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r No. Contents Page

1. Introduction

2. Types of Individual behavior

3. Conclusion of Individual behavior


5. Biblography

Introduction .

Counterproductive Work Behaviours . work cooperatively with clients and coworkers in a stressful environment. but only by considering all of them can we fully evaluate an employee's contribution to the organisation. Some of these performance dimensions are more important than others.58 For example. assist in training new staff and work on special telecommunications equipment without error. Task performance behaviours transform raw materials into goods and services. Employees in most jobs have more than one performance dimension. Foreign exchange traders must be able to identify profitable trades.Types of Individual Behavior Task Performance Task performance refers to goal-directed behaviours under the individual's control that support organisational objectives. foreign exchange traders at the Bank of New Zealand make decisions and take actions to exchange currencies. or support and maintain technical activities.

people often look for those responsible when they want to throttle someone . In other words. That it's. Here's the argument that it's not. tardiness). whereas organisational citizenship had a relatively minor benefit. Absenteeism is also higher in organisations with generous sick leave because this benefit limits the negative financial impact of taking time away from work. Studies have found that absenteeism is also higher in teams with strong absence norms. work avoidance (e.. Employees who experience job dissatisfaction or work-related stress are more likely to be absent or late for work because taking time off is a way to temporarily withdraw from stressful or dissatisfying conditions. threats (threatening harm).g. in fact. One study of Queensland government employees discovered that absenteeism rates changed over time. But each of us can make the decision individually to be accountable for our own behavior. insults and nasty comments). CWBs are voluntary behaviours that have the potential to directly or indirectly harm the organisation. work sabotage (doing work incorrectly) and overt acts (theft).63 Maintaining Work Attendance Along with attracting and retaining employees. crucial.Organisational behaviour is interested in all workplace behaviours. CWBs are not minor concerns. One Australian study found that units of a fast-food restaurant chain with higher CWBs had a significantly worse performance. including those on the ‘dark side’. responsible sounds like nitpicking. We often use "responsibility" as the gateway to guilt. They include abuse of others (e. and we stand to live a better life if we do.67 Conclusion of Types of Individual Behavior we can reach that conclusion collectively as a community. meaning that team members tolerate and even expect coworkers to take time off.g. collectively known as counterproductive work behaviours (CWBs) Voluntary behaviours that have the potential to directly or indirectly harm the organisation. organisations need everyone to show up for work at scheduled times. Accountable vs. Motivation is another factor. and that these changing absence levels may be due to changing norms about how much unscheduled time off team members should take. Situational factors—such as severe weather or car breakdown—explain some work absences.

who can I turn to in order to make my life what I want it to be? Not. am I better off looking for someone else to blame or asking myself what I can do to make things better. My experience is that we can always ask that second question. I'm not talking about that. "Who's responsible for this?!".to get work done or punish them for something that should have been done but wasn't. I'm talking about each of us asking ourselves . But starting wherever I am. we'll always get headed in a better direction as a result. and if we take it seriously. . who can I blame or punish for the crappy state I'm in. just before we swing that paddle. we bellow.

cultural diversity. For example. a study of organizational behavior at the individual level of analysis might focus on the impact of different types of overhead lighting on such factors as productivity and absenteeism. organizational behavior involves the study of learning. organizational behavior draws upon anthropology . organizational behavior involves the study of group dynamics. MULTIPLE LEVELS OF ANALYSIS One of the main reasons for this interdisciplinary approach is because the field of organizational behavior involves multiple levels of analysis. Other topics of interest in the field of organizational behavior include the extent to which theories of behavior are culturally bound. Organization Level of Analysis . At this level of analysis.and intergroup conflict and cohesion. It also looks to scientific fields such as ergonomics. The different levels of analysis used in the field of organizational behavior are: the individual level. inter-organizational cooperation and conflict. technology. engineering. organizational behavior draws heavily upon psychology. networks. and the organizational level. At this level of analysis. and psychometrics. power. Organizational behavior is a relatively new field of study that draws most heavily from the psychological and sociological sciences. At the organization level of analysis. Organizational behavior is an interdisciplinary field dedicated to understanding individual and group behavior. organizational behavior involves the study of topics such as organizational culture. creativity. organizational behavior draws upon the sociological and socio-psychological sciences. and external environmental forces. task performance. as well as how individuals behave in groups. Group Level of Analysis . turnover. Individual Level of Analysis . These different levels of analysis are necessary for understanding individual behavior within organizations because people always act within the context of their environment. deviant behavior. self-management and self-leadership. ethics. cooperative behavior. intra. motivation. the group level. change. At this level of analysis. and medicine. statistics. leadership. interpersonal processes. and cognition. personality.Organizational Behavior Organizational behavior is the study of individual behavior in an organizational setting. For example. Workers influence their environment and are also influenced by their environment. This includes the study of how individuals behave alone. a study of how different personality types correspond to different leadership styles and levels of results operates at the group level of analysis. and organizational dynamics. unethical decision-making. norms. and roles. interpersonal communication. The purpose of organizational behavior is to gain a greater understanding of those factors that influence individual and group dynamics in an organizational setting so that individuals and the groups and organizations to which they belong may become more efficient and effective. At the individual level of analysis. making the study of organizational behavior a multi-level endeavor. perception. which includes both objects and other people. and work/family conflict. organizational structure. At the group level of analysis.

Examples of these personality traits include a tendency toward . and evaluated TRENDS A number of important trends in the study of organizational behavior are the focus of research efforts.and political science. For example. and performance. cooperative or deviant behavior. and more autonomous work designs. increased supervisory span of control. All of these factors serve to increase the role that personality plays as a determinant of outcomes such as stress. and personal initiative are also the subject of research. First. The various studies on organizational cultures. train. As one author has written. and retain employees in a fashion that yields maximum benefit for the individual employee as well as for the organization. while empowerment has largely been investigated as an individual-level motivation construct. Another research trend is an increasing focus on personality as a factor in individual. Similar research has focused on elevating the level of analysis for personality characteristics and cooperative behavior from the individual level to the group level. researchers have begun to study team empowerment as a means of understanding differences in group performance. and computer-aided instruction  Positive and negative side effects of management interventions  Systems analysis of the way in which work gets done. Personality traits that are related to flexibility. measured. and health  Evaluation of employee satisfaction and feedback systems  Use of monetary and nonmonetary incentives  Development of self-management procedures  Programmed instruction. ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR MANAGEMENT Much of organizational behavior research is ultimately aimed at providing human resource management professionals with the information and tools they need to select.and group- level performance. Organizational behavior management utilizes studies of organizational behavior as a tool to improve productivity and profit. from William Ouchi's classic Theory Z: How American Business Can Meet the Japanese Challenge (1981) to the more recent Organizational Culture and Leadership (2004) are examples of organizational behavior conducted at the organization level of analysis. stress. a variety of research studies have examined topics at the group level of analysis rather than exclusively at the individual level of analysis. behavioral modeling. This goes beyond simply understanding the general principles of human behavior in the organizational context and focuses on such specific issues as:  Employee safety. This stems from the movement toward more organic organization designs. stress hardiness. There is an attempt to develop scientific principles that improve employee performance. “People are an organization's most important assets!” The study of organizational behavior is an attempt to maximize the effectiveness of this asset.

and proactive socialization.m. constructive change-oriented communication. or https://en. Organizational behavior is a central concern of human resource managers.individualism or collectivism. and a proactive personality.wikibooks. Bibliography: https://relivingmbadays. taking . group. These forms of behavior are proactive in nature and act to improve situations for the individual.wordpress. Examples of these behaviors include issue selling. Research at all levels of organizational behavior continues to be an active field in both academia and management. openness to experience. Forms of behavior that are constructive and change-oriented in nature are also studied. A wide variety of issues and concerns are the focus of on-going studies and management techniques. innovation. self-monitoring.