9th Grade Biology | Endoplasmic Reticulum | Stomach

Study Guide by Narendran Sairam, Steven Kraplin and Rajat Goyal LECTURE NOTES (N ARENDRAN SAIRAM) CELL THEORY

In 1838 Schleiden and Schwann came up with cell the ory. In 1838 cell theory consisted of three parts: a. The cell is a structure of physiology and organization. b. Cells have a dual existence: 1. as an entity 2. as a building block of live. c. Cells form from free cell formation also called spontaneous generation. CELLS Cells have two types of differences; a. Morpholog ical differences: Have to do with structural differences. Eg. Eukayotes have a n ucleus while prokaryotes have no true nucleus. b. Phylogenetic differences: Have to do with genetic differences. Eg. Bacterial, Eukaryan and Archean cells have phylogenetic differences. PROKARYOTES AND EUKARYOTES Three shapes: Coccus: ball shaped Basilicus: Rod shaped. Spirilum: spiral • The cell walls of the prokaryotes are made up of carbohydrates and proteins. These molecules are called peptiglyc ans. The plasma membrane pressurizes the cell wall and helps it retain its shape . The plasma membrane and the cell wall help protect the cell. • Most bacteria hav e a single large circular chromosomes but some have linear chromosomes • Ribosomes are made up of three different types of RNA molecules and more than 50 types of proteins. • Plasmids are circles of DNA that are twisted. Plasmids are capable of changing rapidly according to their environment. • Flagellum: These, in prokaryot es, serve the same function the serve in eukaryotes. • Cytoskeleton: this made up of cytoplasm and stiff fibers. In prokaryotes, the cytoskeleton is very complex in comparison to eukaryotes. Eukaryotes Prokaryotes Membrane bound organelles No organelles 5-100 micro meters 1-10 micrometers Nuclear envelope delineates the nucleus No true nucleus Complex cytoskeleton Simple Cytoskeleton. Reasons/advant ages of having organelles: 1. To get things done faster(improves efficiency) 2. Compartmentalization (keeps different reactions separate from one another) All s tructures in a eukaryotic cell are membrane bound. MEMBRANE STRUCTURE ©Narendran Sairam, Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin

The Achaean phospholipids: • The Archaean membrane is made up of Phosphate(PO4-2), glycerol and isoprene. The Eukaryan/ Bacterial phospholipids: • Made up of serine , Phosphate group, a glycerol group and a bunch of fatty acids. • Serine is and am ino acid that attracts water very well. This is because both, water and serine a re polarized. Essentially serine is Hydrophilic (water liking). • The fatty acids on the other hand are hydrophobic (don’t like water) because they are not charged. Actual Structure: The membrane is made up of two phospholipids placed back-to-b ack. This makes it a phospholipids bilayer. The chemicals and the food get into the cell through the bilayer. This process is called diffusion. Diffusion is bas ically a change in the concentration gradient. The diffusion of water through a membrane is called osmosis. MEMBRANE PROTIENS There are three types of membrane proteins; a. Transport proteins: There are three types of transport proteins: • Ca rrier proteins: These proteins move molecules through a membrane. Eg C6H12O6. Th is is done by diffusion. • Channel proteins: these allow movement of ions through a membrane. • Pumps: These allow movement of ions against the concentration gradie nt (opposite of diffusion). b. Receptor Proteins c. Cell to cell recognition The Endoplasmic Reticulum and the Golgi apparatus proteins: These are also called g lycoprotein. They have Carbohydrates sticking out of their cell. This carbohydra te helps recognize other proteins of the same body or organ. ORGANELLES • Endoplasmic Reticulum(E.R.): 1. Rough ER: Cytoprotein (cellular prote in) synthesis takes place in the membrane of the ©Narendran Sairam, Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin

Rough ER. Once the proteins are made they are compartmented and left in the cyto plasm. 2. Smooth ER: Regulates C (Carbon) ion concentration. They make phospholi pids and other non-protein based molecules that help in killing toxins. The bioc hemical reactions that produce proteins and phospholipids are very complex. Prot eins that are made in the Rough ER are transported to the cytoplasm ribosomes an d to the Golgi apparatus for activation. • Golgi apparatus: This organelle is made up of three parts. A flat membrane sac called the cisternae. This cisternae hol ds the lumen (everything inside itself). 1. Cisface: This part is close to the E R and receives the transport vesicles that carry the proteins. 2. The Medieval R egion: This the space between the cis and trans faces (not shown in the picture) . Acts as a transport between the extreme faces of the Golgi apparatus. 3. Trans face: This part is closest to the Plasma membrane. It packs the altered and acti vated molecules and transports them to the membrane and other parts of the body. The Golgi apparatus produces lysosomes (organelles that produce digestive enzym es). They also modify proteins and activate them. The proteins are put in the ly sosomes and are transported to other parts of the body. Chloroplasts: This is made up of two membranes; inner and outer membrane. There is a space between the two membranes. This space is called intermembranal space. This organelle is only found in plants and protists. It is the site of photosyn thesis. Photosynthesis: The thylocoids capture the photons with the help of chlo rophyll and carotenoids on their membranes and house the conversion machinery. E C6H6O12 + 6O2 This reaction is divided into two parts. During quation: 6CO2+6H2O photosynthesis, plants take Carbon Dioxide from their surroundings and use it t o make glucose. a) Photophosphorylation or light-dependent reaction and b)Calvin’s cycle or light-independent reaction. Photophosphorylation coverts light energy into chemical energy. Calvin s cycle uses the stored energy, water and CO2 to gi ve glucose. Since glucose (C6H12O6 ) has bonds that require a lot of energy and since CO2 s carbon-oxygen bonds don t have too much potential energy, their pot ential energy must be increased in order to make glucose. This energy is acquire d from the photons of light. In order to use the energy of the photons the energ y must be converted into chemical form to be stored. This process is called Phot ophosphorylation. Photo ("light") phosphorylation ("the addition of phosphate to a molecule") basically adds a phosphate to ADP to make it ATP and there by stor es energy in ATP. The process takes place in the grana (Figure1), within the tyl akoids. The environment within the grana is suitable for chemiosmosis (process w here ADP is synthesized to ATP). The photons of light are captured by the antenn ae called photo systems and are brought into the reaction center where they are converted into chemical energy. • Mitochondrion: This organelle is found in both, plants and animals. Its function is to produce energy by producing ATP. It conve rts Glucose to ATP. The mitochondrion, like the chloroplast has two membranes an d space between those membranes. The outer membrane separates the cytocol(the je lly like part of the cytoplasm) from the inside. The • ©Narendran Sairam, Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin




This converts the 6 Carbon atoms in C6H6O12 (Glucose) to 2C 3(Pyruvate). This is where the DNA is c oded. Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin . Heterochromatin and euchromatin. glucose and oxyg en. b. There are two types of C hromatin. In the end the number of ATPs produced are approximately 32-36. The actual reaction takes place in the matrix. Therefore anaerobic respiration only produces 4 ATP which results in mus cle burn and lactic acid buildup. There are two types of cellular respiration: a. The stuff inside the nucleus is called Chromatin. The steps in aerobic respiration a re: • Glycolysis: occurs in the cytoplasm of a cell. • Kerb’s Cycle: This part of the cycle requires oxygen. This reaction is called cellu lar respiration. proteins. Anaerobic res piration: Since this reaction takes place in the absence of air there is no Kerb’s cycle. ©Narendran Sairam. Aerobic respira tion( respiration in the presence of oxygen). Heterochromatin is chromatin that is dense and is not being coded while euchromatin is less dense and is being coded for. • Nucleus: The nucleus is an organelle that has a double membrane and pores in between the membranes.only things that enter the mitochondrion are enzymes. It starts with Pyruvate and O2 and produces 4CO2 and ATP.

Evaporation : phase change between liquid to gas.ANIMAL FORM AND FUNCTION TERMS Tissue: a collection of cell working together to perform a specific function. Bone: a connective tissue with a firm extra cellular matrix. bone. Volume increases more rapidly than surface area. Nervous tissue: tissue made of cells that are c alled neurons or nerve cells. Part of the nervous system. Organ Systems: A collection of Organ working togeth er to perform a specific function. Heterotherms: fl uctuate body temperature. Radiation: transfer of heat without physical contact. Epithelial tissue: lines the surfac e of the body (skin). Multicellular: consisting of more than one ce ll. Endotherm: Organism that produces its own heat. Ectotherm: gains heat from its environment. Counter current heat exchange: an arrangem ent where blood vessels are arranged in an anti parallel fashion that enables he at exchange between organisms. Organ: A collection of tissues working together to perform a specific function. Blood. Basal metabolic rate: amount of oxygen consumed by and organism while at rest with an empty sto mach and under normal conditions. Thermoregulation: The control of the body temperature . Cardiac muscle: makes up the walls of the heart. Metabolic rate: over all rate at which energy is consumed by an organism. Blood: a connective tissue that has a liquid extra cellular matrix. Conduction: gaining heat by co ntact. Muscle tissue: Made of fibers that only contract.g. Homeotherm: these have constant body temperature. Connective tissue: cells closely arranged in a solid. Striated muscle: Muscle that helps move the skeleton and keeps it in place. Allometry: occurring where change in body size are accompanied by disproportional changes in anatomical structures. ©Narendran Sairam. Its cells are surrounded by Plasma. jellylike or liquid ex tra cellular Matrix (e.) Cartilage: a connective tissue with a fi rmer extra cellular matrix. Hib ernation: state of extended or persisting torpor. ORGAN SYSTEMS Excretory system: gets rid of metabolic wastes. Torpor: condition where metabolic rate is reduced. Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin . Convection: Change of temperature during movement of water air of through body surface. Skeletal system: provides struct ural support for body. Smooth muscle: line the walls of the blood vessels. Homeostasi s: the relatively standard and constant physical and chemical conditions within an animal cell and tissue.

Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin     . Lymphatic system: de als with excess water from the excretory system and provides places for the stor age of the lymphocytes. The mesoderms form the internal organs and the skletons. Reproductive system: produces gametes and provides organs for fetal development in females. Before the final stages of gastrulation take places the cells are told weather they are going to become ectoderms. Nervous system: sends and receives signals from the envir onments and controls all the bodily functions. ectoderm and so metimes mesoderm. ***most protostomes and deuterostomes hav e three germ layers. nerves and spinal chord and skin.Endocrine system: produces hormones for growth. The Gastrula has three parts to it endoderm. H2O and CO2) with the environment. Integumentary system: creates a protective barrier between the body and the environment. mesoderms or enoderms. Th e ectoderm forms the brain. Notes Blastula is a ball of cells that goes through a process called gastrulation and produces a gatrula. Ci rculatory system: pumps and carries blood throughout the body. development and reproduction. Immune system: de fends the body from foreign objects and organisms. Respiratory system: exchanges gas es (mainly O2. ©Narendran Sairam. Digestive system: breaks down food and absorbs nutrient and eliminates wastes.

THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM The skin is and up of three types of epithelial tissues . Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin . a. columnar epithelial tissue: b. cuboidal epithelial tissue: ©Narendran Sairam.

Whi te blood cells or leukocytes are cells of the immune system defending the body a gainst both infectious disease and foreign materials. Neurophils: these are phagocycotic cells that eat harmful bacte ria by engulfing them. b. but they are all produced and derived from a mult i potent cell in the bone marrow. These creatures do not posses blood. The hemolymph helps transport nutrients throughout the body.squamous epithelial tissue: THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM There are two types of circulatory systems: a. They prevent clo tting by producing heparin. Platelets: t hese are cells that are no longer functional and are essential in the clotting o f blood. Heparin reduces your ability to clot and increases y our ability to break down clots. Closed Circulatory System are circulatory systems where the blood and the bodily fluids stay in the vascular tubes.4 million cel ls per µl (micro liter). b. These organisms have hemoglobin which is four proteins held tog ether by a Fe or iron molecule. a. RBCs (RedBloo dCells): these are the cells that carry oxygen and carbohydrates throughout the body. There are three types of cells in blood. They also produce histamine.c. Some mollusks and arthropods have this kind o f a circulatory system. Histamine contract s the affected tissue and pushes the fluids into the neighboring tissues and the re by causes swelling. They multiply rapidly in an allergic reaction to fight and overwhelm the un wanted proteins. Lympocytes: these responds and attack specific ©Narendran Sairam. The Blood The human body has 4. Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin . c. Eosynaphils: these cells respond to the presence of prote ins. Several different and dive rse types of leukocytes exist. Basophils: these prevent unnecessary clotting. Open Circu latory Systems are circulatory systems where all the bodily fluids are dumped in to one cavity inside the organism. These are the most common type of blood cells in the body. Instead they have h emolymph which is a mixture of blood. This hemolymph is du mped into a cavity and then drained through the porous layers of the cavity.2-5. incl uding the blood. lymph and byproducts. WBCs(WhiteBloodCells): there are five types of white blood cells. Leukocytes are found throughout the body.

There are three types of T-cells: ©Narendran Sairam. LYMPHATIC SYSTEM This system returns fluids to the circulatory system. Nonspecific response also occurs at a cellular level. As the go deeper and farther away from the heart the size down an d become arterioles. These arterioles go into the capillaries where the exchange of nutrients takes place. The other pores in ones body are lined with mucus to purify the enterin g substances. The lymphocytes are stored in the spleen. The plasma cells produce antibodies that are released into the body. Since not all of the water is regained the extra fluids are picked up by the lymphatic system are emptied into veins near the heart. The blood leads away from the heart in arteries. NK cells: these are Natural Killer cell s that respond to any cells that have been altered. The Heart The heart is an organ that pumps the blood to the body. Nonspecific response: the infection is kept out of ones body by barriers like t he skin. Every antigen has its own antibody so that every time the organism is exposed to the antigen the antibody reacts and annihilates the antig en. T cells: these cells are called T-cells because they are produced in the Thymus glands. The lymph goes through lymph nodes that filer the lymph by using phagocycotic cells and organisms.R and ribosomes. Monocytes: these circulate in blood for a day and produce macrophages(larges t WBCs) that eat and destroy everything it their path including cells and bacter ia. Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin . The fluid carr ied by the lymphatic system is called lymph. Heal(all metabolization) + r edness(RBC) + fluid(capillaries expand)= inflammation Specific response of the i mmune system to a foreign particles is initiated by antigens. This produces a bit of E. Therefore they are pre sent in all parts of ones body. It origin ates in ones endpoints like the tips of fingers and toes. The antibodies bin d to the antigen that are usually proteins. the tonsils and the thalamus glands. These respon ses are initiated by phagocycotic cells. Then the deoxygenized blood goes into the ventrioles and then in to the veins and then finally back to the heart where the blood is p umped to the lungs for exchange. These tubes are big enough to be seen wit h a naked eye. The Circulatory system looses water through the capillaries. There are two types of antibodies: B cells: these cells become plasma cells in the Bone Marrow.antigens or proteins. IMMUNE SYSTEM The immune system give two different kinds of responses: specific and non-specific.

Cow pox exposed people did not get small pox. Helper: th ese cells also recognize the altered cells and signal to intiate the production of the B-cells and the cytotoxic T-cells. Suppressor: these T-cells stop the production of the T-cells and th e B-cells. Ingestion Digestion Absorption ©Narendran Sairam. matching the donors and t he recipient: blood is take from both and the Histocompability is consulted. He was the first person to in troduce a vaccination. This process slows the reproduction of the pathogens or antibodies. If a person has an organ transplant then the immune system rejects th e organ. 2.Cytotoxic: these recognize any cells that have been altered. Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin . The lungs are conta ined in an air tight and water tight sac called the pleura. The esophagus is the only hole through the diaphragm. These are the cells that are first inv aded by HIV. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM There are some requirements for the ex change of gases: surface must be moist. The epithelial cells must be extremely thin in ord er to facilitate diffusion. This rejection can be reduced in two ways: 1. Gases dissolve in a liquid before enteri ng the membrane by diffusion. As the diaphragm contracts the ribcage expands and the pleura expands allowing the air to rush into the lungs. In the 1769 Edward Jenner observed that women who milked cows did not get small pox. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM The digestive system performs the following fu nctions. When the diaphr agm expands the ribcage contracts and the pleura contracts pushing the air out o f the lungs. These have antibodi es on the surface that produce perfarin to penetrate the membrane of the antigen . The reduction of the specific immune system. The surface itself must be thin.

Mesoderm makes up organs in the coelom. This process is ca lled peristalsis and the food.Canines. Human Digestion Mouth: Mechanical and chemical digestion takes pla ce here. is called bolus. Pat h of Food inside a Vertebrate Mouth-Pharynx-Esophagus.Large In testine-Anus. Endotherm makes up digestive tract. ©Narendran Sairam. by a series of contractions by the tube. The food is taken to your stomach.Elimination The digestive system follows the tube inside a tube structure Body wall Coelom Digestive tract Ectotherm makes up body wall.Molar. saliva and other juices are mixed with the it. Pharynx & Es ophagus: Serve as tubes to transport food.Premolar. th rough the esophagus. Once the food is ground. tongue and jaw muscles. The mechanical digestion occurs with help of the teeth. Path of Food Inside an Earthworm Mouth-Pharynx-Esophag us-Crop(storage sac)-Gizzard(muscular organ that grinds food)-IntestineAnus. Sphincte r Muscle: A muscle at the end of the esophagus that relaxes to let the food pass through it into the stomach. Mammals have four types of teeth: Incisors. while in the esophagus.Small Intestine. Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin .

©Narendran Sairam. The enzymes actually break down the fats and proteins. The HCl denatures proteins in the food. The small intestine receives bile and enzymes. Small Intestine: The inside of the small in testine looks like fur since it is covered with tiny hair like projections. uric acid Carbon Dioxide wastes(CO2) wastes Water (H2O) Wastes • • Ammonia (NH4) is highly toxic so it is converted into urea or uric acid. The gastric glands in the stomach produce HCl (Hydro-Chl oric acid) and pepsinogen. because the amount of water is the same on both sides of the membrane. The bile reduces the fats into tiny droplets in a pr ocess called emulsifying. Almost all the nutrients absorbed by the digestive system are absorbed by the s mall intestine. The undigested chyme passes through the large intestine. Pepsin shortens the proteins that are denatured by HCl. Osmotic Potential: Amount of salt in water Osmosis occurs in order of the osmotic potential. T he large intestine absorbs water and sodium from the chyme. urea. In the presen ce of HCl and Pepsigen becomes active and is called pepsin. Churns the food. b. Then the useless chy me is eliminated.Stomach: The stomach perform these functions: a. EXCRETORY SYSTEM(RAJAT GOYAL) 2 primary functions: • • Osmoregulation-regulates water Removal of metabolic wastes Osmosis: Diffusion of water from a high point of concentration to low concentrat ion point. Metabolic wastes: • Nitrogen wastes ammonia. When the food leaves the stomach it is calle d chyme. The chyme passes through the pyloric sphincter at the end of the stomac h and goes into the small intestine. The food comes in through the sphincter muscle and forces the stomach to expand. Thes e increase the surface area for the absorption of nutrients. Large Intestine: The large intestine is considerably larger than the small intestine. Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin . mix food with the gastric juice s.

extends leg Semimembranosusadducts thigh. Endotherms produce their own hear. and insects Animals that live in hot an d dry regions need to convert urea into uric acid to conserve water.adducts thigh Gracilis major-adducts thight. flexes leg Lower leg Gastrocnemius-flexes leg. flexes foot Dorsal Surface Thigh Triceps femoris-adducts thigh. flexes leg Gracilis minor-add ucts thigh. extends foot Tibialis anticus-extends leg. Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin . LAB WORK (Steven Kraplin) Mylohyoid: moves floor of mouth during respiration Rec tus Abdominus: holds the sternum and viscera in place Pectoralis: moves forelimb s External Oblique: constricts abdomen and holds viscera in place Ventral Surface Thigh Triceps femoris-adducts thigh. flexes leg Gracilis minor-adducts thigh.o Uric acid is crystallized form of urea Uric acid is produced by reptiles birds. flexes leg ©Narendran Sairam. so therefore they have lots of cells that produce things and therefore endotherms have more waste products. extends leg Sartorius-flexe s leg. Endotherms deal with more ni trogenous waste.

Fused to the Ulna Fused to the Radius Normal Turtle The scapula seems to be well protected inside the shell. flexes foot Muscles Origin: End of muscle attached to the st ationary Insertion: End of muscle attached to bone that moves. usually distal. Abductor: Muscle that moves a p art away from the midline. Kind of bent. Called carpometacarpus. Pectoral Scapula Perch Fused to the coracoids. Connected to the scapula. Adduct or: Muscle that moves a part toward the midline. Humerus Radius Ulna Carpals Absent Absent Absent Absent Protected inside shell. Connected to the scapula. Frog Easily spot able in frog. PECTORAL AND PELVIC GRIDLES Table Of Comparisons of A nimal Bones. Joined to the coradoids. Extended to be called the superscapula. Standard Standard Only two are present as bones. F lexor: Muscle that bends a part Extensor: Muscle that straightens a part. normal Readily seen normal Raised in a way as to help the jumping and running. extends foot Peroneus-extends leg Tibialis a nticus-extends leg. Absent Only one in each wing. Absent . Absent Bird Scapula is parallel to the back bone of the bird. Elongated El ongated Elongated Normal Metacarpals Absent A little longer than normal. Connected to the corcoids. Sternum Absent Fused to the ribs to aid in protection of the internal organs. Cat Scapula is very prominent.Lower leg Gastrocnemius-flexes leg. Standard Standard Standard Is structured a lot like a human Sternum. The others are either absent or fused to some other bone. Phalanges Clavicle Absent Absent Normally structured.

©Narendran Sairam. Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin .Tiny bones no connected to any other bones.

they are eukaryotes. plants and animals.Archaeabacteria (Ar chae) 6. Eebacteria (bacteria) 7. found in both animal and plant cells. They also have a simple cy toskeleton. Gelatinous substanc e within cell. bacteria . One of three domains. Cat Completely normal Perch Absent VOCABULARY(Rajat Goyal) Definition Words 1. consisting of the eukaryotes. One of three domains. fu ngi. Encloses the cytoplasm in a cell. It is the site of protein synthesis within a cell One of two cylindrical cellular structures that are composed of ni ne triplet microtubules ©Narendran Sairam. Circular pieces of DNA. and archaea. A cell structure that is not membrane bound.Cytoplasm 9. Hydrophobic 10. Flagell a 11. on the evolutionary tree these we re the second kind of organisms and contain prokaryotes. and they have p lasmids. The y are 5-100 nanometers in size (10 times larger then prokaryotic cells) These ce lls also have very complex cytoskeletons. Repels water Whip like processes used for locomotion in some micr oorganisms. These cells do have a nuclear envelope. on the evolution ary tree they are the last and most developed organisms. Prokaryotic Cell 3. Turtle Standard Fairly Normal Bird Present Called tibiotarsus Fused to the tibiotarsus Absent Make up the foot . Ribosome 14.Pelvic Ischium Ilium Pubis Femur Tibia Fibula Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanges Frog Prominently seen Prominently seen Normal ‘Typical’ Fused to the fibula to form the tibiofibula Absent Elongated to provide a large surface area to push off whi le swimming and jumping. and also have a nucleus. Cell Wall 12. no nucleus. The rigid outermost cell layer found in plants cells but not animal cells. Eukaryotic Cell 4. Centrioles Any of three divisions of living systems.Eukarya 5. it makes bacteria adaptable. o n the evolutionary tree these were the first kind of organisms and contain proka ryotes. Plasma Membrane 13. They are 1-10 nanometers in size (10 times smaller then eukaryotic cell s) and they rarely have internal membrane structures. These cells have no nuclear envelope. Domain 2. Plasmid 8. Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin . One of three domains.

Sodium-potassium Pump 27.R. 1 found in Achaea and the other found in Eukarya/B acteria Any of various soft. Membrane proteins can be classified into two groups. meaning bound to the hydrophobic interior of the membra ne. ribosome s. nucleolus. Is a protein molecu le that is attached to. Phospholipid 30. liquids. Is a protein involved in the movement of ions. blocking entry of water and water-soluble material into the cell. and a cytoskeleton element. 2 kinds. Diffusion of water through me mbrane. The smallest structur al unit of an organism that is capable of independent functioning. solid.. Enzymes and form the asters during mitosis.. all surrounded by a cell membrane. Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin . meaning not bound in this way. Bring things clos er together by bringing them in smaller amounts of space. or macromolecules. The internal framework of a ce ll composed largely of actin filaments and microtubules.R. consisting of one or more nuclei. typically round granular body composed of protein and RNA in the nucleus of a cell. or semisolid organic compounds constituting the esters of glycerol and fatty acids and their associated organic groups. or associated with the membrane of a cell or an organell e. chromatin rough E. Membrane 28. a phosphate group. vacuole (lysosomes). ribosomes. Enzymes have a binding cite for all molecules it has to bring together. Site of photosynthesis in plant cells. Protein 22. Attracts water Composed of two layers of phospholipids positioned such t hat their polar hydrophilic heads face outward and their nonpolar hydrophobic ta ils are directed inward. Fats 31. or peripheral. Ph ospholipid Bilayer 21. such as another protein across a bi ological membrane. Animal Cell 35. A small. Plant Cell 34. Hydrophilic 20. chromatin rough E. More than half of all proteins interact with membranes. Contain centrioles which plant cells do not. A thr eadlike linear strand of DNA and associated proteins in the nucleus of eukaryoti c cells that carries the genes and functions in the transmission of hereditary i nformation. Smoot E. and a cytoskeletal element. Channel Pro tein 25.. Golgi apparatus. structures. nucleolus. It is usually associated with a sp ecific chromosomal site and involved in ribosomal RNA synthesis and the formatio n of ribosomes. Any of a group of organic comp ounds that includes sugars. celluloses. The transport of matter from one point to another by random molecula r motions. Osmosis 19. Golgi apparatus. and a simp le organic molecule. mitochondrion. cytoplasm. ©Narendran Sairam. such as lecithin and cephalic. starches. vacuole (lysosomes). mitochondrion. and solids. pliable layer of tissue covering surfaces or separating or connec ting regions. Cytoskeleton 24. Membrane P roteins 29. Any of various phosphorus-containing lipids.. small molecules. Smoot E. Is a membrane bound organelle that contains digestive enzymes. plasma membran e.R.R. Lysosomes 32. Rigid shell that is not found on animal cells. Are integral. Keeps sodium on one side of your membrane and potassium on th e other. that are composed mainly of fatty acids. Thin. Contain Chloroplasts and Cell walls which animal cells do not. Cell 33.15. Chloroplast 16. based on the strength of their association with the membrane. and various organelles. Transport Protein 26. It occur in gases. or organs of an animal or a plant. peroxisome. Also contain nuclear envelope. Protein forming an aque ous pore spanning the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane which when open allows certain solutes to traverse the membrane. Carbohydrate 23. Diffusion 18. peroxisome. Chromosomes 17. Nucleolus 36. plasma membr ane. Also c ontain nuclear envelope. Cell Wall 37.

Epithelia Gland Fats that is good for you.R. Striated Muscles 68 .Cardiac Muscle 69. Moves the skeleton. Makes proteins and lipids which exports throughout c ell. providing structural support and assisting in cellular locomotion and transport. Tissu e consisting of nerve cells or neurons Nerve cells that deliver electromagnetic signals Made up of fibers that contract A cylindrical. Golgi Apparatus 44. such as an eye. Exports large quantities of proteins(ribosomes) Involved in creation of lysosomes Receives transport vesicles from E.R. Saturated Fat 40.) 43. Cytoplasmic Streaming 52. Regulates calcium and ion concentration.) 41. Tissue 57. jelly like. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (E. A protein found in muscle that together with myosin functions in muscle contrac tion. A series of enzymati c reactions in aerobic organisms involving oxidative metabolism of acetyl units and producing high-energy phosphate compounds. A differentiated part of an organism. Connective Tissue 61. Org an System 59. nails. Cylindrical hollow structures that are distrib uted throughout the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. Tough. horns. It works with the bones to provide structure. Site of protein synthesis. Closer t o plasma membrane the E. Glycolysis 49. Microtubules 56. Intermedia te Filaments 53. Synthesis of membrane phospholipid s. or sold extra cellular matrix. It also makes lipids.38. It packages molecules into vesicles and transports th em to the Golgi apparatus. Blood 63. that is solid at room temperature and whose fatty acid chains cannot incorporate additional hydro gen atoms. Lamin 55. Flow of cytoplasm spe cific to plants and fungi Any of several classes of cell-specific cytoplasmic fi laments of 8-12 nanometers in diameter. Multicellular 60. Polymerization 51.Muscle Tissue 66. Cisface 45. Keratin 54. A collection of cells workin g together. Creates energy by producing ATP. Fibrous proteins having structu ral function in the cell nucleus. An excess of these fats in the diet i thought to raise the cholestero l level in the bloodstream. insoluble protein substance that is the chief structura l constituent of hair. Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin . which serve as the main source of cellular energy. Endoplasmic Reticulum (E. A c onnection tissue with a firmer extra cellular matrix.R. Organ 58.Cartilage 62. and hooves. most often of animal origin. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (E. An ATP-generating metabolic process that occurs in nearly all living cells in which glucose is converted in a series of steps to pyruvic acid. Consisting of more than one cell Ce lls closely arranged in a liquid. protein composition varies from one cell type to another. Actin 50. Ner vous Tissue 64. Krebs Cycle 48. A group of organs in the human body that work together to carry out a vital bodyfunction.) 42. Ma kes up the wall of the heart ©Narendran Sairam. or leaf.R. Connective tissue that has cells surrounded by plasma. Mono-unsaturated Fats 39.Muscle Fiber 67. Neurons 65. Formation of anything that has repeated units in it.R. multinucleate cell compos ed of numerous myofibrils that contracts when stimulated. A fat. that performs a specifi function. Mitochondrion 47. wing. Transface 46.

Immune System 82. Is the relativel y constant chemical and physical conditions in a n animal cell Maintenance of a constant internal body temperature independent from the environmenta temperature An organism that generates heat to maintain its body temperature. basophil s. Excretory System 90. Metabolic Rate 71. which includes the sea star. White Blood Cells (WBC) 95. sea urchins. Ectotherm 76. having body temperature that varies with the envi ronment A state of mental or physical inactivity or insensibility. lymphocytes. Hibern ation 80. Produces gametes and pr ovides organs for fetal development in a female. Nervous System 93. Cephalo pods 96. 81. Digestive System 86. Muscular System 88. Controls all bodily functions. Condition of dormancy and torpor found in cold-blooded vertebrates and invertebrates. Any of numerous radially symme trical marine invertebrates of the phylum Echinodermata. Echinoderms 97. separate into a thin white layer when whole blood is centrifuged. Hemoglobin Defends against foreign objects and organisms Pumps and carries blood throughout the body Exchanges gases (mainly O2. Hetereotherm 78. Endotherm 75. cuttlefish. Reproductive System 91. or nautilus. eosinophils. the red blood cell is disk-shaped and biconcave. and monocytes. They include octopus. Endocrine S ystem 89. Makes hormones for growth. squid. Annelids 98. Provides structural s upport for body Allows movement of body and heart. also produces and stores lymphocytes Br eaks down food and absorbs nutrients and eliminates waste. and help protect the body from inf ection and disease. Skeletal System 87. Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin . Lymphatic Sys tem 85. Torpor 79. characterized b y an elongated. Creates protective barrier betw een the body and its environment Sends and receives signals from the environment . and lacks a nucleus.Basal Metabolic Rate 72. and reproduction Gets rid of metabolic waste. ©Narendran Sairam. Integumentary System 92. Allometry Overall rate of energy consumed by an organism Amount of oxygen taken in by an o rganism while at rest with an empty stomach at norma condition. and sea cucumbers Any of various worms or wormlike animals of the phylum Annelida. An y of various blood cells that have a nucleus and cytoplasm. Thermoregulation 7 4. White blood cells include neutrophils.Homeostatis 73. contains hemoglobin. de velopment. Four proteins held together by on iron atom. In mammals. Any of various marine mollusks of the class. cylindrical. Red Blood Cells (RBC) 94. CO2 and H2O) with the environment Deals wi th access water from circulatory system. segmented body and including the earthworm and leec h.70. The stu dy of the change in proportion of various parts of an organism as a consequence o growth. typically abo ve the temperature of its surroundings Organism that regulates its body temperat ure largely by exchanging heat with its surroundings Maintaining a relatively co nstant and warm body temperature independent of environmental temperature of ani mals except birds and mammals. A cell in the blood of vertebrates that transpo rts oxygen and carbon dioxide to and from the tissues. Homeotherm 77.Respiratory System 84. Circulatory System 83.

middle) organs within the body s cavities Defined by points at the opposite ends of the organism. Also known as an axial plane or cross-section. Basophils 102.Anti Histamines 103. Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin     .Posterior 134. Deep 121. Platelets 100. Post erior End 127. Saggital Plane 137. Reduces swelling. The end of the organism with the mouth Opposite oral end The head end The feet Front end Back Farthest away from the attachment. Eosinophils 101. Ipsi 118. The end that usually points in the direction of the organism s locom otion Opposite of anterior end End farthest away from bascal end. Distal 116. Anterior 105. Transverse Plane 139. Visceral 123. Superior End 131. Axis 104. Lateral 113. Prevent inappropriate clotting (inside the circulatory system ) by producing heparin. Rostral 108. related to appendages Divides body into left and right parts. Cephalic 109. Intermediate 122. Transverse Axis 125. Ventral 112. Defined by points on opposite sides of th e organism. Fights foreign protei ns in your system. related to appendages Closest to attachment.Inf erior End 132. between and medius. Superficial 120. Caudal 110 . 1.99. It is defined by each pair of opposite ends Before (rostal or cra nial) After (Caudial=tail) Skull Beak Head Tail Back Abdomen To the side Middle Nearest To stand away from A structure that extends from main body Self/Same Aga inst Surface Farther from superficial parts Between two other structures (inter. Aboral End 130.Cell Theory Gives pigment in skin. Centeral 136.Peripheral 135. Posterior 106. Divides body into anterior and posterior ends.Oral End 129. Cranial 107. All life is made up of cells ©Narendran Sairam. Anterior End 126. Disease when you do not have enough red blood cells When a cell engulfs another thing to eat them . Proximal 115. Dorsal 111. Anemia 140. histamine is a hal ing mechanism. Produces histamine. Ap pendage 117. Contra 119. Longitudinal Axis 124. Medial 114. divi des the body into cranial and caudal (head and tail) portions. Essential in blood clotting and forms the clot. Coronal (frontal) Plane 138. Phago cytotic 141. Respond t o presence of protein that does not belong in your system. Opical End 128. Anterior 133.

T he large intestine is also known as the cloaca in the frog. Th e ileum is held together by a membrane called the mesentery.Stomach 154. The esophagus is the tube that leads from the frog’s mouth to the stomach. Right Lobe 159. The stomach is the first major site of chemical digestion. The first straight portion of the small intestine is called the duodenum. This is th e gall bladder.Small Intestine 155. Fat Bodies Definition Spaghetti shaped structures that have a bright orange or yellow color.Left Posterior Lobe 161.2. The pyloric sphincter valve regulates the exit of digested food from the stomach to the small intestine. Frogs swallow th eir meals whole.Liver 150. the left anterior lobe. and the left posterior lobe. A spider web like membrane that covers many of the organs. or urine exit the frog s body. Curving from underneath the liver is the stom ach. genital. (The word "cloaca" means sewer) Return to the folds of the mesentery.Esophagus 158. Follow the stomach to where it turns into the small intestine. Absorption of digested nutrients occurs in the small intestine. poke your probe into it and see where it leads. and urinary tracts o pen in 148. Return to the stomach and follow it upward . They are two spongy organs. Lift the lobes of the liver. it will widen into the large intestine. 1 of the 3 parts of a frogs heart 1 of the 3 parts of a frogs heart 1 of the 3 parts of a frogs heart The common cavity into which the intestinal. they will carry absorbed nutrients away from the intestine. it does secrete a digestive juice called bile. if you ha ve a particularly fat frog. Locate the lungs by looking underneath and behind the heart and liver. The right lobe . Leading from the stomach. The large vessel e xtending out from the heart is the conus arteriosis. Bile is needed for the proper digestion of fats. you may have to c arefully pick it off to get a clear view The largest structure of the body cavit y. The cloaca is the la st stop before wastes. the curled portion is the ileum. Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin   . Peritoneum 149.Schleiden 143. The left and right atrium can be found at the top of the heart.Gall Bladder 153. or lobes. Left anterior Lobe 160. The liver is not primaril y an organ of digestion. Open the frog’s mouth and find the esophagus. Cloaca ©Narendran Sairam. there will be a small green sac under the liver.Large Intestine 156.Heart 151. these fat bodies may need to be removed to see the o ther structures. where it gets smaller is the beginning of the esophagus.Schwann Zoologist Botanist Words 147. this dark red spherical objec t serves as a holding area for blood. This brown colored organ is composed of three parts. At the top of the liver. All cells com e from other cells 142. the heart is a triangular structure. Usually they are located just on the inside of the abdominal wa ll. which stores bile. Note the blood vess els running through the mesentery. A s you follow the small intestine down. A single ventricle located at the bottom of the heart. sperm. Cells are the structural and functional units of an organism 3.Lungs 152.Spleen 157.

tissues. circulating. which function in humoral immunity. Alveolus 180. The right upper chamber of the heart that receives blood from the vena cava and coronary sinus. The large vessel extending out from th e heart The chamber on the left side of the heart that receives arterial blood f rom the left atrium and contracts to force it into the aorta. Right atrium 170. and T cells. Monoc ytes constitute from 3 to 8 percent of the white blood cells in humans. Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin . starting at the lower end of th e stomach and extending to the jejunum. Duodenum 164. Openings in your body are covered with mucus. Can be f ound at the top of the heart. Mucus 179. Cowpox was not fatal . birds. but did get cow pox. It is clean and watery. The right atrium is one of four ch ambers (two atria and two ventricles) in the human heart. In 1769 observed that women who milked cow f rom a early age did not get small pox. Edward Jenne r ©Narendran Sairam. Left atrium 169. constituting approximately 25 percent of white blood cells and in cluding B cells. Arteries 172. having a single well-defined nucleus and very fine granulation in the cytoplasm. Also called lymph gland. reptiles. Perforins 175. Surface is thin. Natural killer cells 178. During infection. Excha nge of Oxygen and CO2 happens here. especially such a fold that envelops the jejunum and ileu m. Any of the small bodies located along the lymphatic vessels. Ventricle The posterior part of the intestinal tract in various invertebr ates. NK cells is their abbreviation. Organ found withen the mesentry that store s blood. armpit. It receives de-oxygena ted blood from the superior and inferior vena cava and the coronary sinus. and groin. and p umps it into the right ventricle through the tricuspid valve. Conus arteriosi s 167. and some primitive mammals. Regulates the exit of digested food from the stomach to the small intestine. Monocytes 174. A lymphocyte that is activated by doubl e-stranded RNA or lymphokines and fights off viral infections and tumors without evident antigenic specificity. and pumps it into the left ventricle. Can be found at the top of the heart. The large intestin e leads to this part Any of the muscular elastic tubes that form a branching sys tem and that carry blood away from the heart to the cells. Lymphocytes 173. Ileum 165. The beginning portion of the small intestine. The lef t upper chamber of the heart that receives blood from the pulmonary veins. Any of the nearly colorless cells found in the blood. that filter bacteria and foreign particles fr om lymph fluid. and organs o f the body. It receives oxygenate d blood from the pulmonary veins. Spleen 177. He used this as a vaccination through villages and 168. The terminal portion of the small intest ine extending from the jejunum to the cecum. A protei n in killer cells and natural killer cells that causes lysis of target cells on contact. Mese ntery 163. Any of several folds of the peritoneum that connect the intestines to the dorsal abdominal wall. lymph nodes may become swollen with activated lymphocytes. which function in cellular immunity. Anus 171. The chamber on the right side of the heart that receives venous blood from the right atrium and fo rces it into the pulmonary artery.vertebrates such as fish. 162. Prevents bacteria from multiplying. Pyloric sphincter valve 166. particular ly at the neck. A large. lymph. phagocytic white blood cell. The l eft atrium is one of the four chambers in the human heart. Lymp h node 176. and lym phoid tissues.

Pectoralis 202. Ex ternal Oblique 187. serve a protectiv e function and also aid in absorption and secretion.Epiglottis 190. Vacca means Cow in Italian. T Cells 197. Either of a pair of cav ities separated by a septum and located between the nasopharynx and anterior nar es. Larynx 191. Also called T lymphocyte. thin-walled. ATP 208. Ball filled with capillaries in the lungs. Autotroph had young people milk cows and this way they would not catch small pox and there fore not die. One of the chambers of the heart that receives oxygenated bl ood from the lungs. Arm(microscope) 207. Venule 185. foreign blood cells. where it becomes continuous with the esophagus.Nasal Cavity 189. ©Narendran Sairam. Esophagus 184. Part of the skeleton that includes the pectoral and the pelvic griddle.Active transport 203. He also coined the work Vaccination Vaccination is the use of vacc ines to prevent specific diseases. Resul t of respiration. Suppressor T cells and Cytotoxic T cells. The opening between the vocal cords at the upper part of the la rynx. carrying blood from the left side of the heart to the arteries of all limbs and organs except the lungs. bacteria. Also called windpipe. tubular ex tensions of a bronchus. Hold the sternum and viscera in place Moves forelimbs Transport against the conc entration gradient. An opening through which feces are push ed out. There are 3 types.Rectus Abdomi nus 201. Cytotoxic T Cells 194. Th ey are found at the ends of the bronchioles. Opposite of Helper T cells. Antigens include toxins.Suppressor T Cells 195. Pharynx 188. The thin elastic cartilaginous structure located at the root of the tongue t hat folds over the glottis to prevent food and liquid from entering the trachea during the act of swallowing. having walls of cartilage and muscle and containing the voc al cords enveloped in folds of mucous membrane. A substance that when introduced into the body stimulates the produ ction of an antibody. The main trunk of the syste mic arteries. especially o ne joining capillaries to larger veins. They are also called air sacs. Excludes the bones of the trunk. an d the cells of transplanted organs. Vaccination 182. Helper T cells. The muscular membranous tube for the passage of food from the pharynx to the stomach. A small vein. Essentially the backbone of a microscope. Word coined by Ed ward Jenner. Suppreser T Cells stop the production of cytotoxic T Cells and B cells. Aorta 199. Epithelial Cell 198. appendicula r skeleton 206. The secti on of the alimentary canal that extends from the mouth and nasal cavities to the larynx. cartilaginous tub e descending from the larynx to the bronchi and carrying air to the lungs. Atrium 209. No one knows how this is done Recognize the altered cells and signal to the prod uction of B cells and cytotoxic T cells. Alveolus 204. Recognize any cell that has been altered by antigens. the gullet. Tra chea 192. Form the epithelial ti ssue that lines both the inner and outer surfaces of the body. Organism that manufactures its own food. Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin . Constricts abdomen and holds viscera in place. The part of the respiratory tract between the phar ynx and the trachea. Mylohyoid 200.Helper T Cel ls 196. They are the site of the exchange of gasses. Any of the lymphocytes that mature in t he thymus and have the ability to recognize specific peptide antigens through th e receptors on their cell surface. Bronchiole 186. Antigen 183. Moves floor of mouth during respiration. Example pumps. Anus 205. A thin-walled. Any of the fine.181. Glottis 193. Produced by chloroplasts and mitochondrion. Also known as Aden osine Triphosphate.

Bronchioles 214. G lands in the mouth that secrete saliva in order to begin chemical digestion of s tarches. Basical ly a muscle in your tummy. These lead to the alveoli. A vascular system in which the body fluids stay inside the tubes at all times. Blastula 213. Capillary 219. Canaculi 217. So small that only one can pass through it at once. Cristae 231. Carpal 224. Excess bile is stored in the gall bladder. Dark reaction 232. The hollow ball of cells that goes through gastrulation to form a gastrula. epidermis 236. epiglottis 237. cloaca 228. Calvin cycle 216. Inner layer of the skin The thin muscle below the lungs and heart that separates the chest f rom the abdomen. A tube that leads to the stomach. External carotid artery 241. The getting rid of metabolic wastes after digestion. Conus arteriosus 230. Pancreas 222. Bronchus 215. Stores excess bile that is secreted by the liver. Also know as the Calvins cycle.independent reaction or the dark reaction. External oblique 242. Closed circulatory system 229.Bird heart 212. diaphragm 234. cell wall 225. one of the pointed conical t eeth located between the incisors and the first bicuspids. Sub-di vision of the trachea or the wind pipe. Short hair-like structures on a cell or microorganism. To do with the carpus(wrist) Found only in plant cell s. A pouch abov e the right ventricle from which the pulmonary artery rises. There are two of these. the branch of the carotid artery that supplies blood to the face and to ngue and external parts of the head The external oblique muscle (of the abdomen) (also external abdominal oblique muscle) is the largest and the most superficia l (outermost) of the three flat muscles of the lateral anterior abdomen. Dermis 233. Produces enzymes that aid in chemical digestion in the small intestine. Esophagus 238. The walls of the cristae are the site of the cell s energy product ion (it is where ATP is generated). A pipe that transports food to the stomach. Eustachian tubes 239. The top la yer of the skin. Sub-divisions of the bronchi. elimination 235. Also called th e light. The large intestine and a pass age used for eliminating fecal. clavicle 227. The Extracellular matrix (ECM) is the extracellular p art of animal tissue that usually provides structural support to the cells in ad dition to performing various other important functions. urinary and reproductive discharges. Produces bile which emulsifies fats in the small intestine. the movement of which aids mobility of the cell and transfer of materials across its surface. Molecules diffuse through its thin membrane and get absorbed by the surrounding tissues. The flap that closes over the glottis so that the food does not get in to the respiratory system. Bones that constitute the wrist.Canines 218.210. The food pipe. Basically the skull the bones in the chest and the vertebrate . excretion 24 0. Liver 221. Salivary Glands 220. ©Narendran Sairam. The dumping of wastes out side t he body. Extracellular matrix The frame work of what is referred to as the bones of the trunk(torso). The smallest blood ve ssel in the body. axial skeleton 211. Provides rigid structure and protection. Takes place in the stroma in the Chloroplast. Includes ribs and sternum. cilia 226. The collar bone. each one leading into its own lung. Gall Bladder 223. (singular crista) T he multiply-folded inner membrane of a cell s mitochondrion that are finger-like projections. Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin     . 4 chambered heart.

especially the spleen. located at the front of the mouth along the apex of the dental arch. One of the numerous minute cavities in the substance of bone. liver. coagulable fluid. Iliac Artery 256. light reaction 266. ion pump 260.243. containing white blood cells in a liquid resembling blood plasma. Fish heart 246. incisors 258. also produces and stores lymphocytes a type of white bl ood cell having a large. s pleen. glottis 248. lungs. lymph node 269. the bra nch of the carotid artery that supplies blood to the brain and eyes and internal parts of the head These are modes of active transport. a clear yellowish. Macrophages develop from circulating monocytes that migrate from the blood into tissues throughout the body.lymphatic System 270. Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin .macrophages The photosynthetic reaction that takes place in the chloroplasts of plants ( onl y in the presence of light. The opening into the wind pipe. a cell organelle containing enzymes that digest particles and th at disintegrate the cell after its death. Organ that pumps blood to the entire body. Hypodermis 255. including bacteria. any of the glandlike masses of tissue in the lymp hatic vessels containing cells that become lymphocytes. that is derived from the tissues of the body and conveyed to the bloodst ream by the lymphatic vessels. in ternal carotid artery 259. Kidney 262. etc.lysosome 272. slightly alkali ne. Deals with access water from circulatory system. and pancreas to the sinusoids of the liver An organism that does not make its own food. The process through which the blastula changes into a gatrula. A frog leg musc le. Heart 250. l arynx 264. The lowest of the three major bones that constitute each half of the pelvis One of a pair of organs in the body which remove waste matter from the blood and produce urine.) either of the two saclike respiratory organs in the thorax of humans and the higher vertebrates. lymph Thigh bone. spherical nucleus surrounded by a thin layer of nongran ular cytoplasm. Ilium 257. Femur 244.Heterotroph 252. Any of various large white blood cells that play an essential immunologic role in vertebrates and some lower organisms by eliminating cellular debris and particulate antigens. usually whit e and fibrous. Hormone 253. Fibula 245.lymphocyte 271. upper portion of either hipbone. a band of tissue. hold organs in place. The broad. lung 267. 268. in which the vocal cords are located. and connective tissue. intestine. Lacunae 263. th rough phagocytosis. One of the large arteries supplying blood to the pelvic region and legs. ligament 265. Flexes leg and adducts thigh. a g roup of veins that carry blood from the capillaries of the stomach. Humerus 254. Macrophages also participate in the immune response by producing and responding to inflammatory ©Narendran Sairam. The calf bone. brain. serving to connect bones. l ymph nodes. A tooth adapted for cutting or gnawi ng. the secretion of an endocrine gland that is transmitted by the bl ood to the tissue on which it has a specific effect bone extending from the shou lder to the elbow A tissue or layer of cells beneath the epidermis. The hepatic portal system 251. Graci lis major 249. They move the ions again st the concentration gradient. A muscular and car tilaginous structure lined with mucous membrane at the upper part of the trachea in humans. Three chambered heart. ischium 261. gastrulation 247.

mRNA 287. between the brain or spinal cord and other p arts of the body. serving to line an organ. Any of the bones of the metacarpus.NK cells Made up of fibers that contract Allows movement of body and heart. The opening of your nose when y our oxygen intake comes from. the opening through which an animal or human takes in food. Any of the teeth located toward the back of the jaws.Nucleoid region ©Narendran Sairam. The start of the Digestive System.nares 292. the principal contract ile protein of muscle.nervous system 294.metacarpal 280.nervous tissue 295.mitochondrion 284. etc.mi crotubule 283. The form of RNA that mediates the transfer of genetic information from the cell nucleus to ribosomes in the cytoplasm. Controls all bodily functions. trian gular muscle that forms the floor of the mouth in a frog. Creates energy by produc ing ATP. having broad crow ns for grinding food.Nuclear p ore 301. where it serves as a templ ate for protein synthesis.metatarsal 281. pliable sheet or layer of animal or vegetable ti ssue.muscle tissue 288. the double mem brane surrounding the nucleus within a cell. a stage o n a compound microscope equipped with a mechanical device for moving a slide len gthwise and crosswise or for registering the slide s position by vernier for fut ure exact repositioning a thin. Natural Killer Cells.mesoderm 279. It is synthesized from a DNA template during the proc ess of transcription. Microfilaments are the thinnest filaments of the cytoskeleton found in t he cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells. motion. mammalian heart 274. An octagonal opening where the inne r and outer membranes of the nuclear envelope are continuous. area in a prokaryo tic cell that contains the genetic material. Adult humans have 12 molars. matrix 275. a nostril. reptiles. mechanical stage 276. Sends and receives signals from the environment. and some mammals that closes to protect and moisten the eye..mylohyoid 290.myosin 291. A flat.273. Also called third eyelid.Nostrils 299. 286.microfilament 282.ner ve 293.mouth cytokines.Nuclear envelope 300. the intercellular substance of a tissue. Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin   .membrane 278. connect parts. 297.molars 285.nictitating membrane 296. A 4 chamber heart. providing structural supp ort and assisting in cellular locomotion and transport. Any of the bones of the meta tarsus. Cylindrical hollow structures that are dis tributed throughout the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. one or more bundles of fibers forming part of a system that conveys i mpulses of sensation. it is part of the respitory system. the middle germ layer of a m etazoan embryo. Tissue consisting of nerve cells or neurons A transparent inne r eyelid in birds.Non-specific immune response 298. A lymphocyte that is a ctivated by double-stranded RNA or lymphokines and fights off viral infections a nd tumors without evident antigenic specificity. An external opening in the nasal cavity of a vertebrate. etc.muscular system 289. Messenger RNA.

metab olism. the se cretions of which control the other endocrine glands and influence growth. The lenses with magnification that you can change.Objective lens 305. Th e regulation of water potential in an organism. usually spherical ma ss of protoplasm encased in a double membrane. and occurring in livi ng cells.Pharynx 322. directing their growth.Phospholipid 323.Photosynthesis equation 325.Osmosis 311. and functioning in the transmission of genic characters. and the action of the smaller (pectoralis minor) assisting in drawing the shoulder downward and forward. any of a group of fa tty compounds. that performs a specific function. the action of the larger (pe ctoralis major) assisting in drawing the shoulder forward and rotating the arm i nward. such as an eye. The finger bones (the singular is phalanx).Organelle 309. except the thumb which only has two.Pectoralis 317.Open circulatory system 307. a two-layered arrangement of phosphate and lipid molecules that form a cell membrane. to the uterus. The structures in which the ova (eggs) are developed and released during ovul ation. There are three phalanges in each d igit. a specialized. as lecithin. The passage to th e stomach and lungs. Phagocytosis 320.Ocular lens 306. the action of which assists in extending the foot and in turning it outward .Phospholipid bilayer 324. A small oval endocrine gland attached to the base of the vertebrate brain and consisting of an anterior and a posterior lobe. a cell organ. Phalanges 321. The pharynx opens into the esophagus at the lower end. in the front part of the neck below the chin and above the collarbone.Oviducts 315. and reproduction.Nucleus 304.Pelvic girdle 318. metabolism.Nucleolus A small round body of protein in a cell nucleus. It is cone shaped and has an average length of 76 mm and is lined with mucous me mbrane. The engulfing and ingestion of bacteria or other foreign bodies by phagocytes.Organs 310. any of several muscles on the outer side of the leg. the hydrophobic lipid ends facing inward and the hydrophilic pho sphate ends facing outward. One of two small oval bodies sit uated on either side of the uterus on the posterior surface of the broad ligamen t. wing. A differentiated part of a n organism. The cavity at the back of the mouth. nucleoli contain rna and are in volved in protein synthesis. or leaf. in mammals.Osmotic regulation 312.Ovaries 314. either of two muscles on each side of the upper and anterior part of the thorax. a specialized part o f a cell having some specific function.Organ systems 308.Pectoral girdle 316.Pituitary gland ©Narendran Sairam. A lens in the microscopes that you see through.Part of the nucleus in eukaryotes that is set aside for the production and transcription of rna. Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin .Peroneus 319.Outer membrane( 3) 313. 303. and found in most living eukaryot ic cells.302. and maturation. The tubular tract in female animals through which eggs are discharged eit her to the exterior or. Opens either the larnyx or the esophagus canal. composed of phosphoric esters.

the right upper chamber of the hear t that receives blood from the venae cavae and coronary sinus the chamber on the right side of the heart that receives venous blood from the right atrium and pu mps it into the pulmonary trunk Site of protein synthesis. an artery conveying venous blood from the right ventricle of the he art to the lungs.Right ventricle 347. Respitory system 343. with the corresponding part of the other. forms the front of the pelvis. a long flat muscle on either side of the linea al ba extending along the whole length of the front of the abdomen. on each side of the vertebrate body.Renal portal system 339. Exports large quantit ies of proteins(ribosomes) A polymeric constituent of all living cells and many viruses.Phy loric sphincter 335. no organelles in the cytoplasm except ribosomes. ribosomal Ribonucleic Acid 344. and uracil bon ded to the ribose.Premolars 330. Respir ation equation 342. or attached to the outer surfaces of endoplasmic reticula. consisting of a long. A ring of smooth muscle fibers around the opening of the stomach into the duodenum. The bodily system of gonads. one of a se ries of curved bones that are articulated with the vertebrae and occur in pairs.Pyruvate(pyruvic acid) 336. Also called ribonuc leic acid. CO2 and H2O) with the environment.Pleura 329. The structure and base sequence of RNA are determinants of pr otein synthesis and the transmission of genetic information.Radius 337.Prokaryotic 332.Plasma membrane 327. in sm all clusters. Reptilian heart 341. sixth. the circulation of blood from the heart to the lungs for oxyge nation and back to the heart. and fun ctioning as the site of protein manufacture. the bone of the forearm on the thumb side.Rectus abdominis 338. occurring in bacte ria and yeast: used in recombinant DNA procedures to transfer genetic material f rom one cell to another. One of e ight bicuspid teeth located in pairs on each side of the upper and lower jaws be hind the canines and in front of the molars. any cellular organism that has no n uclear membrane. arising from th e pubic crest and symphysis.Pulmonary artery 334.Reproductive system 340.Pulmonary circulation 334. as the bacteria and bluegreen algae. and acting to flex the spinal column. an ester or salt of pyruvic acid. inserted into the cartilages of the fifth.Right atrium 346. or in the region of the kidneys. prokaryote 331.Plasmid 328. A segment of D NA independent of the chromosomes and capable of replication. associated d ucts. somewhat mitten-shaped organelle occurring in great numbers in the cell cytoplasm either freely.Rough ER 348. A delicate serous membrane investing each lung in mamma ls and folded back as a lining of the corresponding side of the thorax.Ribosome 345.Pubis 333.RNA 349. and external genitals concerned with sexual reproduction. cytosine.rRNA ©Narendran Sairam. and has its ge netic material in the form of single continuous strands forming coils or loops. guanine. Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin .326. a tiny. usually single-stranded chain of alternating phos phate and ribose units with the bases adenine. characteristic of all organisms in the kingdom Monera. tense the anterior wall o f the abdomen. a nd seventh ribs. certain pairs being connecte d with the sternum and forming the thoracic wall. and assist in compressing the contents of the abdomen Of. having cells that lack membrane-bound nuclei that part of either in nominate bone that. 12 in humans. Three chambered heart Exchanges gases (mainly O2. relatin g to.Rib The semipermeable membrane that encloses the cytoplasm of a cell.

The internal organs and connective structures (including bone and cartila ge) of vertebrates.Tissue 372. and reptiles. a tarsal bone. and cambium. triangular bones. a bone or series of bones extending along the middle line of the ventral portion of the body of most vertebrates. xylem. a n aggregate of similar cells and cell products forming a definite kind of struct ural material with a specific function.Tibia 370. which receives blood from the veins an d contracts to force the blood into the atrium. the bony framework of the head. their associated cartilages. joint.Systemic circulation 364.Sinus venosus 354.Stomach 362.Tarsal 365. shinbone. and the joints.Scapula 352. fo rming an organ for storing. A large mas s of similar cells that make up a part of an organism and perform a specific fun ction. and digesting food.Sartorius A thigh muscle in a frog on the ventral surface that flexes the leg and adducts the thigh. the inner of the two bones of the leg.Small intestine 357.Thylakoid 368.Testes 367. One of a set of hard.Skull 356. and the ileum.Stage 360. Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin .Squamous 359. breastbone. the skeleton of the head. each forming the back part of a shoulder in humans.Teeth 366. and acts to flex the leg and rotate it medially and to extend the thigh The first chamber in the heart of fish. the jejunum. that extend from the knee to the ankle and articulate with the femur and the talus. in a multicellular organism. a large muscle of the inner part and back of the thigh that arises by a thick tendon from the back part of the tuberosity of the ischium. a s aclike enlargement of the alimentary canal. Regulates calcium and ion concentration. produces blood cells. winding. and phloem in plants are made up of diff erent types of tissue. The narrow. Synthesis of membrane phospolipids. the supporting framewo rk or matrix of a cell. in plants and algae occurring in interconnected stacks constituting a gr anum of the chloroplast. the male gonad or reproductive gland. consisting in humans of a f lat. The membrane of th e Thyakoid. Part of a microscope that is the blac k raised platform. and in other photosynthesizing organisms occurring eith er singly or as part of the cell membrane or other structure.Smooth ER 358. as in humans and certain animals. It extends from the pylorus to the cecum and consists of the duodenum. bonelike structures rooted in sockets in the jaws of vertebrates. is inserted into the medial condyle of the tibia. Semimebranosus 353.Tibialis anticus 371. co vered with or formed of squamae or scales.Tissues ©Narendran Sairam. amphibians. and stores minerals. diluting. Sternum 361. shoulder blade. and supports and prot ects the body. 351. typically composed of a core of soft pulp surrounded by a layer of hard dentin that is coated with cementum or enamel at the crown and use d for biting or chewing food or as a means of attack or defense. It also makes lipids. Stroma 363. either of two oval glands located in the scrotum. A lower leg mus cle of a frog on the Ventral Surface that extends the leg and flexes the foot. a flatt ened sac or vesicle lined with a pigmented membrane that is the site of photosyn thesis. enclosing the brain and supporting the face. narrow bone connected with the clavicles and the true ribs. or the like.350. the circulatory system in general.Thylakoid membrane 369.Skeletal system 355. upper part of the intestine where digestion is completed a nd nutrients are absorbed by the blood. ither of two flat. The bodily system that consists of the bones.

functioning in eating.urethra 384.Tricep femoris 379.R. in tasting. in speaking.Trans face 376. either of the two lower chambers on each side of the heart that receive blood from the atria and in turn force it into the arteries. in which the urine is retained until it is disc harged from the body.Transcription 377.tympanic membrane 381. b ounded by a membrane.ventricle 387. the process by which a messenger RNA molecule specifies the linear seque nce of amino acids on a ribosome for protein synthesis. or opening. Tongue 374.373.urinary bladder 385. intracellular sac. the act or process of transc ribing. muscular and membranous sac. in which various substances are stored or transported. It is a transporter Ribonucleic Acid the memb rane in the ear that vibrates to sound the bone of the forearm on the side oppos ite to the thumb. a muscular duct or tube conveying the urine from a kidney to t he bladder or cloaca.vertebrae the usually movable organ in the floor of the mouth in humans and most vertebrat es. any of the bones or segments composing the spinal column.vesicle 389. through which the spinal cord passes. Trachea 375. and forming a foramen. Closer to plasma membrane the the E. a membrane-bound cavity within a cell. One of a class o f RNA molecules that transport amino acids to ribosomes for incorporation into a polypeptide undergoing synthesis. consisting typically of a cylindrical body and an arch with various processes.ureter 383. t he windpipe.ulna 382.vomerine teeth ©Narendran Sairam. and. a distensib le. It packages molecules into v esicles and transports them to the golgi apparatus.tRNA 380. serving as the principal passage for conveying air to and from the lungs. A small. the tube in humans and other air-breathing vertebrates extending from the larynx to the bron chi. often containing a watery liquid or secretion. in humans. The type of teeth frogs have. the membranous tube that extends from the urinary bladder to the exterior and that in the male conveys semen as well as urine.va cuole 386.Translation 378. A thigh muscle of a frog on its Dorsal side that adducts the thigh and extends the leg. Rajat Goyal and Steven Kraplin . 388.

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