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Detail Literature Study for

designing a Small Wind Mill
Turbine unit of Capacity 500

Submitted to:
Project supervisor, Engr. Zafar Abbas

Submitted by:
M. Arsalan Malik (2kx4-Mech-111) (Project Head),
Hafiz M. Adeel (2kx4-Mech-129),
Muhammad Husnain (2kx4-Mech-137).
In this literature study, we have studied design, material specifications,
working and methodology of the wind mill turbine. For this study, we took help
from different journals and research papers. We studied some research papers and
journals from years 2012-2017 for this study. From these documents we studied
following things:

o Wind Mill using Magnetic Levitation

o Optimization of Wind Mill Turbine Blade
o Design for blade for a Small Wind Mill Turbine Unit
o Design of Aero-leaf Wind Turbine
o Calculation for a 2-blade rotor Wind Mill Turbine
o Portable Wind Mill Turbine
o Maglev Generator for Wind Mill Turbine
o Gear box in Wind Mill Turbine
o Modular Wind Mill
o Induction Generator in Wind Mill Turbine
o Wind Mill Turbines in Pakistan; for energy crisis in country

Wind Mill using Magnetic Levitation:

The Magnetic Levitation wind turbine is a vast departure from

conventional propeller design. Its main advantage is that it uses frictionless
bearing and magnetic levitation design and is does not need a vast
space required by more conventional wind turbine. It also requires
little if any maintenance. Currently the largest conventional wind
turbines in the world produce only five megawatts of power.
However, one large magnetic levitation wind turbine could generate one GW
of clean power, enough to supply energy to 750,000 homes.

The magnets used in this turbine type, are much stronger than the
normal magnets. The friction less property of this turbine makes it one of the most
efficient wind mill turbine.

Usually Neodymium Magnet is used in Magnetic Levitation. It is

alloy of iron, neodymium and boron and it is a natural permanent magnet.

Optimization of Wind Mill Turbine Blade:

It this part we have studied about of design of the blade of the wind
mill turbine. We studied a research paper for Wind Mills on coastal areas of
Pakistan. In this section we have studied the environmental changes on the wind
mill turbine blades. We have studied different formulas for different environmental

For Pressure;

In this formula, the density will keep changing in different conditions. The blades
can be enhanced by the changes.
Velocity Ratio;

In this formula v1, v2 are velocities and h1, h2 are heights where alpha is roughness

Design for blade for a Small Wind Mill Turbine Unit:

The blade plays an important role, because it is the most important part
of the energy absorption system. Consequently, the blade has to be designed
carefully to enable to absorb energy with its greatest efficiency. The main objective
is to optimize blade number and selection of tip speed ratio corresponding to the
solidity. The power performance of small horizontal axis wind turbines was
simulated in detail using blade element momentum methods (BEM). For wind
blade design various factors such as tip loss, hub loss, drag coefficient, and wake
are considered. The design process includes the selection of the wind turbine type
and the determination of the blade airfoil, twist angle distribution along the radius,
and chord length distribution along the radius. The 3-bladed, 5-bladed and 7-
bladed rotor achieved maximum values of Cp 0.46, 0.5 and 0.48 at the tip speed
ratio 7, 5 and 4 respectively. It was observed that using BEM theory, maximum Cp
varied with strongly solidity and weakly with the blade number. The studies
showed that the power coefficient increases upto blade number B=5, while the
blade number if increased above 5 then the power coefficient decreases at
operating pitch angle equal to 3o. Highest Cp would have solidity between 4% to
6% for number of blade 3 and design point tip speed ratio of about 7. Highest Cp
would have solidity ranging from 5% to 10% for number of blade 5 and 7 and
design point tip speed ratio of about 5 and 4.
Design of Aero-leaf Wind Turbine:

In this section, we have studied a unique style for the blade of the
wind mill turbine. Apart from conventional styles, a new style of blade is used
which can be used in wind mill. Its main benefit is that it is not that dangerous like
other wind mill blades. The leaf style blade also is a free revolving blade. We do
not have to change its position for different side of air.

This design wind mill can be used to make a small load wind mill like under 1000
Watts. It is easy to make and can run or low air speed as its shape creates a vacuum
inside it and air becomes fast when air comes near it.
Calculation for a 2-blade rotor Wind Mill Turbine:

The VIRYA-5 windmill has a 2-bladed rotor with wooden or stainless

steel blades which are connected to each other by means of a twisted steel strip.
The tower is identical to the 12 m tower of the VIRYA-4.6B2. As an alternative, a
shorter tower can be used which is built up from two tubular sections. The lower
section will be made of 6 m, 5 gas pipe. The upper section will be made of 3 m,
3 gas pipe. The overlap in between both sections will be about 0.4 m, so the total
tower height will be about 8.6 m. This tower is described in report KD 582 (ref. 1)
for the VIRYA-4.6B2.

The VIRYA-5 makes use of a 34-pole PM-generator. This idea of using a 34-pole
generator was already described in report KD 560 (ref. 2) for the VIRYA-3.3S
generator. The VIRYA-5 is primary designed to be directly coupled to the
asynchronous motor of a centrifugal pump. The generator is made from the
housing of a 6-pole, 5.5 kW asynchronous motor frame size 132 with stator
lamination of manufacture Kienle & Spiess.

We studies a paper in which we studies the Wind Mill VIRYA-5. It is a big wind
mill turbine and is usually used for large production of electricity.
Portable Wind Mill Turbine:

In a different paper of year 2014, we studied a new thing, Portable

Wind Mill Turbine. This is a small unit of wind turbine. As shown by name, it can
be taken to any place we want. Usually portable wind mill turbines can produce up
to 350 Watts of electricity. These wind mills are usually used by mountaineers and
campers for their night stays.

Maglev Generator for Wind Mill Turbine:

As studied and mentioned earlier, the magnetic wind mill we can also
use magnetic generators. In this type of generator we use the Maglev type of coil
which is used for frictionless running of rotor and stator in the generator. If Maglev
wind mill and Maglev generator are connected to each other and let them do the
work then it be interesting to see whether the two strong magnet machines can hold
it or not.

Gear box in Wind Mill Turbine:

Using a gear train or gear box in wind mill turbine can enhance its
ability to a new extent. The gear train have replaced the shaft system in the wind
mill turbine. The gear box consist of around 7-24 gears. If the main gear connect
with the shaft of blades then it is easy to make the generator run 7 times as the last
gear is running 7 times.
Modular Wind Mill:

A prime challenge in decreasing the size of a windmill is inefficiency

in turbine structure that affects overall system performance. Turbine design for a 3-
megawatt windmill is not necessarily the most efficient design for a small scale
windmill. A turbine produces power by slowing down the wind. The wind contains
kinetic energy and, thus imparts a force on the turbine blade.
However, it is not a drag force that causes the turbine to spin. It is a lift force. As
the blades move through the air, they experience two separate airstreams. The first
air stream is from the wind itself hitting the plant form of the blade. The second air
stream is caused by the blade moving through the air similar to an airfoil on an
airplane. The combination of these two airstreams produces the lift forces that keep
the turbine in motion. Betzs law is applied to determine how much the air speed
must be slowed from the upstream velocity. The law states that a turbines
coefficient of performance is maximum when the downstream air velocity is one-
third of the upstream velocity.

Wind Mill Turbines in Pakistan; for energy crisis in country:

During last few decades, Pakistan has been facing serious energy
crisis. The major disadvantage of this energy crisis is the slowdown of developing
process and it is also affecting overall progress in Pakistan. Therefore, to meet the
energy requirements in the country government is planning for renewable
energy resources. Pakistan Meteorological Department (PMD) carried out a
comprehensive survey to find out the wind Potential along the windy area of the
The survey report indicates that there is a huge wind potential for collecting wind
energy by using the modern technologies, especially in the Sindh coastal areas. In
Karachi there is severe power shortage at about 3 to 8 hours per day that causes
huge economic losses for the city. Karachi is the greatest industrial city of the
country, located at 24.861N and 67.011E along the coastal areas of the Arabian
Sea. Karachi is the city of large population of 13 million currently it is facing
power shortage problems.

The projects are being established in Pakistan. Usually the projects are in Sindh
and Baluchistan.

1.Ashwin P. Joseph, 2Suraj P. Chavhan, 3Pravesh K. Sahare, 4Abdul Arif,

5Tanveer A. Hussain DOME, J D College of Engineering & Management,
Nagpur, Maharashtra, India

2. Almukhtar, Ali. H., Effect of Drag on the Performance for an Efficient Wind
Turbine Blade Design Journal of Energy Procedia, 18, 2012, pp. 404-415.

3. Bai, C. J., Hsiao, F. B., Li, M. H., Huang, G.Y., andChen, Y. J., Design of 10
kW Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) Blade & Aerodynamic
InvestigationUsing Numerical Simulation Journal of Procedia Engineering, 67,
2013, pp. 279-287

4. Prince Mohammad bin Fahad Unversity. Engineering Department.

5. VIRYA Wind Mills

6. The University of Kansas

7. International Journal of Advance Engineering and Research Development

Volume 4, Issue 4, April -2017

8. European Wind Energy Association (EWEA) Report 2013.

9. Japan Wind Power Association, 2012) (Sasebo Heavy Industries, 2013) reports.