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1. What is Research?

Research is a systematic inquiry that investigates hypotheses, suggests new

interpretations of data or texts, and poses new questions for future research to

Research consists of:

Asking a question that nobody has asked before;

Doing the necessary work to find the answer; and
Communicating the knowledge you have acquired to a larger audience.

2. Parts of a Research
Title - A good study begins with a good title that is descriptive without being too
long. Your title should adequately inform the reader of the important aspects of
your study, which may include population, the focus of the study, and/or unique
methods. When people go and search for articles in literature reviews, the search
engines often go off of a title. A general rule of thumb that I have heard is to
not make a title longer than 12 words.

Abstract -The abstract is a one-paragraph summary of the entire study. The purpose
of the abstract is to give a brief overview of a study so the reader can quickly
determine if they should read the full article or not. The focus should be on what
is important, such as the participants, the results, and briefly what the results

Introduction - The introduction obviously introduces the topic, but it also

describes the reason for the study and outlines the basic research in the field.
Introductions can be a few paragraphs to a few pages, depending on how long the
article or book may be.

Methods/Procedure - This section describes what you did, how you did it, gives
strategies, sample calculations, diagrams and circuits, and descriptions of
equipment. The goal here is to give the reader sufficient inforamation to be able
to repeat your work if desired. (Of course some "standard techniques" can be simply

Results - This section is where you prove your point with the data. Give graphs and
tables of costs, profits, whatever your data is. Also give some description or
guide to help the reader recognize your important points.

Conclusions/Discussion - Here you state what your learned or proved. What are the
"take home messages" or major accomplishments of this work? You may also describe
interesting observations, new questions, and future work here.

Bibliography - A list of the references you used in the work & writing the paper.

3. and 4. Parts of Introduction

The introduction to a research paper simply introduces the topic being researched.
The introduction contains a topic sentence, a thesis statement, then three to five
reasons, details and/or facts supporting your research followed by a conclusion. It
should be relatively brief, concise and clear. The thesis statement and the
supporting sentences provide the background information the reader needs about the
topic. An introduction doesn't explain findings in detail. It provides the setup
for the paper.

The Topic Sentence

The topic sentence in the introduction simply states the main idea of your paper.
It should be clear and concise yet thorough enough for a reader to understand what
will be presented.
The Thesis Statement
The thesis statement in the introduction makes the main idea of your paper clear to
the reader. Examine your outline for direction, then write several thesis
statements and choose the one that most appropriately fits your topic sentence.
Utilizing expressive words and vivid action verbs help the thesis grab the reader's
attention. Refine your thesis statement by reading it aloud several times to ensure
clarity and cohesion.

Supporting Sentences
Three to five reasonable arguments should be presented in the form of reasons,
details and/or facts. These arguments must support your research.

The Conclusion Sentence

The concluding sentence of the introductory paragraph simply recalls the main idea
and adds a strong ending to a paragraph. When writing the concluding sentence,
rewrite the topic sentence using different words but keep the main idea intact.
Also, add a new detail or insight about the main idea. The conclusion should use
words that grab the reader's attention.

5. How to write Statement of the Problem

The ultimate goal of a statement of the problem is to transform a generalized
problem (something that bothers you; a perceived lack) into a targeted, well-
defined problem; one that can be resolved through focused research and careful

Writing a statement of the problem should help you clearly identify the purpose of
the research project you will propose. Often, the statement of the problem will
also serve as the basis for the introductory section of your final proposal,
directing your readers attention quickly to the issues that your proposed project
will address and providing the reader with a concise statement of the proposed
project itself.

A statement of problem need not be long and elaborate: one page is more than enough
for a good statement of problem.