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Long-term-creep assessment for overhead-line conductors

J. Bradbury, Dip. TecMEng.), P. Dey, B.Sc.(Eng.), Mem.I.E.E.E., G. Orawski, B.Sc.(Eng.), Sen. Mem. I.E.E.E., C.Eng., F.I.E.E., and
K.H. Pickup, C.Eng., M.I.Mech.E.

Indexing terms: Creep, Overhead-line mechanical characteristics

Abstract

Based on the strain-hardening-material law, a method of long-term-creep prediction is proposed which takes into
account all practical line-design and operating conditions and estimates the reduction in conductor tension and
the increase in its sag due to creep with acceptable accuracy. Correlation between theory and practice is illustrated
by both laboratory and field measurements. Selected examples are given on the application of the method for
line design and for the selection of optimum sagging procedure of a line.-Areas of further research and investiga-
tions on overhead-line creep are indicated.

List of symbols (b) the distortion at the points of contact between the wires, allowing
2 slight longitudinal extension of the conductors
A = cross-sectional area of the conductor, mm
(b) pure metallic creep in the wires caused by the tensile load.
E = Young's modulus, kg/mm2
R — ratio of aluminium area to area of complete conductor Based on laboratory tests by many investigators,1"4 it is generally
T = tension in conductor, kg accepted that, after an initial period, the relationship between creep
TllJt = ultimate tensile strength of conductor, kg strain and time of an overhead-line conductor can be expressed by
t = time.h the empirical equation:
w = weight per unit length, kg/m
L = horizontal span length, m £ = Ct" 0)
a = coefficient of thermal expansion, deg C"1 Unfortunately, the values of C and n in the above equation are unique
e = creep strain, mm/km to the particular conductor and to the tension and temperature. Thus,
6 = conductor temperature, deg C in a laboratory, where tension and temperature are artificially main-
A0e = equivalent temperature change due to creep, deg C tained constant, the above equation plotted on a log-log scale gives
C,K = creep constants a straight line. But, under field conditions, where these parameters
T?, /?, 7, 8, <p — creep indices are constantly changing, the relationship on log-log scale is no
a.c.s.r. = aluminium conductor steel reinforced longer linear. Therefore, predictions of creep based on Cand n
a.c.aj. = aluminium conductor alloy reinforced values for an existing line, although with an identical conductor,
Suffixes 1 and 2 denote different values for the variable could introduce large errors. Moreover, the effect of changes in some
of the operating conditions on creep of a conductor, i.e. that of
1 Introduction tension and temperature, cannot be directly evaluated by the use of
eqn. 1.
As a result of creep strain, there is an increase in length and
hence in sag of an overhead-line conductor with time, which should
be considered at the design stage. Further, the effect of intermittent
high-temperature operation of transmission lines can accelerate creep Proposed method of creep prediction
strain.
The availability of an accurate method of long-term-creep pre- 3.1 Predictor equations
diction will remove much of the uncertainty now faced by the line Based on a large number of laboratory creep tests at differ-
designer as to the amount of extra ground clearance, if any, that ent tensions and temperatures, Bradbury and Harvey and Larson4
should be provided for the life of the line. The value of such a method have suggested the use of the following three predictor equations
is considerably increased if it enables assessment of the effect of pre- which correlate tension, temperature, time and creep strain:
tensioning and overtensioning on long-term creep.
Based on the strain-hardening-material law, a method of creep (2)
estimation is proposed which takes into account all practical line-
by Bradbury for all conductors
design and operating conditions. This method makes use of the
predictor equations, given in Section 3.1, for which laboratory-derived
creep constants are available. Correlation between predicted values (3)
of creep and those obtained by laboratory and field tests is illustrated.
Selected examples are given on the application of the creep-estimation by Harvey and Larson for all aluminium, aluminium alloy and a.c.a.r.
method to line design and construction. The field application of this conductors
technique to pretensioning and overtensioning may well be the subject
of further papers.*
e = (4)

2 Creep of an overhead-line conductor by Harvey and Larson for a.cs.r. conductors.
Creep, also occasionally referred to as nonelastic elongation, Some typical values of constants and indices for the above
of stranded conductors in service on a line consists of at least three equations are given in Section. 3.4.
parts:
(a) a general settling down of the wires which continues for several
hundred hours after mechanical loading of the conductors 3.2 Application of strain-hardening-material law
For conditions of varying temperature and tension, it has
* Major parts of the theoretical and experimental work were carried out prior
to the introduction of SI units. Owing to the time and cost involved in been found that the strain-hardening-material law5 gives a reasonable
changing the equations, the computer programs and the test results to SI prediction of creep strain. (See Fig. 1.) This law states that the creep
units, the technical metric units, in which the original investigations were carried strain rate depends only upon the existing tension, temperature and
out, have been retained.
creep strain.
By partially differentiating eqns. 2^4 using the strain-hardening-
Paper 7520 P, first received 25th February and in final form 18th June 1975
material law, eqns. 5-7 are obtained:
Mr. Bradbury and Mr. Dey are with BICC Research & Engineering L td., From eqn. 2,
London, England, Mr. Pickup is with the Rod & Wire Mills of BICC Metals Ltd.,
Prescot, Lanes., England, and Mr. Orawski is with the Power Transmission
Division of Balfour Beatty Power Construction Ltd., Croydon, Surrey, England.
Mr. Bradbury was formerly with the Central Electricity Research Laboratories,
de ye
(5)
Leatherhead, Surrey, England dt T8\

1146 PROC. IEE, Vol. 122, No. 10. OCTOBER 1975

c. 8 to basis of a large number of theoretical computations. 5O (b) If the tension remains reasonably constant throughout an interval. conductor the same size and constructions. However. 122. conductors at Weybridge by the program into a number of increments.R. and on the the previous interval. IEE.5 Effect of manufacturing variables on creep o 24 100 200. 6 or 7. 2 Type of aluminium 400 rod k 0 7 5 E 6 Extruded 238 x 10" 1-42 00174 10-6 0-455 Iboo Hot rolled 609 x 10"6 1-98 0-0238 2-95 0-313 200 The creep constants for eqns. 9. Vol. which is given by: ) < r r By assuming that. a condition that will not occur in practice. This is illustrated. it is necessary to use the general for conductors made with different processes. Obviously. applicable only to Zebra a. 4. 2. The statistically fitted values of the creep From eqn. the effect of restringing recovery. A comprehensive programme of laboratory creep tests is K(T x being undertaken with different types of conductors to establish (7) dr 'lilt their creep constants. the — A — 258 m span 166 m span change in tension during the increment is calculated from eqn. 2. . in the case of the predicted creep Weybridge experiments. 3 and 4 were derived by Harvey and Larson4 on the basis of laboratory creep tests in the temperature 100 range 25-100°C. 3 and 4 predict zero creep at 0°C and negative creep increment are derived from values of tension and creep strain at below this temperature. conductors having the construction of 54/3-18 mm bt [e \A Al + 7/3-18 mm steel.r. a number of time intervals are defined in each of which the temperature is assumed to remain I5O constant. 1 . 3 or 4. and these values are given in Table 2.s. CONDUCTOR 5 OO HAVING 54/7 STRANDING IN EQN. 8 with respect to t.cs.From eqn.cs. the start of the increment. The procedure used is as follows: 25O (a) At the start of a computation run.6 Limitations of the proposed method The rates of change of tension and of creep strain during each Eqns.3 Computing procedure 35O A computer program has been written to facilitate the creep 3OO estimation.cs. a Creep curves for conductors made from rolled aluminium rod b Creep curves for conductors made from extruded aluminium rod After calculating the creep strain for a time increment. No. experiments (see Section 4. and wires and the differences in the type of stranding equipment used Comparison between theoretically predicted creep and that obtained can give rise to variations in the creep performance of conductors of by laboratory tests on Zebra a. 3. This results in a slight overestimation These predictor equations were derived by Harvey and Larson4 based of the creep strain in the conductor. the values of the creep constants will also be different In addition to the above equations. 2 has been proved by extensive laboratory tests on Je (6) Zebra-a. the temperature is different from that in for some extrapolation of the creep data to lower values. 3.. allowing (d)U. such as pretensioning before sagging. the life of the conductor.h x 10 from the relevant creep equation 2. 3. the creep at the end of that interval is obtained directly b time. are given in Table 1. a phenomenon which was observed during the Weybrigde after an interval of a few years in service etc. time.1). Also. 300 4OO 5OO time. 5. 10. 2b). The conductors made from hot- actual creep rolled aluminium material have a significantly higher creep rate AB S440 kg constant tension BC 3630 kg constant tension (Fig. Table 1 VALUES OF CREEP CONSTANTS FOR ZEBRA A. we obtain (9) dt Eqn. the temperature remains constant. constants for eqn. 2a) than those made from extruded aluminium material (Fig. O as could be the case during running out and pretension of a con.r. the strain-hardening-material law does not predict creep temperature changes due to line uprating. The temperature can vary between one time interval IOO and another.h x IO 4OO 3. the authors have allow for this change. for a small increment of time. 197 m span 105 m span The procedure is repeated until the creep strain which has occurred during the time interval has been calculated. OCTOBER 1975 1147 . Over the relatively long service life of PROC. in any time interval.h Variations in the manufacturing methods of the base material Fig. the time interval is divided Results of creep tests on Zebra a.4 Creep constants 3e = [K fTY J * Eqn.r. in Fig. found that these equations can be used with confidence for 15°C The program can accommodate conditions that may occur during and higher temperatures.. the tension is recalculated using eqn.CS. on creep tests in the temperature range 25-100°C.r. and by partially differentiating eqn. 3. and the creep strain is progressively determined by using eqns. 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 ductor. 2 (c) When the tension is allowed to vary. Fig. Examples of such vari- change-of-state equation for an overhead line for creep prediction ations are shown in Tables 1 and 2. 9 shows that the rate of change of tension is dependent on the rate of change of creep strain in an overhead-line conductor.

r. 2.c. was taken to predict the creep performance for these conductors with The authors are of the opinion that. The tests* commenced in May 1971 and were terminated after IOO year 2 years IO years two years in June 1973 when the line was dismantled. 2.r.s. 4.s. 3. After 2OO allowing for the erection period. h Fig.s.c. a comparison between the best-fit curve best-fit curve from field measurements derived by a curve-fitting program and the predicted curve of creep predicted creep. and these were used with The authors have found reasonable correlation between creep eqn. it has not been possible to show the points on the figure. approximately 800.s.s.r. particularly for the Grosbeak a.s. but the scatter was about 2O0 ± 20 mm/km. (mixture of Conductor All-aluminium aluminium & in conductor alloy conductor •A. taking into account the limi.C. OCTOBER 1975 . Number of wires All-aluminium. 30/7/2-79 stranding measuring techniques used in the latter could not be employed on a d Gull a. Predictor eqn.2 Clyde's MilHMewarthill line creep tests u 3OO A 2-span section of the above mentioned nonenergised redundant line was made available by the South of Scotland Electricity 2OO Board for creep tests.s.c. 26/3-97 + 7/3-00 stranding c Lynx a. Owing to the large number of readings.C. The test con.r. Periodical measurements of temperature. In Fig. With the exception of some creep recovery.c. 54/7/3-18 stranding higher scatter than during the Weybridge test because the accurate b Grosbeak a. 4.c. different values of the constant |3 than the value of 1 -3 given in Table 2.R. The test results are shown in Fig. 2 to derive the predicted creep performance. This rig consisted of five level span lengths on 3OO each of which three 'Zebra' a. and from these time. constant conductor (6201 alloy) aluminium-alloy wires) More than 7-5% steel of Less than Hot Properzi total area 7-5% steel of rolled rod total area Hot- rolled Properzi rod rod K 7 23 x 10"* 14 x 10"* 12 x 10"* (3 + 19R)x 10"* 2-4 1-4 0-24 19 22x 10"* 14X 10"* 37 21 x 10~* 13 x 10"* 61 20 x 10"* 12 X 10"* 1-3 1-3 1-3 1-3 1-3 1-3 10 <t> 1-4 1-4 1-4 1-4 00 00 10 7 016 016 0-16 016 016 016 016 a line. the correlation can be con- sidered to be very good. estimated by their proposed method and measured creep on actual Time did not permit the derivation of creep constants by laboratory lines for periods up to two years.Table 2 VALUES OF CREEP CONSTANTS FOR EQNS.c.r. value of creep.c. 3 the creep strains were calculated. IEE.R. It was found that a better correlation between the best- the proposed method is reasonable.S. the help of eqn. the predicted and the measured creep strain for the test Results of creep tests at Newarthill conductors are shown. However.s. particularly noticeable in the 105 m span.3 Long-term-creep assessment For Zebra a. 4 used for remaining conductors strain shows reasonable agreement between the predicted and measured results. calculated by using predictor eqn. tations enumerated above. It is interesting to note that the Weybridge experiments were carried out about seven years before the publication of the paper e by Harvey and Larson. 4 Correlation between theory and experimental results Lynx 1-42 and Gull 1-39.1 Weybridge experiments 5OO The correlation was checked by the CEGB during the period 4OO December 1964 to December 1965 on a specially constructed. however. using two types of predictor equations 2OO developed independently by two different organisations. during the summer. conductors were installed. SOO I COO iOOOO IOOOOO head-line construction. 54/7/2-82 stranding commercial line. the accuracy of the creep predictions by Properzi rod).r. The values of |3 actually used for predictions were: Grosbeak 1-36. agreed with the measured creep strain within 5% on all the conductors and on all the spans.s.r. 4 and using the creep constants in Table 2 (a. 3 AND 4 A. The experiments were planned with two object- ives in mind: (a) to obtain first-hand field measurements of creep strain for a range of a. sag d and end movements of the conductors were made. _L_ A ductors were run out and sagged by a field gang as in routine over. the creep constants for extruded aluminium rod given in Table 1 were already available. There is a scarcity of accurate data 1148 PROC. fully 3OO instrumented field rig.c.r. The opportunity. creep recovery has a negligible effect on the final tests for the remaining three conductors. conductors installed on an actual line which did not permit the use of sophisticated techniques of measurements (b) to check whether a correlation existed between the measured creep of the conductors and that estimated by the method des- cribed in Section 3.c. Vol. 2 used for Zebra and eqn.-and it can be used with confidence fit field curve and the predicted curve was obtained by using slightly for most overhead-line designs. The measured values during the test showed a a Zebra a.. 122. the creep strain at the end of the test period. however.4 1 7O 5" 4OO 4.r.A. No. 10.

4 illustrates the computer-derived data between predicted creep.r. when no example. and.r. the conductor temperature will be a function of the ambient con. creep can occur without the maximum sag time and tension and. i. eqn. higher sagging tension than the design one so that.1 Estimated increase in sag at end of service life of conductor before final sagging and making off. pretension or overtension regimes have been cal transmission line having an annual load factor of. when no further allowance would be required for creep Predicted creep. creep properties. Vol. The influence of pretensioning erected under typical running-out and pretensioning conditions. 35OO tension and sag for a Zebra cpnductor with a 366 m span for 20 years IS ISOOO IOOO E creep mm/I tension. the volume of such input data. Fig. finally landed. PROG IEE.m Fig. 8. rises to 3017 kg.ReferenceJ. ductor was manufactured from hot-rolled aluminium rod and had a span of 130 m. for a typi. e = 616 mm/km and A0e = 32°C (approximately). 366 m span compensation.s. The conductor tem- perature for such a line will be entered as 17-6°C in the input Similarly. For southern England.c. the tension. however. The purpose of overtensioning is simply to adopt a slightly landing should be given as accurately as possible. Landing is normally assumed to take place at the In the general change-of-state equation. the value of creep estimated by the proposed method 5. 5. 4 3017 kg.: of creep strain during sagging and the magnitude of creep strain after (a) The treatment the conductor receives before final sagging and sagging. 2°C. Although the actual After sagging. say. Over a 20 year condition.s. 300 mm2 E conductor sagged to 3017 kg at 3-S h and 15'6°C and made off. lastly. the creep strain period. During service.e. time of landing. the annual mean temperature is 15-6°C. This concept is often used when compensation for creep ditions and the temperature rise caused by the load current. OCTOBER 1975 1149 . customary to do so. head-line design and operation. during the working clude the time and tension during running out. A typical example for is possible to obtain the hourly conductor-temperature records. in the case of a Zebra conductor. (b) equivalent temperature corresponding to tulated that the hourly conductor temperatures in the input form creep at time f(87 600 h) A0e = 32°C over a period can be replaced by the mean ambient temperature (c) temperature for calculating the sag at time of the line plus a few degrees rise to allow for heating due to the t and corresponding to the maximum design load current over the same period. Subsequent conductor. creep strain and temperature are both linear. This means that an overtension correspond- time ing to 32°C (A0e) would require a sagging tension of the order of Fig. For example. the influence of average ambient temperature along the line route. say. 12/4-75 mm Al + 6/475 mm alloy + 1/4-75 mm Al operational temperature assumed to be 17-6° C stranding. to express creep strain by an equivalent temperature change. No. It should be emphasised here that the actual conductor pressed by an equivalent temperature change. allowance for load current can be.2 Influence of pretension and overtension on final sag was between 14 and 16°C as compared with 27°F (15°C) actually measured on the line.s. the pretensioning life of the conductor. as overtension causes a change in length. Overtension means the higher value of tension above the design tension at which the conductor is The above type of estimation is required frequently in over. e = aA6e. a Zebra conductor is given below.c. Pretension means the procedure load at which the conductor is held.r. Based on a number of theoretical investigations. It can be Fig. the applied 0 + A0e = 82°C. the tension and temperature at the exceeding the design value. it can also be ex- form. tension and sag for Zebra a. of the 20 year period was assumed to be 17-6°C. in any case.c.on creep of lines. then and they will not. it is pos. The selection of optimum pretension and time and the de- termination of the effect or otherwise of overtension on the final sag of a conductor due to conductor creep are of considerable import- 5 Application of method to line design and sagging ance in the design and installation of a line. If it is made with the help of sag and tension charts. 10.*the faults would-be of such information is given on the value of creep which occurred on a line short duration that they would be unlikely to affect the conductor with Dingo a. This should in. Selection of overtension seen that for a span of 366 m. the average conductor temperature during the whole values will be different for different conductors and line parameters. if the temperature from an initial value of + 16°C falls to — 16°C. 6 the predicted value of conductor tension at its assumed AB conductor run out at 2650 kg tension for 0*5 h design temperature of 17-6°C is shown against different combi- CD conductor pretensioned at 8070 kg for 3 h nations of pretension time and overtension for an a. In Fig. and overtensioning is clearly seen in the Figure. 5 illustrates a typical tension/span/temperature chart. •example. ture. Withmodem protective gear. for temperature of the conductor. 20%. The data in the computer input sheet The main purpose of the pretensioning regime is to reduce the rate are filled in with special attention to two stages of operation. 5 Span/tension/temperature chart for Zebra a. Let us say that. but in Table'1 of.c. 33 kV line. 25OO 34O 35O 366 37O J8O 39O 4OO span. ideally at constant tension.r. the creep performance of any overhead-line conductor will follow a The effect of fault currents has not been considered in the above pattern similar to that above. be available at the time of design of (a) maximum design temperature of conductor 0 = 50°C say the line. Assuming that this con.a. at the end of 10 years (87 600 h). for longer-periods. and it is becoming temperature at any instant can be above or below this tempera. 183 mm span. from an initial value of 2645 kg. for a particular the input form can then be filled in with such data. for a period of nine years. 122. kg E i s 3OOO IO IOOOO IOO 5OOO IO . It is therefore possible (b) The subsequent performance of the conductor. will be too large.

of conductor Fig.r. conductor 366 m span the increase in creep is less for a. it is known that tension in time for a Zebra a.s. For example. 7.c.s. No. (a) A versatile method of creep prediction.w. which has a direct 55OO bearing on the height of towers and on the cost of a line.r.t. 9 gives an indication of the percentage cost increase for a quad Zebra 400 kV line with 366 m Span.4 Effect of normal and intermittent high temperature operation Occasionally. 7 shows an example for a Zebra a.t. The economics of line design is outside the scope of this A design nominal m.s. with Sag/ temperature I time relationship for Zebra a. the adoption of an overtension factor can wind and ice conditions.w. OCTOBER 1975 . but the ease with which the increase in sag due to creep strain B 14% pretension and—31-6°C overtension C Zero pretension and —31 -6°C overtension can be determined by the proposed creep prediction method makes it D 14% pretension and zero overtension a useful tool for such studies. the variation in m.s. during In some designs.s. if higher towers are used to maintain statutory clearance when IO 2O sag increases due to creep. 6 a.s.r. correspond. E Zero pretension and zero overtension 7 Conclusions 366 m span length and under UK loading conditions. time Fig. Fig. has been developed. This condition was theor- S etically investigated for a 400 kV line with Zebra conductors.w.t. 6OOO 6 Economic aspects The effect of creep is an increase in sag. mO""O ing to the printout tension.c.t. Tension after 20 years for 4O various sagging regimes — • . resagging may be required. is shown to estimate more accurately the reduction in tension and the also in Fig.r.w. and the selection of the optimum type of conductor can Effect of pretensioning and overtensioning on maximum working be made on the basis of lowest cost. 7 structions. to be reduced to the permissible value should help in the construction planning to minimise subjecting the line to climatic overloads. conductors 366mspan 6500 h conductor A assumed intermittent high-temperature operation conductor B assumed normal mean-temperature operation at 17-6 C can occur in service.5.r. paper. There are many variations which 13-8 13-6 13-4 13-2 o E I3O 5 900 S 12-8 o 12 6 124 12 2 85O I2O IO 20 3O 4O 5O 60 pretension. 366 m |iooo span. conductors with higher steel content. A prior knowledge of the time required for cause the tension in the conductor to exceed the specified maximum the m. and then sagged to —31-6°C overtension. 300 mm2 conductor 183 m span. 122. of Zebra conductors. 10.a. Fig. Alterna- tively. By calculating the m. 8. 5OOO 10 IO IO 2 I03 IO4 IO5 In the case of new projects. the period during which the tension could exceed the specified m. it becomes necessary to determine whether a curves A line can be operated at a high temperature for intermittent periods without infringing the ground clearance. 8 is determined. which makes it possible various combinations of pretensioning and overtensioning.w. pretensioned for 1 hour at 14% u.t.w. and each case will need to be examined separ- ately.w.c. and by plotting the former against time. Vol.c.t.3 Effect of overtension on the factor of safety be the possibility of the conductor exceeding it's design m. 5. IO The creep-prediction program has been designed so that the con- ductor tension corresponding to the input data on temperature is printed for each time interval.°/o u.— nominal design tension 942 kg at 17-6°C 3O Curves A — 22°C overtension Curves B—1 3°C overtension Curves C 0°C overtension Pretension times of 3. with predictor equations. there could currently available. under UK conditions.t. The progressive differences in sag and creep between assumed normal and intermittent high-temperature operations are illustrated in Fig. 1150 PROC.t. it would be possible to compare the time.h increase in sag for different types of conductor materials and con- Fig.c. IEE.t. 1-5 and 0-7S h used with each set of curves 2O working tension (m.) for a certain length of time. making use ot available For comparison. increase in sag due to creep of a conductor than using techniques If an overtensioned line is erected just before winter.

see Elenbaas. the voltage peak varied considerably with two different conventional circuits. Prototype unit LAMP BALLAST To obtain an approximate design. simply a multisection the required L and C values only to a first approximation. Thus the hybrid capacitance was 25 juF. the tube voltage) begins to form an amplified sine wave. the hybrid design procedure used gives The unit described by Stickley is not. Finally. 56-58 4 HARVEY. 1 weighs 2-6 kg. it was found that at the start of each tube Introduction current cycle the output voltage of the hybrid (i.r.. Acknowledgment is due to the Director of Engineering. No.c. It has a self-resonant frequency. OCTOBER 1975 1151 . Fig. W. and high voltage is applied which starts the gas dis.s. pp. degC 2 BRADBURY. the fluorescent tube was assumed to act as a resistor. and might not occur at all with some designs.: 'Creep of engineering materials' (c) By the application of this method. 9 IEEConf. 1973. The mains current is very across the supply corrects the phase of the current drawn and a starter roughly sinusoidal and its harmonic content appears to be no greater unit connected across the tube helps initiate the gas discharge when than in the case of a conventional circuit. thus 0-35 H. but. alternatively. This Discussion of unit constructed idea has been re-examined by the author and it was found that the unit not only ballasts the lamp with phase correction. D.pp. The tube and supply currents choke in series with the tube limits the current flowing. and Erratum. patented the idea of manufacturing the choke and capacitor as one unit. conductor line 3 PHILLIPS.7. If the tube is not ignited. WMD ance and factors of safety.: 'Creep of steel-cored aluminium conductors' in 'Progress in overhead lines and cables for 220 kV and above'. mentally. Fluorescent lamps. Feb. ibid. The hybrid has been analysed and it is hoped that A more efficient design would require a mathematical model of the details will be published shortly. O 10 / O 5O IOO 105-13. J. I. 1-9 5 FINNIE. thus eliminating the starter component. pp.: 'Final report of creep tests on South of Scotland loadings and the maintenance of statutory limits on ground clear. at fluorescent tube. Electro. Coils. but also causes The unit of Fig. It was heat shrunk in an oven to minimise the amount of air trapped in the windings. Possible ways to substantially reduce formula w 0 = l/y/(LC).H. and these (two components wound in one process). The life of the popular hot-cathode type of tube is likely to be charge. a reasonable degree of the light is switched on by causing cathode filaments to heat. 10. To obtain the required 110 V output voltage Abstract from the hybrid with this load resistance. Using an oscilloscope. 78-82 Increase in sag and cost of 400 k V quad Zebra a.R. in fact. and HELL1ER. V-. greater reliability is obtained in (McGraw-Hill) the assessment of prospective line designs. The single-plate inductance L was device conventionally used to control a fluorescent-lamp tube. Stickley1 phase correction is obtained.: 'Creep equations of conductors for cost increase. choke weighs 1 -9 kg. G. Working Group 05. BICC. 1972. the formula Vo/Vj = R/2OJ0L (from the hybrid theory) was used. However. but is a hybrid. whose parameters are not achieved in the most efficient way by the proto- properties are determined by capacitive and inductive mechanisms type construction used. Also. The PROC. (e) More investigations should be carried out to establish the relation- ship between the mean temperature and the temperature cycle t>l 0 that a conductor is subjected to in service. or. and VAUGHAN.e. Electr.W. Proceedings of the IEEE Winter Meeting. Electricity Board's Clyde's Mill-Newarthill 132 kV line'.R. IEE. Report WM/F/576. capacitor and starter by the 240 V.m. A 1 -5 m. 44.sag sag-tension calculations'.2 prototype designs. Starting at 110 V r. pp. 1968. J. a ballast of the lamp is reached. 64-65 equivalent creep temperature. Vol.: 'How to gauge effect of creep'. stating that this does not affect the action of the starter.K..(b) The optimum sagging procedure for a line can be determined for (d) Determination of creep constants by further laboratory tests specific conditions of application. (29). the permissible current 6 PICKUP. to determine the effect of manufacturing processes on the creep performance of conductors. and CJ0 are specified A single component can replace the choke. 65/80 W tube consumed 0-48 A Indexing terms: Capacitors.CAPACITOR HYBRID AS A FLUORESCENT. the Recent findings with an experimental hybrid ballast unit are hybrid was designed to resonate at the mains frequency using the reported and discussed. pp. while a typical conventional it to ignite. Maximum conductor temperature 50° C and span of 366 m 1959. IO II 9 References / 1 'A practical method of conductor creep determination'. To ensure phase correction of the mains current. acting at once. shortened by the application of a striking voltage every halfcycle. R. South of Scotland Electricity Board for providing 4O 14 facilities for creep trials on the Newarthill-Clyde's Mill 132 kV line and for the participation of the Board's personnel in the trials. 9th March with creep.s. 122. a capacitor show peaks as the capacitance discharges. 1 shows a unit constructed. For However.. Publ. The winding used aluminium capaci- of the theory of the unit. could be approached experi- which it has a load-dependent voltage gain. 50 Hz mains supply. The gain then drops to a value consistent with the new load. Acknowledgment is also due to the Southern Electricity Board for 3O 13 their participation on certain aspects of optimising sagging procedure for their 11 kV and 33 kV lines. the cost of the tube control equipment are suggested in the light Fig. in its normal circuit: It was therefore assumed to have a resistance of 126 £2. when the striking voltage In a common conventional fluorescent-lamp circuit.. E sag £8 8 Acknowledgment 60 16 Acknowledgment is made to the UK Central Electricity Generating Board for permission to use the data and information on creep investigations carried out by the Central Electricity Research 50 IS Laboratories at Leatherhead. 1972. tor foil and polypropylene dielectric film. and LARSON. the voltage falls. — . 1974 Correspondence CHOKE. the gain is high. World.E. taking into account various should be undertaken to improve the accuracy of predictions and combinations of conductor pretension and overtension. (24). report prepared by CIGRE Study Committee 22.H. The hybrid thus performs all the functions of a control circuit. acknowledgment is made to the management of B1CC and Balfour Beatty for their permission to 2O 12 / publish the paper.