returning weaknesses while the

patient think of the trauma.

4. Retest again with emotional recall.

In a seminar in Boston, Goodheart treated a

doctor who had been attacked and ended up
losing the sight in one eye and having chronic
sciatica. He treated the doctor and obtained
excellent results using structural corrections to
the pelvis and lumbar spine. The next month
when he returned, he asked the doctor how he
was doing. He responded that he had complete
relief for two weeks and then the pain in the
leg returned.

Instead of retreating the lumbar spine,

Goodheart performed the following:

1. Test and find a strong muscle.

Injury Recall Technique

Walter H. Schmitt, Jr., D.C., DICAK, DABCN

The following procedures were devel- Does Autogenic Facilitation Strengthen

oped and presented to the ICAK by Walter Weak Muscle(s)?
Schmitt. They are presented here to show
how members develop a concept, apply it 1 .If Autogenic Facilitation (Stretching of
in their office, share it with other mem- Muscle Spindle Cell) Strengthens:
bers of the organization and then present No IRT Needed
them to the Scientific Review Board of the 1. If Autogenic Facilitation Does Not
ICAK to be tested and voted on to become Strengthen: Identify Areas Needing IRT by
part of the approved subjects in applied Doctor Rubbing (or Patient TL) Over Areas
kinesiology. As of the writing of this book, of Injury (Past or Present)
these procedures are in the validation
process of the Scientific Review Board 2. Perform IRT to Areas Identified.
awaiting final approved status.
3. Retest for Response to Autogenic
Injury Recall Technique (IRT) was taught a. If Autogenic Facilitation
to me by my friend, Dr. Gordon Bronston, a Strengthens:
Southfield, Michigan podiatrist. Because it Go to NSB / Set Point Technique
has immense clinical value and is practiced (If Needed)
by only a handful of podiatrists, I adapted the b. If Autogenic Facilitaton Does Not
technique in the late 1980s for use by other Strengthen: Repeat Steps 2
health care practitioners. through 3
Dr. Bronston taught me that the single most 5. Continue Until Autogenic Facilitation
important factor in a patients history is the Strengthens Weak Muscle(s)
history of injury and trauma. I have learned
that IRT is not duplicated by any other tech- NOTE: MEASURE, MEASURE, MEA-
nique. In my clinical experience, IRT has SURE Perform RANGE OF MOTION and/
been present in about 80% of my patients. In or
these patients, about 80% of their previous in- MEASURE PAIN (Pain Scale: 0 10)
juries responded to IRT. Although these are Before and After Performing IRT.
just general numbers, they give the idea of
the widespread value of applying IRT.

The following is excerpted with permission from:

McCord, KM, and Schmitt, WH, Quintessential
Applications: A(K) Clinical Protocol. St. Peters-
burg, Florida: Privately Published, 2005.

HEAD & NECK PROBLEMS Cervical Spine and Coccyx
1. TL to Area of Previous Trauma on the Head A. While Patient Touches Cervical
or Neck is Negative. Segment or Coccyx (or)
2. TL to Same Area with Head & Neck In Ex- B. After Doctor Pinches Skin over
tension Weakens Strong Muscle. Cervical Segment or Coccyx

IRT TREATMENT for HEAD & NECK Sacrum, Sacroiliacs, and the Rest of
A. While Patient Touches Sacrum,
Firmly, but Gently, FLEX THE ATLANTO- Sacroiliac or Spinal Segment (or)
OCCIPITAL AREA, to the Limit of B. After Doctor Pinches Skin over
Motion, Three or Four Times: Sacrum, Sacroiliac or Spinal
A. While Patient Touches Area of Segment
Previous Injury (or)
B. After Doctor Pinches Area of Perform IRT Bilaterally or Ipsilaterally
Previous Injury (or) (e.g. Sacroiliac) as Appropriate
C. After Doctor Uses Origin-Insertion
Technique in Area of Previous




JOINT (Push Talus Headward)
A. While Patient Touches Area of
Previous Injury (or)
B. After Doctor Pinches Area of
Previous Injury

Observe for Strong Muscle Weakness


(Opening Mortis Joint)
A. While Patient Touches Area of
Previous Injury (or)
B. After Doctor Pinches Area of
Previous Injury (or)
C. After Doctor Uses Origin-Insertion
Technique in Area of Previous

Alternative Pain Control Technique

Using the concepts developed by Goodheart, If the aggravation of the area does not cause
Schmitt has developed an alternative method weakening of a strong muscle, have the pa-
for controlling pain. This is a combination of tient therapy localize to the area and test
treating acupuncture meridians begin with for weakening of a strong muscle. If it fails
using mental processes to access specific ar- to weaken, tap the head acupuncture points
eas of the brain. Schmitt found that the points until one is found that weakens the strong in-
on the skull where meridian begin or end are dicator muscle. This is the point that should
effective treatment areas when the patient is be treated.
in pain.
Schmitt has added the concepts of thinking of
His basic procedure is to aggravate the area the pain, thinking of the memory of it and the
where the pain is located and test for weaken- emotion of it as ways to access different areas
ing of a strong indicator muscle. The patients of the brain that are then treated by tapping
finger is then placed over one of the acupunc- the point found in the procedures above.
ture points on the skull or the doctor taps the
point until one is found that strengthens the Following this are the notes used by Dr.
weak muscle. This is the point that needs to Schmitt in teaching this technique.
be tapped.

Bladder 1
Gall Bladder 1

Triple Warmer 23
Small Intestine 19

Stomach 1
Large Intestine 20

Governing vessel 27
Vessel of conception 24

Acupunture Meridian Head Points
Pain Relief Techniques

Walter H. Schmitt, DC, DIBAK, DABCN


1. Patient TL to the area of pain or previous
1. General muscle weakness is created by: injury is negative.
a. Acute pain
b. Pressure to a painful area 2. Patient TL to area PLUS tapping on one
c. Putting a joint into painful position B&E point (ACUPRESSURE TAPPING
POINT) on the same side of the body
2. Patient TLs to ipsilateral acupuncture causes strong muscle to become inhibited.
head points. One head point will negate
general weakness. 3. Tap the related B&E point
3. Tap head point with 1a, 1b, or 1c. the same side of the body while the patient
maintains contact with the area of pain.
4. Continue tapping with 1a, 1b, or 1c until
pain relief is maximized. 4. Tap 100 times. You may tap more if doing
so increases pain reduction further.
5. 1a, 1b, or 1c will no longer cause muscle





1. Have patient focus attention on a specific

location in the body.

2. If strong muscle weakens: TL to

acupuncture head points while patient
continues to think about that part of body.
One acupuncture head point will
neutralize muscle weakness caused by
focusing process.

3. Tap that head point 50 - 100 times while

patient continues to focus attention on
body part.

4. Recheck 1. and test strong muscle to 4. Recheck 1.a. or 1.b. and test strong muscle
ascertain correction. to ascertain correction.



1. Have patient focus attention on the

quality of the pain.

2. If strong muscle weakens: TL to

acupuncture head points while patient
continues to think about the quality of the
pain. One acupuncture head point will
neutralize muscle weakness caused by
focusing process.

3. Tap that head point 50 - 100 times while

patient continues to focus attention on the
quality of the pain.

4. Recheck 1. and test strong muscle to

ascertain correction.



1. Have patient focus on:

a. memory of pain when it was at its

worst, or
b. memory of incident when pain

2. If strong muscle weakens: TL to

acupuncture head points while patient
continues to think about than memory.
One acupuncture head point will
neutralize muscle weakness caused by
the memory of the pain (or incident
causing pain.)

3. Tap that head point 50 - 100 times while

patient continues to think about memory
of pain (or incident causing pain.)

Proposed Neurological Mechanisms for A.K. Pain Relief
Walter H. Schmitt, DC, DIBAK, DABCN

Nociception has three effects in the spinal effective (and usually more effective and fast-
cord: 1) transmission of the nociceptive mes- er) for meridian pain relief techniques than
sage to higher levels; 2) flexor reflex afferent acupuncture needling techniques.
muscle response; and 3) excitation of interme-
diolateral cell column (IML). Mechanorecep- The pathways diagramed for nociception pro-
tor (MR) activity blocks each of these three ef- vide the theoretical basis for the clinical ap-
fects of nociception in the spinal cord. (Note: plication of NSB Technique, Set Point Tech-
Only the MR inhibition of transmission to nique, and LQM Technique. Presumably,
higher levels is shown in the drawing below.) each of these techniques activates at least one
of these pathways.
The flexor reflex afferent response lays the
theoretical foundation for the use of muscle When a particular pain relief therapy is need-
testing procedures to evaluate the effective- ed, activation of the appropriate neurons by a
ness of various pain relief therapies. That challenge procedure specific to those neurons
is, when a test stimulus of the appropriate will result in positive muscle testing findings,
pain relief therapy is used, it will result in a usually general muscle inhibition resulting
strengthening response of an inhibited mus- in muscle testing weakness. Tapping ip-
cle. Continued application of that therapy has silateral acupuncture meridian head points
shown to result in significant pain reduction. has shown to be among the most effective
therapies to relieve pain and restore normal
function. However, to be effective, the points
must be tapped in conjunction with some oth-
er nociceptive related activity. Said different-
ly, a group of neurons along the nociceptive
pathway must be brought to firing threshold
simultaneously with tapping the meridian
points in order for tapping to be effective.

The nociceptive related activity is different

for each of the above three techniques. Fir-
ing the appropriate neuron pools with the si-
multaneous meridian point tapping results in
pain reduction as well as changes in muscle
testing responses, ranges of motion, etc. The
appropriate neurological stimulus for each
technique is:

1) NSB technique: presence of acute pain,

Activation of MRs can be achieved by tapping either immediately after injury occurs or
the skin, usually at a rate of about four to five by inducing pain by pressing on the area
times a second. Tapping at this rate causes a or moving it into a painful range of motion
repetitive stimulation of MRs including those 2) Set Point (Touch and Tap) Technique:
that are rapidly adapting. At this rate, tap- patient touches the area of pain
ping 100 times requires 20-25 seconds. In the 3) LQM technique: patient consciously
1970s, Goodheart observed that tapping of activates neuron pools by thinking about
acupuncture meridian points was at least as the location of the pain, the quality of
the pain, and the memory of the pain. the body when the nociception reaches a still
higher threshold.
There is often an anatomical relationship be-
tween the pain location on the body and the NSB technique is indicated when elevated
meridian head point to be tapped. The body levels of nociception result in a weakness of
location is near or on the ipsilateral acupunc- muscles throughout the body to muscle test-
ture meridian related to the head point (yang ing, presumably since the acute levels of no-
meridian) or its coupled meridian (yin merid- ciception achieve the level necessary to cre-
ian) in about 75% of cases. (For example, the ate general muscle inhibition as in 3) in the
Large Intestine-20 point is often related to a previous paragraph. The nociception-induced
body location near or on the large intestine muscle testing weakness is negated by stimu-
meridian or the lung meridian.) The other lation of the appropriate ipsilateral acupunc-
25% of the time, there is no anatomical re- ture meridian head point. Perhaps NSB helps
lationship between the meridian head point to activate a sluggish self-limiting reflex path-
and the body location of the pain. In all cases, way through the CRN.
the meridian head point to be tapped is found
by the muscle testing procedures described Set Point (Touch and Tap) Technique
Set Point (Touch and Tap) Technique is in-
The acupuncture meridian head points receive dicated when a change in muscle testing re-
their sensory innervation from the trigeminal sponse (weakening of a strong muscle) results
nerve and synapse in the spinal (descending) when the patient simultaneously touches the
trigeminal nucleus in the lower medulla and area of pain or injury (paralleling the instinc-
upper cervical cord. The sensory facial fibers tive response of touching the area that hurts)
closer to the mouth synapse more rostrally in and the acupuncture meridian head point.
the spinal trigeminal nucleus and those far-
ther away from the mouth synapse more cau- Location, Quality, Memory
dally in the spinal trigeminal nucleus. Con- (of the Pain) Technique
sidering this sensory orientation of the facial
tissues, these meridian points follow a more LQM technique depends on the patients con-
or less somatotopic segmental distribution scious activation of various cortical neuron
from LI-20 extending centrifugally to SI-19. pools by mentally focusing on the location of
the pain (visceral or somatosensory cortex),
NSB Technique the quality of the pain (visceral or somato-
sensory cortex), and the memory of the pain
There is a self-limiting nociception reflex arc (temporal lobe.) LQM technique is indicated
from the spinal cord to the caudal reticular when mentally focusing on one or all of these
nuclei (CRN) and then back to the spinal cord. cortical pain related areas creates a muscle
Incoming nociception excites CRN neurons testing weakness that is negated by simulta-
whose descending axons inhibit the nocicep- neous stimulus of the acupuncture meridian
tion at the spinal cord level. This is presum- head point.
ably one of the pathways that is activated in
these pain relief techniques, especially NSB. Any or all of these pain relief techniques may
Increasing levels of nociception cause, in be indicated in a patient. Muscle testing ac-
ascending order: 1) flexor reflex afferent re- companied with sensory or mental challenges
sponse with excitation of flexors and inhibi- of the various neuron pools guides the clini-
tion of extensors near the nociceptive source; cian the most effective combination of these
2) a splinting facilitation of both flexors and and other pain relief therapies.
extensors around the nociceptive source; and
3) a general inhibition of muscles throughout
Inflammation & Prostaglandins

Applied kinesiology testing is an ideal way to Arachidonic acid found in dairy fats can be
analyze the biochemical pathways of the es- used to increase the pain so that both oils can
sential fatty acids. be tested.

Using specific muscle tests, muscles related to You may find that the patient requires one or
the cofactors can be tested to determine the both oils to stabilize their symptoms.
need for supplementation.
Grip strength or neck flexors - B-6 The chart below shows the biochemical path-
Sternocleidomastoid niacin ways and the cofactors that are necessary for
Pectoralis minor zinc the transformation of the essential fatty acids
Subclavius magnesium into their prostaglandin end products.
The individual omega oils 6 and or 3 can
then be insalivated and the local pain can be
palpated for reduction.

Appendix A
Partial List of Additional Procedures taught
and developed in Applied Kinesiology
Muscle Related Therapies activity.

Imbalances in these receptors create muscular

Antagonist Reactive Muscle Pattern imbalances that lead to the continuation of
many structural pain patterns.

At one of the annual meeting of ICAK in the From the work of Montegue on the skin, diag-
1980's, Deal presented the idea that a muscle nostic and treatment options were developed
could be "frozen". In effect, the muscle could for correction of muscle inhibition patterns
not be turned off by the usual means due to created by involvement of the skin or by scars.
the under contraction of its antagonist.
It is a common practice in Europe to treat scars
This condition leads to a loss of range of motion when there is localized pain or joint malfunction.
due to the failure of the antagonist muscle to
Gait Testing
Proper testing and treatment leads to normal-
ization of motion.
Walking and running require coordination of
Ligament Interlink motion between opposite extremities. As part
of the compensatory mechanism of the body to
Coordination of walking is a spinal cord func- react to fixations and other imbalances, these
tion. Goodheart discovered a spinal cord re- coordinated activities are altered.
flex that is involved with gait that appears to
relate opposing ligaments. This research was Goodheart found that you could test for the
developed from material first presented in proper functioning of these joint actions by
Scientific American on the motion of limbs in testing the opposing extremities. The tests are
a decerebrated cat. performed in the cardinal motions of flexion, ex-
tension, abduction, adduction and the rotational
There is a relationship between a ligament on motions caused by the opposing contractions of
one side of the body to a corresponding ligament the abdominal oblique and the gluteus medius
in a contralateral joint of the body. and the psoas and the pectoralis sternal.

Proper treatment leads to reduction in ten- Proper treatment leads to a normalization of

derness and localized pain over the involved the walking patterns of gait facilitation.
ligaments. This has been demonstrated by
reduction in temperature over the involved Synchronization

Skin - Scars In the 30s and 40s, a chiropractor, Watkins,

began the advocacy for treating areas that ap-
peared to help coordinate the function of the
Skin is the largest organ of the body. Proprio- head and pelvis. He described areas perianally
ceptors in the skin tell us where our joints are that effect muscle balance along the spine.
and are involved in the inhibition of muscular These appear to be related to other righting
reflexes that are well documented.
Gait Inhibition
Goodheart made the observation that when
the visual reflexes are in need of treatment,
muscles will test weak with the eyes open but During the normal walking pattern, muscles are
strengthen with the eyes closed. He related inhibited to allow normal motion to occur. After
this to a carry over effect from trauma. If the injury or when fatigue starts after strenuous
patient is questioned as to the position that activity, this normal inhibition process may not
they were in when the trauma occurred, they occur properly. This leads to continual contrac-
will relate a position where these muscles are tion of the muscle that fails to inhibit. This can
inhibited. It appears that the injury locks in easily be seen by a failure of motion of an arm,
this inhibition pattern. or a slight pulling of the head towards one side.

Proper therapy allows normal functioning of the Failure of proper inhibition can involve single
muscles whether the eyes are open or closed muscles, muscles from a single spinal level
and aids in normalization of gait as well as or a complete side. Proper correction allows
other body mechanics. normalization of the proper inhibition pattern.

Right - Left Brain Activity

There is a definite difference in the function Biological Closed Electrical Circuit

of the right and left brains. The right side of
the body receives at least 85% of its control
from the left brain and the left side the same Nordenstrom, of the Karolinsk Institute in
percentage from the right brain. Stockholm, has shown that the blood vessels
function as electrically conducting cables. This
The left side of the brain is basically logical, appears to be the upward communication link
systematic, mathematical, lingual, etc. A from the periphery to the brain. For example,
bookkeeper or computer programmer is an the brain receives information molecules pro-
example of a strictly left brain activity. The duced by white blood cells that modulate brain
right brain is illogical, nonsensical, tonal, activity. This is the work of Pert.
musical, emotional, creative, etc. Everything
the opposite of the left brain. Artists are Nordenstrom has found that using electrical
examples of right brain dominant people. currents along the arteries, he has been able
to reverse inoperable cancers.
James Pershing Isaacs wrote about the use of
homeopathy in Europe and found that very low The kinesiological indication for this technique
dosages of nutrients would appear to balance is when repeated testing of a muscle causes
brain function. From these observations, weakness and does not respond to nutrition
Goodheart advanced these thoughts to show or lymphatic reflex contacts. If this pattern is
that specific nutrients would positively effect found in an extremity, all muscles from the
the different sides of the brain. one distally will test weak for this pattern.
For example, if the communication is blocked
Using these concepts, nutrition, cranial work at the knee, all muscles from the popliteus
and spinal work can be used to help patients distally would test weak on repeat testing, but
with conditions like stroke, multiple sclerosis, the quadriceps would not.
learning disabilities, ADD, etc.
Goodheart found a manual correction for this

Repeated Muscle Activation (RMA)
until the fixation pattern has been corrected.
Golgi tendon organs are located near the mus-
culotendinous junction. To understand the func-
tion of these structures, realize that they are
arranged in a series with the extrafusal muscle Hologramic Subluxation
fibers so that if the muscle is stretched or con-
tracted, the tendon organ will be stimulated.
When abnormal stresses are applied to bone,
Following the observations of Leaf that hidden the bone will bend. This phenomenon is a con-
muscle weakness patterns could be found if the tributing factor in scoliosis and the production
patient was asked to activate the muscle repeat- of genu valgus deformities. This is also the
edly, Goodheart found that many muscles that underlying cause of bent spinouses. Studies
would give the physical signs that they were have shown that there is an ion change in the
weak would test strong. However, after having crystalline structure of the bone where this
the patient activate the muscle 10 times, these deformity exists.
muscles would then test weak.
Classically, when these subluxations are found,
Goodheart found that over 90% of the patient's the bone will be very tender to palpation where
showing this muscle weakness pattern showed the bone would bend. It is this small intense
occipital or spinal fixation patterns. area of tenderness that is indicative of this
problem. You will usually find a decreased range
Correction involves both a structural correc- of motion in a body part innervated from the
tion to the muscle and testing for a nutritional area or related structurally. After correction,
component the range of motion improves dramatically.

Spinal Related Therapies

Category I & II

Vertebral Fixations For decades, Dr. Major DeJarnette discussed

three types of pelvic problems. He named
A muscular locking of three vertebral struc- these conditions Category I, Category II and
tures, or the ilium and the sacrum, thus re- Category III.
stricting normal motion.
Category I is a locking of the sacral boot
In the spine, the rotatory longus and brevis mechanism that is involved with the flow
on one side are found in contraction causing of cerebrospinal fluid. There is no osseous
rotation of the vertebrae towards the side of misalignment or subluxation of the sacroiliac
contraction and thus restricting normal motion. articulations. If an osseous misalignment or
subluxaiton exists, it is called a Cetgory II
pelvic imbalance. This was discussed in the
Goodheart found that these can be diagnosed main section of this book.
because of specific muscle weakness patterns
that are found associated with each spinal area. Goodheart developed a diagnostic system
to find these conditions that can be used in
This allows testing for the existence of the different postural positions. He and others
fixation pattern but also confirmation that the in the AK community have developed
fixation has been properly manipulated. The improvements in the standard treatments for
muscle weakness pattern will not test strong these conditions.
Meningeal Release - Coccyx
Category III
The dura mater is firmly attached inside the
The Category III problem was described by cranial bowl, at the upper cervical area and
DeJarnette to be a pelvic imbalance that had then again at the sacrum and by the filum
an accompanying sciatic neuralgia. terminale into the coccyx.

For years, Goodheart had difficulty integrating In coccyx imbalances, abnormal stress can be
this problem into the pattern of correction used applied to the dura mater causing reflex muscle
in Applied Kinesiology. In 1991, he developed tension along the spine. Goodheart, following
a procedure to correct this problem. the works of Lowell Ward, has described the
coccyx as a take up mechanism to keep constant
tension on the dura mater.
Sacral Wobble

There is a torque pattern of motion that occurs Spondylogenic Reflex

at the sacrum during normal walking. This
resembles a figure 8. Goodheart was given a book Manual Medicine
by Dvork and Dvork, two Czechoslovakian
This pattern was originally described by physicians working in Berne, Switzerland. In
Goodheart in the early 70s, and specific their book, they describe an interesting ex-
manual corrections developed to normalize periment where they irritated the facets of the
this motion. Later in the 80s, the importance spine and recorded hypertonicity in sections of
of the function of the piriformis in controlling muscles in the back. These experiments also
and supporting the sacrum and the sacroiliac showed that the hypertonic patterns extended
joint added to the understanding of this to the muscles of the skull, eye and extremi-
condition. ties. The intriguing part was that each spinal
segment had a specific group of muscle sections
Iliolumbar Ligament that would become contracted by the irritation
of the facets.
Based on the concepts of Fred Illi, D.C. follow-
ing his work at National College of Chiropractic For years, Goodheart studied this book and
in Illinois, Goodheart became interested in the tried to put the information to use. It wasn't
function of the iliolumbar ligament until he combined a few procedures that he
was able to find and correct these imbalances.
Goodheart made the observation that imbal-
ances, elongation, in this ligament caused
improper inhibition patterns when the patient Cervical Compaction
was tested in a gait position. Leaf later showed
how to diagnose entrapment of the L - 5 nerve Barry Wycke, a noted English neurologist, de-
due to shortening of this ligament. veloped a screening test to determine chronic
imbalances in the cervical spine. This test
Consequently, alterations in this ligament can appears to uncover hidden imbalances in the
cause gait imbalances or sciatic nerve type mechanoreceptors. This test was developed to
symptoms when the patient is in a twisted fill a need to determine if cervical imbalances
position. existed following auto - cervical spine injuries. It
aids in finding if imbalances do exist and screens

for malingerers. As discussed by the Dvorak 's no rotation, the vertebral bodies would jam
in ,Manual Medicine, this test coincides with into each other. This rotation occurs because
imbalances in active and passive range of mo- of inhibition of the piriformis. Everyone, in a
tion. These imbalances are due to alterations normal condition, will have the right piriformis
in the functioning of the mechanoreceptors of inhibit at approximately 30 degrees of lumbar
the cervical spine. This is of great importance flexion. This same inhibition pattern occurs in
as imbalances in these structures cause chronic extension.
pain patterns.
This pattern of muscular inhibition continues
Using the diagnostic test of Wycke, Goodheart up the spine. The left latissimus, the left upper
developed a treatment to normalize the mecha- trapezius and the right sternocleidomastoid
noreceptor function thus normalizing ROM muscles inhibit at the same degree of lumbar
and reducing local pain patterns. Leaf later flexion and extension.
demonstrated that this condition can be found
in other joints in the body. When the inhibition pattern fails to occur, have
the patient therapy localize to problems in the
Hidden Cervical Disc pelvis and the upper cervical area. When an
uncorrected problem is found, the muscles will
The cervical spine is not as prone to disc hernia-inhibit and test weak.
tion as the lumber spine. However, the cervical
spine does present with a special type of lesion Piriformis Gait Inhibition
coined hidden cervical disc by Goodheart.
This problem creates a special type of symptom
pattern. As part of the gait inhibition pattern when
walking, the piriformis is inhibited. This is in
In the cervical spine, the sensory and the motor addition to the inhibition that occurs in the
roots do not merge until after the interverte- PLUS technique when the lumbar spine is
bral foramina. This causes patients to present flexed 30 degrees or extended 20 degrees.
with more varied symptom patterns than in
the lumbar spine. Goodheart noted that while he was trying to
do the PLUS testing, he would sometimes
In this condition, the vertebrae slide up the line obtain aberrant findings. These occurred
of the facets. This causes an anterior superior when the patients would move their arms.
misalignment of the vertebra and results in a Further testing showed that the piriformis
bulging of the disc. This discal pressure may and the iliacus will be inhibited in a gait
effect only the motor nerve root or may cause position. This will occur when the opposite
cord pressure. arm and leg are brought forward into flexion.
This pattern occurs on both sides because it is
a part of normal walking.
P. L. U. S.
This inhibition follows the pattern that Illi
Illi made many important discoveries about the first wrote about. He was the first to describe
mechanics of the lumbar and pelvic areas. One that as the ilium moves forward, the fifth
of these was further developed by Goodheart lumbar moves forward on that side and the
and became a technique for determining if there sacrum moves backward. This motion is
are any hidden problems that are restricting limited by the iliolumbar ligament, but it is
normal spinal mechanics. the inhibition of the piriformis and the iliacus
that are the causative factors.
When you bend forward, the lumbar spine does
not just flex. It also must rotate. If there was When the muscles fail to inhibit, there will be
a hidden sacral, iliac or fifth lumbar fixation
Upledger, in his classic Craniosacral Therapy,
This is an excellent tool to find hidden problems describes a procedure for decompressing the
in the spine. jugular foramen. This procedure causes re-
laxation of all of the sub-occipital muscles
and normalizes the flow of cerebrospinal fluid
Pitch Roll Yaw-Tilt through the foramen magnum.

This procedure is useful in correcting Goodheart has noted that when this procedure
imbalances in pelvis vs. skull positions. One needs to be performed, there will be a lateral
follows the other as a tanker aircraft is locked deviation of the uvula to one side. This is due
into pattern with a refueling plane. Based on to interference with the glossopharyngeal
his military aviation background, Goodheart nerve. Imbalances in the vagus nerve can be
found that there are many imbalances seen when levator palatini rises higher on one
between the motions of the head and of the side than the other when the patient is asked
pelvis. to say "AH".

He developed a series of tests that stress This procedure is beneficial whenever there are
these coordination patterns and corrective potential imbalances in the functioning of the
procedures for them. These are common cranial nerves that exit through the occipital
findings in the chronic patient that resists bone. It also appears to reduce stress on the
correction. jugular vein and reduces venous intracranial

Stride Length

A Japanese researcher, named Isogaii, asked Cranial Dural Torque

the question "Why do some people get the same
pains back over and over?" He studied these Frymann states that "Motion of the skull bones
people for over 40 years. His conclusion was has been objectively measured". Research from
very simple. They walked wrong. They had Fryman, Michael and Retzlaff has consistently
one stride longer that the other. This caused shown that the skull is moving at between 10
a torque to be applied to the spine and the and 14 cycles per minute. This is unrelated to
muscle structure. the heart rate or to respiration.

Over years, Goodheart took this simple obser- The cranial dura consists of two layers. The
vation and developed a more complete concept cranial section of the dura is divided into the
of the dura. Imbalances in the stride effect the falx cerebri, the tentorium cerebelli and the
attachments of the dura and can cause problems falx cerebelli and finally the diaphragm sella.
throughout the body. The one significant finding These structures firmly attach inside the cranial
is that if the patient has a problem, and it is bowl. When chronic stress has been applied to
related to gait, you can place them into a gait the dura from either cranial/dental stress or
position, one leg in front of another, and the due to chronic spinal imbalances, these attach-
pain disappears. At times, the gait position will ments become tender on their external surface.
allow hidden muscle weaknesses to be found.
An example of this problem is the person with a
headache who feel relief by pressing in against
the skull. This dural pressure follows a distinct
Jugular Decompression pattern and requires a specific treatment pro-

tocol to correct it.
In a book titled Acupuncture, A Comprehen-
sive Text, by John O'Connor and Dan Benske,
TMJ Imbalances a discussion of the distribution and pathology
of twelve muscle meridians can be found.
Goodheart first learned of the works of Willie
May, a dentist in 1975. From this work, the These meridians follow the basic course of the
initial treatments for TMJ balancing using normal meridians and interconnect with each
muscle concepts were developed. These concepts other.
were developed and expanded upon in the early
80s in a chapter written by Goodheart in a text Goodheart has found that imbalances in these
by Harold Gelb a dental expert in TMJ func- meridians can be found if the examination is
tion. From this work, applied kinesiology has done in a gait position. He also found that palpa-
expanded in the dental profession, especially tion of these meridians will reveal an area that
in Europe, and in schools like Tufts College is extremely painful and feels like it is swollen.
of Dentistry.

Neurological Tooth
Beginning and End Technique
There is a dental ligament surrounding each
tooth. Currently, there are at least four dif-
ferent reflex related areas that imbalances This refers to a procedure developed by
in tooth occlusion can precipitate. The organ Goodheart in which the first and last points
tooth - muscle - organ relationships were of meridians, which either start or end on the
published by Goodheart in 1976. Since then, skull, are used for treatment.
further advances in these conditions have been
researched and documented especially by the Goodheart found that treatment of these points
dentists using applied kinesiology in Germany, changed many measurable parameters in the
Austria and Italy. body. These included skin temperature, pH,
vision, speech patterns, vitamin C absorption
Meridian Related Therapies times, pituitary-hypothalamic function, etc..

Then and Now This procedure is possibly indicated anytime

there is an imbalance in a meridian that either
starts or ends on the skull.
According to the Chinese, the acupuncture
energy flows through a 24 hour cycle in the
body. It changes meridians every two hours, Visceral Related Therapies
and follows a superficial flow of energy.
Visceral Manipulation
Diagnosis of problems occurring at specific
times of the day can be enhanced by checking Portelli, following concepts first developed by
the patient at that time. However, this may osteopaths and DeJarnette, has described that
prove to be impractical. viscera can be challenged for their position. He
wrote that if an organ is out of position and you
Goodheart discovered a simple procedure using further displace the organ, the muscle related
the alarm points and therapy localization to to the organ will test weak.
determine what is imbalanced in the patient.
The related weakness only occurs in the muscle
Muscle Meridians that has been classically related with the or-
gan. There is not a general weakening of the awake - small intestine asleep".
muscles of the body. This is again evidence
that the organ-muscle relationship does exist. In addition to this concept in treating intestinal
problems, it has been applied to other body
The treatment consists of repositioning the funcitons like the immune system.
organ and then testing for the proper muscle
support for the organ. Respiratory Procedures

For a complete discussion of the topic, read Specific techniques designed to increase res-
Visceral Manipulations by Barral and Mercier, piration have been developed over the years.
an Eastland Press publication, P. O. Box 12689,
Seattle WA.. From concepts and observations from Israel
to Switzerland on the ionizing function of the
turbinates in the nose, to methods to help reset
Ileocecal Valve Disorders the carbon dioxide metering system in the brain
to specific protocols to increase vital capacity.
Goodheart and others in ICAK have developed
The treatment of ileocecal valve problems was effective treatment regimes to improve the
the first use of visceral manipulation in applied breathing capacity of the patient.
kinesiology. Goodheart found that the valve
could either be in an open or closed state. These Lymphatic Disorders
imbalances had specific symptom patterns and
nutritional as well as structural corrections. Beginning with the lymphatic reflexes of
Over the years, other organs have been treated Chapman, Goodheart found methods to ana-
using the same basic concepts. Find the involved lyze whether they were indicated as part of a
organ, test of the proper nerve control, test for treatment protocol or not. Other advances in
related reflex corrections, test for meridian the treatment of lymphatic imbalnces are cen-
related problems and finally apply specific tered around restrictions in the right and left
nutritional protocols to aid in the normaliza- lymphatic ducts and their clinical importance.
tion of function.
Additionally, Goodheart wrote about a nutri-
tional imbalance that would lead to lymphatic
Malabsorption fluid leaking from the lymph vessels.

In the mid eighties, Goodheart became aware of In each of these cases, specific diagnostic signs
some of the research that had been done by Can- and tests are used to make sure that the treat-
dice Pert. At the same time, he was concerned ment is appropriate for the patient in question.
with apparent malabsorption syndromes that
he was finding in his patients. There appears Robert Fulford Concepts
to be an neuroendocrine axis that regulates
the absorption of nutrients from the intestinal Fulford was an osteopath who developed
tract. This system works all day long, but is specific ideas and treatments based on
suppressed during stress times of the day. normalization of fascia and as he termed them
diaphragms. These diaphragms started
The other interesting observation was that with the feet and are found in the pelvis and
the weakness pattern could only be produced solar plexus to name two others.
by closing the eyes. Man is one of the only
creatures that close their eyes when they are He also developed a concept of birth trauma
asleep. Consequently, Goodheart at times would and the negative effects that this has on our
say that this condition represented "patient health later in life.

Goodheart was able to organize these concepts
and bring diagnostic criteria to them. The
effects of these procedures help to normalize
ROM, respiration and other visceral and
structural problems found especially in the
chronic patient.

Anatomy Trains

Thomas Myers, an anatomist, dissected fascial

connections that he termed anatomy trains.
These tend to follow from the feet ascending to
the skull in specific patterns based on normal
muscle function.

Again, Myers developed a concept of these

trains of fascial stress. Goodheart developed a
method of diagnosis that the problem existed
and then found a simple system for their

Leaf has shown that these patterns of

aberrant muscle and fascial stress are usually
related to foot subluxation patterns or to TMJ
problems, depending on whether the problem
is an ascending or descending muscle stress

Appendix B
Applied Kinesiology Status Statement
The International College of Applied Kinesi- cles. He observed that tender nodules were
ologyU.S.A. provides a clinical and academic frequently palpable within the origin and/or
arena for investigating, substantiating, and insertion of the tested muscle. Digital ma-
propagating A.K. findings and concepts perti- nipulation of these areas of apparent muscle
nent to the relationships between structural, dysfunction improved both postural balance
chemical, and mental factors in health and and the outcome of manual muscle tests.
disease and the relationship between struc- Goodheart and others have since observed
tural faults and the disruption of homeostasis that many conservative treatment methods
exhibited in functional illness. improve neuromuscular function as perceived
by manual muscle testing. These treatment
A.K. is an interdisciplinary approach to methods have become the fundamental ap-
health care which draws together the core ele- plied kinesiology approach to therapy. Includ-
ments of the complementary therapies, creat- ed in the AK approach are specific joint ma-
ing a more unified approach to the diagnosis nipulation or mobilization, various myofascial
and treatment of functional illness. A.K. uses therapies, cranial techniques, meridian ther-
functional assessment measures such as pos- apy, clinical nutrition, dietary management,
ture and gait analysis, manual muscle testing and various reflex procedures.
as functional neurologic evaluation, range of
motion, static palpation, and motion analysis. With expanding investigation there has been
These assessments are used in conjunction continued amplification and modification of
with standard methods of diagnosis, such as the treatment procedures. Although many
clinical history, physical examination find- treatment techniques incorporated into ap-
ings, laboratory tests, and instrumentation plied kinesiology were pre-existing, many
to develop a clinical impression of the unique new methods have been developed within the
physiologic condition of each patient, includ- discipline itself.
ing an impression of the patients functional
physiologic status. When appropriate, this Often the indication of dysfunction is the fail-
clinical impression is used as a guide to the ure of a muscle to perform properly during the
application of conservative physiologic thera- manual muscle test. This may be due to im-
peutics. proper facilitation or neuromuscular inhibi-
tion. In theory some of the proposed etiologies
The practice of applied kinesiology requires for the muscle dysfunction are as follows:
that it be used in conjunction with other 1 Myofascial dysfunction
standard diagnostic methods by profession- (micro avulsion and proprioceptive
als trained in clinical diagnosis. As such, the dysfunction)
use of applied kinesiology or its component 2 Peripheral nerve entrapment
assessment procedures is appropriate only to 3 Spinal segmental facilitation and
individuals licensed to perform those proce- deafferentation
dures. 4 Neurologic disorganization
5 Viscerosomatic relationships
The origin of contemporary applied kinesiology (aberrant autonomic reflexes)
is traced to 1964 when George J. Goodheart, 6 Nutritional inadequacy
Jr., D.C., first observed that in the absence 7 Toxic chemical influences
of congenital or pathologic anomaly, postural 8 Dysfunction in the production and
distortion is often associated with muscles circulation of cerebrospinal fluid
that fail to meet the demands of muscle tests 9 Adverse mechanical tension in the
designed to maximally isolate specific mus- meningeal membranes
10 Meridian system imbalance extremities.
11 Lymphatic and vascular impairment 2 Stretching muscle, joint, ligament,
and tendon
On the basis of response to therapy, it ap- 3 The patients digital contact over the
pears that in some of these conditions the skin of a suspect area of dysfunction
primary neuromuscular dysfunction is due termed therapy localization
to deafferentation, the loss of normal sensory 4 Repetitive contraction of muscle or
stimulation of neurons due to functional in- motion of a joint
terruption of afferent receptors. It may occur 5 Stimulation of the olfactory
under many circumstances, but is best under- receptors by fumes of a chemical
stood by the concept that with abnormal joint substance
function (subluxation or fixation) the aber- 6 Gustatory stimulation, usually by
rant movement causes improper stimulation nutritional material
of the local joint and muscle receptors. This 7 A phase of diaphragmatic respiration
changes the transmission from these recep- 8 The patients mental visualization of
tors through the peripheral nerves to the spi- an emotional, motor, or sensory
nal cord, brainstem, cerebellum, cortex, and stressor activity
then to the effectors from their normally-ex- 9 Response to other sensory stimuli
pected stimulation. Symptoms of deafferenta- such as touch, nociceptor, hot, cold,
tion arise from numerous levels such as mo- visual, auditory, and vestibular
tor, sensory, autonomic, and consciousness, or afferentation
from anywhere throughout the neuroaxis.
Manual muscle tests evaluate the ability of
Applied kinesiology interactive assessment the nervous system to adapt the muscle to
procedures represent a form of functional meet the changing pressure of the examin-
biomechanical and functional neurologic eval- ers test. This requires that the examiner be
uation. The term functional biomechanics trained in the anatomy, physiology, and neu-
refers to the clinical assessment of posture, rology of muscle function. The action of the
organized motion such as in gait, and ranges muscle being tested, as well as the role of syn-
of motion. Muscle testing readily enters into ergistic muscles, must be understood. Manual
the assessment of postural distortion, gait im- muscle testing is both a science and an art. To
pairment, and altered range of motion. Dur- achieve accurate results, muscle tests must
ing a functional neurologic evaluation, mus- be performed according to a precise testing
cle tests are used to monitor the physiologic protocol.
response to a physical, chemical, or mental
stimulus. The observed response is correlated The following factors must be carefully con-
with clinical history and physical exam find- sidered when testing muscles in clinical and
ings and, as indicated, with laboratory tests research settings
and any other appropriate standard diagnos- 1 Proper positioning so the test muscle
tic methods. Applied kinesiology procedures is the prime mover
are not intended to be used as a single method 2 Adequate stabilization of regional
of diagnosis. Applied kinesiology examination anatomy
should enhance standard diagnosis, not re- 3 Observation of the manner in which
place it. the patient or subject assumes and
maintains the test position
In clinical practice the following stimuli are 4 Observation of the manner in which
among those which have been observed to al- the patient or subject performs the
ter the outcome of a manual muscle test: test
1 Transient directional force applied to 5 Consistent timing, pressure, and
the spine, pelvis, cranium, and position
6 Avoidance of pre-conceived tion and therapeutic goals:
impressions regarding the test 1 Provide an interactive assessment of
outcome the functional health status of an
7 Non-painful contacts -- non-painful individual which is not equipment
execution of the test intensive but does emphasize the
8 Contraindications due to age, importance of correlating findings
debilitative disease, acute pain, and with standard diagnostic procedures
local pathology or inflammation 2 Restore postural balance, correct
gait impairment, improve range
In applied kinesiology a close clinical associa- of motion
tion has been observed between specific mus- 3 Restore normal afferentation to
cle dysfunction and related organ or gland achieve proper neurologic control
dysfunction. This viscerosomatic relation- and/or organization of body function
ship is but one of the many sources of muscle 4 Achieve homeostasis of endocrine,
weakness. Placed into perspective and prop- immune, digestive, and other
erly correlated with other diagnostic input, visceral function
it gives the physician an indication of the or- 5 Intervene earlier in degenerative
gans or glands to consider as possible sources processes to prevent or delay the
of health problems. In standard diagnosis, onset of frank pathologic processes
body language such as paleness, fatigue, and
lack of color in the capillaries and arterioles of When properly performed, applied kinesiology
the internal surface of the lower eyelid gives can provide valuable insights into physi-
the physician an indication that anemia can ologic dysfunctions; however, many individu-
be present. A diagnosis of anemia is only jus- als have developed methods that use muscle
tified by laboratory analysis of the patients testing (and related procedures) in a manner
blood. In a similar manner, the muscle-organ/ inconsistent with the approach advocated by
gland association and other considerations in the International College of Applied Kinesiol-
applied kinesiology give indication for further ogyU.S.A. Clearly the utilization of muscle
examination to confirm or rule out an associa- testing and other AK procedures does not nec-
tion in the particular case being studied. It is essarily equate with the practice of applied
the physicians total diagnostic work-up that kinesiology as defined by the ICAKU.S.A.
determines the final diagnosis.
There are both lay persons and professionals
An applied kinesiology-based examination who use a form of manual muscle testing with-
and therapy are of great value in the manage- out the necessary expertise to perform specific
ment of common functional health problems and accurate tests. Some fail to coordinate the
when used in conjunction with information muscle testing findings with other standard
obtained from a functional interpretation of diagnostic procedures. These may be sources
the clinical history, physical and laboratory of error that could lead to misinterpretation
examinations, and from instrumentation. Ap- of the condition present, and thus to improper
plied kinesiology helps the physician under- treatment or failure to treat the appropriate
stand functional symptomatic complexes. In condition. For these reasons the International
assessing a patients status, it is important to College of Applied KinesiologyU.S.A defines
understand any pathologic states or processes the practice of applied kinesiology as limited
that may be present prior to instituting a form to health care professionals licensed to diag-
of therapy for what appears to be a functional nose.
health problem. Approved by the Executive Board of the
International College of Applied Kine-
Applied kinesiology-based procedures are ad- siologyU.S.A., June 16, 1992. Updated
ministered to achieve the following examina- May, 2001.
Links to Applied Kinesiologys
Published Research Papers
as of June, 2012
Applied Kinesiology: Distinctions in its Definition and Interpretation, 2012.

Conservative Chiropractic Management of Urinary Incontinence Using Applied

Kinesiology: A Retrospective Case-Series Report, 2012.

Physical causes of anxiety and sleep disorders: a case report, 2012.

Association of manual muscle tests and mechanical neck pain: Results from a prospective
pilot study, 2011.

In the developing model of Evidence-Based Medicine, the clinical studies that should be considered
as providing evidence for the efficacy of a therapeutic system are:
Single Case Study
Case-Control Study
Case Referent Study
Case-Comparison Study
Case Series
Case Series-Control
Inception Cohort
Cohort Analytical
Cost Benefit Analysis
Cost Effectiveness Analysis
Crossover Trial
Before-After Trial
Nonrandomized Control Trial
Randomized Control Trial
Systematic Literature Reviews
Each of these forms of evidence have now been abundantly provided by 45 years of published, peer-
reviewed AK research

Chiropractic management of a 30-year-old patient with Parsonage-Turner syndrome.

Conservative management of post-surgical urinary incontinence in an adolescent: A case

history, 2011.

Inter-Examiner Reliability of Manual Muscle Testing of Lower Limb Muscles without the
Ideomotor Effect.

Applied kinesiology methods for sciatica and restless leg syndrome, 2010.
Iowa Chiropractic Society Review

Applied Kinesiology management of long-term head pain following automotive injuries: a

case report, 2010.

Applied Kinesiology methods for a child with headaches, neck pain, asthma, and reading
disabilities: a case study, 2010.

Intraexaminer comparison of applied kinesiology manual muscle testing of varying dura-

tions: a pilot study. 2010.

Effect of a single chiropractic adjustment on divergent thinking and creative output: A

pilot study, Part 1, 2010.

Applied Kinesiology management of candidiasis and chronic ear infections: A case his-
tory, 2010.

Muscle Imbalance: The Goodheart and Janda Models, 2010.

What Are You Doing About Muscle Weakness? Pt. 4: The Extremities, 2009.

Developmental delay syndromes: psychometric testing before and after chiropractic treat-
ment of 157 children, 2009.

What Are You Doing About Muscle Weakness? Pt. 3: Lumbar Spine, 2009.

What Are You Doing About Muscle Weakness? Pt. 2: Cervical Spine, 2009.

What Are You Doing About Muscle Weakness?, 2009.

Developmental Delay Syndromes and Chiropractic: A Case Report, 2009.

Available as a chapter in the book:


Manual biofeedback: A novel approach to the assessment and treatment of neuromuscular

dysfunction, 2009.

Evaluation of Applied Kinesiology meridian techniques by means of surface electromyog-

raphy (sEMG): demonstration of the regulatory influence of antique acupuncture points,

A pilot study to determine the effects of a supine sacroiliac orthopedic blocking proce-
dure on cervical spine extensor isometric strength.

Common Errors and Clinical Guidelines for Manual Muscle Testing: The Arm Test and
Other Inaccurate Procedures, 2008.

A Moment of Remembrance for Dr. David S. Walther, 2008.

A review of the literature in applied and specialised kinesiology, 2008.

A Tribute to George J. Goodheart, Jr. D.C.: The Growth of the Chiropractic Research Cul-
ture, 2008.

A Multi-Modal Chiropractic Treatment Approach for Asthma: a 10-Patient Retrospective

Case Series, 2008.

Manual therapy in cervical dystonia: case report, 2008.

Developmental Delay Syndromes and Chiropractic: A Case Report, 2007.

Can ankle imbalance be a risk factor for tensor fascia lata muscle weakness?, 2008.

Applied Kinesiology: An Effective Complementary Treatment for Children with Down

Syndrome, 2007.

Foci and areas of disturbance in the trigeminal region. Implications for orthopedics, im-
plantology, and Gnathology, 2007.

The Effects of Chiropractic Care on Individuals Suffering from Learning Disabilities and
Dyslexia: A Review of the Literature, 2007.

A musculoskeletal model of low grade connective tissue inflammation in patients with
thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO): the WOMED concept of lateral tension and its
general implications in disease, 2007.

Neurological influences of the temporomandibular joint.

On the reliability and validity of manual muscle testing: a literature review, 2007.

Cranial Therapeutic Care: Is There any Evidence?, 2006

Proposed mechanisms and treatment strategies for motion sickness disorder: A case se-

The Ileocecal Valve Point and Muscle Testing: A Possible Mechanism of Action.

Can the Ileocecal Valve Point Predict Low Back Pain Using Manual Muscle Testing?

Applied Kinesiology in Chiropractic.

Chiropractic Testing for Equilibrium and Balance Disorders.

Symptomatic Arnold-Chiari malformation and cranial nerve dysfunction: a case study of

applied kinesiology cranial evaluation and treatment

Chiropractic care for a patient with spasmodic dysphonia associated with cervical spine

Evaluation of Chapmans neurolymphatic reflexes via applied kinesiology: a case report of
low back pain and congenital intestinal abnormality.

The importance of proprioceptive testing to chiropractic.

Dr. George J. Goodheart

Founder of Applied Kinesiology

Understanding how to unwind the complex web of chronic fatigue immune dysfunction

Applied Kinesiology and the Motor Neuron.

New diagnostic and therapeutic approach to thyroid-associated orbitopathy based on ap-

plied kinesiology and homeopathic therapy.

Fix foot problems without orthotics.

Applied Kinesiology: How To Add Cranial Therapy To Your Daily Practice.

AK Manual Muscle Testing: As Reliable As The Deep Tendon Reflex?,

Migraines the Applied Kinesiology and Chiropractic perspective.

AK classic case management: enuresis.

Applied Kinesiology and Down syndrome: a study of 15 cases.
Pediatric case history: cost effective treatment of block naso-lacrimal canal utilizing ap-
plied kinesiology tenets.

A 39-year-old female cyclist suffering from total exhaustion caused by over-training and
false nutrition.

The piriformis muscle and the genitor-urinary system: The anatomy of the muscle-organ-
gland correlation.

Acupuncture in applied kinesiology: a review.

Applied Kinesiology and the Myofascia.

Applied kinesiology for treatment of women with mastalgia.

Plantar fasciitis.

A new breed of healers, Time Magazine Cover with George J. Goodheart, Jr.,9171,999708,00.html

Applied Kinesiologys Fundamentals

The Clinical Utility of Force/Displacement Analysis of Muscle Testing in Applied

The role of the scalenus anticus muscle in dysinsulinism and chronic non-traumatic neck

An applied kinesiology evaluation of facial neuralgia: a case history of Bells Palsy.

A Force/Displacement Analysis of Muscle Testing.

Applied Kinesiology and the Immune System.

Manual Muscle Testing and Postural Imbalance.

Applied Kinesiology as Functional Neurology.

Expanding the neurological examination using functional neurologic assessment part I:

methodological considerations.

Expanding the Neurological Examination Using Functional Neurologic Assessment Part

II: Neurologic Basis of Applied Kinesiology.

Muscle Test Comparisons of Congruent and Incongruent Self-Referential Statements.

Applied Kinesiology Helping Children with Learning Disabilities.

Applied Kinesiology and Homeopathy: A Muscle/Organ/Remedy Correlation.

Thoughts About Muscle Testing.

Evaluating and Treating Functional Hypothyroidism Utilizing Applied Kinesiology.

Point-Counterpoint: Is O-Ring testing a reliable method?

The Systems, Holograms and Theory of Micro-Acupuncture.

Interactions within the Triad of Health in AK

Correlation of Applied Kinesiology Muscle Testing Findings with Serum Immunoglobulin

Levels for Food Allergies.

The effects of a pelvic blocking procedure upon muscle strength: a pilot study.

Jugular Compression in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Cranio-sacral Lesions.

George Goodheart, Jr., D.C., and a history of applied kinesiology.

Interexaminer Agreement for Applied Kinesiology Manual Muscle Testing.

A preliminary inquiry into manual muscle testing response in phobic and control subjects
exposed to threatening stimuli.

Ear infection: a retrospective study examining improvement from chiropractic care and
analyzing for influencing factors.

Electromyographic Effects of Fatigue and Task Repetition on the Validity of Estimates of

Strong and Weak Muscles in Applied Kinesiology Muscle Testing Procedures.

The demystification of Chinese pulse diagnosis: An overview of the validations, holo-

grams, and systematics for learning the principles and techniques.

Educational Kinesiology with learning disabled children: an efficacy study.

A pilot study on the value of applied kinesiology in helping children with learning diffi-

Somatic dyspnea and the orthopedics of respiration.

Objective Measurement of Proprioceptive Technique Consequences on Muscular Maximal

Voluntary Contraction During Manual Muscle Testing.

Failure of the musculo-skeletal system may produce major weight shifts in forward and
backward bending.

Proc Inter Conf Spinal Manip. Washington, DC;May 1990:399-402.

Reliability of Manual Muscle Testing with a Computerized Dynamometer.

Somatosensory Evoked Potential Changes During Muscle Testing.

Cybernetic Model of Psychophysiologic Pathways: II. Consciousness of Effort and Kines-


Cybernetic Model of Psychophysiologic Pathways: III. Clinical impairment of Conscious-

ness of Effort and Kinesthesia.

Chiropractic Management of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

Intrarater reliability of manual muscle testing and hand-held dynametric muscle testing.

On the balancing of candida albicans and progenitor cryptocides: a triumph of the science
of applied kinesiology.

Physical balancing: Acupuncture and Applied Kinesiology.

Diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction: applied kinesiology compared to clinical observations
and laboratory tests.

Effects of Manipulation on Gait Muscle Activity: Preliminary Electromyographic Re-


ACA J Chiropr Oct 1983;17(10):49-52.

New simple early diagnostic methods using Omuras Bi-Digital O-Ring Dysfunction Lo-
calization Method and acupuncture organ representation points, and their applications
to the drug & food compatibility test for individual organs and to auricular diagnosis of
internal organs--part I.

Neuromuscular relaxation and CCMDP. Rolfing and applied kinesiology.

Applied kinesiology and dentistry.

Applied Kinesiology: Muscle Response In Diagnosis, Therapy And Preventive Medicine.

Quantification of the Inhibition of Muscular Strength Following the Application of a Chi-

ropractic Maneuver.

Applied kinesiology and colon health.

Uses of applied kinesiology for dentists.

Applied dental kinesiology: temporomandibular joint dysfunction.

Applied kinesiology--double-blind pilot study.

An Experimental Evaluation of Kinesiology in Allergy and Deficiency Disease Diagnosis.

Evaluation of Muscle-Organ Association, Part I and II.

Applied Kinesiology: An opinion.

Applied kinesiology: its use in veterinary diagnosis.

Kinesiology and Dentistry.

Applied kinesiology what does the term mean? (Letter to the Editor)

J Am Dietetic Assoc, 89(4);Apr 1989:476.

Combating a vitamin B deficiency

Todays Chiro, 17(2);Mar/Apr 1988: 19-22.

Structural imbalance and nutritional absorption.

Todays Chiro, 16(1);Mar/Apr 1987:19-24.

Managing lactic acid excess.

Am Chiro, Sep 1989: 48-52.

Structural imbalance and nutritional absorption.

Am Chiro, Oct 1989:40-44.

Celebrating Applied Kinesiologys gold and silver.

The Clorox Test: A Screening Test for Free Radical Pathology, Part I.

Further Explanation of Surrogate Testing and Therapy Localization.

Fundamentals of Essential Fatty Acid Metabolism, Parts I and II.

Kinesiology Korner: 21st Century Chiropractic.

Am Chiro, Dec 1985:55.

Applied Kinesiology celebrates 20th anniversary.

A study of the results of Applied Kinesiology in a group of 123 Patients.

Applied kinesiology: the advanced approach to athletic health care.

Canadian Runner, May 1983:18-19.

Dyslexia and learning disabilities cured.

Applied kinesiology the tangible measure of health imbalance and correction.

Nature & Health, Winter 1982:79-81.

Iron, Vitamin B-12, and Folic Acid: A Correlation of Laboratory Findings (Complete Blood
Count with Differential) and AK Findings.

German electro-acupuncture, Applied Kinesiology and gastric digestion.

The education dimensions of Applied Kinesiology.

A multi-disciplinary view of Herpes Simplex II.

The Journal of Energy Medicine, 1980, 1:12.

Applied kinesiology diagnosis and treatment of emotional stress overload.

The Journal of Energy Medicine, 1980, 1:40-45.

The good hands man.

Sports Illustrated, 51(3);July 16 1979:34

Applied Kinesiology, related organs, meridians and ear-ricular therapy.

Dig Chiro Econ, 1979;21(4):51-3.

Vertebral fixations which mask other faults.

Dig Chiro Econ, 1978;21(1):62-65.

Applied Kinesiology used in detecting potentially harmful ingredients in nutritional


Dig Chiro Econ, 1978;20(4):14-15.

Kinesiological differentiation of low back syndrome including the pseudo disc and true
disc and the ramrod spine.

Dig Chiro Econ, 1978;20(4):60-65.

Cranial Technique: A Clarification of Certain Principles.

Dig Chiro Econ, Nov/Dec 1977;20(3):26-29,74.

Correlative orthopedic kinesiology.

Dig Chiro Econ,1977;20(1):32-4.

One common cause of foot subluxations.

Dig Chiro Econ, 1977;19(6):28.

Experimental Characterization of The Reactive Muscle Phenomenon.

Dig Chiro Econ, Sept/Oct 1976:44-50.

Biofeedback and kinesiology.

Journal of the American Society of Psychosomatic Disease. 1976; 6: 19-23.

The vertebral challenge.

Dig Chiro Econ, 1976;18(6):24-28.

Applied Kinesiology and athletics.

Dig Chiro Econ, 1976;19(2):30-32.

Glaucoma and the kinesiological approach.

Dig Chiro Econ, 1976;19(3):48-9.