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CHA PTER 13

Three-Phase Induction Motors

13.1 Introduction that ranges from 0.4 m m to 4 m m, dependi ng on the


power of the motor.
hree-phase induction motors are the motors
T most frequently encountered in industry. They
are simple, rugged, low-priced, and easy to mai n-
The stator (Fig. 13.2) consists of a steel frame that
supports a hollow, cyl indrical core made up of
stacked laminations. A number of evenly spaced slots,
tain. They run at essentially constant speed from punched out of the internal circumference of the lam-
zero to full-load. The speed is frequency-dependent inations, provide the space for the stator wi ndi ng.
and, consequently, these motors are not easily The rotor is also composed of punched lami na-
adapted to speed control. However, variable fre- tions. These are carefully stacked to create a series
quency electronic dri ves are being used more and of rotor slots to provide space for the rotor wi ndi ng.
more to control the speed of commercial i nduction We use two types of rotor wi ndi ngs: ( I ) conven-
motors. tional 3-phase windi ngs made of insulated wi re and
In this chapter we cover the basic pri nciples of (2) squirrel-cage wi ndi ngs. The type of wi ndi ng
the 3-phase induction motor and develop the funda- gives rise to two mai n classes of motors: squirrcl-
mental equations describing its behavior. We then CGf;e induction 11wtors (also called cage motors )
discuss its general construction and the way the and wound-rotor induction motors.
windings are made.
A squirrel-cage rotor is composed of bare cop-
Squirrel-cage, wound-rotor, and I inear induction
per bars. slightly longer than the rotor, wh ich arc
motors rangi ng from a few horsepower to several
pushed i n to the slots. The opposi te ends are welded
thousand horsepower permi t the reader to see that
to two copper end-rings, so that a ll the bars are
they all operate on the same basic pri nciples.
short-ci rcu i ted together. The ent i re construction
( bars and end-ri ngs) resem bles a squirrel cage,
from which the name is deri ved. I n small and
medi u m-size motors. the bars and end-ri ngs are
13.2 Principal components made of die-cast al u m i nu m. molded to form an i n-
A 3-phase i nduction motor ( Fig. 1 3. I ) has two mai n tegral block ( Fi g. I 3.3a). Figs. I 3.3b and 13.3c
parts: a stationary stator and a revol ving rotor. The sh ow progressi v stages i n the man ufactu re of a
rotor is separated from the stator by a small air gap squi rrel-cage motor.

263
264 ELECTRICA L MACHINES AN D TRANSFORlv!ERS

A wound rotor has a 3-phase wi ndi ng. similar to


the one on the stator. The windi ng is uniformly dis-
tri buted in the slots and is usually connected in 3-
wi re wye. The term i nals are connected to three sl i p-
rings. which turn with the rotor ( Fig. 13.4). The
revol vi ng slip-rings and associated stationary
brushes enable us to connect external resistors i n se-
ries with the rotor windi ng. The external resistors arc
mainly used during the start-up period: under normal
ru n ning conditions, the three brushes are short-ci r-
cuited.

Figure 13.1 13.3 Principle of operation


Super-E, premium efficiency induction motor rated
The operation of a 3-phase induction motor is based
10 hp, 1760 r/min, 460 V, 3-phase, 60 Hz. This to-
upon the appl ication of Faraday's Law and the
tally-enclosed fan-cooled motor has a full-load cur-
rent of 12.7 A, efficiency of 91.7%, and power fac- Lorentz force on a conductor (Sections 2.20. 2.21 .
tor of 81%. Other characteristics: no-load current: and 2.22). The behavior can readi ly be u nderstood
5 A; lockedrotor current: 85 A; locked rotor torque: by means of the followi ng example.
2.2 pu; breakdown torque: 3.3 pu; service factor Consider a series of conductors of length /,
1.15; total weight: 90 kg; over-all length including whose extremities are short-circu i ted by two bars A
shaft: 491 mm; overall height: 279 mm. and B l 3.5a). A permanent magnet placed
(Courtesy of Baldor Electric Company) above this conduct i ng ladder. move:-. rapidly to the
right at a speed l; so that its magnetic field B sweeps
across the conductor:-.. The followi ng sequence of
events then takes place:

Figure 13.2
Exploded view of the cage motor of 13.1, showing the stator, rotor, end-bells, cooling fan, ball bearings,
and terminal box. The tan blows air over the stator frame, which is ribbed to improve heat transfer.
(Courtesy of Baldor Electric Company)
THREE-PHASE IN DUCTION MOTORS 265

movi ng magnet is repl aced by a rotati ng field. The


field is produced by the 3-phase curren ts that flow
i n the stator wi ndings, as we wi l l now expl ai n.

13.4 The rotating field


Consider a simple stator hav i ng 6 salient poles, each
of which carries a coi l havi ng 5 turns ( Fig. 1 3.6).
Coils that are diametrically opposi te are connected
i n series by means of three ju m pers that respecti vel y
connect termi nals a-a, b-b. and c-c. This creates
three identical sets of wi ndi ngs A N. BN. CN. that
are mechan ically spaced at I 20 to each other. The
Figure 13.3a
Die-cast aluminum squirrel-cage rotor with integral
cooling fan.
(Courtesy of Lab-Volt)

l . A voltage E Bfr is induced i n each conductor


while it is bei ng cut by the flux (Faraday's law).
2. The i nd uced voltage i m mediately prod uces a
current /. which flows down the conductor u n -
derneath the pole-face. through the end-bars, 1 2
and back th rough the other conductors.
3. Because the current-ca rryi ng conductor l ies i n
the magnetic field of the permanen t magnet, i t
experiences a mechanical force ( Lorentz force).
4. The force always acts i n a direction to drag the
conductor along wi th the magnetic field
(Section 2.23 ).
3 4
If the conducting ladder is free to move, i t will ac-
celerate toward the righ t. However. as it picks up
speed. the conductors wi ll be cut less rapidly by the
moving magnet with the result that the induced volt-
age E and the current I will diminish. Consequently,
the force acting on the conductors will also decrease.
If the ladder were to move at the same speed as the
Figure 13.3b
magnetic field. the induced voltage , the current /, Progressive steps in the manufacture of stator and
and the force dragging the ladder along would all be- rotor laminations. Sheet steel is sheared to size
come zero. (1), blanked (2), punched (3), blanked (4), and
I n an i nd uction motor the ladder is closed u pon punched (5).
i tself to form a squi rrel-cage ( Fig. l 3.5b) and the (Courtesy of Lab-Volt)
266 EILCTRICA/, M ACH IN ES A N[) TRANSFORM ERS

upper

*
compressed t mold
injection air in
air cylinder
press
piston

compressed
r - - - - - ...,, air in
- - -, - r - , lower

+ I :: -.
- -..
'
- mold

molten
hardened [J
aluminum aluminum
residue _ -:_- -: _-

(a) (b) (c) (d)

Figure 13.3c
Progressive steps in the injection molding of a squirrel-cage rotor.
a. Molten aluminum is poured into a cylindrical cavity. The laminated rotor stacking is firmly held between
two molds.
b. Compressed air rams the mold assembly into the cavity. Molten aluminum is forced upward through the
rotor bar holes and into the upper mold.
c. Compressed air withdraws the mold assembly, now completely filled with hot (but hardened) aluminum.
d. The upper and lower molds are pulled away, revealing the die-cast rotor. The cross section view shows
that the upper and lower end-rings are joined by the rotor bars. (Lab-Volt)

two coi ls i n each wi ndi ng produce magnetomoti ve al ways flow in the wi ndi ngs from line to neu tral.
forces that act i n the same di rection. Conversely, negati ve cu1Tents flow from neu tral to
The three sets of wi ndi ngs are connected i n wye, l i ne. Furthermore. to enable us to work with num-
th us form ing a com mon neutral N. Owing to the bers, suppose that the peak cu rrent per phase is 1 0 A.
perfectly sy m metrical arrangemen t, the l i ne-to- Thus, when I" = + 7 A. the two coi ls of phase A will
neutral i m pedances are identical. In other words, as together produce an m mf of7 A X 10 tu rns = 70 am-
regards term inals A, B, C, the wi ndi ngs consti tute a pere-tu rns and a correspondi ng val ue of flu x.
balanced 3-phase system. Because the cu rrent is positi ve. the flux is directed
Ifwe connect a 3-phase source to terminals A, B. C, vertical ly upward, according to the right-hand ru le.
alternati ng currents I". lh, and lc will flow in the wind- As time goes by, we can determ ine the instanta-
ings. The currents will have the same value but wil l be neous val ue and di rection of the cu rrent i n each
displaced i n time by an angle of 120. These currents windi ng and thereby establ ish the successi ve flux
produce magnetomotive forces which, in turn, create a patterns. Thus. referri ng to Fig. 1 3.7 at instan t 1 . cu r-
magnetic flux. It is this flux we are interested in. rent I" has a val ue of + 1 0 A. whereas lb and lc both
I n order to fol low the sequence of events. we as- have a val ue of -5 A. The m mf of phase A is
sume that posi ti ve currents (indicated by the arrows) 1 0 A X 1 0 tu rns = 1 00 ampere-tu rns. whi le the m mf
Figure 13.4a
Exploded view of a 5 hp, 1730 r/min wound-rotor induction motor.

Figure 13.4b
Close-up of the slip-ring end of the rotor.
(Courtesy of Brook Crompton Parkinson Ltd)

267
268 ELECTRICAL MACHINES AN/J TRANSFORA4ERS

Figure 13.Sa
Moving magnet cutting across a conducting ladder.
A

Figure 13.Sb
ladder bent upon itself to form a squirrel-cage.

of phases B and C are each 50 ampere-turns. The di-


rection of the mmf depends upon che instantaneous
cu rrent tlows and, usi ng t he right-hand rule, we find
that the direction of the resulting magnetic field is as
shown in Fig. 13.8a. Note that as far as the rotor is
concerned. the six salient poles produce a N
magnetic field essentially one broad north
pole and one broad south pole. This means that the Figure 13.6
Elementary stator having terminals A, B, C connected
6-pole stator actually produces a 2-pole field. The
to a 3-phase source (not shown). Currents flowing
combined magnetic field upv.,1ard.
from line to neutral are considered to be positive.
At i nstant 2. one-sixth later. current I..: at-
tai ns 1 peak of -10 A, wh ile la and /h both have a
value of +5 A ( Fig. 13.8b}. We discover that the we find that the magnetic field makes one com-
new field has the same shape as before. except that plete turn one cycle (see Figs. l3.8a to I
it has moved clockwise by an angle of 60. I n other The rotational of the field depends. there-
words, the flux makes 1/6 of a turn between i nstants fore. u pon the durat ion of one cycle. which i n turn
I and 2. depends on the frequency of the source. If the fre-
Pn)ceedimg in this way for each of the successive quency is 60 Hz. the resul ti ng field makes one tu rn
instants 3, 4, 5, 6. and 7. separated by intervals of 1 /6 in l/60 s, that is. 3600 revol utions per mi n u te. On
Figure 13.7
Instantaneous values of currents and position of the flux in Fig. 13.6.

A A

N N

Figure 13.Sa Figure 13.Sb


Flux pattern at instant 1. Flux pattern at instant 2.

269
270 ELECTRICAL MACHINES AN D TRANSFORM ERS

A A

N N

Figure 13.Sc Figure 13.Sd


Flux pattern at instant 3. Flux pattern at instant 4.
A A

N N

Figure 13.Se Figure 13.Sf


Flux pattern at instant 5. Flux pattern at instant 6.

the other hand. if the frequency were 5 Hz, the field produces a field that rotates clockwise. If we i nter-
would make one turn i n I/5 s. giving a speed of only change any two of the lines connected to the stator,
300 r/mi n. Because the speed of the rotati ng field is the new phase sequence will be A-C-B. By followi ng
necessari ly synchronized with the frequency of the the same line of reasoning developed in Section 1 3.3.
source. it is called synchronous speed. we fi nd that the field now revol ves at synchronous
speed i n the opposite. or counterclockwise direction.
Interchanging any two lines of a 3-phase motor will,
13.5 Direction of rotation
therefore. reverse its direction of rotation.
The positive crests of the currents i n Fig. 13.7 follow Although early machines were buil t with salient
each other i n the order A-B-C. This phase sequence poles, the stators of modern motors have internal di-
THREE-PHASE IN DUCTION MOTORS 271

ameters that are smooth. Thus. the salient-pole stator gered coi ls con nected i n series to be placed in 5 suc-
of 1 3.6 is now replaced by a smooth stator such cessive slots is shown i n 13.20.
as shown i n Figs. 13.2 and I 3.24a.
In Fig. 1 3.6. the two coi ls of phase A (Aa and An) 13.5 Number of poles-
are replaced by the two coils shown in Fig. l 3.9a. synchronous speed
They are lodged i n two slots on the i nner surface of the
stator. Note that each coil covers 180 of the circum- Soon after the i n vention of the induction motor. it
ference whereas the coils i n Fig. 13.6 cover only 6(>6. was found that the speed of the revol vi ng flux could
The 180" coil pi tch is more efficient because it pro- be reduced by i ncreasi ng the nu mber of poles.
duces more tlux per tum. A current /a flowing from To construct a 4-pole stator, the coils are distri b-
termi nal A to the neutral N yields the flux distribution uted as shown in 13.1Oa. The four identical
shown in the figure. grou ps of phase A now span only 90 of the stator cir-
The coi ls of phases B and C are identical to those cumference. The groups are connected in series and
of phase A and. as can be seen in Fig. l 3.9b, they are in such a way that adjacent groups produce rnagne-
displaced at 120 to each other. The resulti ng mag- tomotive forces acting i n opposite directions. In
netic field due to al l three phases again consists of other words, when a cu rrent /,. flows in the stator
two poles. winding of phase A ( Fig. 1 3.1 Oa), it creates four al-
In practice, i nstead of usi ng a single coil per pole ternate N-S poles.
as shown i n I 3.9a. the coil is subdi vided into The wi ndings of the other two phases are identi-
two, three or more coils lodged i n adjacent slots. The cal but are displaced from each other (and from
staggered coils are con nected in series and constitute phase A) by a mechanical angle of 60. When the
what is known as a phase group. Spreading the coil wye-connected wi ndings are connected to a 3-phase
in this way over two or more slots tends to create a source, a revolving field havi ng fou r poles is created
sinusoidal flux distribution per pole, which improves (Fig. 13.1Ob). This field rotates at on ly half the
the performance of the motor and makes it less noisy. speed of the 2-pole field shown in Fig. I 3.9b. We
A phase group (or simpl y group) com posed of 5 stag- wi ll shortly explain why this is so.

phase group 1 group 1


phase A group 1 phase B
Ua = + 10 A) phase A (lb = - 5 A)
Ua = + 10 Al

A n-- .::;....../

9 0--1

phase group 2 /
phase A group 2
phase A

Figure 13.9a
Phase group 1 is composed of a single coil lodged
in two slots. Phase group 2 is identical to Phase Figure 13.9b
group 1.The two coils are connected in series. In Two-pole, full-pitch, lap-wound stator and resulting
practice, a phase group usually consists of two or magnetic field when the current in phase A = +1O
more staggered coils. A and /b /0 -5 A.
2T2 ELECTRICAL l'VIACHINES AND TRANSFORM ERS

phase group 1 group 1


group 1 phase B
phase A (lb 5 Al
!la = + 10 A) I
group 1
group 2 phase C
At group 8
_, phase A U c = - 5 A)

B < >-- -i -Ia


A
_ ,b
B

e r- Ic-

Figure 13.1Oa
The four phase groups of phase A produce a 4-
pole magnetic field.
Figure 13.11
Eight-pole, full-pitch, lap-wound stator and result-
group 1 ing magnetic field when la + 10 A and /b le ""
phase B
(lb = - 5 A)
-5 A.

rent flow i n the three phases, let us restrict our at-


Ar -_,
tention to phase A. In Fig. 13. 1 1 each phase group
so--- covers a mechanical angle of 360/8 = 45.
Suppose t he current i n phase A is at its max imu m
posi tive val ue. The magnetic flu x is then centered
on phase A, and the N-S poles are located as
shown i n Fig. 13.12a. One-half cycle later, the
current in phase A will reach its max imum nega-
ti ve val ue. The flux pattern will be the same as be-
Figure 13.1Ob
fore, except that all the N poles will h ave become
Four-pole, full-pitch, lap-wound stator and resulting
S poles and vice versa ( Fig. 13. I2b ). In compar-
magnetic field when la 710 A and /b = le = -5 A.
i ng the two figures, it is clear t hat the entire mag-
netic field has shifted by an angle of 45-and
thi s gives us the clue to find i ng the speed of rota-
We can increase the number of poles as much as tion. The fl u x moves 45 and so it takes 8 half-cy-
we please provided there are enough slots. Thus, cles ( 4 cycles) to make a com plete tu rn. On a
13.1 1 shows a 3-phase, 8-pole stator. Each 60 Hz system the ti me to make one t urn i s t here-
phase consists of 8 groups, and the groups of all the fore 4 X 1/60 1115 s. Consequent l y, the fl u x
phases together produce an 8-pole rotating field. turns at t he rate of 15 r/s or 900 r/mi n.
When con nected to a 60 Hz source, the poles turn. The speed of a rotati ng field depends therefore
like the spokes of a wheel. at a synchronous speed upon the frequency of the source and the n umber of
of 900 r/mi n. poles on the stator. Usi ng the same reasoni ng as
How can we tell what the synchronous speed above. we can prove that the synchronous speed is
wi ll be'? Without going i nto all t he detai ls of cur- always given by the expression
THREE-PHASE IN DUCTION MOTORS 273

phase group 1 phase group 1


phase A phase A
(I., + 10 A) ( /., = 10 A)

phase group 8 phase group 8


phase A phase A

A < >---- A r .._ ---- 1

B l>---- B c >----
C l>---- C r >----

Figure 13.12a Figure 13.12b


Flux pattern when the current in phase A is at its Flux pattern when the current in phase A is at its
maximum positive value. maximum negative value. The pattern is the same as
in Fig. 13.12a but it has advanced by one pole pitch.

i ng field created by the stator cuts across the rotor


( 13.1 ) bars and induces a voltage i n al l of them.
This is an ac vol tage because each conductor is
where
cut. i n rapid succession. by a N pole followed by a
11, synchronous speed [r/rni n] S pole. The frequency of the voltage depends upon
f fre4uency of the source [ Hz I the n u mber of N and S poles t hat sweep across a
p n u mber of poles cond uctor per second: when the rotor is at rest. i t is
always equal to the freq uency of the source.
This e4uation shmvs that the synchronous speed i n-
Because the rotor bars are short-ci rcuited by the
creases with frequency and decreases with the mun-
end-ri ngs. the i nduced vol tage causes a l arge cur-
ber of poles.
rent to flow-usually several h u ndred amperes per
bar i n mach i nes of medi um power.
Example 13-1
The current-e<.uTyi ng conductors are i n the path of
Calculate the synchronous speed of a 3-phase i n-
the tlux created by the stator, conse4uently. they all
duction motor havi ng 20 poles when i t is connected
experience a strong mechanical force. These forces
to a 50 Hz source.
tend to drag the rotor along with the revolvi ng field.
Solution I n summary:
11, 120/lp 1 20 x )0/20
I . A revol vi ng magnetic field is set u p when a
= 300 r/mi n 3-phase vol tage is appl ied to the stator of an
i nd uction motor.
13.6 Starting characteristics 2. The revol ving field i nduces a vol tage i n the ro-
of a squirrel-cage motor tor bars.
Let us connect the stator of an i nduction motor Lo a 3. The induced voltage creates large circulati ng cur-
3-phase source. with the rotor locked. The revol v- rents which flow i n the rotor bars and end-rings.
274 ELECTRICAL 1\4ACH!NES AND TRANSFORM ERS

4. The current-carryi ng rotor bars are i mmersed in equal to the load torque. When this state is reached, the
the magnetic field created by the stator: they are speed will cease to drop and the motor will tum at a
therefore su bjected to a strong mechanical force. constant rate. It is very important to understand that a
5. The sum of the mechanical forces on all the ro- motor only turns at constant speed when its torque is
tor bars produces a torque wh ich tends to drag exactly equal to the torque exerted by the mechanical
the rotor along i n the same direction as the re- load. The moment this state of equilibriu m is upset. the
vol ving field. motor speed wi ll start to change (Section 3.1 1 ).
Under normal loads. i nduction motors ru n very
13.7 Acceleration of the rotor-slip close to synchronous speed. Thus, at full-load, the
sl i p for large motors ( 1000 kW and more) rarely
As soon as the rotor is released. it rapidly acceler- exceeds 0.5% of synch ronous speed, and for small
ates i n the direction of the rotati ng field. As i t picks mach i nes ( 1 0 kW and less), i t seldom exceeds 5 c;(,.
u p speed. the relati ve veloci ty of the field wi th re- That is why i nd uction motors are considered to be
spect to the rotor dimi n ishes progressi vel y. This constant speed machines. However. because they
causes both the value and the frequency of the i n- never actually turn at synchronous speed, they are
duced vol tage to decrease because the rotor bars are someti mes called asynchronous mach ines.
cut more slowly. The rotor current, very large at
first decreases rapidly as the motor picks up speed. 13.9 Slip and slip speed
The speed will contin ue to increase. but i t will
never catch up wi th the revolvi ng field. In effect, if The slip s of an induction motor is the difference be-
the rotor did turn at the same speed as the field (syn- tween the synchronous speed and the rotor speed,
chronous speed ). the flux would no longer cut the expressed as a percent (or per-unit) of synchronous
rotor bars and the induced voltage and current speed. The per-unit sl i p is given by the equation
would fall to zero. Under these conditions the force
(13.2)
acti ng on the rotor bars would also become zero and
the friction and wi ndage would i m mediately cause where
the rotor to slow down.
s slip
The rotor speed is always slightly less than syn-
n, = synch ronous speed [ r/mi nl
chronous speed so as to produce a current i n the ro-
n = rotor speed [r/minJ
tor bars sufficiently large to overcome the braki ng
torque. At no-load the percent difference i n speed The slip is practically zero at no-load and 1s
between the rotor and field (called slip ). is small: equal to I (or I 00% ) when the rotor is locked.
usually less than 0.1 % of synchronous speed.
Example 13-2
13.8 Motor under load
Suppose the motor is i ni tially ru n ni ng at no-load. If A 0.5 hp, 6-pole i nduction motor is excited by a 3-
we apply a mechan ical load to the shaft, the motor phase, 60 Hz source. If the full-load speed is 1 140
wi ll begin to slow down and the revolvi ng field will r/m i n, calcu late the slip.
cut the rotor bars at a higher and higher rate. The i n- Solution
duced voltage and the resulti ng current i n the bars The synch ronous speed of the motor is
wi ll i ncrease progressively, produci ng a greater and n, 1 2Qflp = 120 X 60/6 (13.1)
greater motor torque. The question is. for how long 1200 r/mi n
can th is go on? Wi ll the speed continue to drop un-
The difference between the synchronous speed of
til the motor comes to a hal t?
the revol vi ng flux and rotor speed is the slip speed:
No: the motor and the mechanical load will reach a
state of equilibrium when the motor torque is exactly n, - n = 1200 - 1 140 60 r/m in
THREE-PHASE INDUCT10N MOTORS 175

The slip is c. Motor turni ng at 500 r/mi n i n the opposite


direction to the revol vi ng field
s = ( n, - n)In, 60/1200 ( 1 3.2)
d. Motor turning at 2000 r/mi n i n the same direc-
= 0.05 or 5% tion as the revolvi ng field

13.10 Voltage and frequency Solution


induced in the rotor From Example 13-2, the synchronous speed of the
motor is 1 200 r/min.
The voltage and frequency i nduced i n the rotor both
depend upon the slip. They are given by the follow- a. At standstill the motor speed 11 0.
ing equations: Consequently. the sl ip is
s = ( n, - 11)/11, ( 1 200 0)11200 = I
f2 sf (13.3)
sE 0 c (approx.) ( 13.4) The frequency of the i nduced voltage (and of
the induced current) is
where
f?. sf' I X 60 60 Hz
f2 frequency of the voltage and current in
b. When the motor turns i n the same direction as the
the rotor [Hz]
field, the motor speed n is positi ve. The slip is
.f = freq uency of the source connected to
s ( n, n)In, ( 1 200 - 500)11 200
the stator lHz]
s = slip 700/1200 0.583

E:i. = voltage induced in the rotor at slip s The frequency of the i nduced voltage (and of
the rotor current) is
E0 c = open-ci rcuit voltage induced in the ro-
tor when at rest [VJ h .f' = 0.583 x 60 35 Hz
In a cage motor. the open-circuit voltage is c. When the motor turns i n the opposi te direction
the vol tage that would be induced i n the rotor bars to the field, the motor speed is negative; thus.
if the bars were discon nected from the end-rings. In n = -500. The slip is
the case of a wound-rotor motor the open-circuit
s = ( n, - 11)/11,
voltage is 11'13 times the voltage between the open-
= [ 1200 ( -500)111 200
circuit slip-rings.
It should be noted that Eq. 13.3 always holds = ( 1200 500)/1200 1 70011200
true, but Eq. 13.4 is valid on ly if the revol ving flux = 1 .417
(expressed i n webers) remai ns absolutely constant.
However. between zero and full-load the actual A slip greater than I i mpl ies that the motor is
value of 2 is only slightl y less than the val ue given operati ng as a brake.
The frequency of the i nduced voltage and rotor
by the equation.
current is
Example 13-3 f .\:f = 1.417 x 60 85 Hz
The 6-pole wound-rotor induction motor of Example
d. The motor speed is posi ti ve because the rotor
1 3-2 is excited by a 3-phase 60 Hz source. Calculate
the frequency of the rotor cu1Tent under the follow- turns i n the same direction as the field:
n t 2000. The sl i p is
ing conditions:
s = (11, n)/11,
a. At standsti ll
b. Motor turni ng at 500 rlmin i n the same direc- = ( 1 200 2000)11 200
tion as the revol vi ng field -800/1200 -0.667
276 ELECTRICAL MA.CHIN ES A.N D TRANSFORM ERS

A negati ve sl i p i mplies that the motor is actually I. Motor at no-load. When the motor runs at no
operati ng as a generator. load, the stator current lies between 0.5 and 0.3 pu (of
The frequency of the i nduced vol tage and rotor full-load current). The no-load current is similar to the
current is exciting current in a transformer. Thus. it is composed
of a magnetizi ng component that creates the revolv-
f2 = .\:f' -0.667 X 60 -40 Hz
i ng flux <Pm and a small active component that sup-
A negati ve frequency means that the phase se- pl ies the windage and friction losses i n the rotor plus
quence of the voltages induced in the rotor wi nd- the iron losses in the stator. The flux <Pm links both the
ings is reversed. Thus, if the phase sequence of the stator and the rotor: consequently it is si milar to the
rotor voltages is A- B-C when the frequency is pos- mutual flux in a transformer (Fig. 1 3.13).
iti ve. the phase sequence is A-C-B when the fre- Considerable reactive power is needed to create
quency is negative. As far as a frequency meter is the revol ving field and, in order to keep i t within ac-
concerned, a negative frequency gives the same ceptable l i mits, the air gap is made as short as me-
reading as a posi tive frequency. Consequently. we chanical tolerances will permit. The power factor at
can say that the frequency is si mply 40 Hz. no-load is therefore low; i t ranges from 0.2 (or 20%)
for smal l machines to 0.05 for large machi nes. The
13.11 Characteristics of squirrel- efficiency is zero because the output power is zero.

cage induction motors 2. Motor under load. When the motor is under load,
the current i n the rotor produces a mmf which tends
Table l 3A l i sts the typical properties of squirrel- to change the mutual flux <Prn. This sets up an oppos-
cage i nduction motors i n the power range between ing current flow in the stator. The opposing mmfs of
I kW and 20 000 kW. Note that the current and the rotor and stator are very similar to the opposing
torque are expressed i n per-un it val ues. The base mmfs of the secondary and pri mary i n a transformer.
curren t is the full-load current and all other cur- As a result leakage fluxes <Pfl and <Dr: are created, i n
rents are compared to it. Similarly. the base torque addition to the mutual flux <P 111 (Fig. 1 3.14). The total
is the full-load torque and all other torques are reactive power needed to produce these three fluxes is
com pared to it. Fi nally. the base speed is the syn- slightly greater than when the motor is operating at
chronous speed of the motor. The following expla- no-load. However, the active power (kW) absorbed
nations wi l l clarify the meani ng of the values gi ven by the motor increases in almost di rect proportion to
i n the table. the mechanical load. It follows that the power factor

TABLE 13A TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SQUIRREL-CAGE INDUCTION MOTORS

Loadi ng Current Torque Slip Efficiency Power factor


(per-unit ) (per-u nit) ( per-unit)

Motor size --7 Smal l* Big'' Small Big Small Big Small Big Small Big

Ful l-load 0.03 0.004 0.7 0.96 0.8 0.87


to to to to
0.9 0.98 0.85 0.9

No-load 0.5 0.3 () 0 =O =O () 0 0.2 0.05

Locked rotor 5 4 1.5 0.5 () () 0.4 0.1


to to to to
6 6 3 I

*Small means under 11 kW (15 hp); big means over 1120 kW (1500 hp) and up to 25 000 hp.
THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS 277

<I>f I

A
B
c

Figure 13.13 Figure 13.14


At no-load the flux in the motor is mainly the mu- At full-load the mutual flux decreases, but stator
tual flux <Dm. To create this flux, considerable reac- and rotor leakage fluxes are created. The reactive
tive power is needed. power needed is slightly greater than in Fig. 13.13.

of the motor improves dramatically as the mechanical where


load increases. At full-load it ranges from 0.80 for
I = full-load current f A ]
small machines to 0.90 for large machines. The effi-
P11 = output power [ horsepower!
ciency at full-load is particularly high; it can attain
E = rated line voltage ( V)
98% for very large machines.
600 = empirical constant
3. Locked-rotor characteristics. The locked-rotor
current is 5 to 6 times the full-load current, making Recalling that the starting current is 5 to 6 pu and
2 that the no-load current lies between 0.5 and
the / R losses 25 to 36 times higher than normal.
The rotor must therefore never remain locked for 0.3 pu, we can readily estimate the val ue of these
more than a few seconds. currents for any induction motor.
Al though the mechanical power at standstill is
zero. the motor develops a strong torque. The power
factor is low because considerable reactive power is Example 13-4
needed to produce the leakage flu x in the rotor and a. Calculate the approximate fu ll-load current,
stator windings. These leakage fluxes are much locked-rotor current. and no-load current of a
larger than i n a transformer because the stator and 3-phase induction motor havi ng a rating of
the rotor windings are not as tightly coupled (see 500 hp, 2300 V.
Section 10.2). b. Estimate the apparent power drawn u nder
locked-rotor conditions.
c. State the nomi nal rati ng of this motor,
13.12 Estimating the currents expressed i n kilowatts.
in an induction motor Solution
a. The full-load current is
The full-load current of a 3-phase i nduction motor
may be calculated by means of the followi ng ap- I = 600 P1 / ( 13.5)
proxi mate equation: = 600 x 500/2300
( 13.5) = 1 30 A (approx. )
278 EU:'CTRICA L MACHINES AND TRANSFORM ERS

The no-load cu rrent is motor. However. it is easier to see how electrical


energy is converted into mechanical energy by fol-
/{) = 0.3/ 0.3 x 1 30
lowing the active power as it flows through the ma-
39 A (approx.) chi ne. Thus. referring to Fig. 13.15, active power
The starting current is Pc flows from the line into the 3-phase stator. Due
to the stator copper losses, a portion Pi , is d issi-
f1 J<. 6/ 6 x 130
pated as heat i n the wi ndings. Another portion P 1 is
= 780 A (approx.)
dissipated as heat in the stator core, owing to the
b. The apparent power under locked-rotor condi- iron losses. The remai ning active power Pr is car-
tions is ried across the air gap and transferred to the rotor
by electromagnetic i nduction.
S .J3 El Due to the i2 R losses in the rotor, a third portion
'13 x 2300 x 780 (8.9) Pjr is dissipated as heat and the remai nder is finally
= 3100 k VA (approx.) available i n the form of mechanical power P111 By
c. When the power of a motor is expressed i n kilo- subtracti ng a small fourth portion P v representi ng
watts, it always relates to the mechanical output windage and bearing-friction losses, we finally ob-
and not to the electrical input. The nomi nal rating tai n PL, the mechanical power available at the shaft
of this motor expressed i n SJ units is, therefore, to drive the load.
The power flow diagram of Fig. 13.15 enables us
p 500/1 .34 to identify and to calculate three important proper-
373 kW (see Power conversion chart in ties of the induction motor: ( 1 ) its efficiency, (2) its
Append i x AXO) power, and (3) its torque.
1. 1:!,f)iciency. By defi n ition, the efficiency of a
13.13 Active power flow motor is the ratio of the output power to the input
Voltages, currents, and phasor diagrams enable us power:
to understand the detai led behav ior of an i nduction efficiency (11) = Pt,f P., ( 1 3.6)

windage and friction loss

active power
to stator

Figure 13.15
Active power flow in a 3-phase induction motor.
THREE-PHASE IN DUCTION MOTORS 279

2. 12R losses in the rotor. It can be shown* that the 4. Motor torque. The torque T111 developed by the
rotor PR losses P.i , are related to the rotor i nput motor at ony speed is given by
power P,. by t he equation ., 9.55 pill
7111 = (3.5)
II
Pi , :iP, (13.7)
9.55 (1 - s ) .
where
nJ I - s)
rotor FR losses [ W I therefore.
slip ( 13.9)
Pr power transmitted to the rotor [W] where
Eq uation 13.7 shows that as the slip increases. the Tm torque developed by the motor at any
rotor FR losses consume a larger and larger pro- speed f Nm l
porti on of the power P, transmitted across the ai r P1 power transmitted to the rotor [ W]
gap to the rotor. A rotor turning at half synchro- n, synchronous speed [r/minJ
nous speed ( s 0.5) dissipates in the form of heat
9.55 multi plier to take care of units !exact
50 percen t of the active power it receives. When
val ue: 6012TIj
the rotor is locked ( s I), all the power transmi t-
ted to the rotor is dissipated as heat. The actual torque TL available at the shaft is
3. M echanical power. The mechanical power P111 slightly less than T 111
developed by the motor is equal to the power trans- due to the torque requi red to

mitted to the rotor min us its PR losses. Thus. overcome the windage and friction losses. However,
in most calculations we can neglect this small
pm P, Pi, difference.
P, sP1 ( 13.7) Equation 13.9 shows that the torque is directly
whence proportional to the active power transmitted to the ro-
tor. Thus, to develop a high locked-rotor torque, the
rotor must absorb a large amount of active power. The
P 111 = ( I s)Pr (13.8) latter is dissipated i n the form of heat, consequently.
The actual mechanical power available to drive the temperature of the rotor rises very rapidly.
the load is slightly less than P 111 due to the power
needed to overcome the windage and friction Example 13-5
losses. In most calculations we can neglect this A 3-phase i nduction motor havi ng a synchronous

lI
small loss. speed of 1 200 r/min draws 80 kW from a 3-phase
mechanical electromagnetic ]
power output = I power transferred - losses speed of flux electromagnetic torque
P,. =
of rotor I to rotor in rotor 9.55
L

( i) P, = (iii)
9.55
but from Eq. 3.5 but the mechanical torque T"' m ut equal
rotor speed x mechani_cal t()_r_q_ue the electromagnetic torque T,,,,,,,.
9.55 Thus
Hence.
( iv;
(i i) Suhstituti ng (ii ). (iii), and (iv) i n ( i ), we find
9.55
Also from Eq. 3.5 we can write Pi, sP,
280 ELECTRICAL /v!ACHINl:sAND TRANSFORM ERS

feeder. The copper losses and iron losses i n the sta- e. The efficiency is
tor amou nt to 5 kW. If the motor ru ns at 1 1 52 r/mi n,
'I = P1.I Pc 70/80
calcu late the follm:v ing:
0.875 or 87.5k
'
a. The active power transmitted to the rotor
b. The rotor {'R losses Example 13-6
c. The mechan ical power developed
d. The mechan ical power del ivered to the load. A 3-phase. 8-pole sq u irrel-cage i nd uct ion motor.
k nowi ng that the wi ndage and frict ion losses connected to a 60 Hz l i ne. possesses a synchronous
are equal to 2 kW speed of 900 r/mi n. The motor absorbs 40 kW. and
e. The efficiency of the motor the copper and iron losses i n t he stator amou nt to
5 kW and I kW. respecti vely. Calculate the wrque
Solution
developed by the motor.
a. Acti ve power to the rotor is
Sol//f ion
P,. = pc - Pi , - Pr
The power transrn illed across the air gap to the rotor is
80 5 = 75 kW
P, Pc - Pi, - Pr
b. The sl i p is
= 40 - 5 I = 34 kW
T111 9.55 P.Jn, ( 1 3.9)
s = (11, - 11 )/11,
= 9.55 x 34 000/900
( 1200 - 1 152)/1200
361 Nm
= 48/ 1200 = 0.04
Note that the solution to t his problem ( the
Rotor ( R losses arc
torque) is i ndependent of the speed of rotation. The
Pi, = sP,. 0.04 X 75 3 kW motor could be at a standsti ll or ru nni ng at fu l l
c. The mechanical power developed is speed. but as long as the power P, transmi tted to the
rotor is equal to 34 kW. the motor develops a torque
Pm P, 12R losses i n rotor of 361 Nm.
= 75 -- 3 72 kW
Example 13-7
d. The mechan ical power P1. del ivered to the l oad
is slightly less than Pm. d ue to the friction and
A 3-phase i nduction motor having a nom i nal rati ng of
wi ndage losses.
100 hp ("-75 kW ) and a synchronous speed of 1800
r/min is connected to a 600 V source (Fig. 13.16a).
The two-wattmeter method shows a total power con-
A
0.34 Q B
P1 2 kW
P11 = 1.2 kW 100 HP (-"' 75 kW)

70 kW

1783 r/min

Figure 13.16a
See Example 13-7.
THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS 281

sumption of 70 kW. and an ammeter indicates a line b. The slip is


current of 78 A. Precise measurements give a rotor
speed of 1763 r/mi n. In addition, the following char-
acteristics are known about the motor: ( 1 800 - 1763)/1 800
0.0205
stator iron losses P 1 2 k W
wi ndage and friction losses Py = 1 .2 k W Rotor (R losses:
resistance between two stator terminals 0.34 n Pjr = sP, 0.0'.205 X 64.9 = 1 .33 kW
Cairn/ate
c. Mechan ical power developed is
a. Power supplied to the rotor
b. Rotor i2R losses P 111 = P, - Pi , 64.9 1 .33 63.5 kW
c. Mechanical power supplied to the load. i n
Mechanical power PL to the load:
horsepower
d. Efficiency Pi. 63.5 - P, 63.5 l .2
e. Torq ue developed at 1763 r/mi n 62.3 kW = 62.3 x l.34 (hpl
Solution 83.5 hp
a. Power supplied to the stator is
d. Efficiency of the motor is
P" 70 kW
TJ = P 1 jP "' 62.3/70 = 0.89 or 89k'
Stator resistance per phase (assume a wye con- e. Torque at 1 763 r/mi n:
nection) is
T = 9.55 P,.!11, 9.55 X 64 900/1 800
R = 0.34/2 0.17 n 344 Nrn
2
Stator 1 R losses are
The above calculations are su m mari zed i n
Pj, 3 PR =3 x (78/ x 0.17 Fig. l 3. I 6b.
3.1 k W
13.14 Torque versus speed curve
Iron losses Pr 2 kW
Power supplied to the rotor: The torque developed by a motor depends upon i ts
speed, but the relationshi p between the two can not
Pr = Pl. P;, Pr
be expressed by a si mple equation. Consequently.
= ( 70 3.1 2) 64.9 k W we prefer to show the relationshi p i n the form of a

Figure 13.16b
Power flow in Example 13-7.
282 ELECTRICAL MACH INES AND TRANSFORM ERS

curve. Fig. 1 3.17 shows the torque-speed curve of a aluminum. or other metals i n the rotor bars and end-
conventional 3-phase ind uction motor whose nom- rings. The torque-speed curve is greatly affected by
i nal full-load torque is T The starti ng torque is such a change i n resistance. The only characteristic
1 .5 T and the maxi mu m torque (called breakdoll'!I that remains unchanged is the breakdown torque. The
torque) is 2.5 T Pull-up torque is the m i n im um following example illustrates the changes that occur.
torque developed by the motor whi le it is accelerat- Figure l 3. l 8a shows the torque-speed curve of a
ing from rest to the breakdown torque. 10 kW ( 13.4 hp), 50 Hz. 380 V motor havi ng a syn-
At ful l-load the motor runs at a speed n. If the me- chronous speed of I 000 r/mi n and a full-load torque
chanical load i ncreases slightly. the speed will drop of 1 00 Nm ( 73.7 ftl bf). The full-load curren t is
unti l the motor torque is again equal to the load 20 A and the locked-rotor curren t is I 00 A. The ro-
torque. As soon as the two torques are i n balance. the tor has an arbitrary resistance R.
motor wi ll turn at a constant but slightly lower Let us i ncrease the rotor resistance by a factor of
speed. However. if the load torq ue exceeds 2.5 T 2.5. This can be achieved by usi ng a materi al of
(the breakdown torque). the motor wi ll quickly stop. higher resisti v ity, such as bronze. for the rotor bars
Small motors ( 1 5 hp and less) develop their and end-rings. The new torq ue-speed curve is
breakdow n torque at a speed nd of about 80% of shown i n Figure I 3. l 8b. It can be seen that the start-
synchronous speed. Big motors ( 1 500 hp and more) ing torque doubles and the locked-rotor current de-
attain thei r breakdown torq ue at about 98% of syn- creases from I 00 A to 90 A. The motor develops its
chronous speed. breakdown torq ue at a speed Nd of 500 r/min, com-
pared to the original breakdown speed of 800 r/m i n.
If we again dou ble the rotor resistance so that it
13.15 Effect of rotor resistance becomes 5 R, the locked-rotor torque attains a max-
The rotor resistance of a squi rrel-cage rotor is es- imum val ue of 250 Nm for a correspondi ng current
sentially constant from no-load to fu ll-load. except of 70 A ( Fig. I 3.1 8c).
that it increases wi th temperat ure. Thus, the resis- A further i ncrease in rotor resistance decreases
tance increases with increasi ng load because the both the locked-rotor torq ue and l ocked-rotor cur-
temperature rises. ren t. For exam ple, if the rotor resistance is i n-
In design ing a squirrel-cage motor, the rotor resis- creased 25 ti mes (25 R ). the locked-rotor current
tance can be set over a wide range by using copper, drops to 20 A, bu t the .motor develops the same

pull-up torque ' full load


T i-------------t-----------1----- nominal torque T ----- -----

0.5 T +---
--1- -
---t -
-
-- -
-
--t---t---<>--t-1

0 0 20 40 60 80
- rotational speed
t
Figure 13.17
Typical torque-speed curve of a 3-phase squirrel-cage induction motor.
Nm
250 -
--
--
-----

Q)
::i

(a) !:
normal rotor
s
resistance = R
r 100 ----"'-..---+--;960 r/min
I to yield 100 N-m
20 _ _ ,t:_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

500
800 1000 r/min 500 1000 r/min
-speed -speed

Nm
250 A
90
200
locked
(b) Q)
::i rotor
rotor er

resistance = 2.5 R
s T (nominal)

1 100

nd

00 500 900 1000 r/min


-speed

Nm
250

Q)
A
(c) ::i 70
e-
rotor s
resistance = 5 R
/ 100
T (nominal)
!I
"'
f 20LI !_Y_!!: <:!.199_ :_-- 800 r/min
I 7 A at no-load ; ,
0
00 500 800 1000 r/min o 1000 r/min
-speed -speed

I
Nm A
(d) 100 e 20
rotor e- a
resistance = 25 R
s
t
--speed 1000 r/min r/min
-speed

Figure 13.18
Rotor resistance affects the motor characteristics.

283
284 ELECTRICAL MACHINES AN D TRANSFORM ERS

starti ng torq ue ( I00 N m), as it did when the I. The locked-rotor current can be drastically re-
locked-rotor current was I00 A I3. I 8d). duced by i nserti ng three external resistors i n
In sum mary, a high rotor resi stance is desi rable series with the rotor. Nevertheless. the locked-
because i t produces a high starting torq ue and a rotor torq ue wi ll still be as high as that of a
relati vel y low starting current ( Fig. 13. l 8c). squirrel-cage motor.
U nfort u natel y, i t also prod uces a rapid fall-off i n
2. The speed can be varied by varying the exter-
speed with increasi ng load. Fu rthermore, because
nal rotor resistors.
the sl i p at rated torque is high. the motor PR
losses are hi gh. The efficiency is therefore low 3. The motor is ideally suited to accelerate high-
and the motor tends to overheat. inertia loads. which requ ire a long time to bring
Under ru n n ing conditions it is preferable to have up to speed.
a low rotor resistance (Fig. I 3. l 8a). The speed de-
Fi g. 13.19 is a diagram of the circu it used to start
creases much less with increasi ng load, and the slip
a wound-rotor motor. The rotor windi ngs are con-
at rated torque is small. Conseq uently. the effi-
nected to three wye-con nected external resistors by
ciency is high and the motor tends to ru n cool.
means of a set of slip-ri ngs and brushes. U nder
We can obtai n both a high starting resistance
locked-rotor (LR ) conditions, the variable resistors
and a low ru nning resistance by designing the rotor
are set to thei r highest value. As the motor speeds
bars i n a special way (see Fig. 14.5, Chapter 14).
up. the resistance is grad ually reduced u nti l fu ll-
However. if the rotor resistance has to be varied
load speed is reached, whereupon the brushes are
over a wide range, it may be necessary to use a
short-circui ted. By properly selecti ng the resistance
wou nd-rotor ind uction motor. Such a motor en-
val ues. we can produce a high accelerati ng torque
ables us to vary the rotor resistance at will by
with a stator current that never exceeds twice full-
means of an external rheostat.
load current.
To start large motors, we often use liquid
13.16 Wound-rotor motor rheostats because they are easy to control and have
We explai ned the basic difference between a a large thermal capacity. A liqu id rheostat is com-
sq u i rrel-cage motor and a wou nd-rotor motor in posed of three electrodes immersed i n a suitable
Section 13.1 . Although a wound-rotor motor costs electrolyte. To vary its resistance, we si mply vary
more than a squ irrel-cage motor, it offers the fol- the level of the electrolyte surroundi ng the elec-
lowi ng advan tages: trodes. The large thermal capacity of the electrolyte

g
3- phase
source
stator
b
collector ring

starting rheostat and


speed control ler

Figure 13.19
External resistors connected to the three slip-rings of a wound-rotor induction motor.
THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS 285

l imits the temperature rise. For example. i n one ap- coils per group m ust have a total of (4 X 3 X 5)
plication a l iquid rheostat is used i n conju nction 60 coi ls. lodged in 60 slots. The coils i n each group
with a 1260 kW wound-rotor motor to bri ng a large are connected i n series and are staggered at one-slot
synchronous machi ne up to speed. i ntervals (Fig. 1 3.20). The coils are identical and
We can also regulate the speed of a wou nd-rotor may possess one or more turns. The width of each
motor by varyi ng the resistance of the rheostat. As coil is called the coil pitch.
we i ncrease the resistance. the speed will drop. This Such a distributed wi ndi ng is obviousl y more
method of speed control has the disad vantage that a costly to build than a concentrated wi nding havi ng
lot of heat is dissipated i n the resistors: the effi- only one coil per group. However. i t improves the
ciency is therefore low. Furthermore. for a gi ven starting torque and red uces the noise under running
rheostat setting. the speed varies considerabl y if the condi tions.
mechanical load varies. When the stator wi ndings are excited from a 3-
The power rati ng of a self-cooled wound-rotor phase source, a multipolar revol ving field is pro-
motor depends upon the speed at which i t operates. duced. The distance between adjacent poles is called
Thus. for the same temperature rise. a motor that can the pole pitch. It is equal to the internal circu mfer-
develop 100 kW at 1 800 r/mi n can del i ver only about ence of the stator di vided by the n um ber of poles. For
40 kW at 900 r/rni n. However. if the motor is cooled example, a I stator having a circumference of
by a separate fan. it can deliver 50 kW at 900 r/mi n. 600 mm has a pole-pitch of 600/ 1 2 or 50 m m.
In practice, the coil pi tch is between 80% and
I00% of the pole pi tch. The coil pi tch is usually
13.17 Three-phase windings made less than the pole pi tch i n order to save copper
In 1 883 a 27-year-old Yugoslav scientist named and to improve the flux d istri bution i n the air gap.
Ni kola Tesla invented the 3-phase i nduction motor. The shorter coil width red uces the cost and weight
His first model had a salient-pole stator wi ndi ng of the wi ndi ngs, while the more sin usoidal flux dis-
similar to the one shown in 1 3.6. Since then the tribution i m proves the torq ue du ring start-up, and
design of ind uction motors has evolved consider- often resul ts i n a quieter machi ne. I n the case of 2-
ably; modern machines are built with lap windings pole machi nes. the shorter pitch also makes the coils
distribu ted i n slots around the stator. m uch easier to insert in the slots.
A lap windi ng consists of a set of phase groups To get an overall picture of a lap wi ndi ng, let us
evenly distri buted around the stator circumference. suppose a 24-slot stator is laid out flat as shown i n
The number of groups is given by the equation 13.21 a. The 24 coils are held upright. with one

groups = poles X phases one slot


Thus. a 4-pole. 3-phase stator m ust have 4 X 3 1 2
phase groups. Because a group m ust have at least
one coi l. it follows that the mini m u m num ber of pitch
coils is equal to the n umber of groups. A 4-pole. 3-
phase stator m ust therefore have at least 12 coils.
Furthermore. in a lap wi nding the stator has as many
slots as i t has coi ls. Conseq uently, a 4-pole. 3-phase
stator m ust have at least 1 2 slots. However, motor
designers have discovered that it is preferable to use 5 coils per group
2. 3. or more coi ls per group rather than on ly one.
The n u mber of coils and slots increases i n propor- ,J1JUlJlJL)2
tion. For example. a 4-pole. 3-phase stator having 5
Figure 13.20
The five coils are connected in series to create one
phase group.
286 ELECTRICAL M ACH IN ES AND TRANSFORM ERS

coil side set in each slot. Ifthe wi ndi ngs are now laid c. Number of groups per phase = nu m ber of
down so that all the other coil sides fall into the slots, poles = I O
we obtain the classical appearance of a 3-phase lap Coils per group = 40 I 0 4.
windi ng having two coi l sides per slot (Fig. 13.21 b). d. The pole pitch corresponds to
The coils are connected together to create three pole pitch slots/poles = 120/ 10
identical windi ngs, one for each phase. Each wind- 12 slots
ing consists of a number of groups equal to the nu m- One pole pitch extends therefore from slot I
ber of poles. The grou ps of each phase are symmet- ( say) to slot 1 3.
rically distributed around the circumference of the e. The coil pitch covers 1 0 slots (slot 1 to slot 1 1 ).
stator. The followi ng examples show how this is The percent coil pitch = 10/12 = 83.3%.
done. The next example shows in greater detail how
the coils are intercon nected i n a typical 3-phase sta-
Example 13-8 tor winding.
The stator of a 3-phase, I 0-pole induction motor
possesses 1 20 slots. If a lap winding is used, calcu- Example 13-9
late the fol lowi ng:

a. The total n umber of coils A stator having 24 slots has to be wou nd wit h a
b. The n u mber of coils per phase 3-phase, 4-pole winding. Determine the following:
c. The number of coi ls per group I . The con nections between the coils
d. The pole pitch 2. The con nections between the phases
e. The coil pitch (expressed as a percentage of the Solution
pole pitch ), if the coil w idth extends from slot The 3-phase winding has 24 coils. Assume that they
I to slot 1 1 are standi ng upright, with one coil side in each slot
Solution 1 3.22). We will first determine the coil distri-
a. A 1 20-slot stator requires 1 20 coils. bution for phase A and then proceed with the con-
b. Coils per phase 120 -7- 3 40. nections for that phase. Similar con nections will
then be made for phases B and C. Here is the line of
reasoni ng:

a. The revolvi ng field creates 4 poles; the motor


therefore has 4 groups per phase, or 4 X 3 I2
phase groups in all. Each rectangle in Fig. l 3.22a
represents one group. Because the stator contains
24 coils, each group consists of 24/12 = 2 con-
secutive coils.
b. The groups (poles) of each phase must be uni-
Figure 13.21a
Coils held upright in 24 stator slots.
formly spaced arou nd the stator. The group
distribution for phase A is shown i n
I 3.22b. Each shaded rectangle represents two
upright coils con nected in series, producing
the two terminals shown. Note that the me-
chanical distance between two successive
groups always corresponds to an electrical
Figure 13.21b phase angle of 180.
Coils laid down to make a typical lap winding. c. Successive groups of phase A must have oppo-
site magnetic polarities. Consequentl y, the four
ff one group of one phase /T each group is composed of two coils in series

Figure 13.22a
W lli W W d d B d d d d d
The 24 coils are grouped two-by-two to make 12 groups.

dd d d d d
f---180 (electr ical) -j

Figure 13.22b
The four groups of phase A are selected so as to be evenly spaced from each other.

Figure 13.22c
The groups of phase A are connected in series to create alternate N-S poles.

Figure 13.22d
The start of phases B and C begins 120 and 240, respectively, after the start of phase A.

fa+ A1 C2 /b+ B1 /c+ C1 Ai B,


.....-+- -- -- --.

Figure 13.22e
When all phase groups are connected, only six leads remain.

287
288 ELECJ RICA/ , MACH IN ES AN D 7RANSFORM ERS

Figure 13.22f
The phase may be connected in wye or in delta, and three leads are brought out to the terminal box.

one group of phase A

23 24 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Figure 13.23
The pole pitch is from slot 1 slot 7; the coil pitch from slot 1 to slot 6.

groups of phase A are connected in series to pro- f. Because the pole pitch corresponds to a span of
duce successi ve N-S-N-S poles (Fig. 1 24/4 6 slots, the coi l pi tch may be sho11ened
Phase A now has two termi nals. a starting ter- to 5 slots (slot 1 to slot 6). Thus. the first coil of
m i nal A 1 and afinis fling termi nal A2 . phase A is lodged i n the first and sixth slots
d. The phase groups of phases B and C are spaced (Fig. 1 3.23). All the other coi ls and connections
the same way arou nd the stator. However, the follow suit accordi ng to l 3.22e.
starling term i nals B 1 and C 1 are respecti vely Figs. 13.24a and l 3.24b show the coi I and
located at 120 and 240 (electrical ) wi t h re- stator of a 450 kW (600 hp) induction motor.
spect to t he starting termi nal A 1 of phase A 13.25 ill ustrates the proced ure used i n
( Fig. l 3.22d). wi ndi ng a smaller 37.5 kW (50 hp) stator.
e. The groups i n phases B and C are connected i n
series i n the same way as those of phase A are 13.18 Sector motor
( Fig. l 3.22e). Th is y ields six termi nals: A 1 A 2
Consider a standard 3-phase. 4-pole, wye-connected
B 1 B. and C 1 C2 They may be connected either motor havi ng a synchronous speed of 1800 r/min.
i n wye or i n delta inside the machi ne. The re- Let us cut the stator in half, so that half the windi ng
sulting 3 wires correspondi ng to the 3 phases is removed and only two complete N and S poles are
are brought out to the termi nal box of the ma- left (per phase). Next, let us connect the three phases
chine l 3.22f). I n practice. the connections in wye, without making any other changes to the ex-
are made, not whi le the coils are upright (as isting coi l connections. Finally, we mount the origi-
show n ) but only after they have been laid down nal rotor above this sector stat01; leaving a small air
i n the slots. gap ( Fig. 1 3.26).
THREE-PHASE INDUCTION AHTIORS 289

should be red uced to half its origi nal val ue because


the stator wi ndi ng now has on l y one-half the origi-
nal n umber of tu rns. Under these conditions, this re-
markable tru ncated sector motor sti l l develops about
20 percent of its origi nal rated power.
The sector motor produces a rernliing field that
moves at the same peri pheral speed as the flux i n
the original 3-phase motor. However. i nstead of
maki ng a com plete t urn. the field simply travels
conti n uousl y from one end of the stator to the other.

13.19 Linear induction motor


It is obvious that the sector stator coul d be laid out
flat, without affecting the shape or speed of the
magnetic field. Such a flat stator produces a field
Figure 13.24a t hat moves at constant speed, i n a straight l ine.
Stator of a 3-phase, 450 kW, 1180 r/min, 575 V, 60 Usi ng the same reason i ng as in Section 1 3.5. we can
Hz induction motor. The lap winding is composed of
prove that the flux travels at a l i near synchronous
108 preformed coils having a pitch from slots 1 to 15.
speed given by
One coil side falls into the bottom of a slot and the
other at the top. Rotor diameter: 500 mm; axial I\ = 2 H f ( 13.10)
length: 460 mm. (Courtesy of Services Electro-
mecaniques Roberge) where

'" = l inear synch ronous speed Im/s I


n = width of one pole-pitch ImI
f= frequency IHz I
Note that the l inear speed does not depend upon the
n u mber of poles but on ly on the pole-pi tch. Thus. it
is possible for a 2-pole l inear stator to create a field
movi ng at the same speed as that of a 6-pole l i near
stator (say), provided they have the same pole-pitch.
If a flat squitTel-cage wi nding is brought near the
flat stator, the travel ling field drags the squirrel cage
along with i t (Section 1 3.2). I n practice, we generally
use a si mple al u mi nu m or copper plate as a rotor (Fig.
13.27). Fu11hermore, to increase the power and to re-
duce the reluctance of the magnetic path. two flat sta-
tors are usually mounted. face-lo-face. on opposite
Figure 13.24b sides of the alumi n um plate. The combination is called
Close-up view of the preformed coil in Fig. 13.24a. a linear induction moto1: The direction of the motor
can be reversed by i nterchangi ng any two stator leads.
I f we con nect the stator termi nals to a 3-phase, I n many practical appl ications, t he rotor is sta-
60 Hz source. the rotor will agai n tu rn at close to tionary wh i le the stutor moves. For example. i n
1 800 r/mi n. To prevent saturati on. the voltage some high-speed trai ns, the rotor is com posed of a
(a) (c)

(b) (d)

Figure 13.25
Stator winding of a 3-phase, 50 hp, 575 V, 60 Hz, 1764 r/min induction motor. The stator possesses 48 slots
carrying 48 coils connected in wye.
a. Each coil is composed of 5 turns of five No. 15 copper wires connected in parallel. The wires are covered
with a high-temperature polyimide insulation. Five No. 15 wires in parallel is equivalent to one No. 8 wire.
b. One coil side is threaded into slot 1 (say) and the other side goes into slot 12. The coil pitch is, there-
fore, from 1 to 12.
c. Each coil side fills half a slot and is covered with a paper spacer so that it does not touch the second coil
side placed in the same slot. Starting from the top, the photograph shows 3 empty and uninsulated slots
and 4 empty slots insulated with a composition paper liner. The remaining 10 slots each carry one coil
side.
d. A varnished cambric cloth, cut in the shape of a triangle, provides extra insulation between adjacent phase
groups.
(Courtesy of Services Electromecaniques Roberge)

290
THREE-PHASI: IN/JUCTWN iHOTORS 291

13.20 Traveling waves


We are someti mes left w i t h the i mpression that
when the flux reaches the end of a l inear stator.
there must be a delay before i t returns to restart once
more at t he begi n ni ng. This is not the case. The lin-
ear motor produces a traveli ng wave of fl ux which
moves conti nuously and smoothly from one end of
the stator to the other. Figure 13.28 shows how the
flux moves from left to right i n a 2-pole li near mo-
tor. The flux cuts off sharply at extremities A. B of
Figure 13.26 the stator. However. as fast as a N or S pole disap-
Two-pole sector induction motor. pears at the right. it bu i lds up agai n at the left.
Iinear rotor
(aluminum, copper or 13.21 Properties of a linear
iron plate)
induction motor
The properties of a linear i nduction motor are al-
most identical to those of a standard rotati ng ma-
chine. Consequently, the equat ions for slip. thrust,
power, etc., are also sim i lar.
1. Slip. Slip is defi ned by

L1 u---------
L2o.;;;;;;;;;=-- linear 3-phase stator w here
s ( v, - v )Ii\ ( I3. II)

L3 o--.:;;_-.-- s slip
l\ synch ronous l i near speed [ m/s]
Figure 13.27
Components of a 3-phase linear induction motor. v speed of rotor (or stator) [ m/s l

thick aluminum plate fixed to the ground and ex- 2. Active power flow. With reference to Fig. 1 3.15.
tendi ng over the full length of the track. The l i near active power flows through a linear motor in the same
stator is bolted to the undercarriage of the trai n and way it does through a rotati ng motor, except that the
straddles the plate. Train speed is varied by chang- stator and rotor are flat. Consequently. Eqs. 13.6.
ing the frequency applied to the stator (Fig. I3.31 ). 1 3.7, and 1 3.8 apply to both types of machines:

TJ ( 13.6)
Example 13-10 _
Pir sPr ( 13.7)
The stator of a linear induction motor is excited
from a 75 Hz electronic source. If the distance be- Pin (I s )Pr ( 13.8)
tween consecuti ve phase groups of phase A is 300 3. Thrust. The thrust or force developed by a lin-
mm, calculate the linear speed of the magnetic field. ear induction motor is given by:

Solution ( 13. 12 )
The pole pitch is 300 m m. Consequentl y. where
l\ 2 Hf ( 13.10) F = thrust [Nl
2 x 0.3 x 75 P, = power transm i tted to the rotor I W J
45 m/s or 162 km/h 1\ = l inear synchronous speed Im/s l
292 ELECTRICAL MACHINES AN D TRANSFORM ERS

Example 13-11 _
3- phase stator
I An overhead crane in a factory is driven horizon-
A liliJ=.J.'...- B tally by means of two l inear induction motors
whose rotors are the two steel I-beams upon which
the crane rolls. The 3-phase, 4-pole l inear stators
( mounted on opposi te sides of the crane and facing
the respective webs of the I-beams) have a pole
pitch of 8 cm and are driven by a variable frequency
electronic source. During a test on one of the mo-
tors, the followi ng results were obtained:
stator frequency: l 5 Hz
power to stator: 5 kW
copper loss _, iron loss i n stator: 1 kW
crane speed: 1 .8 m/s
Calculate
a. Synchronous speed and slip

y
b. Power to the rotor
c. PR loss i n rotor
d. Mechanical power and thrust
Solution
a. Linear synchronous speed

V, 2 Hj (13.10)
=2 x 0.08 x 15
2.4 m/s

The slip is
s = (v, - v)lv, ( 13.1 1 )
(2.4 1 .8)/2.4
= 0.25

b. Power to the rotor is


Pr = Pc - Pi , - P 1 (see Fig. 13.15)
5-1
= 4 kW
c. PR loss i n the rotor is
Figure 13.28
Shape of the magnetic field created by a 2-pole, pjr sPr (13.7)
3-phase linear stator, over one complete cycle. The
= 0.25 x 4
successive frames are separated by an interval of
time equal to 1/6 cycle or 60%. IkW