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TEMPORAL & CAUSAL

RELATIONSHIP

A. Temporal Relationship
1. Farmers tended to reduce the number of labor when there is wage increasing
2. Soybean farmers should make water reservoir as water reserve of plant irrigation when
the river irrigation has no longer sufficient to irrigate their soybean cultivation land.
3. While, the second objective used actual production cost ratio and minimum production
cost ratio.
4. Meanwhile, seed price and labor wage had negative effect.
5. Meanwhile, since 1992, domestic soybean production was unable to fulfill national
consumption, which led to the import decision by government.
6. While, Stevenson (1980) used truncated-normal distribution assumption.
7. While, seed price and labor wage affected negatively to the production cost.
8. then, the best models is chosen using Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and
Schwarz Information Criterion (SIC).
9. then selected model with the best score based on Akaike Information Criterion (AIC)
and Schwarz Information Criterion (SIC) score.
10. If CE score is equal to 1, then the farming is in full economic efficiency.
11. However, if the score is not equal with 1 then the farming still inefficient economically.
12. When the model appropriateness viewed from how many independent variable affected
to the production cost, then the exponential distribution assumption had the highest
number of significant variable.
13. Model which meets the criteria above then used to estimate economic efficiency
score.
14. Regression coefficient to the land rent price was 0.309 which means that land rend
price increasesby 1 percent then production cost will increase for 0.309 per cent
15. It means that when seed price increases by 1 percent then production cost will decrease
for 0.110 percent.
16. Therefore, to fulfill irrigation needs of soybean land and save production cost then it
needed to add drilled wells or increasing coverage of irrigation infrastructure.
17. If the wage increases by 1 percent then farmers tend to reduce the labor, thus production
cost will decrease for 0.139 percent.
18. If farmers who place in the average economic efficiency level are able to achieve the
highest economic efficiency level then they will able to save production cost of 11.0
percent
19. If the farmers want to decrease production cost, then farmers need to consider price
of drilled well irrigation.
20. After the best model found, the next step was calculating economic efficiency score.
21. The next step was to choose the best model
22. The next step was interpreting factors that affect production cost.
23. The decreasing of farmers interest in cultivating soybean are proved by the decrease of
production during the period of 1992-2013.
24. The addition of production cost was quite high if there is an increase of land rent.
25. If the price of drilled well irrigation increases by 1 percent then production cost will
increase for 1.257 percent.
26. Since 1992, domestic soybean production was unable to fulfill national consumption,
which led to the import decision by government.

B. Causal Relationship
1. Therefore, exponential distribution assumption would be used to interpret the economic
efficiency due to it had the smallest AIC and SIC score
2. Therefore, to fulfill irrigation needs of soybean land and save production cost then it
needed to add drilled wells or increasing coverage of irrigation infrastructure.
3. Therefore, there was relationship between amounts of production to the production cost.
4. In conclusion, farmers still could not achieve economic efficiency, thus, there is a chance
to save production cost in order to achieve full economic efficiency.
5. Local soybean production is the main ingredient of tofu, thus majority of local
soybean consumer is tofu producer.
6. It is due to local soybean contains high protein, thus it results in more solid tofu.
7. If the wage increases by 1 percent then farmers tend to reduce the labor, thus production
cost will decrease for 0.139 percent.
8. Soybean consumption increases as the increase of population.
9. According to Khumbhakar & Lovell (2000), economic efficiency also known as cost
efficiency, which is defined as the ratio between total minimum costs with total actual
production.
10. Potential area to selected as center of soybean production in Nganjuk Regency is Rejoso
District (Ministry of Agriculture of Nganjuk Regency, 2014).
11. There is 32.35 percent from total respondents as tenant
12. Economic efficiency also called as cost efficiency (CE) which shows farmers ability
in selecting minimum production cost to produce certain output.
13. variable that assumed as inefficient of cost production and assumed to have iid.
14. Factors that affect production cost explained as follow
15. Soybean farmers should make water reservoir as water reserve of plant irrigation when
the river irrigation has no longer sufficient to irrigate their soybean cultivation land.
CONTRASTIVE RELATIONSHIP

1. However, if the score is not equal with 1 then the farming still inefficient economically.
2. However, it is not all farmers in Mlorah Village owned the land cultivation
3. However, there is no much plausible reason regarding this coefficient
4. However, if the production decreases by 1 per cent, then production cost will also
decrease for 0.341 per cent.
5. While, the second objective used actual production cost ratio and minimum production
cost ratio
6. While, Stevenson (1980) used truncated-normal distribution assumption [u_i~N^+
(,_u^2)].
7. Although the price of this pesticide was relatively expensive, IDR 125,000 per 250
mL, farmers keep using that type of pesticide to avoid the risk of harvest failed.