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By Authority Of


Legally Binding Document
By the Authority Vested By Part 5 of the United States Code 552(a) and
Part 1 of the Code of Regulations 51 the attached document has been duly
INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE and shall be considered legally
binding upon all citizens and residents of the United States of America.
HEED THIS NOTICE: Criminal penalties may apply for noncompliance.

Document Name: ACI: Manual of Concrete Practice, Part 1

CFR Section(s): 24 CFR 200, Subpart S

Standards Body: American Concrete Institute

Official Incorporator:
P T 1-1980

Part 1 contains current committee reports and

standards concerned with:
Materials and General Properties of Concrete

New editions of each part of the ACI Manual of

Concrete Practice are issued annually and include
the latest ACI standards and committee reports.

amel'iCaD cODcl'eie iDstitute

P.O. Box 19150, Redford Station
Detroit, Michigan 48219

The reports and standards herein are reprints of copyrighted material.

All rights reserved including rights of reproduction and use in any form or by any means, including
the making of copies by any photo process, or by any electronic or mechanical device, printed or
written or oral, or recording for sound or visual reproduction or for use in any knowledge or retri'eval
system or device, unless permission in writing is obtained from the copyright proprietors,

The reports and standards herein were the latest approved versions at the time the contents of this
edition were established, The content of each report or standard is subject to periodic review and
to revision whenever the developments in concrete design and construction warrant a change. Since
this is a continuing process, some reports or standards in this volume may have been superseded
in the interim since publication. Inquiries concerning revisions or additional material in a subject area.
are welcome and should be directed to Institute headquarters.

Most standards and committee reports contained in this volume are also available as separate booklets
from ACI headquarters. Prices supplied on request.

The American Concrete Institute publishes material on all phases of concrete technology. Much of
the material can provide additional or background information on the reports and standards in this
volume. A catalog is available.

Printed in the United States of America

ISSN 0065-7875
Materials and General Properties of Concrete

116-1 Cement and Concrete Terminology-ACI 116R-78

201-1 Guide to Durable Concrete-ACI 201.2R-77

201-39 Guide for Making a Condition Survey of Concrete in Service-
ACI 201.1 R-68

207-1 Mass Concrete for Dams and Other Massive Structures-ACI 207.1 R-70

207-39 Effect of Restraint, Volume Change, and Reinforcement on Cracking of
Massive Concrete-ACI 207.2R-73

207-65 Practices for Evaluation of Concrete in Existing Massive Structures for
Service Conditions-ACI 207.3R-79

210-1 Erosion Resistance of Concrete in Hydraulic Structures-ACI 210R-55

211-1 Recommended Practice for Selecting Proportions for Normal and Heavy-
weight Concrete (ACI 211.1-77)

Vi 211-21 Recommended Practice for Selecting Proportions for Structural Lightweight

Concrete (ACI 211.2-69) (Revised 1977) ,----

211-41 Recommended Practice for Selecting Proportions for No-Slump Concrete
(ACI 211.3-75)

X 212-1 Guide for Use of Admixtures in Concrete-ACI 212.2R-71


X 212-33

Admixtures for Concrete-ACI 212.1 R-63

Guide for Structural Lightweight Aggregate Concrete-ACI 213R-79


Recommended Practice for Evaluation of Strength Test Results of Con-
crete (ACI 214-77)

215-1 Considerations for Design of Concrete Structures Subjected to Fatigue

Loading-ACI 215R-74


Selection and Use of Aggregates for Concrete-ACI 221 R-61

Recommended Practice for the Use of Shrinkage-Compensating Concrete

(ACI 223-77) ---~--.------.-

439-1 Steel Reinforcement-Properties and Availability-ACI 439.2R-77

S1 Index

53 Conversion Factors: U.S. Customary to SI Metric

is a nonprofit, nonpartisan organization of engineers, architects, scientists,
constructors, and individuals associated in their technical interest with the
field of concrete and dedicated to public service. The purpose of the Institute is
to further engineering and technical education, scientific investigation and
research, and development of standards for the design and construction of
concrete structures. Members of the Institute are involved in gathering,
correlating, and disseminating information for the improvement of the design,
construction, manufacture, use, and maintenance of concrete products and
structures. The Institute and its members also promote improved technology,
technical competence, and good design and construction practices.
Since 1905 the objectives of the Institute have been achieved by a
combined membership effort. Individually and through committees, and with
the cooperation of many public and private agencies, members have correlated
the results of research, from both field and laboratory, and of practices in
design, construction, and manufacture.
The work of the Institute is made available to the engineering profession
through seminars, workshops, chapter functions, and publications. The Insti-
tute publishes three periodicals: the ACI JOURNAL, Concrete Abstracts, and
Concrete International: Design & Construction. The Institute also has an
extensive non periodical publications program which includes committee re-
ports, standards, symposia, manuals, design handbooks, monographs, educa-
tion bulletins, bibliographies, and the ACI Manual of Concrete Practice.

Some of the most recent of these publications are:

SP-2 ACI Manual of Concrete Inspection
SP-17A(78) Design Handbook in Accordance with the Strength
Design Method of ACI 318-77: Volume 2-Columns
SP-61 Ferrocement-Materials and Applications
B-13 Concrete Core Tests
M-lO Concrete Box Girder Bridges
E2-78 Reinforcing Steel-Its Use and Benefits in Concrete

The ACI Manual of Concrete Practice is a five ing any committees not logically placed in other
part compilation of current ACI standards and subdivisions.
committee reports.
Part I-Materials and General Properties of ACI 104-71, Reaffirmed 1976 Preparation of Nota-
Concrete tion for Concrete, Part 3
Part 2-Construction Practices and In- ACI 116R-78 Cement and Concrete Terminology,
spection Part 1
Part 3-Use of Concrete in Buildings-
Design, Specifications, and Relat- 200-Materials and Properties of Concrete
ed Topics
Part 4-Bridges, Substructures, Sanitary, This group contains committees whose major
and Other Special Structures concern is materials in concrete and properties of
Structural Properties concrete.
Part 5-Masonry
Precast Concrete ACI 201.1R-68 Guide for Making a Condition
Special Processes Survey of Concrete in Service, Part 1
ACI 201.2R-77 Guide to Durable Concrete, Part 1
Some of the most important work of the Insti- ACI 207.1R-70 Mass Concrete for Dams and Other
tute is performed by its technical committees which Massive Structures, Part 1
prepare the committee reports and standards con- ACI 207.2R-73 Effect of Restraint, Volume Change,
tained in the Manual. Technical committees of the and Reinforcement on Cracking of Massive
Institute are organized into the following five Concrete, Part 1
groups with regard to their function: 100-Research ACI 207.3R-79 Practices for Evaluation of Concrete
and Administration, 200-Materials and Properties in Existing Massive Structures for Service
of Concrete, 300-Design and Construction, 400- Conditions, Part 1
Structural Analysis, and 500-Special Products and ACI 210R-55 Erosion Resistance of Concrete in
Special Processes. Committees are assigned a Hydraulic Structures, Part 1
number which indicates its group or general area of ACI 211.1-77 Recommended Practice for Selecting
responsibility. Proportions for Normal and Heavyweight Con-
Each standard of the Institute bears a hy- crete, Part 1
phenated number to identify it. The first three digits ACI 211.2-69, Revised 1977 Recommended
identify the committee orginating the standard and Practice for Selecting Proportions for Struc-
the last two digits identify the year it was adopted. tural Lightweight Concrete, Part 1
Thus standard ACI 214-77 was prepared by Com- ACI 211.3-75 Recommended Practice for Selecting
mittee 214 and was adopted as a standard in the Proportions for No-Slump Concrete, Part 1
year 1977. ACI 212.1R-63 Admixtures for Concrete, Part 1
Committee reports are also identified by a hy- ACI 212.2R-71 Guide for Use of Admixtures in
phenated number with the addition of an "R" to Concrete, Part 1
indicate a report rather than a standard. For com- ACI 213R-79 Guide for Structural Lightweight
mittee reports the last two digits refer either to the Aggregate Concrete, Part 1
year of original pUblication or in a few cases the year ACI 214-77 Recommended Practice for Evaluation
of adoption of a related standard. of Strength Test Results of Concrete, Parts 1
The following consolidated list contains the and 2
titles of all committee reports and standards found ACI 215R-74 Considerations for Design of Concrete
in the ACI Manual of Concrete Practice-1980. Re- Structures Subjected to Fatigue Loading,
ports and standards are listed numerically and the Part 1
location in the Manual follows the title. ACI 221R-61 Selection and Use of Aggregates for
Concrete, Part 1
100-Research and Administration ACI 223-77 Recommended Practice for the Use of
Shrinkage-Compensating Concrete, Part 1
This group contains all research and ad- ACI 224R-72 Control of Cracking in Concrete
ministrative committees governed by TAC includ- Structures (Synopsis only), Part 3
30D-Design and Construction Practices ACI 318-77 Building Code Requirements for Rein-
forced Concrete, Part 3
This group contains committees whose major ACI 318R-77 Commentary on Building Code Re-
concern is design and construction practices. quirements for Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318-
ACI 301-72, Revised 1975 Specifications for 77), Part 3
Structural Concrete for Buildings, Part 3 ACI 322-72 Building Code Requirements for Struc-
ACI 302-69 Recommended Practice for Concrete tural Plain Concrete, Part 3
Floor and Slab Construction, Part 3 ACI 325.1R-67 Design of Concrete Overlays for
ACI 303R-74 Guide to Cast-in-Place Architectural Pavements, Part 2
Concrete Practice, Part 3 ACI 325.2R-68 Proposed Design for Experimental
ACI 304-73, Reaffirmed 1978 Recommended Prestressed Pavement Slab, Part 2
Practice for Measuring, Mixing, Transporting, ACI 325.3R-68 Guide for Design of Foundations and
and Placing Concrete, Part 2 Shoulders for Concrete Pavements, Part 2
ACI 304.1R-69 Preplaced Aggregate Concrete for ACI 325.4R-72 A Design Procedure for Continu-
Structural and Mass Concrete, Part 2 ously Reinforced Concrete Pavements for
ACI 304.2R-71 Placing Concrete by Pumping Highways, Part 2
Methods, Part 2 ACI 334.1R-74 Concrete Shell Structures-Practice
ACI 304.3R-75 High Density Concrete: Measuring, and Commentary, Part 4
Mixing, Transporting, and Placing, Part 2 ACI 334.2R-77 Reinforced Concrete Cooling Tower
ACI 304.4R-75 Placing Concrete With Belt Con- Shells-Practice and Commentary, Part 4
veyors, Part 2 ACI 336.1-79 Standard Specification for the Con-
ACI 305R-77 Hot Weather Concreting, Part 2 struction of End Bearing Drilled Piers, Part 4
ACI 306R-78 Cold Weather Concreting, Part 2 ACI 336.2R-66 Suggested Design Procedures for
ACI 307-79 Specification for the Design and Con- Combined Footings and Mats, Part 4
struction of Reinforced Concrete Chimneys, ACI 336.3R-72 Suggested Design and Construction
Part 4 Procedures for Pier Foundations, Part 4
ACI 308-71, Reaffirmed 1978 Recommended ACI 340.1R-73 Design Handbook in Accordance
Practice for Curing Concrete, Part 2 with the Strength Design Method of ACI 318-
ACI 309-72, Reaffirmed 1978 Recommended 71, Volume 1 (Synopsis only), Parts 3 and 4
Practice for Consolidation of Concrete, Part 2 ACI 340.2R-78 Design Handbook in Accordance
ACI 311-75 Recommended Practice for Concrete with the Strength Design Method of ACI 318-
Inspection, Part 2 77, Volume 2 Columns (Synopsis only), Parts 3
ACI 311.1R-75 ACI Manual of Concrete Inspection and 4
(Synopsis only), Part 2 ACI 340.3R-77 Step-by-Step Design Procedures in
ACI 311.2R-63 Training Courses for Concrete In- Accordance with the Strength Design Method
spectors, Part 2 of ACI 318-71 (Synopsis only), Parts 3 and 4
ACI 311.3R-75 Guide for Certification of Nuclear ACI 340.4R-78 Slab Design in Accordance with ACI
Concrete Inspection and Testing Personnel, 318-77-Supplement to: Design Handbook on
Part 2 Accordance with the Strength Design Method
ACI 313-77 Recommended Practice for Design and (Synopsis only), Parts 3 and 4
Construction of Concrete Bins, Silos, and ACI 343R-77 Analysis and Design of Reinforced
Bunkers for Storing Granular Materials, Concrete Bridge Structures, Part 4
Part 4 ACI 344R-70 Design and Construction of Circular
ACI 313R-77 Commentary on Recommended Prestressed Concrete Structures, Part 4
Practice for Design and Construction of Con- ACI 345-74 Recommended Practice for Concrete
crete Bins, Silos, and Bunkers for Storing Highway Bridge Deck Construction, Part 2
Granular Materials (ACI 313-77), Part 4 ACI 346-70, Reaffirmed 1975 Specifications for
ACI 315-74, Revised 1978 Manual of Standard Cast-in-Place Nonreinforced Concrete Pipe,
Practice for Detailing Reinforced Concrete Part 2
Structures (Synopsis only), Parts 3 and 4 ACI 346R-70 Recommendations for Cast-in-Place
ACI 316-74, Revised 1975 Recommended Practice Nonreinforced Concrete Pipe, Part 2
for Construction of Concrete Pavements and ACI 347-78 Recommended Practice for Concrete
Concrete Bases, Part 2 Formwork, Part 2
ACI 347.1R-69 Precast Concrete Units Used as ACI 439.2R-77 Steel Reinforcement-Properties
Forms for Cast-in-Place Concrete, Part 2 and Availability, Part 1
SP-4 Formwork for Concrete (Synopsis only), Part 2 ACI 442R-71 Response of Buildings to Lateral
ACI 349-76 Code Requirements for Nuclear Safety Forces, Part 3
Related Concrete Structures, Part 4 ACI 444R-79 Models of Concrete Structures-State
ACI 349R-76 Commentary on Code Requirements of the Art, Part 4
for Nuclear Safety Related Concrete Struc-
tures, Part 4
ACI 350R-77 Concrete Sanitary Engineering Struc- SOo-Special Products and Special Processes
tures, Part 4
ACI 352R-76 Recommendations for Design of This group contains committees dealing with
Beam-Column Joints for Monolithic Concrete special products used with concrete or special pro-
Structures, Part 4 cessing of concrete.
ACI 357R-78 Guide for the Design and Construc- ACI 503.1-79 Standard Specification for Bonding
tion of Fixed Offshore Concrete Structures, Hardened Concrete, Steel, Wood, Brick, and
Part 4 Other Materials to Hardened Concrete with a
ACI 359-77 Code for Concrete Reactor Vessels and Multi-Component Epoxy Adhesive, Part 5
Containments (Synopsis only), Part 4 ACI 503.2-79 Standard Specification for Bonding
Plastic Concrete to Hardened Concrete with a
4OG-Structural Analysis Multi-Component Epoxy Adhesive, Part 5
ACI 503.3-79 Standard Specification for Producing
This group contains committees whose major a Skid Resistant Surface on Concrete by
concern is analysis of structures or analysis of the Use of a Multi-Component Epoxy System,
design practice. Part 5
ACI 408R-66 Bond Stress-The State of the Art ACI 503.4-79 Standard Specification for Repairing
(Synopsis only), Parts 3 and 4 Concrete with Epoxy Mortars, Part 5
ACI 423.1R-69 Tentative Recommendations for ACI 503R-73 Use of Epoxy Compounds with Con-
Concrete Members Prestressed With Un- crete, Part 5
bonded Tendons, Part 3 ACI 504R-77 Guide to Joint Sealants for Concrete
ACI 423.2R-74 Tentative Recommendations for Structures, Part 5
Prestressed Concrete Flat Plates, Part 3 ACI 506-66, Reaffirmed 1978 Recommended
ACI 426R-74 Shear Strength of Reinforced Con- Practice for Shotcreting, Part 5
crete Members, Part 3 ACI 506.2-77 Specification for Materials,
ACI 435.1R-63 Deflections of Prestressed Concrete Proportioning, and Application of Shotcrete,
Members, Part 4 Part 5
ACI 435.2R-66 Deflections of Reinforced Concrete ACI 512.1R-64 Suggested Design of Joints and
Flexural Members, Part 4 Connections in Precast Structural Concrete,
ACI 435.3R-68 Allowable Deflections, Part 3 Part 5
ACI 435.4R-72 Variability of Deflections of Simply ACI 512.2R-74 Precast Structural Concrete in
Supported Reinforced Concrete Beams, Part 4 Buildings, Part 5
ACI 435.5R-73 Deflections of Continuous Concrete ACI 515-66 Guide for the Protection of Concrete
Beams, Part 4 Against Chemical Attack by Means of Coat-
ACI 435.6R-74 Deflection of Two-Way Reinforced ings and Other Corrosion Resistant Materials,
Concrete Floor Systems: State of the Art, Part 5
Part 3 ACI 516R-65 High-Pressure Steam Curing: Modern
ACI 437R-67 Strength Evaluation of Existing Con- Practice, and Properties of Autoclaved Pro-
crete Buildings, Part 3 ducts, Part 5
ACI 438R-69 Tentative Recommendations for the ACI 517-70, Reaffirmed 1976 Recommended
Design of Reinforced Concrete Members to Practice for Atmospheric Pressure Steam
Resist Torsion (Synopsis Only), Parts 3 and 4 Curing of Concrete, Part 5
ACI 439.1R-73 Uses and Limitations of High ACI 517.1R-63 Low Pressure Steam Curing, Part 5
Strength Steel Reinforcement fy 2: 60 ksi (42.2 ACI 523.1R-67 Guide for Cast-in-Place Low Density
kgf/mm 2), Part 3 Concrete, Part 5
ACI 523.2R-68 Guide for Low Density Precast Con- ACI 533.2R-69 Selection and Use of Materials for
crete Floor, Roof, and Wall Units, Part 5 Precast Concrete Wall Panels, Part 5
ACI 523.3R-75 Guide for Cellular Concretes Above ACI 533.3R-70 Fabrication, Handling and Erection
50 pef, and for Aggregate Concretes Above 50 of Precast Concrete Wall Panels, Part 5
pef with Compressive Strengths Less Than ACI 533.4R-71 Design of Precast Concrete Wall
2500 psi, Part 5 Panels, Part 5
ACI 531-79 Building Code Requirements for Con- ACI 543R-74 Recommendations for Design, Manu-
crete Masonry Structures, Part 5 facture, and Installation of Concrete Piles,
ACI 531R-79 Commentary on Building Code Re- Part 4
quirements for Concrete Masonry Structures ACI 544.1R-73 State-of-the-Art Report on Fiber
(ACI 531-79), Part 5 Reinforced Concrete, Part 5
ACI 531.1-76 Specification for Concrete Masonry ACI 544.2R-78 Measurement of Properties of Fiber
Construction, Part 5 Reinforced Concrete, Part 5
ACI 533.1R-69 Quality Standards and Tests for ACI 548R-77 Polymers in Concrete (abstract),
Precast Concrete Wall Panels, Part 5 Part 5
ACI Committee Reports, Guides, Standard Practices, and Com- AC1116R-78
mentaries are intended for guidance in designing, planning, executing,
or inspecting construction, and in preparing specifications. Reference
to these documents shall not be made in the Project Documents. If
items found in these documents are desired to be part of the Project
Documents, they should be incorporated directly into the Project

Cement and Concrete Terminology

Reported by ACI Committee 116

Arsham Amirikian W. Kinniburgh William E. Parker

K. H. Brittain Donald W. Lewis Walter H. Price
Lloyd T. Cheney S. T. Li Herman B. Protze
R. H. Clore James R. Libby Allen B. Radcliffe, Jr.
William A. Cordon William R. Lorman Gajanan M. Sabnis
Vance H. Dodson Bryant Mather James L. Sawyer
Richard J. Doermann W. J. McCoy D. R. Sharp
A. Ernest Fisher, III Richard C. Mielenz Joseph J. Shideler
Richard D. Gaynor Aron L. Mirsky Don L. Spellman
K. F. Gibbe, Austin H. Morgan, Jr. Irwin J. Speyer
H. L. Isabelle R. G. Morris Lewis H. Tuthill
Robert D. Johnson Frank P. Nichols, Jr. William J. Wilhelm

The first edition of the ACI glossary was the result of ten years of work by
Committee 116. The second edition, which is based on the first edition, is the
product of approximately six years of effort.
For the drafting of the second edition, the committee membership was
divided into eight task groups, each of which was responsible for the prepara-
tion of an individual section. These sections were subsequently combined to
form a base document for study and comment by the full committee. The
comments resulting from this and other reviews, both within and without the
committee, were considered by an Editorial Subcommittee composed of J. J.
Shideler (Chairman), R. D. Gaynor, J. R. libby, Bryant Mather, and R. C.
Committee 116 recognizes that despite meticulous attention to detail, the
listing may not be complete and that some definitions may be at variance with
some commonly accepted meanings. Users of the glossary are invited to
submit suggestions for changes and additions to ACI Headquarters for con-
sideration in preparing for future editions.
The Committee is aware that some of the definitions included may seem
entirely self-evident to an expert in the concrete field. This occurs because no
term has been discarded if there was reason to believe it would appear to be
technical in nature to a casual reader of the ACI literature.
The invaluable contributions of the past-chairmen of Committee 116, R. C.
Mielenz, D. L. Bloem, W. H. Price, and R. E. Davis, Jr., and of Bryant Mather as
past-chairman of the Editorial Subcommittee, are gratefully acknowledged.

Copyright 1978, American Concrete Institute device, printed or written or oral, or recording for sound or visual reproduction or fo~ use
~ll rig~t.s reserved)ncluding rights of reproduction and use in any form or by any me~ns in any knowledge retrieval system or device, unless permission in writing is obtamed
IncludIng the making of COpIes by any photo process, or by any electronic or mechamcai from the copyright proprietors.


A Adhesives-The group of materials used to join or bond

similar or dissimilar materials; for example, in concrete
Abrams' law-A rule stating that with given concrete work, the epoxy resins.
materials and conditions of test the ratio of the amount of Adiabatic-A condition in which heat neither enters nor
water to the amount of the cement in the mixture deter- leaves a system.
mines the strength of the concrete provided the mixture Adiabatic curing-The maintenance of adiabatic condi-
is of a workable consistency. (See also Water-cement tions in concrete or mortar during the curing period.
ratio.) Adjustment screw-A leveling device or jack composed of
/Abrasion resistance-Ability of a surface to resist being a threaded screw and an adjusting handle used for the
worn away byrub-hlng and friction. vertical adjustment of shoring and formwork.
Absolute specific gravity-Ratio of the mass of a given v1\dmixtu~~-A material other than water, aggregates,
volume of a solid or liquid, referred to a vacuum, at a and hydraulic cement, used as an ingredient of concrete
stated temperature to the mass, referred to a vacuum, of or mortar, and added to the concrete immediately before
an equal volume of gas-free distilled water at a stated or during its mixing.
temperature. (See also Specific gravity.) Adobe-Unburnt brick dried in the sun.
Absolute volume (of ingredients of concrete or Adsorbed water-Water held on surfaces of a material by
mortar)-The displacement volume of an ingredient of electrochemical forces and having physical properties
concrete or mortar; in the case of solids, the volume of the substantially different from those of absorbed water or
particles themselves, including their permeable and im- chemically combined water at the same temperature and
permeable voids but excluding space between particles; pressure. (See also Adsorption.)
in the case of fluids, the cubic content which they occupy. Adsorption-Development at the surface of a liquid or
Absorbed moisture-Moisture that has entered a solid solid of a higher concentration of a substance than exists
material by absorption and has physical properties not in the bulk of the medium; especially formation of one or
substantially different from ordinary water at the same more layers of molecules of gases, of dissolved sub-
temperature and pressure. (See also Absorption.) stances, or of liquids at the surface of a solid, such as
cement, cement paste, or aggregate, or of air-entraining
Absorption-The process by which a liquid is drawn into
agents at the air-water interfaces; also the process by
and tends to fill permeable pores in a porous solid body;
which a substance is adsorbed. (See also Adsorbed
also the increase in weight of a porous solid body result-
ing from the penetration of a liquid into its permeable Advancing slope grouting-A method of grouting by
pores. (See also Absorbed moisture.)
which the front of a mass of grout is caused to move
Abutment-In bridges, the end structure (usually of con- horizontally through preplaced aggregate by use of a
crete) which supports the beams, girders, and deck of the suitable grout injection sequence.
bridge, or combinations thereof, and sometimes retains Advancing slope method-A method of placing concrete
the earthen bank, or supports the end of the approach as in tunnel linings in which the face of the fresh concrete
pavement slab; in prestressing, the structure against is not vertical and moves forward as concrete is placed.
which the tendons are stressed in producing preten- Aerated concrete-See Cellular concrete.
sioned precast members or post-tensioned pavement; in A/F ratio-The molar or weight ratio of aluminum oxide
dams, the side of the gorge or bank of the stream against (AI"O,) to iron oxide (Fe"O,), as in portland cement.
which a dam abuts. Afwillite-A mineral with composition 3CaO 2SiO"
Acceleration-Increase in velocity or in rate of change, 3H"O occurring naturally in South Africa, Northern Ire-
especially the quickening of the natural progress of a land, and California, and artificially in some hydrated
process, such as hardening, setting, or strength develop- portland cement mixtures.
ment of concrete. (See also Accelerator.) Agglomeration-Gathering into a ball or mass.
Accelerator-A substance which, when added to concrete, Aggregate-Granular material, such as sand, gravel,
mortar, or grout, increases the rate of hydration of the crushed stone, and iron blast-furnace slag, used with a
hydraulic cement, shortens the time of setting, or in- cementing medium to form a hydraulic-cement, concrete
creases the rate of hardening of strength development, or or mortar. (See also Aggregate, heavyweight and Ag-
both. (See also Acceleration.) gregate, lightweight.)
Accessories-Those items other than frames, braces, or Aggregate, coarse-See Coarse aggregate.
post shores used to facilitate the construction of scaffold Aggregate, fine-See Fine aggregate.
and shoring. Aggregate, gap-graded-See Gap-graded aggregate.
Accidental air-See Entrapped air. Aggregate, heavyweight-Aggregate of high specific
Acrylic resin-One of a group of thermoplastic resins gravity such as barite, magnetite, limonite, ilmenite,
formed by polymerizing the esters or ami des of acrylic iron, or steel used to produce heavy concrete.
acid; used in concrete construction as a bonding agent or Aggregate, lightweight-Aggregate of low specific
surface sealer. gravity, such as expanded or sintered clay, shale, slate,
Addition-A material that is interground or blended in diatomaceous shale, perlite, vermiculite, or slag; natural
limited amounts into a hydraulic cement during manu- pumice, scoria, volcanic cinders, tuff, and diatomite; sin-
facture either as a "processing addition" to aid in man- tered fly ash or industrial cinders; used to produce light-
ufacturing and handling the cement or as a "functional weight concrete.
addition" to modify the use properties of the finished prod- Aggregate, maximum size-See Maximum size of
uct. aggregate.
Additive-A term frequently (but improperly) used as a Aggregate, nominal maximum size-See Nominal
synonym for addition or admixture. maximum size of aggregate.

Aggregate blending-The process of intermixing two or Amo

more aggregates to produce a different set of properties;
generally, but not exclusively, to improve grading. size fractions of ground materials pneumatically; fine
Aggregate-cement ratio-See Cement-aggregate ra- particles are discharged as product; oversize is returned
tio. to the mill as tailing.
Aggregate gradation-See Grading. Air void-A space in cement paste, mortar, or concrete
Aggregate interlock-The projection of aggregate parti- filled with air; an entrapped air void is characteristically
cles or portions of aggregate particles from one side of a 1 mm or more in size and irregular in shape; an entrained
joint or crack in concrete into recesses in the other side of air void is typically between 10 and 1000[Lm in diameter
suchjoint or crack so as to effect load transfer in compres- and spherical or nearly so.
sion and shear, and maintain mutual alignment. Air-water jet-A high-velocity jet of air and water mixed
Agitating speed-The rate of rotation of the drum or at the nozzle, used in clean-up of surfaces of rock or
blades of a truck mixer or other device when used for concrete such as horizontal construction joints.
agitation of mixed concrete. Alabaster-A massive densely crystalline, softly textured
Agitating truck-A vehicle carrying a drum in which form of practically pure gypsum.
freshly mixed concrete can be conveyed from the point of Alignment wire-See Ground wire.
mixing to that of placing, the drum being rotated con- Alite-A name used by Tornebohm (1897) to identify
tinuously so as to agitate the contents; designated tricalcium silicate including small amounts of MgO,
"agitating lorry" in United Kingdom. A1 2 0:l> Fe 2 0:;, and other oxides; a principal constituent
Agitation- of portland-cement clinker. (See also Belite, Celite,
1. The process of providing gentle motion in mixed and Felite.)
concrete just sufficient to prevent segregation or loss of Alkali--Salts of alkali metals, principally sodium and
plasticity. potassium; specifically sodium and potassium occurring
2. The mixing and homogenization of slurries or finely in constituents of concrete or mortar, usually expressed
ground powders by air or mechanical means. in chemical analyses as the oxides NazO and K 2 0. (See
See also Agitator. also Cement, low alkali.)
Agitator-A device for maintaining plasticity and pre- Alkali-aggregate reaction-Chemical reaction in mortar
venting segregation of mixed concrete by agitation. (See or concrete between alkalies (sodium and potassium)
also Agitation.) from portland cement or other sources and certain con-
Air, entrained-See Entrained air. stituents of some aggregates; under certain conditions,
Air blow pipe-Air jet used in shotcrete gunning to re- deleterious expansion of the concrete or mortar may re-
move rebound or other loose material from the work area. sult.
Air-blown mortar-See Shotcrete. Alkali-carbonate rock reaction-The reaction between
Air content-The volume of air voids in cement paste, the alkalies (sodium and potassium) in portland cement
mortar, or concrete, exclusive of pore space in aggregate and certain carbonate rocks, particularly calcitic dol-
particles, usually expressed as a percentage of total vol- omite and dolomitic limestones, present in some aggre-
ume of the paste, mortar, or concrete. gates; the products of the reaction may cause abnormal
Air-cooled blast-furnace slag-See Blast-furnace slag. expansion and cracking of concrete in service.
Air-entraining-The capability of a material or process to Alkali reactivity (of aggregate)--Susceptibility of
develop a system of minute bubbles of air in cement aggregate to alkali-aggregate reaction.
paste, mortar, or concrete during mixing. (See also Air Alkali-silica reaction-The reaction between the alkalies
entrainment.) (sodium and potassium) in portland cement and certain
Air entraiuing_ag.ent-An addition for hydraulic cement siliceous rocks or minerals, such as opaline chert and
or an admixture for Zoncret;-;;~-;;;'ortar which causes acidic volcanic glass, present in some aggregates; the
entrained air to be-i~~~rporated in the concrete or mortar products of the reaction may cause abnormal expansion
during mixing, usually to increase its workability and, and cracking of concrete in service.
frost resistance. (See also Entrained air.) :SVhC_'! Ioc-,bb\p.$,Alkyl aryl sulfonate--Synthetic detergent from petro-
Air-entraining hydraulic cement-Hydraulic cement leum fractions.
containing an air-entraining addition in such amount as Allowable load-The ultimate load divided by factor of
to cause the product to entrain air in mortar within safety.
specified limits. Allowable stress-Maximum permissible stress used in
Air entrainment-The occlusion of air in the form of mi- design of members of a structure and based on a factor of
----nute.bubbTes-(generally smaller than 1 mm) during the safety against rupture or yielding of any type.
mixing of concrete or mortar. (See also Air entraining Alternate lane construction-A method of constructing
and Entrained air.) concrete roads, runways, or other paved areas, in which
Air lift-Equipment whereby slurry or dry powder is lifted alternate lanes are placed and allowed to harden before
through pipes by means of compressed air. the remaining intermediate lanes are placed.
Air meter-A device for measuring the air content of con- Alumina-Aluminum oxide (A1 2 0:J
crete and mortar. Aluminate cement-See Calcium-aluminate cement.
Air permeability test-A procedure for measuring the Aluminate concrete-Concrete made with calcium-
fineness of powdered materials such as portland cement. aluminate cement; used primarily where high-early-
Air ring-Perforated manifold in nozzle of wet-mix shot- strength or refractory or corrosion-resistant concrete is
crete equipment through which high pressure air is in- required.
troduced into the material flow. Amount of mixing-The designation of extent of mixer
Air separator-An upright cylindrical-conical apparatus, action employed in combining the ingredients for con-
with internal rotating blades, which separates various crete or mortar; in the case of stationary mixers, the

Amp placing, and finishing to obtain the desired architectural

mixing time; in the case of truck mixers, the number of appearance.
revolutions of the drum or blades at mixing speed after Arc spectrography-Spectographic identification of
the intermingling of the cement with water and aggre- elements in a sample of material, heated to volatilization
gates. (See also Mixing time.) in an electric arc or spark.
Amplitude-The maximum displacement from the mean Area of steel-The cross-sectional area of the reinforcing
position in connection with vibration. bars in or for a given concrete cross-section. (See also
Anchor-In prestressed concrete, to lock the stressed ten- Effective area of reinforcement.)
don in position so that it will retain its stressed condition; Arenaceous-Composed primarily of sand; sandy.
in precast concrete construction, to attach the precast
Argillaceous-Composed primarily of clay or shale;
units to the building frame; in slabs on grade or walls, to
fasten to rock or adjacent structures to prevent move-
ment of the slab or wall with respect to the foundation, Arrissing tool-A tool similar to a float, but having a form
adjacent structure or rock. (See also Form anchor.) suitable for rounding an edge of freshly placed concrete.
Anchor bolt-A metal bolt or stud, headed or threaded, Asbestos-cement products-Products made from rigid
either cast in place, grouted in place, or drilled into material composed essentially of asbestos fiber and port-
finished concrete, used to hold various structural mem- land cement, used in a wide range offorms in the building
bers or embedments in the concrete, and to resist shear, industry.
tension, and vibration loadings from various sources Ashlar-Masonry composed of squared stones; one pattern
such as wind, machine vibration, etc.; known also as a of masonry construction.
Hold-down bolt or a Foundation bolt. Asphalt concrete-See Concrete, asphalt.
Anchorage-In post-tensioning, a device used to anchor Atmospheric-pressure steam curing-Steam curing of
the tendon to the concrete member; in pretensioning, a concrete products or cement at atmospheric pressure,
device used to anchor the tendon during hardening ofthe usually at maximum ambient temperature between
concrete; in precast concrete construction, the devices for 100-200 F (40-95 C).
attaching precast units to the building frame; in slab or Atterberg limits-Arbitrary water contents (shrinkage
wall construction, the device used to anchor the slab or limit, plastic limit, liquid limit) determined by standard
wall to the foundation, rock, or adjacent structure. tests, which define the boundaries between the different
Anchorage bond stress-The bar forces divided by the states of consistency of plastic soils.
product of the bar perimeter or perimeters and the em- Atterberg test-A method for determining the plasticity
bedment length. of soils.
Anchorage deformation or slip-The loss of elongation Autoclave-A pressure vessel in which an environment of
or stress in the tendons of prestressed concrete due to the steam at high pressure may be produced; used in the
deformation of the anchorage or slippage of the tendons curing of concrete products and in the testing of hy-
in the anchorage device when the prestressing force is draulic cement.
transferred from the jack to the anchorage device. Autoclave curing-Steam curing of concrete products,
Anchorage device-See Anchorage. sand-lime brick, asbestos-cement products, hydrous cal-
Anchorage loss-See Anchorage deformation or slip. cium silicate insulation products, or cement in an auto-
Anchorage zone-In post-tensioning, the region adjacent clave at maximum ambient temperatures generally be-
to the anchorage subjected to secondary stresses result- tween 340-420 F (170-215 C).
ing from the distribution of the prestressing force; in pre- Autoclave cycle-The time interval between the start of
tensioning, the region in which the transfer bond the temperature-rise period and the end ofthe blowdown
stresses are developed. period; also, a schedule of the time and temperature-
Angle float-A finishing tool having a surface bent to pressure conditions of periods which make up the cycle.
form a right angle; used to finish re-entrant angles. Autoclaved-See Autoclave curing.
Angle of repose-The angle between the horizontal and Autoclaving-See Autoclave curing.
the natural slope of loose material below which the mate- Autogenous healing-A natural process of closing and
rial will not slide. filling of cracks in concrete or mortar when the concrete
Angular aggregate-Aggregate, the particles of which or mortar is kept damp.
possess well-defined edges formed at the intersection of Autogenous volume change-Change in volume pro-
roughly planar faces. duced by continued hydration of cement exclusive of ef-
Anhydrite-A mineral, anhydrous calcium sulfate fects of external forces or change of water content or
(CaS04); gypsum from which the water of crystallization temperature.
has been removed, usually by heating above 325 F Automatic batcher-See Batcher.
(160 C); natural anhydrite is less reactive than that ob- Auxiliary reinforcement-In a prestressed member, any
tained by calcination of gypsum. reinforcement in addition to that participating in the
Apparent specific gravity-See Specific gravity. prestressing function.
Architect-Engineer or Engineer-Architect-The ar- Average bond stress-The force in a bar divided by the
chitect, engineer, architectural firm, engineering firm, product of its perimeter and its embedded length.
or architectural and engineering firm, issuing project Axle load-The portion of the gross weight of a vehicle
drawings and specifications, or administering the work transmitted to a structure or a roadway through wheels
under contract specifications and drawings, or both. supporting a given axle.
Architectural concrete-Concrete which will be perma- Axle steel-Steel from carbon-steel axles for railroad cars.
nently exposed to view and which therefore requires spe- Axle steel reinforcement-Plain or deformed reinforcing
cial care in selection of the concrete materials, forming, bars rolled from axle steel.

B Bat
Barrel-vault roof-A thin concrete roof taking the form of
b/b,,-See Coarse aggregate factor. a part of a cylinder.
Backfill concrete-Non-structural concrete used to cor- Base-A subfloor slab or "working mat," either previously
rect over-excavation, or fill excavated pockets in rock, or placed and hardened or freshly placed, on which floor
to prepare a surface to receive structural concrete. topping is placed in a later operation; also the underlying
Back form-See Top form. stratum on which a concrete slab, such as a pavement, is
Back plastering-Plaster applied to one face of a lath placed. (See also Subbase.)
system following application and subsequent hardening Base bead-See Base screed.
of plaster applied to the opposite face. Base coat-Any plaster coat or coats applied prior to ap-
Back stay-See Brace. plication of the finished coat.
Bacterial corrosion-The destruction of a material by Base course-A layer of specified selected material of
chemical processes brought about by the activity of cer- planned thickness constructed on the subgrade or sub-
tain bacteria which may produce substances such as hy- base of a pavement to serve one or more functions such as
drogen sulfide, ammonia, and sulfuric acid. distributing loads, providing drainage, or minimizing
Bag (of cement; also Sack)-A quantity of portland ce- frost action; also the lowest course of masonry in a wall or
ment: 941b in the United States, and 50 kg in most other pier.
countries; for other kinds of cement a quantity indicated Base plate-A plate of metal or other approved material
on the bag (obsolete). formerly placed under pavement joints and the adjacent
Balanced load-Load capacity at simultaneous crushing slab ends to prevent the infiltration of soil and moisture
of concrete and yielding of tension steel. from the sides or bottom of the joint opening; also a device
Balanced moment-Moment capacity at simultaneous used to distribute vertical loads as for building columns
crushing of concrete and yielding of tension steel. or machinery.
Balanced reinforcement-An amount and distribution Base screed-A preformed metal screed with perforated
of reinforcement in a flexural member such that in work- or expanded flanges to provide a ground for plaster and to
ing stress design the allowable tensile stress in the steel separate areas of dissimilar materials.
and the allowable compressive stress in the concrete are Basket--See Load-transfer assembly.
attained simultaneously; or such that in strength design Bassanite-Calcium sulfate hemihydrate, 2CaS04' H 2 0.
the tensile reinforcement reaches its specified yield (See also Hemihydrate and Plaster of Paris.)
strength simultaneously with the concrete in compres- Bat-A broken, burned brick or shape.
sion reaching its assumed ultimate strain of 0.003. ~-Quantity of concrete or mortar mixed at one time.
Ball mill-Horizontal, cylindrical, rotating mill charged Batch box-Container of known volume used to measure
with large grinding media. constituents of a batch of concrete or mortar in proper
Ball test-A test to determine the consistency of freshly proportions.
mixed concrete by measuring the depth of penetration of Batch mixer-A machine which mixes batches of concrete
a cylindrical metal weight with a hemispherical bottom. or mortar in contrast to a continuous mixer.
Band-Small bars or wire encircling the main reinforce- Batch pl.!!Jl1..-An operating installation of equipment in-
ment in a member to form a peripheral tie; group of bars cluding batchers and mixers as required for batching or
distributed in a slab, or wall, or footing. for batching and mixing concrete materials; also called
Band iron-Thin metal strap used as form tie, hanger, etc. mixing plant when mixing equipment is included.
Bar-A member used to reinforce concrete. Ba~h...~~Jgh!!>:::-The weights of the various materials
Bar bender-A tradesman who cuts and bends steel rein- (cement, water, the several sizes of aggregate, and ad-
forcement; or a machine for bending reinforcement. mixtures if used) of which a batch of concrete is com-
Bar chair-An individual supporting device used to sup- posed.
port or hold reinforcing bars in proper position to prevent ~1!.e.d-wateJ:=--The mixing water added by a batcher to a
displacement before or during concreting. concrete or mortar mixture before or during the initial
Bar, deformed-See Deformed bar. stages of mixing.
Bar mat-An assembly of steel reinforcement composed of Batcher-A device for measuring ingredients for a batch
two or more layers of bars placed at angles to each other o(concrete.
and secured together by welding or ties. 1. Manual hat.~her-A batcher equipped with gates
Bar spacing-The distance between parallel reinforcing or valves which are-~perated manually, with or without
bars, measured center to center of the bars perpendicular supplementary power from pneumatic, hydraulic, or
to their longitudinal axes. electrical machinery, the accuracy of the weighing oper-
Bar support-A rigid device used to support or hold rein- ation being dependent on the operator's observation of
forcing bars in proper position to prevent displacement the scale.
before or during concreting. 2. Semiautomatic batcher-A batcher equipped
Barite-A mineral, barium sulfate (BaS04), used in pure with gates or valves whicKareseparately opened manu-
or impure form as concrete aggregate primarily for the ally to allow the material to be weighed but which are
construction of high-density radiation shielding con- closed automatically when the designated weight of each
crete; designated "barytes" in United Kingdom. material has been reached.
Barrage-A low dam erected to control the level of a 3. Automatic batcher-A batcher equipped with
stream. gates'C;i~-aT~es-which, Wneh actuated by a single starter
Barrel (of cement}-A quantity of portland cement; 376 switch, will open automatically at the start of the weigh-
Ib (4 bags) in the United States (obsolete); also wood or ing operation of each material and close automatically
metal container formerly used for shipping cement. when the designated weight of each material has been

Bat to it by a pile, pier, caisson, or similar deep foundation

reached, interlocked in such a manner that: (a) the charg- unit.
ing mechanism cannot be opened until the scale has Belite-A name used by Tornebohm (1897) to identify one
returned to zero; (b) the charging mechanism cannot be form of the constituent of portland cement clinker now
opened if the discharge mechanism is open; (c) the dis- known when pure as dicalcium silicate (2CaO Si02 ).
charge mechanism cannot be opened if the charging (See also Allte, Celite and Felite.)
mechanism is open; (d) the discharge mechanism cannot Bench-See Pretensioning bed.
be opened until the designated weight has been reached Bending moment-The bending effect at any section of a
within the allowable tolerance; and (e) if different kinds structural element; it is equal to the algebraic sum of all
of aggregates or different kinds of cements are weighed moments to the right or left of the section.
cumulatively in a single batcher, interlocked sequential Bending moment diagram-A graphical representation
, controls are provided. of the variation of bending moment along the length of
J- -Batching-Weighing
or volumetrically measuring and in- the member for a given stationary system of loads.
troducing into the mixer the ingredients for a batch of Bending schedule-A list of reinforcement prepared by
concrete or mortar. the designer or detailer of a reinforced concrete struc-
Batten (also Batten strip)-A narrow strip of wood placed ture, showing the shapes and dimensions of every bar
over the vertical joint of sheathing or paneling, or used to and the number of bars required.
hold several boards together. (See also Cleat.) Beneficiation-Improvement of the chemical or physical
Batter-Inclination from the vertical or horizontaL properties of a raw material or intermediate product by
Batter boards-Pairs of horizontal boards nailed to wood the removal of undesirable components or impurities.
stakes adjoining an excavation, used as a guide to eleva- Bent-Two-dimensional frame which is self-supporting
tions and to outline the building. within these dimensions, having at least two legs and
Batter pile-A pile which is installed at an angle to the usually placed at right angles to the length of the struc-
vertical; a raking pile. ture which it supports.
Bauxite-A rock composed principally of hydrous Bent bar-A reinforcing bar bent to a prescribed shape
aluminum oxides; the principal ore of aluminum, and a such as a truss bar, straight bar with hook, stirrup, or
raw material for manufacture of calcium aluminate column tie.
cement. Bentonite-A clay composed principally of minerals of the
Bay-The space between two adjacent piers or mullions or montmorillonoid group, characterized by high adsorp-
between two adjacent lines of columns; a small, well- tion and very large volume change with wetting or dry-
defined area of concrete laid at one time in the course of ing.
placing large areas such as floors, pavements, or run- Berliner-A type ofterrazzo topping using small and large
ways. pieces of marble paving, usually with a standard terrazzo
Beam-A structural member subjected primarily to flex- matrix between pieces.
ure; also the gradated horizontal bar of a weighing Billet steel-Steel, either reduced directly from ingots or
scale on which the balancing poises ride. (See also Gir- continuously cast, made from properly identified heats of
der, Girt, Joist, Ledger, Purlil' , Spandrel beam, open-hearth, basic oxygen, or electric furnace steel, or
and Stringer.) lots of acid Bessemer steel and conforming to specified
Beam-and-slab floor-A reinforced concrete floor system limits on chemical composition.
in which the floor slab is supported by beams of rein- Binders-Cementing materials, either hydrated cements
forced concrete. or products of cement or lime and reactive siliceous mate-
Beam bottom-Soffit or bottom form for a beam. rials; the kinds of cement and curing conditions govern
Beam clamp-Any of various types of tying or fastening the general kind of binder formed; also materials such as
units used to hold the sides of beam forms. asphalt, resins, and other materials forming the matrix
Beam-column-A structural member which is subjected of concretes, mortars, and sanded grouts.
to forces producing significant amounts of both bending Biological shielding-Shielding provided to attenuate or
and compression simultaneously. absorb nuclear radiation, such as neutron, proton, alpha,
Beam form-A retainer or mold so erected as to give the beta, and gamma particles; the shielding is provided
necessary shape, support, and finish to a concrete beam. mainly by the density of the concrete, except that in the
Beam hanger-A wire, strap, or other hardware device case of neutrons the attenuation is achieved by com-
that supports form work from structural members. pounds of some of the lighter elements (e.g., hydrogen
Beam pocket-Opening left in a vertical member in which and boron). (See also Shielding concrete.)
a beam is to rest; also an opening in the column or girder Blaine apparatus-Air-permeability apparatus for
form where forms for an intersecting beam will be measuring the surface area of a finely ground cement,
framed. raw material, or other product.
Beam saddle-See Beam hanger. Blaine fineness-The fineness of powdered materials
Beam side-Vertical side panels or parts of a beam form. such as cement and pozzolans, expressed as surface area
Beam test-A method of measuring the flexural strength usually in square centimeters per gram, determined by
(modulus of rupture) of concrete by testing a standard the Blaine apparatus. (See also Specific surface.)
unreinforced beam. Blaine test-A method for determining the fineness of
Bearing capacity-The maximum unit pressure which a cement or other fine material on the basis of the permea-
soil or other material will withstand without failure or bility to air of a sample prepared under specified condi-
without settlement to an amount detrimental to the in- tions.
tegrity or the function of the structure. Blast-furnace slag-The nonmetallic product, consisting
Bearing stratum-The soil or rock stratum on which a essentially of silicates and aluminosilicates of calcium
footing or mat bears or which carries the load transferred and other bases, that is developed in a molten condition

simultaneously with iron in a blast furnace. Bra

1. Air-cooled blast-furnace slag is the material re-
sulting from solidification of molten blast-furnace slag Bond area-The area of interface between two elements
under atmospheric conditions; subsequent cooling may be across which adhesion develops or may develop, as be-
accelerated by application of water to the solidified sur- tween concrete and reinforcing steel.
face. Bond breaker-A material used to prevent adhesion of
2. Expanded blast-furnace slag is the lightweight, newly placed concrete and the substrate.
cellular material obtained by controlled processing of Bond length-See Development length.
molten blast-furnace slag with water, or water and other Bond plaster-A specially formulated gypsum plaster de-
agents, such as steam or compressed air, or both. signed as first coat application over monolithic concrete.
3. Granulated blast-furnace slag is the glassy, granu- Bond prevention-Procedures whereby specific tendons
1ar material formed when molten blast-furnace slag is in pretensioned construction are prevented from becom-
rapidly chilled, as by immersion in water. ing bonded to the concrete for a predetermined distance
Bleed-To undergo bleeding. (See Bleeding.) from the ends of flexural members; measures taken to
Bleeding-The autogenous flow of mixing water within, or prevent adhesion of concrete or mortar to surfaces
its emergence from newly placed concrete or mortar; against which it is placed.
caused by the settlement of the solid materials within the Bond strength-Resistance to separation of mortar and
mass; also called water gain. concrete from reinforcing steel and other materials with
Bleeding capacity-The ratio of volume of water released which it is in contact; a collective expression for all forces
by bleeding to the volume of paste or mortar. such as adhesion, friction due to shrinkage, and longitud-
Bleeding rate-The rate at which water is released from a inal shear in the concrete engaged by the bar deforma-
paste or mortar by bleeding. tions that resist separation.
Blending cement-See Cement, blended. Bond stress-The force of adhesion per unit area of con-
Blinding-The application of a layer of weak concrete or tact between two bonded surfaces such as concrete and
other suitable material to reduce surface voids, or to reinforcing steel or any other material such as founda-
provide a clean dry working surface; also the filling or tion rock; shear stress at the surface of a reinforcing bar,
plugging of the openings in a screen or sieve by the preventing relative movement between the bar and the
material being separated. surrounding concrete.
Blistering-The irregular raising of a thin layer at the Bonded member-A prestressed concrete member in
surface of placed mortar or concrete during or soon after which the tendons are bonded to the concrete either di-
completion of the finishing operation, or in the case of rectly or through grouting.
pipe after spinning; also bulging ofthe finish plaster coat Bonded post-tensioning-Post-tensioned construction in
as it separates and draws away from the base coat. which the annular spaces around the tendons are grouted
Bloated-Swollen, as in certain lightweight aggregates as after stressing, thereby bonding the tendon to the con-
a result of processing. crete section.
Block-A concrete masonry unit, usually containing hol- Bonded tendon-A prestressing tendon which is bonded
low cores; also a solid piece of wood or other material to to the concrete either directly or through grouting.
fill spaces between formwork members. Bonder (Header)-A masonry unit which ties two or more
Block beam-A flexural member composed of individual wythes (leaves) of a wall together by overlapping.
blocks which are joined together by prestressing. Bonding agent-A substance applied to a suitable sub-
Blockout-A space within a concrete structure under con- strate to create a bond between it and a succeeding layer
struction in which fresh concrete is not to be placed, as between a subsurface and a terrazzo topping or a
called Core in United Kingdom. succeeding plaster application.
Blowdown period-Time taken to reduce pressure in an Bonding layer-A layer of mortar, usually Vs to 1/2 in. (3 to
autoclave from maximum to atmospheric. 13 mm) thick, which is spread on a moist and prepared,
Blowhole-See Bug holes. hardened concrete surface prior to placing fresh concrete.
Board butt joint-Shotcrete construction joint formed by Bored pile-A concrete pile, with or without a casing,
sloping gunned surface to a I-in. board laid flat. cast-in-place in a hole previously bored in soil or rock.
Bolster, slab-Continuous wire bar support used to sup- (See also Cast-in-place pile.)
port bars in the bottom of slabs; top wire corrugated at Boron frits-Clear, colorless, synthetic glass produced by
one inch centers to hold bars in position. fusion and quenching, containing boron. (See also
Board butt joint-Shortcrete construction joint formed by Boron-loaded concrete.)
sloping gunned surface to a I-in. board laid flat. Boron-loaded concrete-High-density concrete includ-
Bolt sleeve-A tube surrounding a bolt in a coricrete wall ing a boron-containing admixture or aggregate, such as
to prevent concrete from sticking to the bolt and acting as mineral colemanite, boron frits, or boron metal alloys, to
a spreader for the formwork. act as a neutron attenuator. (See also Biological shield-
Bond-Adhesion and grip of concrete or mortar to rein- ing and Shielding concrete.)
forcement or to other surfaces against which it is placed, Box out-To form an opening or pocket in concrete by a
including friction due to shrinkage and longitudinal box-like form.
shear in the concrete engaged by the bar deformations; Brace-Any structural member used to support another;
the adhesion of cement paste to aggregate; adherence always designed for compression and sometimes for ten-
between plaster coats or between plaster and a substrata sion under special load conditions.
produced by adhesive or cohesive properties of plaster or Bracing-Structural elements, which due to their ability
supplemental materials; also in United Kingdom the to transmit direct stress, are provided to either prevent
arrangement of units in masonry and brickwork so that buckling of individual members subject to compression,
vertical joints are discontinuous. to add rigidity to a structure as a whole, or to resist

Bra Bulk cemel!t-Cement which is transported and delivered

in bulk (usually in specially constructed vehicles) in-
lateral loads. A member used to support, strengthen, or stead of in bags.
position another piece or portion of a framework. Bulk density-The weight of a material (including solid
Bracket-An overhanging member projecting from a wall particles and any contained water) per unit volume in-
or other body to support weight acting outside the wall, or cluding voids. (See also Specific gravity.)
similar piece to strengthen an angle. Bulk loading-Loading of unbagged cement in contain-
Breccia-Rock composed of angular fragments of older ers, specially designed trucks, railroad cars, or ships.
rock cemented together. Bulk specific gravity-See Specific gravity.
Bredigite-A mineral, alpha prime dicalcium silicate Bulkhead-A partition in form work blocking fresh con-
(2CaO'SiOz), occurring naturally at Scawt Hill, North- crete from a section of the form or closing a section of the
ern Ireland; and at Isle of Muck, Scotland; also in slags form, such as at a construction joint; a partition in a
and portland cement. storage tank or bin, as for cement or aggregate.
Breeze-Usually clinker; also fine divided material from Bulking-Increase in the bulk volume of a quantity of
coke production. sand in a moist condition over the volume of the same
Brick seat-Ledge on wall or footing to support a course of quantity dry or completely inundated.
masonry. Bulking curve-Graph of change in volume of a quantity
Bridge deck-The slab or other structure forming the of sand due to change in moisture content.
travel surface of a bridge. Bulking factor-Ratio of the volume of moist sand to the
Briquette (also Briquet)-A molded specimen of mortar volume of the sand when dry.
with enlarged extremities and reduced center having a Bull float-A tool comprising a large, flat, rectangular
cross section of definite area, used for measurement of piece of wood, aluminum, or magnesium usually 8 in. (20
tensile strength. cm) wide and 42 to 60 in. (100 to 150 em) long, and a
Broadcast-To toss granular material, such as sand, over handle 4 to 16 ft (1 to 5 m) in length used to smooth
a horizontal surface so that a thin, uniform layer is ob- unformed surfaces of freshly placed concrete.
tained. Bundled bars-A group of not more than four parallel
Broom finish-The surface texture obtained by stroking a reinforcing bars in contact with each other, usually tied
broom over freshly placed concrete. (See also Brushed together.
surface.) Burlap-A coarse fabric of jute, hemp, or less commonly,
Brown coat-The second coat in three-coat plaster appli- flax, for use as a water-retaining covering in curing con-
cation. crete surfaces; also called Hessian.
Brown out-To complete application of basecoat plaster. Bush-hammer-A hammer having a serrated face, as
Brown oxide-A brown mineral pigment having an iron rows of pyramidal points used to roughen or dress a
oxide content between 28 and 95 percent. (See also surface; to finish a concrete surface by application of a
Limonite.) bush-hammer.
Brownmillerite-A ternary compound originally re- Bush-hammer finish-A finish on concrete obtained by
garded as 4CaO' AlzO'1 . Fez 0,1 (C 4 AF) occurring in port- means of a bush-hammer.
land and calcium aluminate cement; now used to refer to Butt joint-A plain square joint between two members.
a series of solid solutions between 2CaO' Fe-zO'1 (CzF) and Buttering-Process of spreading mortars on a brick or
2CaO' AlzO:, (CzA). other masonry unit with a trowel; also the process by
Brucite-A mineral having the composition magnesium which the interior of a concrete mixer, transportation
hydroxide, Mg(OH)z, and a specific crystal structure. unit, or other item coming in contact with fresh concrete
Brushed surface-A sandy texture obtained by brushing is provided with a mortar coating so that the fresh con-
the surface of freshly placed or slightly hardened con- crete coming in contact with it will not he depleted of
crete with a stiff brush for architectural effect or, in mortar.
pavements, to increase skid resistance. (See also Broom Buttress-A projecting structure to support a wall or
finish.) building.
Buck-Framing around an opening in a wall; a door buck Butyl stearate-A colorless oleaginous, practically odor-
encloses the opening in which a door is placed. less material (C 17H,,;,COOC,H,,) used as a dampproofer
Buckling-Failure by lateral or torsional instability of a for concrete.
structural member, occurring with stresses below the
yield or ultimate values. c
Bug holes-Small regular or irregular cavities, usually Cable-See Tendon.
not exceeding 15 mm in diameter, resulting from en- Cage-A rigid assembly of reinforcement ready for placing
trapment of air bubbles in the surface of formed concrete in position.
during placement and compaction. Caisson pile-A cast-in-place pile made by driving a tube,
Buggy-A two-wheeled or motor-driven cart usually excavating it, and filling the cavity with concrete.
rubber-tired, for transporting small quantities of con- Calcareous-Containing calcium carbonate or, less gen-
crete from hoppers or mixers to forms; sometimes called a erally, containing the element calcium.
concrete cart. Calcine-To alter composition of physical state by heating
Building official-The official charged with administra- below the temperature of fusion.
tion and enforcement of the applicable building code, or Calcite-A mineral having the composition calciutil-car-
his duly authorized representative. bonate (CaCOJ and a specific crystal structure; the prin-
Build-up-Gunning of shotcrete in successive layers to cipal constituent oflimestone, chalk, and marble; used as
form a thicker mass; also the accumulation of residual a major constituent in the manufacture of portland ce-
hardened concrete in a mixer. ment.

Calcium-A silver-white metallic element of the Cem

alkaline-earth group occurring only in combination with Carbonation-Reaction between carbon dioxide and a
other elements_ hydroxide or oxide to form a carbonate, especially in
Calcium-!ll1!.!!!iD_~Je _~~m!l!lt-The product obtained by cement paste, mortar, or concrete; the reaction with cal-
pulverizing clinker consisting essentially of hydraulic cium compounds to produce calcium carbonate.
calcium aluminates resulting from fusing or sintering a Carriageway-In the United Kingdom, a term used in the
suitably proportioned mixture of aluminous and calcare- same meaning as the word "road" in the United States.
ous materials, called High-alumina cement in United Cast-in-place-Mortar or concrete which is deposited in
Kingdom. the place where it is required to harden as part of the
/Calcium chloride-A crystalline solid, CaClt ; in various structure, as opposed to precast concrete.
technic;l"~ades, used as a drying agent, as an ac- Cast-in-place pile-A concrete pile concreted either with
celerator of concrete, a deicing chemical, and for other or without a casing in its permanent location, as distin-
purposes. guished from a precast pile.
Calcium stearate-Product of the reaction of lime and Cast-in-situ-See Cast-in-place.
stearic acid used as an integral water repellant in con- Cast stone-Concrete or mortar cast into blocks or small
crete. slabs in special molds so as to resemble natural building
Calcium-silicate brick-A concrete product made princi- stone.
pally from sand and lime which is hardened by autoclave Castable refractory-A packaged, dry mixture of hy-
curing. draulic cement, generally calcium-aluminate cement,
Calcium-silicate hydrate-Any of the various reaction and specially selected and proportioned refractory
products of calcium silicate and water, often produced by aggregates which, when mixed with water, will produce
autoclave curing. refractory concrete or mortar.
Caliche-Gravel, sand, and desert debris cemented by cal- Catalyst-A substance that initiates a chemical reaction
cium carbonate or other salts. and enables it to proceed under milder conditions than
California bearing ratio-The ratio of the force per unit otherwise required and which does not, itself, alter or
area required to penetrate a soil mass with a 3 sq in. (19.4 enter into the reaction.
sq cm) circular piston at the rate of 0.05 in. (1.27 mm) per Catface-Blemish or rough depression in the finish plas-
min to the force required for corresponding penetration of ter coat caused by variations in the base coat thickness.
a standard crushed-rock base material; the ratio is usu- Cathead-A notched wedge placed between two formwork
ally determined at 0.1 in. (2.5 mm) penetration. members meeting at an oblique angle; a spindle on a
Calorimeter-An instrument for measuring heat ex- hoist; the large, round retention nut used on she bolts.
change during a chemical reaction such as the quantities Catwalk-A narrow elevated walkway.
of heat liberated by the combustion of a fuel or hydration Cavitation damage-Pitting of concrete caused by implo-
of a cement. sion, i.e., the collapse of vapor bubbles in flowing water
Camber-A deflection that is intentionally built into a which form in areas of low pressure and collapse as they
structural element or form to improve appearance or to enter areas of higher pressure.
nullify the deflection of the element under the effects of Celite-A name used by Tornebohm (1897) to identify the
loads, shrinkage, and creep. calcium aluminoferrite constituent of portland cement.
Cant strip-See Chamfer strip_ (See also Alite, Belite, Felite, and Brownmillerite.)
Cap-A smooth, plane surface of suitable material bonded Cellular concrete-A lightweight product consisting of
to the bearing surfaces of test specimens to insure uni- portland cement, cement-silica, cement-pozzolan, lime-
form distribution of load during strength testing. pozzolan, or lime-silica pastes, or pastes containing
Cap cables-Short cables (tendons) introduced to pre- blends of these ingredients and having a homogeneous
stress the zone of negative bending only. void or cell structure, attained with gas-forming chemi-
Capacity-A measure of the rated volume of a particular cals or foaming agents (for cellular concretes containing
concrete mixer or agitator, usually limited by specifi- binder ingredients other than, or in addition to, portland
cations to a maximum percentage of total gross volume; cement, autoclave curing is usually employed).
also the output of concrete, aggregate, or other product Cellular construction-A method of constructing con-
per unit of time (as plant capacity or screen capacity); crete elements in which part of the interior concrete is
also load carrying limit of a structure. replaced by voids.
Capacity reduction factor-See Phi (1)) factor. Cement, aluminous-See Calcium-aluminate cement.
Capillarity-The movement of a liquid in the interstices of Cement, bituminous-A black solid, semisolid, or liquid
soil or other porous material due to surface tension. (See substance at natural air temperatures and appreciably
(/" also Capillary flow.) soluble only in carbon disulfide or some volatile liquid
....Capillary flow-Flow of moisture through a capillary hydrocarbon, being composed of mixed indeterminate
pore system, such as in concrete. hydrocarbons mined from natural deposits, produced as a
Capillary space-Void space in concrete resembling mi- residue in the distillation of petroleum, or obtained by
croscopic channels small enough to draw liquid water the destructive distillation of coal or wood.
through them by the molecular attraction of the water Cement, blended-A hydraulic cement consisting essen-
adsorbed on their inner surfaces (capillarity). tially of an intimate and uniform blend of granulated
Carbon black-A finely divided amorphous carbon used blast-furnace slag and hydrated lime; or an intimate and
to color concrete; produced by burning natural gas in uniform blend of portland cement and granulated blast-
supply of air insufficient for complete combustion; furnace slag, portland cement and pozzolan, or portland
characterized by a high oil absorption and a low specific blast-furnace slag cement and pozzolan, produced by in-
gravity. tergrinding portland cement clinker with the other ma-

Cern Cement, sulfate-resistant-Portland cement, low in

terials or by blending portland cement with the other - tri~~k~-maI;-;:-mi~at;:'t;;~duce susceptibility of concrete
materials, or a combination of intergrinding and blend- to attack by dissolved sulfates in water or soils, desig-
ing. nated "Type V" in United States.
Cement, expansive-See Expansive cement. Cement, sulfoaluminate-See Expansive cement.
Cement, high-early-strength-Cement characterized by Cement, supersulfated-A hydraulic cement made by
producing earlier stI=efigEl1in mortar or concrete than intimately intergrinding a mixture of granulated blast-
regular cement, referred to in United States as ~ furnace slag, calcium sulfate, and a small amount of
.lIt:.:.... lime, cement, or cement clinker; so named because the
Cement, hydraulic-See Hydraulic cement. equivalent content of sulfate exceeds that for portland
Cement, low-alkali-A portland cement that contains a blast-furnace slag cement.
relatively small amount of sodium or potassium or both; Cement, white-Portland cement which hydrates to a
in the United States a cement containing not more than white paste; made from raw materials oflow iron content
0.6 percent Na,O equivalent, i.e., percent NazO + (0.658 the clinker for which is fired by a reducing flame.
x percent K,O). ..Cf:mmtt:!!ggr_~g~!.~".r.~t!o-The ratio of cement to total
Cement, low-heat-A cement in which there is only lim- aggregate either by weight or volume.
itea-gellerafioii of heat during setting, achieved by Cement bacillus-See Ettringite.
modifying the chemical composition of normal portland Cement .Q..lltfP..t--Quantity of cement contained in a unit
cement, referred to in United States as ~.." volume of concrete or mortar, preferably expressed as
Cement, masonry-A hydraulic cement for use in weight.
mortars for masonry construction, containing one or Cement factor-See Cement content.
more of the following materials: portland cement, port- Cement gel-The colloidal material. that makes up the
land blast-furnace slag cement, portland-pozzolan ce- major portion of the porous mass of which mature hy-
ment, natural cement, slag cement or hydraulic lime; drated cement paste is composed.
and in addition usually containing one or more materials Cement gun-A machine for pneumatic placement of
such as hydrated lime, limestone, chalk, calcareous shell, mortar or small aggregate concrete; in the "Dry Gun"
talc, slag, or clay, as prepared for this purpose. water from a separate hose meets the dry material at the
Cement, natural-A hydraulic cement produced by cal- nozzle of the gun; with the "Wet Gun" the delivery hose
cining a naturally occurring argillaceous limestone at a conveys the premixed mortar or concrete. (See also Shot-
temperature below the sintering point and then grinding crete.)
to a fine powder. Cement kiln-See Kiln, cement.
Cement, oil-well-Hydraulic cement suitable for use Cement paint-A paint consisting generally of white port-
under high pressure and temperature in sealing water land cement and water, pigments, hydrated lime, water
and gas pockets and setting casing during the drilling repellents, or hygroscopic salts.
and repair of oil wells; often contains retarders to meet Cement plaste, neat-See Neat cement paste.
the requirements of use. Cement plaster-See Stucco and Plaster.
Cement, plastic-A special product manufactured for Cement rock-Natural impure limestone which contains
plaster and stucco application. the ingredients for production of portland cement in ap-
Cement, portland-A hydraulic cement produced by pul- proximately the required proportions.
--verlz'lni"cli~ker" consisting essentially of hydraulic cal- Cementation process-The process of injecting cement
cium silicates, and usually containing one or more of the grout under pressure into certain types of ground (e.g.,
forms of calcium sulfate as an interground addition. gravel, fractured rock) to solidify it.
Cement, portland blast-furnace slag-A hydraulic ce- Cementitious-Having cementing properties.
ment consisting essentially of an intimately interground Center-matched-Tongueand-groove lumber with the
mixture of portland cement clinker and granulated tongue and groove at the center of the piece rather than
blast-furnace slag or an intimate and uniform blend of offset as in standard matched. (See also Standard
portland cement and fine granulated blast-furnace slag matched.)
in which the amount of the slag constituent is within Centering-Specialized falsework used in the construction
specified limits. of arches, shells, and space structures, or any continuous
CemenUQ!:!!a~q.:I!o~~Q).au-A hydraulic cement con- structure where the entire falsework is lowered (struck
sisting essentially of an intimate and uniform blend of or decentered) as a unit to avoid the introduction of in-
portland cement or portland blast-furnace slag cement jurious stress in any part of the structure. (See also
and fine pozzolan produced by intergrinding portland- Falsework.)
cement clinker and pozzolan, by blending portland ce- Central-mixed concrete-Concrete which is completely
ment or portland blast-furnace slag cement and finely mixed in a stationary mixer from which it is transported
divided pozzolan, or a combination of intergrinding and to the delivery point.
blending, in which the pozzolan constituent is within Central mixer-A stationary concrete mixer from which
specified limits. the freshly mixed concrete is transported to the work.
Cement, self-stressing-See Expansive cement. Centrifugally cast concrete-See Spun concrete.
Cement, shrinkage-compensating-See Expansive ce- Ceramic bond-The development of fired strength as a
ment. result of thermo-chemical reactions between materials
Cement, slag-A hydraulic cement consisting essentially exposed to temperatures approaching the fusion point of
of an intimate and uniform blend of granulated blast- the mixture such as that which may occur, under these
furnace slag and hydrated lime in which the slag con- conditions, between calcium-aluminate cement and a re-
stituent is more than a specified minimum percentage. fractory aggregate.

Chair-See Bar support. Col

Chalk-A soft limestone composed chiefly of the calcare-
ous remains of marine organisms.
Chalking-Disintegration of coatings such as a cement Clinker-A partially fused product of a kiln, which is
paint, manifested by the presence of a loose powder ground to make cement; also other vitrified or burnt
evolved from the paint at, or just beneath, the surface. material.
Charging-Introducing, feeding, or loading materials into Clip-Wire or sheet-metal device used to attach various
a concrete or mortar mixer, furnace, or other container or types of lath to supports or to secure adjacent lath sheets.
receptacle where they will be further treated or pro- Closed-circuit grouting-Injection of grout into a hole
cessed. intersecting fissures or voids which are to be filled at
Checking-Development of shallow cracks at closely such volume and pressure that grout input to the hole is
spaced but irregular intervals on the surface of mortar or greater than the grout take of the surrounding forma-
concrete. tion, excess grout being returned to the pumping plant
Chemical bond-Bond between materials that is the re- for recirculation.
sult of cohesion and adhesion developed by chemical Coarse aggregate-Aggregate predominantly retained
reaction. on the U.S~'-Standard No.4 (4.75 mm) sieve; or that
Chemically prestressed concrete-Concrete made with portion of an aggregate retained on the No.4 (4.75 mm)
expansive cement and reinforcing under conditions such sieve. (See also Aggregate.)
that the expansion of the cement induces tensile stress in Coarse aggregate factor-The ratio, expressed as a dec-
the reinforcing so as to produce prestressed concrete. imal, of the amount (weight or solid volume) of coarse
Chemically prestressing cement-A type of expansive aggregate in a unit volume of well-proportioned concrete
cement containing a higher percentage of expansive to the amount of dry-rodded coarse aggregate compacted
component than shrinkage compensating cement which, into the same volume (bib,,).
when used in concretes with adequate internal or exter- Coarse-grained soil--Soil in which the larger grain sizes,
nal restraint, will expand sufficiently, due to chemical such as sand and gravel predominate.
reactions within the matrix, to develop the stresses Coat-A film or layer as of paint or plaster applied in a
necessary for prestressing the concrete. single operation.
Chert-A very fine grained siliceous rock characterized by Coating-Material applied to a surface by brushing, dip-
hardness and conchoidal fracture in dense varieties, the ping, mopping, spraying, trowelling, etc., to preserve,
fracture becoming splintery and the hardness decreasing protect, decorate, seal, or smooth the substrate; also
in porous varieties, and in a variety of colors; it is com- refers to foreign or deleterious substances found adhering
posed of silica in the form of chalcedony, cryptocrystal- to aggregate particles.
line or microcrystalline quartz, or opal, or combinations Cobble In geology, a rock fragment between 2% and 10
of any of these. in. (64 and 256 mm) in diameter; as applied to coarse
Chipping-Treatment of a hardened concrete surface by aggregate for concrete, the material in the nominal size
chiseling. range 3 to 6 in. (75 to 150 mm).
Chips-Broken fragments of marble or other mineral Cobblestone-A rock fragment, usually rounded or
aggregate screened to specified sizes. semi rounded, with an average dimension between 3 and
Chordus moldus-See Modulus of elasticity. 12 in. (75 and 300 mm).
Chute-A sloping trough or tube for conducting concrete, Coefficient of subgrade friction-The coefficient of fric-
cement, aggregate, or other free flowing materials from a tion between a grade slab and its subgrade; used to esti-
higher to a lower point. mate shrinkage reinforcing steel requirements by cal-
Clamp-See Tie Coupler. culating stresses induced in the concrete by its shrinkage
Class (of concrete)-An arbitrary characterization of con- and the subgrade restraint.
crete of various qualities or usages, usually by compres- Coefficient of subgrade reaction-See Modulus of
sive strength. sub grade reaction.
..Ql~y':-Natural mineral material having plastic properties Coefficient of thermal expansion-Change in linear
and composed of very fine particles; the clay mineral dimension per unit length or change in volume per unit
fraction of a soil is usually considered to be the portion volume per degree of temperature change.
consisting of particles finer than 2 /Lm; clay minerals are Coefficient of variation (V)-The standard deviation ex-
essentially hydrous aluminum silicates or occasionally pressed as a percentage of the average. (See also Stan-
hydrous magnesium silicates. dard deviation.)
~1a.,Y..J:;Q.!lt~!lt-Percentage of clay by dry weight of a Cold face-The surface of a refractory section not exposed
heterogeneous material, such as a soil or a natural con- to the source of heat.
crete aggregate. Cold joint-A joint or discontinuity resulting from a delay
Cleanout-An opening in the forms for removal of refuse, in placement of sufficient time to preclude a union of the
to be closed before the concrete is placed; a port in tanks, material in two successive lifts.
bins, or other receptacles for inspection and cleaning. Cold joint lines-Visible lines on the surfaces of formed
Cleanup-Treatment of horizontal construction joints to concrete indicating the presence of joints where one layer
remove all surface material and contamination down to a of concrete had hardened before subsequent concrete was
condition of cleanness corresponding to that of a freshly placed. (See also Cold joint.)
broken surface of concrete. Cold strength-The compressive or flexural strength of
Cleat--Small board used to connect form work members or refractory concrete determined prior to drying or firing.
used as a brace. (See also Batten.) Cold-water paint-A paint in which the binder or vehicle
Climbing form-A form which is raised vertically for suc- portion is composed oflatex, casein, glue, or some similar
ceeding lifts of concrete in a given structure. material dissolved or dispersed in water.

Col Composite column-A concrete compression member re-

inforced longitudinally with structural steel shapes, pipe
or tubing with or without longitudinal reinforcing bars.
Colemanite-A mineral, hydrated calcium borate Composite concrete flexural members-Concrete
(Ca2B,;O,,' 5H t O). (See also Boron-loaded concrete.) flexural members consisting of concrete elements con-
Colloid-A substance that is in a state of division prevent- structed in separate placements but so interconnected
ing passage through a semipermeable membrane, con- that the elements respond to loads as a unit.
sisting of particles ranging from 10- 5 to 10- 7 cm in diam- Composite construction-A type of construction using
eter. members produced by combining different materials
Colloidal concrete-Concrete of which the aggregate is (e.g., concrete and structural steel), or members produced
bound by colloidal grout. by combining cast-in-place and precast concrete such
Colloidal grout-A grout which has artificially induced that the combined components act together as a single
cohesiveness or ability to retain the dispersed solid parti- member.
cles in suspension. Composite pile-A pile made up of different materials,
Colloidal particle-An electrically charged particle, gen- usually concrete and wood, or steel fastened together end
erally smaller than 200 /-Lm, dispersed in a second con- to end, to form a single pile.
tinuous medium. Composite sample-Sample obtained by blending two or
Colorimetric value-An indication of the amount of or- more individual samples of a material.
ganic impurities present in fine aggregate. Compound, curing-See Curing compound, Mem-
Column-:-A member used primarily to support axial com- brane curing.
--'-p~~~~ion loads and with a height of at least three times its Compound, joint sealing-An impervious material used
least lateral dimension. to fill joints in pavements or structures.
Column, long-A column whose load capacity is limited Compound, sealing-An impervious material applied as
by buckling rather than strength. (See also Column, a coating or to fill joints or cracks in concrete or mortar.
slender.) (See also Joint sealant.)
Column, short-A column whose load capacity is limited Compound, "waterproofing"- Material used to impart
by strength rather than buckling; a column which is water repellency to a structure or a constructional unit.
customarily so stocky and sufficiently restrained that at Compression flange-The widened portion of an I, T, or
least 95 percent of the cross-sectional strength can be similar cross section beam which is shortened or com-
developed. pressed by bending under normal loads, such as the hori-
Column, slender-A column whose load capacity is re- zontal portion of the cross section of a simple span
duced by the increased eccentricity caused by secondary T-beam.
deflection moments. Compression member-Any member in which the pri-
Column capital-An enlargement of the end of a column mary stress is longitudinal compression.
designed and built to act as an integral unit with the Compression reinforcement-Reinforcement designed
column and flat slab and increase the shearing resis- to carry compressive stresses. (See also Stress.)
tance. Compression test-Test made on a test specimen of
Column clamp-Any of various types of tying or fastening mortar or concrete to determine the compressive
units to hold column form sides together. strength; in the United States, unless otherwise speci-
Column side-One of the vertical panel components of a fied, compression tests of mortars are made on 2-in. (50-
column form. mm) cubes and compression tests of concrete are made on
Column strip-The portion of a flat slab over the columns cylinders 6 in. (152 mm) in diameter and 12 in. (305 mm)
and consisting of the two adjacent quarter panels on each high.
side of the column center line. Compressive strel1:gth-The measured maximum resis-
Combined aggregate grading-Particle size distribu- -.' t~~ce of a concre1R or mortar specimen to axial loading;
tion of a mixture of fine and coarse aggregate. expressed as force per unit cross-sectional area; or the
Combined footing-A structural unit or assembly of specified resistance used in design calculations, in the
units supporting more than one column. U.s. customary units of measure expressed in pounds per
Come-along- square inch (psi) and designated t:' .
1. A hoe-like tool with a blade about 4 in. (10 cm) high Compressive strength, average (,-The term used to
and 20 in. (50 cm) wide and curved from top to bottom, describe the average compressive strength of a given
used for spreading concrete. class or strength level of concrete; in ACI 214, defined as
2. A colloquial name for a device (load binder) used to average compressive strength required to statistically
tighten chains holding loads in place on a truck bed. meet a designated specific strength, C.
Compacting factor-The ratio obtained by dividing the Concentric tendons-Tendons following a line coincident
observed weight of concrete which fills a container of with the gravity axis ofthe prestressed concrete member.
standard size and shape when allowed to fall into it under Concordant tendons-Tendons in statically indetermi-
standard conditions of test, by the weight of fully com- nate structures which are coincident with the pressure
pacted concrete which fills the same container. line produced by the tendons; such tendons do not pro-
Compaction-The process whereby the volume offreshly duce secondary moments.
placed mortar or concrete is reduced to the minimum V JA>ll~rej!l;:::-A composite material which consists essen-
practical space usually by vibration, centrifugation, tially of a binding medium within which are embedded
tamping, or some combination ofthese; to mold it within particles or fragments of aggregate; in portland cement
forms or molds and around embedded parts and rein- concrete, the binder is a mixture of portland cement and
forcement, and to eliminate voids other than entrained water.
air. (See also Consolidation.) Concrete, aerated-See Concrete, foamed.

Concrete, asphalt-A mixture of asphalt and aggregate_ Con

Concrete, colloidal-See Colloidal concrete. Concrete breaker-A compressed-air tool specially de-
Concrete, cyclopean-See Cyclopean concrete. signed and constructed to break up concrete.
Concrete, dense-Concrete containing a minimum of Concrete cart-See Buggy.
voids. Concrete containment structure-A composite concrete
Concrete, dry-packed-See Dry-packed concrete. and steel assembly that is designed as an integral part of
Concrete, exposed-See Exposed concrete. a pressure retaining barrier which in an emergency pre-
Concrete, fair face-See Fair face concrete. vents the release of radioactive or hazardous effluents
Concrete, fat-See Fat concrete. from nuclear power plant equipment enclosed therein.
Concrete, fibrous-Concrete containing, dispersed, ran- Concrete finishing machine-A machine mounted on
domly oriented fibers. flanged wheels which rides on the forms or on specially
Concrete, field-Concrete delivered or mixed, placed, and set tracks, used to finish surfaces such as those of pave-
cured on the job site. ments; or a portable power driven machine for floating
Concrete, foamed-Concrete made very light and cellu- and finishing of floors and other slabs.
lar by the addition of a prepared foam or by generation of Concrete paver-A concrete mixer, usually mounted on
gas within the unhardened mixture. crawler tracks, which mixes and places concrete pave-
Concrete, gap-graded-See Gap-graded concrete. ment on the subgrade.
Concrete, granolithic-See Granolithic concrete. Concrete pile-A precast reinforced or prestressed con-
Concrete, green-Concrete which has set but not apprec- crete pile driven into the ground by a pile driver or
iably hardened. otherwise placed. (See also Cast-in-place pile.)
Concrete, heavy-See High-density concrete. Concrete pump-An apparatus which forces concrete to
Concrete, high-density-See High-density concrete. the placing position through a pipeline or hose.
Concrete, in-situ (also cast-in-place)-Concrete which is Concrete reactor vessel-A composite concrete and steel
deposited in the place where it is required to harden as assembly that functions as a component of the principal
part of the structure, as opposed to precast concrete. pressure-containing barrier for the nuclear fuel's pri-
Concrete, lean-See Lean concrete. mary heat extraction fluid (primary coolant).
Concrete, lightweight-See Lightweight concrete. Concrete spreader-A machine, usually carried on side
Concrete, low-density-See Low-density concrete. forms or on rails parallel thereto, designed to spread
Concrete, mass-See Mass concrete. concrete from heaps already dumped in front of it, or to
Concrete, monolithic-See Monolithic concrete. receive and spread concrete in a uniform layer.
Concrete, no-fines-See No-slump concrete. Concrete strength-See Compressive strength,
Concrete, normal-weight-Concrete having a unit Fatigue strength, Flexural strength, Shear strength,
weight of approximately 150 Ib per cu ft (2400 kg per cu Splitting tensile strength, Tensile strength, Ultimate
m) made with aggregates of normal weight. strength, and Yield strength.
Concrete pile-See Cast-in-place pile and -Precast pile. Concrete vibrating machine-A machine which com-
Concrete, precast-See Precast concrete. pacts a layer of freshly mixed concrete by vibration.
Concrete, prepacked-See Concrete, preplaced-aggre- Conductivity, thermal-See Thermal conductivity.
gate. Cone, slump-See Slump cone and Slump.
Concrete, preplaced-aggregate-Concrete produced by Cone bolt-A form of tie rod for wall forms with cones at
placing coarse aggregate in a form and later injecting a each end inside the forms so that a bolt can act as a
portland cement-sand grout, usually with admixtures, to spreader as well as a tie.
fill the voids. Confined concrete-Concrete containing closely spaced
Concrete, prestressed-See Prestressed concrete. special transverse reinforcement which is provided to
Concrete, pumped-See Pumped concrete. restrain the concrete in directions perpendicular to the
Concrete, ready-mixed-See Ready-mixed concrete. applied stresses.
Concrete, refractory-See Refractory concrete. Confined region-Region with transverse reinforcement
Concrete, reinforced-See Reinforced concrete. within beam-column joints.
Concrete, spun-See Spun concrete. Consistency-The relative mobility or ability of freshly
Concrete, structural-Concrete used to carry structural mixed concrete or mortar to flow; the usual mea-
load or to form an integral part of a structure; concrete surements are slump for concrete, flow for mortar or
of a quality specified for structural use; concrete used grout, and penetration resistance for neat cement paste.
solely for protective cover, fill, or insulation is not con- Consistency factor-A measure of grout fluidity roughly
sidered structural concrete. analogous to viscosity, which describes the ease with
Concrete, structural lightweight-Structural concrete which grout may be pumped into pores or fissures; usu-
made with lightweight aggregate; the unit weight usu- ally a laboratory measurement in which consistency is
ally is in the range of90 to 1151b per cu ft (1440 to 1850 reported in degrees of rotation of a torque viscosimeter in
kg per cu m). a specimen of grout.
Concrete, terrazzo-Marble-aggregate concrete that is Consistometer-An apparatus for measuring the consis-
cast-in-place or precast and ground smooth for decorative tency of cement pastes, mortars, grouts, or concretes.
surfacing purposes on floors and walls. Consolidation-The process of inducing a closer ar-
Concrete, transit-mixed-See Transit-mixed concrete. rangement of the solid particles in freshly mixed concrete
Concrete, translucent-A combination of glass and con- or mortar during placement by the reduction of voids;
crete used together in precast or prestressed panels. usually by vibration, centrifugation, tamping, or some
Concrete, vacuum-See Vacuum concrete. combination of these actions; also applicable to similar
Concrete, vibrated-See Vibrated concrete. manipulation of other cementitious mixtures, soils,
Concrete, visual-See Exposed concrete. aggregates, or the like. (See also Compaction.)

Con Core-
l. The soil material enclosed within a tubular pile after
driving (it may be replaced with concrete).
Construction joint-The surface where two successive 2. The mandrel used for driving casings for cast-in-
placements of concrete meet, across which it is desirable place piles.
to develop and maintain bond between the two concrete 3. A structural shape used to internally reinforce a
placements, and through which any reinforcement which drilled-in-caisson.
may be present is not interrupted. (See also Contraction 4. A cylindrical sample of hardened concrete or rock
joint.) obtained by means of a core drill.
Construction loads-The loads to which a permanent or 5. The molded open space in a concrete masonry unit.
temporary structure is subjected during construction. See also Blockout.
Contact ceiling-A ceiling which is secured in direct con- Core test-Compression test on a concrete sample cut from
tact with the construction above without use of furring. hardened concrete by means of a core drill.
Contact pressure-Pressure acting at and perpendicular Cored beam-A beam whose cross section is partially
to the contact area between footing and soil, produced by hollow, or a beam from which cored samples of concrete
the weight of the footing and all forces acting on it. have been taken.
Contact splice-A means of connecting reinforcing bars Coring-The act of obtaining cores from concrete struc-
in which the bars are lapped and in direct contact. (See tures or rock foundations.
also Lap splice.) Corner reinforcement-Metal reinforcement for plaster
Containment grouting-See Perimeter grouting. at re-entrant corners to provide continuity between two
Continuous beam-See Continuous slab or beam. intersecting planes; or concrete reinforcement used at
Continuous footing-A combined footing of prismatic or wall intersections or near corners of square or rectangu-
truncated shape, supporting two or more columns in a lar openings in walls, slabs, or beams.
row. vCorrosion-Disintegration or deterioration of concrete or
Continuous grading-A particle size distribution in reinforcement by electrolysis or by chemical attack.
which all intermediate size fractions are present, as op- Cotton mats-Cotton-filled quilts fabricated for use as a
posed to gap-grading. water-retaining covering in curing concrete surfaces.
Continuous mixer-A mixer into which the ingredients of Coupler-
the mixture are fed without stopping, and from which the 1. A device for connecting reinforcing bars or prestress-
mixed product is discharged in a continuous stream. ing tendons end to end.
Continuous slab or beam-A slab or beam which extends 2. A device for locking together the component parts of
as a unit over three or more supports in a given direction. a tubular metal scaffold (also known as a Clamp).
Continuously reinforced pavement-A pavement with Coupling pin-An insert device used to connect lifts or
continuous longitudinal steel reinforcement and no in- tiers or formwork scaffolding vertically.
termediate transverse expansion or contraction joints. Course-In concrete construction, a horizontal layer of
Contraction (or Expansion), of concrete-The sum of concrete, usually one of several making up a lift; in
volume changes occurring as the result of all processes masonry construction, a horizontal layer of block or
affecting the bulk volume of a mass of concrete. (See also brick. (See also Lift.)
ShrinkageJ Cover-In reinforced concrete, the least distance between
Contraction joint-Formed, sawed, or tooled groove in a the surface of the reinforcement and the outer surface of
concrete structure to create a weakened plane and regu- the concrete.
late the location of cracking resulting from the dimen- Cover block-See Spacer.
sional change of different parts of the structure. (See also Crack-control reinforcement-Reinforcement in con-
Isolation joint.) crete construction designed to prevent opening of cracks,
Contraction-joint grouting-Injection of grout into con- often effective in limiting them to uniformly distributed
traction joints. small cracks.
Control factor-The ratio of the minimum compressive Cracked section-A section designed or analyzed on the
strength to the average compressive strength. assumption that concrete has no resistance to tensile
Control joint-See Contraction joint. stress.
Control-joint grouting-See Contraction-joint grout- Cracking load-The load which causes tensile stress in a
ing. member to exceed the tensile strength of the concrete.
Conventional design-Design procedure using moments Craze cracks-Fine, random cracks or fissures caused by
or stresses determined by widely accepted methods. shrinkage which may appear in a surface of plaster,
Conveying hose-See Delivery hose. cement paste, mortar, or concrete.
Conveyor-A device for moving materials; usually a con- Crazing-The development of craze cracks; the pattern of
tinuous belt, an articulated system of buckets, a confined craze cracks existing in a surface. (See also Checking.)
screw, or a pipe through which material is moved by air Cre~l?.:-Time-dependent deformation due to sustained
or water. load.
Coping-The material or units used to form a cap or finish Crimped wire-Wire deformed into a curve which approx-
on top of a wall, pier, pilaster, or chimney. imates a sine curve as a means of increasing the capacity
Coquina-A type of limestone formed of sea shells in loose of the wire to bond to concrete; also welded wire fabric
or weakly cemented condition, found along present or crimped to provide an integral chair. (See also De-
former shorelines; used as a calcareous raw material in formed reinforcementJ
cement manufacture and other industrial operations. Cross bracing-A system of members which connect
Corbel-A projection from the face of a beam, girder, col- frames or panels of scaffolding laterally to make a tower
umn, or wall used as a beam seat or a decoration. or continuous structure.

Cross joint-The joint at the end of individual formboards Def

between sub-purl ins. Curling-The distortion of an originally essentially linear
Cross section-The section of a body perpendicular to a or planar member into a curved shape such as the warp-
given axis of the body; a drawing showing such a section. ing of a slab due to creep or to differences in temperature
Cross-tee-A light-gage metal member resembling an or moisture content in the zones adjacent to its opposite
upside-down "tee" used to support the abutting ends of faces.
form-boards in insulating concrete roof constructions Curtain-A vertically-placed mat of vertical and horizon-
Crush plate-An expendable strip of wood attached to the tal reinforcing steel in a member such as a wall; known as
edge of a form or intersection of fitted forms, to protect a double curtain (of reinforcement) when a mat is at each
the form from damage during prying, pulling, or other face.
stripping operations. (See also Wrecking strip.) Curtain grouting-Injection of grout into a subsurface
Crushed gravel-The product resulting from the artifi- formation in such a way as to create a zone of grouted
cial crushing of gravel with a specified minimum per- material transverse to the direction of anticipated water
centage of fragments having one or more faces resulting flow.
from fracture. (See also Coarse aggregate.) Curvature friction-Friction resulting from bends or
Crushed stone-The product resulting from the artificial curves in the specified prestressing cable profile.
~--crusninir-oC'rocks, boulders, or large cobblestones, sub- Cutting screed-Sharp edged tool used to trim shotcrete
stantially all faces of which possess well-defined edges to finished outline. (See also Rod.)
and have resulted from the crushing operation. (See also Cyclopean concrete-Mass concrete in which large
Coarse aggregate.) stones, each of 100 Ib (50 kg) or more, are placed and
Crusher-run aggregate-Aggregate that has been bro- embedded in the concrete as it is deposited. (See also
ken in a mechanical crusher and has not been subjected Rubble concrete.)
to any subsequent screening process. Cylinder strength-See Compressive strength.
CIS ratio-The molar or weight ratio, whichever is
specified, of calcium oxide to silicon dioxide; usually of o
binder materials cured in an autoclave.
Cube strength-The load per unit area at which a stan- Dampproofing-Treatment of concrete or mortar to re-
dard cube fails when tested in a specified manner. tard the passage or absorption of water, or water vapor,
Cubical piece (of aggregate)-One in which length, either by application of a suitable coating to exposed
breadth and thickness are approximately equal. surfaces, or by use of a suitable admixture or treated
Cumulative batching-Measuring more than one ingre- cement, or by use of pre-formed films such as
dient of a batch in the same container by bringing the polyethylene sheets under slabs on grade. (See also
batcher scale into balance at successive total weights as Vapor barrier.)
each ingredient is accumulated in the container. Darby-A hand-manipulated straightedge, usually 3 to 8
Curb form-A retainer or mold used in conjunction with a ft (1 to 2.5 m) long, used in the early stage leveling
curb tool to give the necessary shape and finish to a operations of concrete or plaster, preceding supplemental
concrete curb. floating and finishing.
Curb tool-A tool used to give the desired finish and shape Dash-bond coat-A thick slurry of portland cement, sand,
to the exposed surfaces of a concrete curb. and water flicked on surfaces with a paddle or brush to
V ~uring-Maintenance of humidity and temperature of provide a base for subsequent portland cement plaster
freshly placed concrete during some definite period fol- coats; sometimes used as a final finish on plaster.
lowing placing, casting, or finishing to assure satisfac- D-cracking-The progressive formation on a concrete sur-
tory hydration of the cementitious materials and proper face of a series of fine cracks at rather close intervals,
hardening of the concrete. often of random patterns, but in slabs on grade parallel-
Curing, electrical-A system in which a favorable tem- ing edges, joints, and cracks and usually curving across
perature is maintained in freshly-placed concrete by slab corners. (Also termed D-cracks and D-line cracks.)
supplying heat generated by electrical resistance. Dead end-In the stressing of a tendon from one end only,
Curing, steam-See Steam curing. the end opposite that to which stress is applied.
Curing agent-Catalyst, hardener. (See also Catalyst, Dead-end anchorage-The anchorage at that end of a
Hardener.) tendon which is opposite the jacking end.
Curing blanket-A built-up covering of sacks, matting, Dead load-A constant load that in structures is due to the
hessian, straw, waterproof paper, or other suitable mate- mass of the members, the supported structure, and per-
rial placed over freshly finished concrete. (See also Bur- manent attachments or accessories.
Deadman-An anchor for a guy line, usually a beam,
Curing compound-A liquid that can be applied as a
block, or other heavy item buried in the ground, to which
coating to the surface of newly placed concrete to retard
a line is attached.
the loss of water or, in the case of pigmented compounds,
also to reflect heat so as to provide an opportunity for the Decenter-To lower or remove centering or shoring.
concrete to develop its properties in a favorable tempera- Deck-The form on which concrete for a slab is placed, also
ture and moisture environment. (See also Curing.) the floor or roof slab itself. (See also Bridge deck.)
Curing cycle-See Autoclave cycle and Steam-curing Decking-Sheathing material for a deck or slab form.
cycle. Deflected tendons-Tendons which have a trajectory
Curing delay-See Presteaming period. that is curved or bent with respect to the gravity axis of
Curing kiln-See Steam curing room. the concrete member.
Curing membrane-See Membrane curing and Curing Defl~C?!ion:-A variation in position or shape of a structure
compound. or structural element due to effects of loads or volume

Oef Development length-The length of embedded rein-

forcement required to develop the design strength of the
change, usually measured as a linear deviation from an reinforcement at a critical section; formerly called bond
established plane rather than an angular variation. length.
Deformation-A change in dimension or shape due to Devil's float-A wooden float with two nails protruding
stress. (See also Time dependent deformation.) from the toe, used to roughen the surface of a brown
Deformed bar-A reinforcing bar with a manufactured plaster coat. (See also Texturing.)
pattern of surface ridges which provide a locking anchor- Diagonal crack-An inclined crack caused by shear
age with surrounding concrete. stress, usually at about 45 degrees to the neutral axis of a
Deformed plate-A flat piece of metal, thicker than 1,4 in. concrete member; or a crack in a slab, not parallel to
(6 mm), having horizontal deformations or corrugations; lateral or longitudinal dimension.
used in construction to form a vertical joint and provide a Diagonal cracking-Development of diagonal cracks.
mechanical interlock between adjacent sections. (See also Diagonal tension.)
Deformed reinforcement-Metal bars, wire, or fabric Diagonal tension-The principal tensile stress resulting
with a manufactured pattern of surface ridges which from the combination of normal and shear stresses acting
provide a locking anchorage with surrounding concrete. upon a structural element.
Deformed tie bar-See Tie bar. Diametral com pression test-See Splitting tensile test.
Dehydration-Removal of chemically bound, adsorbed, or Diamond mesh-A metallic fabric having rhomboidal
absorbed water from a material. openings in a geometric pattern. (See also Expanded
Deicer-A chemical, such as sodium or calcium chloride, metal lath.)
used to melt ice or snow on slabs and pavements, such Diatomaceous earth-A friable earthy material com-
melting being due to depression of the freezing point. posed of nearly pure hydrous amorphous silica (opal) and
Delamination-A separation along a plane parallel to a consisting essentially of the frustules of the microscopic
surface as in the separation of a coating from a substrate plants called diatoms.
or the layers of a coating from each other, or in the case of ~i..~l!L~Hir.l!t~-A compound having the composition
a concrete slab, a horizontal splitting, cracking, or sepa- 2CaO Si02 , abbreviated C2 S, that occurs in portland-
ration of a slab in a plane roughly parallel to, and cement clinker. (See also Belite.)
generally near, the upper surface; found most frequently Differential thermal analysis (DT A)-Indication of
in bridge decks and caused by the corrosion of reinforcing thermal reaction by differential thermocouple recording
steel or freezing and thawing; similar to spalling, scaling of temperature changes in a sample under investigation
or peeling except that delamination affects large areas compared with those of a thermally passive control sam-
and can often only be detected by tapping. ple, that is heated uniformly and simultaneously.
Delay-See Prestreaming period. Diffusivity, thermal-See Thermal diffusivity.
Delivery hose-Hose through which shotcrete, grout, or Dilation-An expansion of concrete during cooling or
pumped concrete or mortar passes; also known as mate- freezing generally calculated as the maximum deviation
rial hose or conveying hose. from the normal thermal contraction predicted from the
Demolding-Removal of molds from concrete test speci- length change-temperature curve or length change-time
mens or precast products. (See also Strip.) curve established at temperatures before initial freezing.
Dense concrete-See Concrete, dense. Diluent-A substance, liquid or solid, mixed with the ac-
Dense-graded aggregate-Aggregates graded to produce tive constituents of a formulation to increase the bulk or
low void content and maximum weight when compacted. lower the concentration.
Density-Weight per unit volume. (See also Specific Direct dumping-Discharge of concrete directly into place
gravity.) from crane bucket or mixer.
Density (dry)-The weight per unit volume of a dry sub-
Discoloration-Departure of color from that which is
stance at a stated temperature. (See also Specific
normal or desired.
Disintegration-Deterioration into small fragments or
Density control-Control of density of concrete in field
particles -iliI~ to any cause.
construction to insure that specified values as deter-
mined by standard tests are obtained. Dispersant-A material which deflocculates or disperses
Design load-Load, multiplied by appropriate load factor, finely ground materials by satisfying the surface energy
used to proportion members. requirements ofthe particles; used as a slurry thinner or
Design strength-The load-bearing capacity ofa member grinding aid.
computed on the basis of strain compatibility between Dispersing agent-An agent capable of increasing the
the concrete and the reinforcement, the resulting design fludity of pastes, mortars, or concretes by reduction of
stresses being taken as the strength of concrete and the inter-particle attraction.
yield stress of steel respectively to compute the ultimate Divider strips-In terrazzo work, nonferrous metal or
strength of a section. plastic strips of different thicknesses, and embedded
J?ete!i~~-Disintegration or chemical decomposi- depths usually % toU4 in. (10 to 40 mm), used to form
tion of a material during test or service exposure. (See panels in the topping.
also Disintegration.) D-line cracks-See D-cracking.
Detritus-Loose material produced by the disintegration Dolomite-A mineral having a specific crystal structure
of rocks through geological agencies or processes and consisting of calcium carbonate and magnesium car-
simulating those of nature. bonate in equivalent chemical amounts which are 54.27
Development bond stress-See Anchorage bond and 45.73 percent by weight, respectively; a rock contain-
stress. ing dolomite as the principal constituent.

Dome-Square prefabricated pan form used in two-way Dyn

(waffie) concrete joist floor construction. Dry mix-A concrete, mortar, or plaster mixture, com-
Double headed nail-A nail with two heads at, or near, monly sold in bags, containing all components except
one end to permit easy removal; widely used in concrete water; also a concrete of near zero slump or less.
formwork. Dry-mix shotcrete-Pneumatically conveyed shotcrete in
Double T-beam-A precast concrete member composed of which most of the mixing water is added at the nozzle.
two beams and a top slab projecting on both sides; also a (See also Pneumatic feed.)
flat slab panel with projecting stems. Dry mixing-Blending of the solid materials for mortar or
Double-up-A method of plastering characterized by ap- concrete"prior to adding the mixing water.
plication in successive operations with no setting or dry- Dry pack-Concrete or mortar mixtures deposited and
ing time between coats. consolidated by dry packing.
Doughnut (Donut)-A large washer of any shape to in- Dry packed concrete-Concrete placed by dry packing.
crease bearing area of bolts and ties; also a round con- Dry packing-Placing of zero slump, or near zero slump,
crete spacer with hole in the center to hold bars the concrete, mortar, or grout by ramming into a confined
desired distance from the forms. space.
Dowel-A steel pin, commonly a plain round steel bar, Dry process-In the manufacture of cement, the process
which extends into two adjoining portions of a concrete in which the raw materials are ground, conveyed,
construction, as at a joint in a pavement slab, so as to blended, and stored in a dry condition. (See also Wet
connect the portions and transfer shear loads. Also, as process.)
used in the construction of column and wall sections, a Dry-rodded volume-The bulk volume occupied by a dry
deformed steel reinforcing bar placed so as to transmit aggregate compacted by rodding under the standardized
tension or compression as well as shear loads. conditions used in measuring unit weight of aggregate.
Dowel deflection-Deflection caused by the transverse Dry-rodded weight-Weight per unit volume of dry
load imposed on a dowel. aggregate compacted by rodding under standardized
Dowel lubricant-Lubricating material applied to bars conditions; used in measuring unit weight of aggregate.
in expansion joints to reduce bond with the concrete and Dry rodding-In measurement of the weight per unit
promote unrestrained longitudinal movement. volume of coarse aggregates, the process of compacting
Dowel shear-The force applied in the plane of the cross dry material in a calibrated container by rodding under
section of the dowel. standardized conditions.
Drainage-The interception and removal of water from on Dry-shake-A dry mixture of cement and fine aggregate,
or under an area or roadway; the process of removing which is distributed evenly on an unformed surface after
surplus ground or surface water artificially; a general water has largely disappeared following the strike-off,
term for gravity flow of liquids in conduits. and then worked in by floating.
Drainage fill-Base course of granular material placed Dry-tamp process-See Dry packing.
between floor slab and sub-grade to impede capillary rise Dry topping-See Dry-shake.
of moisture. Also, lightweight concrete placed on floors or Dry-volume measurement-Measurement of the ingre-
roofs to promote drainage. dients of grout, mortar, or concrete by their bulk volume.
Draped tendons-See Deflected tendons. Drying shrinkage-Contraction caused by moisture loss.
Dried strength-The compressive or flexural strength of (See also Shrinkage.)
refractory concrete determined within 3 hrs after first Duct-A hole formed in a concrete member to accommo-
drying in an oven at 220 to 230 F (105 to 110 C) for a date a tendon for post-tensioning; a pipe or runway for
specified time. electric, telephone, or other utilities.
Drier-Chemical which promotes oxidation or drying of a Ductility-That property of a material by virtue of which
paint or adhesive. it may undergo large permanent deformation without
Drip-A transverse groove in the underside of a projecting
Dummy joint-See Groove joint.
piece of wood, stone, or concrete to prevent water from
flowing back to a wall. Dunagan analysis-A method of separating the ingre-
dients of freshly mixed concrete or mortar to determine
Dropchute-A device used to confine or to direct the flow
the proportions of the mixture.
of a falling stream of fresh concrete.
Durability-The ability of concrete to resist weathering
1. Dropchute, articulated-A device consisting of a
~ actIon, chemical attack, abrasion, and other conditions of
succession of tapered metal cylinders so designed that
the lower end of each cylinder fits into the upper end of
Dusting-The development of a powdered material at the
the one below.
surface of hardened concrete.
2. Dropchute, flexible-A device consisting of a
Dynamic analysis-Analysis of stresses in framing as
heavy, rubberized canvas, or plastic, collapsible tube.
functions of displacement under transient loading.
Drop-in beam-A simple beam, usually supported by can- Dynamic load-A load which is variable, i.e., not static,
tilever arms, with joints so arranged that it is installed such as a moving live load, earthquake, or wind.
by lowering into position. Dynamic loading-Loading from units (particularly ma-
Drop panel-The thickened structural portion of a flat chinery) which, by virtue oftheir movement or vibration,
slab in the area surrounding column, column capital, or impose stresses in excess of those imposed by their dead
bracket, in order to reduce the intensity of stresses. load.
Drop panel form-A retainer or mold so erected as to give Dynamic modulus of elasticity-The modulus of elastic-
the necessary shape, support, and finish to a drop panel. ity computed from the size, weight, shape, and funda-
Dry-batch weight-The weight of the materials, exclud- mental frequency of vibration of a concrete test speci-
ing water, used to make a batch of concrete. men, or from pulse velocity.

E Elastic limit-The limit of stress beyond which the strain

is not wholly recoverable.
Elastic loss-In prestressed concrete, the reduction in pre-
Early strength-Strength of concrete or mortar usually as stressing load resulting from the elastic shortening of the
developed at various times during the first 72 hrs after member.
placement. Elastic modulus-See Modulus of elasticity.
Earth pigments-The class of pigments which are pro- Elastic shortening-In prestressed concrete, the shorten-
duced by physical processing of materials mined directly ing of a member which occurs immediately on the appli-
from the earth; also frequently termed natural or min- cation of forces induced by prestressing.
eral pigments or colors. Elasticity-That property ofa material by virtue of which
Eccentric tendon-A prestressing tendon which follows a it tends to recover its original size and shape after defor-
trajectory not coincident with the gravity axis of the mation.
concrete member. Electrolysis-Production of chemical changes by the
Edge-bar reinforcement-Tension steel sometimes used passage of current through an electrolyte.
to strengthen otherwise inadequate edges in a slab, Electrolyte-A conducting medium in which the flow of
without resorting to edge thickening. current is accompanied by movement of matter; usually
Edge beam-A stiffening beam at the edge of a slab. an aqueous solution.
Edge form-Form work used to limit the horizontal spread Elephant trunk-An articulated tube or chute used in
of fresh concrete on flat surfaces such as pavements or concrete placement. (See also Dropchute and Tremie.)
floors. Elongated piece (of aggregate)-Particle of aggregate
Edger-A finishing tool used on the edges of fresh concrete for which the ratio of the length to the width of its cir-
to provide a rounded corner. cumscribing rectangular prism is greater than a
Effective area of concrete-Area of a section assumed to specified value. (See also Flat piece.)
be active in resisting the applied stresses; the area of a Embedment length-The length of embedded reinforce-
section which lies between the centroid of the tension ment provided beyond a critical section.
reinforcement and the compression face of the flexural Embedment length equivalent-The length of em-
member. bedded reinforcement which can develop the same stress
Effective area of reinforcement-The area obtained by as that which can be developed by a hook or mechanical
multiplying the right cross-sectional area of the metal anchorage.
reinforcement by the cosine of the angle between its Emery-A rock consisting essentially of an intercrystal-
direction and the direction for which its effectiveness is line mixture of corundum and magnetite or hematite; a
considered. manufactured aggregate composed of emery used to pro-
Effective area of reinforcement in diagonal bands- duce a wear and slip resistant concrete floor surface. (See
The area obtained by multiplying the normal cross- also Dry shake.)
sectional area of the reinforcement by the cosine of the Encastre-The end fixing of a built-in beam.
angle at which the band is inclined to the direction for Enclosure wall-A nonload-bearing wall intended only to
which its effectiveness is considered. enclose space.
Effective depth-Depth of a beam or slab section mea- Encrustation-See Incrustation.
sured from the compression face to the centroid of the End anchorage-
tensile reinforcement. 1. Length of reinforcement, or a mechanical anchor, or
Effective flange width-Width of slab adjoining a beam a hook, or combination thereof, beyond the point of nom i-
stem where the slab is assumed to function as the flange nal zero stress in the reinforcement of cast-in-place con-
element of a T-beam section. crete;
Effective prestress-The stress remaining in concrete 2. Mechanical device to transmit prestressing force to
due to prestressing after all losses have occurred, exclud- the concrete in a post-tensioned member.
ing the effect of superimposed loads and the weight of the See also Anchorage.
member; the stress remaining in the tendons after all End block-An enlarged end section of a member de-
losses have occurred excluding effects of dead load and signed to reduce anchorage stresses to allowable values.
superimposed load. Endothermic reaction-A chemical reaction which oc-
Effective span-The lesser of the two following distances: curs with the absorption of heat.
(a) the distance between centers of supports; (b) the clear Entrained air-Microscopic air bubbles intentionally in-
distance between supports plus the effective depth of the .,... corpora ted in mortar or concrete during mixing, usually
beam or slab. by use of a surface-active agent; typically between 10 and
Effective stress-In prestressed concrete, the stress re- 1000 /-Lm in diameter and spherical or nearly so. (See also
maining in the tendons after all losses of the prestressing Air entrainment.)
load have occurred. Entrapped air-Air voids in concrete which are not pur-
Effective width of slab-That part of the width of a slab posely entrained and which are significantly larger and
taken into account when designing T- or L-beams. less useful than those of entrained air, 1 mm or larger in
Efflorescence-A deposit of salts, usually white, formed size.
on a surface, the substance having emerged in solution Epoxy concrete-A mixture of epoxy resin, catalyst, fine
from within concrete or masonry and deposited by evap- aggregate, and coarse aggregate. (See also Epoxy
oration. mortar, Epoxy resins, and Polymer concrete.)
Elastic design-A method of analysis in which the design Epoxy mortar-A mixture of epoxy resin, catalyst, and
of a member is based on a linear stress-strain relation- fine aggregate. (See also Epoxy resins.)
ship and corresponding limiting elastic properties of the Epoxy resins-A class of organic chemical bonding sys-
material. tems used in the preparation of special coatings or adhe-

sives for concrete or as binders in epoxy resin mortars Fal

and concretes. Expansive cement, Type M-Interground or blended
Equivalent rectangular stress distribution-An as- mixtures of portland cement, calcium-aluminate cement,
sumption of uniform stress on compression side of neu- and calcium sulfate suitably proportioned.
tral axis in strength method of design to determine Expansive cement, Type S-A portland cement contain-
flexural capacity. ing a large computed tricalcium aluminate (CaA) content
ErosiQIL-Progressive disintegration of a solid by the ab- and an amount of calcium sulfate above the usual
rasive or cavitation action of gases, fluids, or solids in amount found in portland cement.
motion. (See also Abrasion resistance and Cavitation Expansive-cement concrete (mortar or grout)-A con-
damage.) crete (mortar or grout) made with expansive cement.
Ettringite-A mineral, high sulfate calcium sulfoalumi- Expansive component-The portion of an expansive ce- .
nate (3 CaO A1 2 0 3 3 CaS0 4 30-32 H 2 0) also written as ment which is responsible for the expansion, generally
Cas [AI(OHl s]2 . 24 H 20 [(S04h . 11;2 H 2 0]; occurring in one of several anhydrous calcium aluminate or sul-
nature or formed by sulfate attack on mortar and con- foaluminate compounds and a source of sulfate, with or
crete; the product of the principal expansion-producing without free lime, (CaO). The expansive component may
reaction in expansive cements; designated as "cement be produced separately and later ground or blended with
bacillus" in older literature. a normal portland cement clinker, in other instances,
Evaporable water-Water in set cement paste present in produced by firing in a kiln with the constituents of
capillaries or held by surface forces; measured as that portland cement.
removable by drying under specified conditions. (See also Exposed-aggregate finish-A decorative finish for con-
Nonevaporable water.) crete work achieved by removing, generally before the
Evaporation retardant-A long-chain organic material concrete has fully hardened, the outer skin of mortar and
such as cetyl alcohol which when spread on a water film exposing the coarse aggregate.
on the surface of concrete retards the evaporation of Exposed concrete-Concrete surfaces formed so as to
bleeding water. yield an acceptable texture and finish for permanent
Exfoliation-Disintegration occurring by peeling off in exposure to view. (See also Architectural concrete.)
successive layers; swelling up and opening into leaves or Extender-A finely divided inert mineral added to provide
plates like a partly opened book. economical bulk in paints, synthetic resins and adhe-
Exothermic reaction-A chemical reaction which occurs sives, or other products.
with the evolution of heat. Extensibility-The maximum tensile strain that hard-
Expanded blast-furnace slag-The lightweight cellular ened cement paste, mortar, or concrete can sustain be-
material obtained by controlled processing of molten fore cracking occurs.
blast-furnace slag with water, or water and other agents, Extension device-Any device, other than an adjustment
such as steam or compressed air or both. (See also Blast- screw, used to obtain vertical adjustment of shoring
furnace slag.) towers.
Expanded metal lath-A metal network, often used as Exterior panel-In a flat slab, a panel having at least one
reinforcement in concrete or mortar construction, formed edge which is not in common with another panel.
by suitably stamping or cutting sheet metal and stretch- External vibrator-See Vibration.
ing it to form open meshes, usually of diamond shape. Extreme compression fiber-Farthest fiber from the
(See also Diamond mesh.) neutral axis on the compression side of a member sub-
Expanded shale (clay or slate)-Lightweight vesicular jected to bending.
aggregate obtained by firing suitable raw materials in a Extreme tension fiber-Farthest fiber from the neutral
kiln or on a sintering grate under controlled conditions. axis on the tension side of a member subjected to bending.
Expanding cement-See Expansive cement. Exudation-A liquid or viscous gel-like material dis-
Expansion-See Contraction. charged through a pore, crack, or opening in the surface
Expansion joint-A separation between adjoining parts of concrete.
of a concrete structure which is provided to allow small
relative movements such as those caused by thermal
changes to occur independently. Factor of safety-The ratio of the ultimate strength (or
Expansion sleeve-A tubular metal covering for a dowel yield strength) of a material to the working stress as-
bar to allow its free longitudinal movement at a joint. sumed in the design (stress factor of safety); may also be
Expansive cement (general)-A cement which when expressed as the ratio of load, moment, or shear of struc-
mixed with water forms a paste that, after setting, tends tural member at the ultimate to that at the working level
to increase in volume to a significantly greater degree (load factor of safety).
than portland cement paste; used to compensate for vol- Fair face concrete-A concrete surface which, on comple-
ume decrease due to shrinkage or to induce tensile stress tion of the forming process, requires no further (concrete)
in reinforcement (post-tensioning). treatment other than curing. (See also Architectural
Expansive Cement, Type K-A mixture of portland ce- concrete.)
ment, anhydrous tetracalcium trialuminate sulfate False header-See Header.
(C4 A:l S), calcium sulfate (CaS04), and lime (CaO); the False set-The rapid development of rigidity in a freshly
C4 A:$ is a constituent of a separately burned clinker that mixed portland cement paste, mortar, or concrete with-
is interground with portland cement or alternately, it out the evolution of much heat, which rigidity can be
may be formed simultaneously with the portland cement dispelled and plasticity regained by further mixing with-
clinker compounds during the burning process. out addition of water; premature stiffening, hesitation

Fal Final setting time-The time required for a freshly mixed

set, early stiffening, and rubber set are terms referring to cement paste, mortar, or concrete to achieve final set.
the same phenomenon, but false set is the preferred des- (See also Initial setting time.)
ignation. Final stress-In prestressed concrete, the stress which
Falsework-The temporary structure erected to support exists after substantially all losses have occurred.
work in the process of construction; composed of shoring Fine aggregate-Aggregate passing the 'lis-in. (9.5-mm)
or vertical posting, form work for beams and slabs, and sieve and almost entirely passing the No.4 (4.75-mm)
lateral bracing. (See also Centering.) sieve and predominantly retained on the No. 200 (75-jLm)
Fascia-A flat member or band at the surface of a building sieve; or that portion of an aggregate passing the No.4
or the edge beam of a bridge; exposed eave of a building; (4.75-mm) sieve and predominantly retained on the No.
often inappropriately called facia. 200 (75-jLm) sieve. (See also Aggregate and Sand.)
Fat concrete-Concrete containing a relatively large Fine grained soiI-Soil in which the smaller grain sizes
amount of plastic and cohesive mortar. predominate, such as fine sand, silt, and clay.
Fatigne The weakening of a material caused by repeated Fineness-A measure of particle size.
or alternating loads. Fineness modulus-A factor obtained by adding the total
Fatigue failure-The phenomenon of rupture of a mate- percenta'~s-by"~eight of an aggregate sample retained
rial, when subjected to repeated loadings, at a stress on each of a specified series of sieves, and dividing the
substantially less than the ultimate static strength. sum by 100; in the United States the standard sieve sizes
Fatigue strength-The greatest stress which can be sus- are No. 100 (150 jLm), No. 50 (300 jLm), No. 30 (600 jLm),
tained for a given number of stress cycles without failure. No. 16 (1.18 mm), No.8 (2.36 mm) and No.4 (4.75 mm),
Faulting-Differential vertical displacement of a slab or and % in. (9.5 mm), % in. (19 mm), 1'h in. (38.1 mm),
other member adjacent to a joint or crack. 3 in. (75 mm), and 6 in. (150 mm).
Feather edge-A wood or metal tool having a beveled Finish-The texture of a surface after compacting and
edge; used to straighten re-entrant angles in finish plas- finishing operations have been performed.
ter coat; also edge of a concrete or mortar placement such Finish coat-Final thin coat of shotcrete preparatory to
as a patch or topping that is beveled at an acute angle. hand finishing; also exposed coat of plaster and stucco.
Feed wheel-Material distributor or regulator in certain Finish grinding-The final grinding of clinker into ce-
types of shotcrete equipment. ment, with calcium sulfate in the form of gypsum or
Felite-A name used by Tornebohm (1897) to identify one anhydrite generally being added; the final grinding op-
form of dicalcium silicate (2CaO' Si02 ), one of the crystal- eration required for a finished concrete surface, e.g.,
line components of portland cement clinker. (See also bump cutting of pavement, fin removal from structural
Alite, Belite, and Celite.) concrete, terrazzo floor grinding.
Ferrocement-A composite hydraulic structural material Finishing-Leveling, smoothing, compacting, and oth-
comprising thin sections consisting of cement mortar erwise treating surfaces of fresh or recently placed con-
reinforced by a number of very closely spaced layers of crete or mortar to produce desired appearance and ser-
steel wire mesh. vice. (See also Float and TroweL)
Fiber-reinforced concrete-See Concrete, fibrous. Finishing machine-A power-operated machine used to
Field bending-Bending of reinforcing bars on the job give the desired surface texture to a concrete slab.
rather than in a fabricating shop. Fire clay-An earthy or stony mineral aggregate which
Field concrete-See Concrete, field. has as the essential constituent hydrous silicates of
Field-cured cylinders-Test cylinders cured as nearly as aluminum with or without free silica, plastic when suffi-
practicable in the same manner as the concrete in the ciently pulverized and wetted, rigid when subsequently
structure to indicate when supporting forms may be re- dried, and of suitable refractoriness for use in commer-
moved, additional construction loads may be imposed, or cial refractory products.
the structure may be placed in service. Fire resistance-The property of a material or assembly
Filler- ~ to withstliiidfire or give protection from it; as applied to
~--l'.' Finely divided inert material such as pulverized elements of buildings, it is characterized by the ability to
limestone, silica, or colloidal substances sometimes confine a fire or to continue to perform a given structural
added to portland cement paint or other materials to function, or both.
reduce shrinkage, improve workability, or act as an ex- Fired strength-The compressive or flexural strength of
tender. refractory concrete determined upon cooling after first
2. Material used to fill an opening in a form. firing to a specified temperature for a specified time.
Fillet-A concave junction formed where two surfaces Fired unit weight-The unit weight of refractory con-
meet. (See also Chamfer strip.) crete, upon cooling, after having been exposed to a
Fin-A narrow linear projection on a formed concrete sur- specified firing temperature for a specified time.
face, resulting from mortar flowing out between spaces in Fishtail-A wedge-shaped piece of wood used as part of the
the form work. support form between tapered pans in concrete joist con-
Final prestress-See Final stress. struction.
Final set-A degree of stiffening of a mixture of cement Flame photometer-An instrument used to determine
and water greater than initial set, generally stated as an elements (especially sodium and potassium in portland
empirical value indicating the time in hours and minutes cement) by the color intensity of their unique flame
required for a cement paste to stiffen sufficiently to resist spectra resulting from introducing a solution of a com-
to an established degree, the penetration of a weighted pound of the element into a flame. (Also known as Flame
test needle; also applicable to concrete and mortar mix- spectrophotometer.)
tures with use of suitable test procedures. (See also Ini- Flash coat-A light coat of shotcrete used to cover minor
tial set.) blemishes on a concrete surface.

Flash set-The rapid development of rigidity in a freshly For

mixed portland cement paste, mortar, or concrete, usu- Flow table-A jigging device used in making flow tests for
ally with the evolution of considerable heat, which rigid- consistency of cement paste, mortar, or concrete. (See
ity cannot be dispelled nor can the plasticity be regained also Flow (2).)
by further mixing without addition of water; also re- Flow trough-A sloping trough used to convey concrete by
ferred to as quick set or grab set. gravity flow from a transit mix truck, or a receiving
Flashing-A thin impermeable sheet, narrow in compari- hopper to the point of placement. (See also Chute.)
son with its length, installed as a "waterproof' cover over Fluidifier-An admixture employed in grout to decrease
exposed joints, at roof valleys, hips, roof parapets, or the flow factor without changing water content.
intersections of roof and chimney. Fluosilicate-Magnesium or zinc silico-fluoride used to
Flat jack-A hydraulic jack consisting of light gage metal prepare aqueous solutions sometimes applied to concrete
bent and welded to a flat shape which expands under as surface-hardening agents.
internal pressure. Flush water-See Wash water.
Flat piece (of aggregate)-One in which the ratio of the Fly ash-The finely divided residue resulting from the
width to thickness of its circumscribing rectangular ----combustion of ground or powdered coal and which is
prism is greater than a specified value. (See also Elon- transported froII1 the firebox through the boiler by flue
gated piece (of aggregate.) gases; known in UK as Pulverized fuel ash (pfa).
Flat plate-A flat slab without column capitals or drop Foamed blast-furnace slag-See Expanded blast-
panels. (See also Flat slab.) furnace slag.
Flat slab-A concrete slab reinforced in two or more di- Foamed concrete-See Concrete, foamed.
rections, generally without beams or girders to transfer Fog curing-
the loads to supporting members. (See also Flat plate.) 1. Storage of concrete in a moist room in which the
Flexible pavement-A pavement structure which main- desired high humidity is achieved by the atomization of
tains intimate contact with and distributes loads to the fresh water. (See also Moist room.)
subgrade and depends on aggregate interlock, particle 2. Application of atomized fresh water to concrete,
friction, and cohesion for stability; cementing agents, stucco, mortar, or plaster.
where used, are generally bituminous materials as con- Folded plate-
trasted to portland cement in the case of rigid pavement. 1. A framing assembly composed of sloping slabs in a
(See also Rigid pavement.) hipped or gabled arrangement.
Flexural bond-In prestressed concrete, the stress be- 2. Prismatic shell with open polygonal section.
tween the concrete and the tendon which results from the Footing-That portion of the foundation of a structure
application of external load. which spreads and transmits load directly to the piles, or
Flexural rigidity-A measure of stiffness of a member, to the soil or supporting grillage.
indicated by the product of modulus of elasticity and Form-A temporary structure or mold for the support of
moment of inertia divided by the length of the member. concrete while it is setting and gaining sufficient
Flexural strength-A property of a material or structural strength to be self supporting. (See also Formwork.)
member that indicates its ability to resist failure in bend- Form anchor-Device used to secure formwork to pre-
ing. (See also Modulus of rupture.) viously placed concrete of adequate strength; the device
Flint-A variety of chert. (See also Chert.) is normally embedded in the concrete during placement.
Form coating-A liquid applied to usually interior
Float-A tool (not a darby), usually of wood, aluminum, or
magnesium, used in finishing operations to impart a formwork surfaces for a specific purpose, usually to pro-
mote easy release from the concrete, to preserve the form
relatively even but still open texture to an unformed
fresh concrete surface. material or to retard set of the near-surface matrix for
preparation of exposed-aggregate finishes.
Float finish-A rather rough concrete surface texture ob-
Form hanger-Device used to support formwork from a
tained by finishing with a float.
structural framework; the dead load of forms, weight of
Floating-The operation of finishing a fresh concrete or concrete, and construction and impact loads must be sup-
mortar surface by use of a float, preceding troweling ported.
when that is the final finish. Form insulation-Insulating material applied to outside
Flow- of forms between studs and over the top in sufficient
1. Time dependent irrecoverable deformation. (See thickness and air tightness to conserve heat of hydration
Rheology.) to maintain concrete at required temperatures in cold
2. A measure of the consistency of freshly mixed con- weather.
crete, mortar, or cement paste in terms of the increase in Form lining-Selected materials used to line the concret-
diameter of a molded truncated cone specimen after jig- ing face of formwork in order to impart a smooth or
ging a specified number of times. patterned finish to the concrete surface, to absorb
Flow cone-A device for measurement of grout consis- moisture from the concrete, or to apply a set-retarding
tency in which a predetermined volume of grout is per- chemical to the formed surface.
mitted to escape through a precisely sized orifice, the Form oil-Oil applied to interior surface of formwork to
time of efflux (flow factor) being used as the indication of promote easy release from the concrete when forms are
consistency; also the mold used to prepare a specimen for removed.
the flow test. Form pressure-Lateral pressure acting on vertical or
Flow factor-See Flow cone. inclined formed surfaces, resulting from the fluid-like
Flow promoter-Substance added to coating to enhance behavior of the unhardened concrete confined by the
brushability, flow, and leveling. forms.

Hea Horizontal-axis mixer-A concrete mixer of the revolv-

ing drum type in which the drum rotates about a horizon-
tal axis.
Horizontal brace-See Ledger.
Heavy-media separation-A method in which a liquid or Horizontal shoring-See Shoring, horizontal.
suspension of given specific gravity is used to separate Hot cement-Newly manufactured cement which has not
particles into a portion lighter than (those that float) and had an opportunity to cool after burning and grinding of
a portion heavier than (those that sink) the medium. the component materials.
Heavyweight aggregate-See Aggregate, heavyweight. Hot face-The surface of a refractory section exposed to
Heavyweight concrete-See High density concrete. the source of heat.
Hematite-A mineral, iron oxide (Fe20:l), used as aggre- Hot load test-A test for determining the resistance to
gate in high density concrete and in finely divided form deformation or shear of a refractory material when sub-
as a red pigment in colored concrete. jected to a specified compressive load at a specified tem-
Hemihydrate-A hydrate containing one-half molecule of perature for a specified time.
water to one molecule of compound, the most commonly Hoyer effect-In prestressed concrete, frictional forces
known hemihydrate is partially dehydrated gypsum which result from the tendency of the tendons to regain
(also known as Plaster of Paris), CaSO. YzH 2 0. (See also the diameter which they had before they were stressed.
Bassanite.) Hydrate-A chemical combination of water with another
Hesitation set-See False set. compound or an element.
Hessian-See Burlap. Hydrated lime-Calcium hydroxide, a dry powder ob-
High alumina cement-See Calcium-aluminate ce- tained by treating quicklime with water.
ment. ~li.QJ;l-Formation of a compound by the combining of
High-bond bar-See Deformed bar. water with some other substance; in concrete, the chemi-
High-density concrete-Concrete of exceptionally high cal reaction between hydraulic cement and water.
density, usually obtained by use of heavyweight aggre- Hydraulic cement-A cement that sets and hardens by
gates, used especially for radiation shielding. chemical interaction with water and that is capable of
High-discharge mixer-See Inclined-axis mixer. doing so under water.
High-early-strength cement-See Cement, high-early- Hydraulic hydrated lime-The hydrated dry cementi-
strength. tious product obtained by calcining a limestone containing
High~arlY-r~ength concrete-Concrete which, through silica and alumina to a temperature short of incipient
the use 0 19li::early':-strength cement or admixtures, fusion so as to form sufficient free calcium oxide to permit
is capable of attaining specified strength at an earlier hydration and at the same time leaving unhydrated suf-
age than normal concrete. ficient calcium silicates to give the dry powder its hy-
High-lift grouting-A technique in concrete masonry draulic properties.
wall construction in which the grouting operation is de-
layed until the wall has been laid up to a full story height.
High pressure steam curing-See Autoclave curing.
High strength reinforcement-See Reinforcement, Ignition loss-See Loss on ignition.
high strength. Ilmenite-A mineral, iron titanate (FeTiO:J, which in
High-strength steel-Steel with a high yield point, in the pure or impure form is commonly used as aggregate in
case of reinforcing bars 60,000 psi (414MPa) and greater. high density concrete.
(See also Reinforcement, high strength.) Impending slough-The consistency obtained with shot-
High temperature steam curing-See Atmospheric- crete containing the maximum amount of water that can
pressure steam curing, and Autoclave curing. be used without flow or sag after placement.
Hinge joint-Any joint which permits hinge action with Inclined-axis mixer-A truck with revolving drum which
no appreciable separation of the adjacent members. rotates about an axis inclined to the bed of the truck
Hod-A portable trough for carrying mortar, brickes, etc., chassis.
fixed crosswise on top of a pole and carried on the shoul- Incrustation-A crust or coating, generally hard, formed
der. on the surface of concrete or masonry construction or on
Holding-down bolt-See Anchor bolt. aggregate particles.
Holding period-See Presteaming period. Indented wire-Wire having machine-made surface in-
Honeycomb-Voids left in concrete due to failure of the dentations intended to improve bond; depending on type
mortar to effectively fill the spaces among coarse aggre- of wire, may be used for either concrete reinforcement or
gate particles. pretensioning tendons.
Hook-A bend in the end of a reinforcing bar. Industrialized building-The integration of planning,
Hooked bar-A reinforcing bar with the end bent into a design, programming, manufacturing, site operations,
hook to provide anchorage. scheduling, financing and management into a disci-
Hooke's Law-The law, which holds practically for plined method of mechanized production of buildings,
strains within the elastic limit, that the strain is propor- sometimes called Systems building.
tional to the stress producing it. (See also Proportional Inelastic behavior-See Plastic deformation.
limit and Modulus of elasticity.) Infrared spectroscopy-The use of a spectrophotometer
Hoop-A one-piece closed tie or continuously wound tie for determination of infrared absorption spectra (2.5 to
not less than #3 in size, the ends of which have a stan- 18 [Lm wave lengths) of materials; used for detection, de-
dard 135-deg bend with a ten-bar-diameter extension, termination, and identification especially of organic ma-
that encloses the longitudinal reinforcement. terials.

Initial drying shrinkage-The difference between the Kil

length of a specimen (molded and cured under stated
conditions) and its length when first dried to constant Jointer (concrete)-A metal tool about 6 in. (150 mm)
length, expressed as a percentag" of the moist length. long and from 2 to 4% in. (50 to 100 mm) wide and having
Initial prestress-The prestressing stress (or force) applied shallow, medium, or deep bits (cutting edges) ranging
to the concrete at the time of stressing. from 3/1!; in. to % in. (5 to 20 mm) or deeper used to cut a
Initial set-A degree of stiffening of a mixture of cement joint partly through fresh concrete.
and water less than final set, generally stated as an Joist-A comparatively narrow beam, used in closely
empirical value indicating the time in hours and minutes spaced arrangements to support floor or roof slabs which
required for cement paste to stiffen sufficiently to resist require no reinforcement except that required for tem-
to an established degree, the penetration of a weighted perature and shrinkage stresses; also a horizontal struc-
test needle; also applicable to concrete or mortar with use tural member such as that which supports deck form
of suitable test procedures. (See also Final set.) sheathing. (See also Beam.)
Initial setting_ time-The time required for a freshly Jumbo-Traveling support for forms, commonly used in
mixed cement paste, mortar or concrete to achieve initial tunnel work.
set. (See also Final setting time.)
Initial stresses-The stresses occurring in prestressed K
concrete members before any losses occur.
Initial tangent modulus-See Modulus of elasticity. Kaolin-A rock, generally white, consisting primarily of
In-situ concrete-See Concrete, in-situ. clay minerals of the kaolinite group, composed princi-
Insoluble residue-The portion of a cement or aggregate pally of hydrous aluminum silicate, of low iron content,
that is not soluble in dilute hydrochloric acid of stated used as raw material in the manufacture of white ce-
concentration. ment.
Insulating concrete-Concrete having low thermal con- Kaolinite-A common clay mineral having the general
ductivity; used as thermal insulation. formula AI" (Si"05) (OH 4 ), the primary constituent of
Internal vibration-See Vibration. kaolin.
I-section-Beam cross section consisting of top and bottom Keene's cement-A cement composed of finely ground,
flanges connected by a vertical web. anhydrous, calcined gypsum, the set of which is acceler-
Isolationjoint-A separation between adjoining parts of a ated by the addition of other materials.
concrete structure, usually a vertical plane, at a designed Kelly balf-An apparatus used for indicating the consis-
location such as to interfere least with performance ofthe tency offresh concrete, consisting of a cylinder 6 in. (150
structure, yet such as to allow relative movement and mm) in diameter with a hemispheric ally shaped bottom
avoid formation of cracks elsewhere in the concrete and and handle weighing 30 lb (14 kg) and a stirrup to guide
through which all or part of the bonded reinforcement is the handle and serve as a reference for measuring depth
interrupted. (See also Contraction joint.) of penetration. (See also Ball test.)
Isotropy-The behavior of a medium having the same Kelly ball test-See Ball test and Kelly ball.
properties in all directions. Kerb form; Kerb tool-See Curb form and Curb tool.
Kerf-To cut or notch, as a beam, transversely along the
J underside to curve it; also a cut or notch in a member
such as a rustication strip to avoid damage from swelling
J ack-A mechanical device used to apply force to prestress- of the wood and to permit easier removal.
ing tendons, adjust elevation of forms or form supports, Kern area-The area within a geometric shape in which a
and raise objects small distances. compressive force may be applied without tensile stresses
Jack shore-Telescoping, or otherwise adjustable, resulting in any of the extreme fibers of the section.
single-post metal shore. Kern distance-The ratio of the section modulus of the
Jacking device-The device used to stress the tendons for cross section about the axis perpendicular to the kern
prestressed concrete; also, a device for raising a vertical distance, divided by the area of the cross section.
slipform. Key-See Keyway.
Jacking force-In prestressed concrete, the temporary Keyed, Keying-Fastened or fixed in position in a notch or
force exerted by the device which introduces tension into other recess.
the tendons. Keyway-A recess or groove in one lift or placement of
Jacking stress-The maximum stress occurring in a pre- concrete which is filled with concrete of the next lift,
stressed tendon during stressing. giving shear strength to the joint.
Jaw crusher-A machine having two inclined jaws, one or Kick strip-See Kicker.
both being actuated by a reciprocating motion so that the Kicker-A wood block or board attached to a form work
charge is repeatedly "nipped" between the jaws. member in a building frame or formwork to make the
Jitterbug-A grate tamper for pushing coarse aggregate structure more stable; in form work it acts as a haunch.
slightly below the surface of a slab to facilitate finishing. (See also Stub wall.)
Joint, construction-See Construction joint. Kiln-A furnace or oven for drying, charring, hardening,
Joint, contraction-See Contraction joint. baking, calcining, sintering, or burning various mate-
Joint, expansion-See Expansion joint. rials. (See also Steam-curing room.)
Joint filler-Compressible material used to fill a joint to Kiln, Cement-A kiln in which the ground and propor-
prevent the infiltration of debris and to provide support tioned raw mix is dried, calcined, and burned into clinker
for sealants. at a temperature of 2600 to 3000 F (1420 to 1650 C); can
Joint sealant-Compressible material used to exclude be of the rotary, shaft, fluid-bed, or traveling grate type;
water and solid foreign materials from joints. fuel may be coal, oil, or gas.

Kip general term for the various chemical and physical forms
Kip-lOOO Ib force, equals 4448.222 newtons. of quicklime, hydrated lime, and hydraulic hydrated
Knee brace-Brace between horizontal and vertical lime.
members in a building frame or formwork to make the Limit design-A method of proportioning reinforced con-
structure more stable; in formwork it acts as a haunch. crete members based on calculations of their strength.
(See also Strength design method.)
l Limonite-An iron ore composed of a mixture of hydrated
ferric oxides; occasionally used in high density concrete
Lacing-Horizontal bracing between shoring members. because of its high density and water content which con-
Lagging-Heavy sheathing used as in underground work tribute to its effectiveness in radiation shielding. (See
to withstand earth pressure. (See also Sheathing.) also Brown oxide.)
Laitance-A layer of weak and nondurable material con- Linear prestressing-Prestressing as applied to linear
taining cement and fines from aggregates, brought by members, such as beams, columns, etc.
bleeding water to the top of overwet concrete, the amount Linear transformation-The method of altering the
of which is generally increased by overworking or over- trajectory of the prestressing tendon in any statically
manipulating concrete at the surface by improper finish- indeterminate prestressed structure by changing the lo-
ing or by job traffic. cation of the tendon at one or more interior supports
Lap-The length by which one bar or sheet of fabric rein- without altering its position at the end supports and
forcement overlaps another. without changing the basic shape of the trajectory be-
Lap splice-A connection of reinforcing steel made by tween any supports; linear transformation does not
lapping the ends of the bars. change the location of trajectory of the pressure line.
Lapping (reinforcing steeD-The overlapping of rein- Linear traverse method-Determination of the volumet-
forcing steel bars, welded wire fabric, or expanded metal ric composition of a solid by integrating the distance
so that there may be continuity of stress in the reinforc- traversed across areas of each component along a line or
ing when the concrete member is subjected to flexural or along regularly spaced lines in one or more planes inter-
tensile loading. secting a sample of the solid; frequently employed to
Larnite-A mineral; beta dicalcium silicate (Ca2Si04); oc- determine characteristics of the air-void system in har-
curs naturally at Scawt Hill, Northern Ireland, and arti- dened concrete by microscopical examination along a
ficially in slags and as a major constituent of portland series of traverse lines on finely ground sections of the
cement. concrete; sometimes called the Rosiwal method.
Lateral reinforcement--See Reinforcement, lateral. Lining-Any sheet, plate, or layer of material attached
Latex-A water emulsion of a synthetic rubber or plastic directly to the inside face offormwork to improve or alter
obtained by polymerization and used especially in coat- the surface texture and quality of the finished concrete.
ings and adhesives. (See also Form lining.)
Layer--See Course. Lintel-A horizontal supporting member above an open-
L-beam-A beam whose section has the form of an in- ing such as a window or a door.
verted L, usually occurring in the edge of a floor, of which Liquid limit-Water content, expressed as a percentage of
a part forms the top flange of the beam. the dry weight of the soil at which the soil passes from the
L-column-The portion of a precast concrete frame, com- plastic to the liquid state under standard test conditions.
posed of the column, the haunch, and part of the girder. (See also Atterberg limits.)
Leaf--See Wythe. Liquid-volume measurement-Measurement of grout
Lean concrete-Concrete of low cement content. on the basis of the total volume of solid and liquid con-
Ledger-An L-shaped horizontal member that supports stituents.
other permanent or temporary structural members. (See Live load-Any load that is not permanently applied to a
also Beam.) structure.
Lever arm-In a structural member, the distance from the Load, service--See Service dead load and Service live
center of the tensile reinforcement to the center of action load.
of the compression. Load binder-A device used to tighten chains holding
L-head-The top of a shore formed with a braced horizon- loads in place on a truck bed.
tal member projecting from one side forming an inverted Load-factor-A factor by which a service load is multi-
L-shaped assembly. plied to determine a design load. (See also Phi (ef fac-
Lift-The concrete placed between two consecutive hori- tor.)
zontal construction joints, usually consisting of several Load-bearing wall-A wall designed and built to carry
layers or courses. superimposed vertical and shear loads as opposed to
Lift joint--Surface at which two successive lifts meet. nonload-bearing walls.
Lift slab-A method of concrete construction in which floor Load-transfer assembly-Most commonly, the unit
and roof slabs are cast on or at ground level and hoisted (basket or plate) designed to support or link dowel bars
into position by jacking; also a slab which is a component during concreting operations so as to hold them in place,
of such construction. in the desired alignment.
Lifts (or Tiers)-The number of frames of scaffolding Loading hopper-A hopper in which concrete or other
erected one above each other in a vertical direction. free flowing material is placed for loading by gravity into
Lightweight aggregate--See Aggregate, lightweight. buggies or other conveyances for transport to the forms or
Lightweight concrete-Concrete of substantially lower to other place of processing, use, or storage.
unit weight than thatmade using gravel or crushed stone Locking device-A device used to secure a cross brace in
aggregates. scaffolding to the frame or panel.
Lime--Specifically, calcium oxide (CaO); also, loosely, a Long column--See Column, long.

Longitudinal bar-See Longitudinal reinforcement. Mes

Longitudinal joint-A joint parallel to the long dimen-
sion of a structure or pavement.
Longitudinal reinforcement-Reinforcement essen- Mat-See Bar mat.
tially parallel to the long axis of a concrete member or Mat foundation-A continuous footing supporting an
pavement. array of columns in several rows in each direction, hav-
Los Angeles Abrasion Test-Test for abrasion resistance ing a slab-like shape with or without depressions or open-
of concrete aggregates. ings, covering an area at least 75 percentof the total area
Loss of prestress-The reduction in the prestressing force within the outer limits of the assembly. (See also Raft
which results from the combined effects of strains in the foundation.)
concrete and steel, including slip at anchorage, re- Material hose-See Delivery hose.
laxation of steel stress, frictional loss due to curvature in Matrix-In the case of mortar, the cement paste in which
the tendons and the effects of elastic shortening, creep the fine aggregate particles are embedded; in the case of
and shrinkage of the concrete. concrete, the mortar in which the coarse aggregate parti-
Loss on ignition-The percentage loss in weight of a sam- cles are embedded.
ple ignited to constant weight at a specified temperature, Maximum size of aggregate-In specifications for or de-
usually 900-1000 C. scrIPiTons"or'ag"gre-gate,-"the smallest sieve opening
Low-alkali cement-See Cement, low-alkali. through which the entire amount of aggregate is re-
Low-density concrete-Concrete having an oven-dry quired to pass. (See also Nominal maximum size of
unit weight of less than 50 pcf (800 kg/m"). aggregate.)
Low-heat cement-See Cement, low-heat. Maximum-temperature period-A time interval
Low-lift grouting-The common and simple method of throughout which the maximum temperature is held
unifying concrete masonry, in which the wall sections constant in an autoclave or steam-curing room.
are built to a height of not more than 4 ft. (1.2 m) before Mechanical analysis-The process of determining
the cells of the masonry units are filled with grout. particle-size distribution of an aggregate. (See also
Low-pressure steam curing-See Atmospheric-pres- Sieve analysis.)
sure steam curing. Mechanical anchorage-Any mechanical device capable
L-shore-A shore with an L-head. (See also L-head.) of developing the strength of the reinforcement without
damage to the concrete.
Mechanical bond-In general concrete construction, the
M physicalTni~h;~k between cement paste and aggregate,
or between concrete and reinforcement (specifically, the
Macroscopic-See Megascopic. sliding resistance of an embedded bar and not the adhe-
Magnetite-A mineral, ferrous ferric oxide (FeFe204); the sive resistance). In plastering, the physical keying of a
principal constituent of magnetic black iron ore; specific plaster coat to: (a) another, (b) to the plaster base by
gravity about 5.2 and Mohs hardness about 6; used as an means of plaster keys to the lath, or (c) through interlock
aggregate in high density concrete. with adjacent plaster casts created by means of scratch-
Main bar-See Main reinforcement. ing or cross raking.
Main reinforcement-Steel reinforcement designed to Megascopic-Visible to the unaided eye.
resist stresses resulting from design loads and moments, Melilite-A group of minerals ranging from the calcium
as opposed to reinforcement intended to resist secondary magnesium silicate (ackermanite) to the calcium alumi-
stresses. nate silicate (gehlenite) that occur as crystals in blast-
Manual batcher-See Batcher. furnace slag. (See also Merwinite.)
Manufactured sand-See Sand. Melt-The molten portion of the raw material mass during
Map cracking-See Crazing. the burning of cement clinker, firing of lightweight
Marl-Calcareous clay, usually containing from 35 to 65 aggregates, or expanding of blast-furnace slags.
percent calcium carbonate (CaCO:l ), found in the bottoms Membrane curing-A process that involves either liquid
of shallow lakes, swamps, or extinct fresh-water basins. sealing compound (e.g., bituminous and paraffinic emul-
Masonry-Construction composed of shaped or molded sions, coal tar cut-backs, pigmented and nonpigmented
units, usually small enough to be handled by one man and resin suspensions, or suspensions of wax and drying oil)
composed of stone, ceramic brick or tile, concrete, glass, or nonliquid protective coating (e.g., sheet plastics or
adobe, or the like; sometimes used to designate cast-in- "waterproof" paper), both of which types function as
place concrete. films to restrict evaporation of mixing water from the
Masonry cement-See Cement, masonry. fresh concrete surface.
Masonry filler unit-Masonry unit used to fill in between Membrane theory-A theory of design for thin shells,
joists or beams to provide a platform for a cast-in-place based on the premise that a shell cannot resist bending
concrete slab. because it deflects; the only stresses that exist, therefore,
Masonry mortar-Mortar used in masonry structures. in any section are shear stress and direct compression or
(See also Cement, masonry and Mortar.) tension.
Masonry unit-A construction unit in masonry. (See also Merwinite-One of the principal crystalline phases found
Block.) in blast-furnace slags; chemical formula is 3CaO'
Mass concrete-Any volume of concrete with dimensions MgO' 2SiO z, crystal system is monoclinic, and specific
large enough to require that measures be taken to cope gravity is 3.15. (See also Melilite.)
with generation of heat from hydration ofthe cement and Mesh-See Welded-wire fabric.
attendant volume change to minimize cracking. Mesh reinforcement-See Welded-wire fabric rein-
Mass curing-Adiabatic curing in sealed containers. forcement.

Mic truck mixer, time is given in total minutes at a specified

mixing speed or expressed in terms oftotal revolutions at
a specified mixing speed. (See also Amount of mixing.)
Mixing water-The water in freshly mixed sand-cement
Micron-Name formerly used for micrometre (p,m); a unit grout, mortar, or concrete, exclusive of any previously
of length, one-thousandth of a millimeter or one- absorbed by the aggregate (e.g., water considered in the
millionth of a meter. computation of the net water-cement ratio). (See also
Microscopic-Discernible only with the aid of a micro- Batched water and Surface moisture.)
scope. Mixture-The assembled, blended, commingled ingre-
Microcracks-Microscopic cracks within concrete. dients of mortar, concrete, or the like; or the proportions
Middle strip-In flat slab framing, the slab portion which for their assembly.
occupies the middle half of the span between columns. Modular ratio-The ratio of modulus of elasticity of steel
(See also Column strip.) Es to that of concreteE(, usually denoted by the symbol n.
Mill scale-The oxide layer formed during the hot rolling Modulus of deformation-A concept of modulus of elas-
of metals, such as that formed on hot-rolled reinforcing ticity expressed as a function of two time variables;
bars. strain in loaded concrete as a function of the age at which
Mineral aggregate-Aggregate consisting essentially of the load is initially applied and of the length of time the
inorganic nonmetallic materials. load is sustained.
Mix-The act or process of mixing; also mixture of mate- Modulus of elasticity-The ratio of normal stress to cor-
rials, such as mortar or concrete. -, responding strain for tensile or compressive stresses
Mix design-See Proportioning. below the proportional limit of the material; referred to
Mixer-A machine used for blending the constituents of as "elastic modulus of elasticity;" "Young's modulus,"
---;;;ncrete, grout, mortar, cement paste, or other mixture. and "Young's modulus of elasticity;" denoted by the sym-
Mixer, hatch-See Batch mixer. bol E. (See also Modulus of rigidity.)
Mixer, colloidal-A mixer designed to produce colloidal Note: Few materials conform to Hooke's law through-
grout. out the entire range of stress-strain relations; deviations
Mixer, horizontal shaft-A mixer having a stationary there from are caused by inelastic behavior. If the de-
cylindrical mixing compartment, with the axis of the viations are significant, the slope of the tangent to
cylinder horizontal, and one or more rotating horizontal the stress-strain curve at the origin, the slope of the tan-
shafts to which mixing blades or paddles are attached. gent to the stress-strain curve at any given stress, the
Mixer, nontilting-A horizontally rotating drum mixer slope ofthe secant drawn from the origin to any specified
that charges, mixes, and discharges without tilting. point on the stress-strain curve, or the slope of the chord
Mixer, open-top-A truck-mounted mixer consisting of a connecting any two specified points on the stress-strain
trough or a segment of a cylindrical mixing compartment curve, may be considered as the modulus; in such cases
within which paddles or blades rotate about the horizon- the modulus is designated, respectively, as the "initial
tal axis of the trough. (See also Mixer, horizontal tangent modulus," the "tangent modulus," the "secant
shaft.) modulus," or the "chord modulus," and the stress stated.
Mixer, pan-See Mixer, vertical shaft. The modulus is expressed as force per unit of area (e.g.,
Mixer, tilting-A rotating drum mixer that discharges by psi or Pa).
tilting the drum about a fixed or movable horizontal axis Modulus of rigidity-The ratio of unit shearing stress to
at right angles to the drum axis. The drum axis may be the corresponding unit shearing strain; referred to as
horizontal or inclined while charging and mixing. "shear modulus" and "modulus of elasticity in shear;"
Mixer, vertical shaft-A cylindrical or annular mixing denoted by the symbol G. (See also Modulus of elastic-
compartment having an essentially level floor and con- ity.)
taining one or more vertical rotating shafts to which Modulus of rupture-A measure of the ultimate load-
blades or paddles are attached; the mixing compartment carrying capacity of a beam and sometimes referred to as
may be stationary or rotate about a vertical axis. "rupture modulus" or "rupture strength." It is calculated
Mixer efficiency-The adequacy of a mixer in rendering a for apparent tensile stress in the extreme fiber of a trans-
homogeneous product within a stated period; homo- verse test specimen under the load which produces rup-
geneity is determinable by testing for relative dif- ture. (See also Flexural strength.)
ferences in physical properties of samples extracted from Note: The actual stress in the extreme fiber is less than
different portions of a freshly mixed batch. the apparent stress since the flexure formula employed
Mixing cycle-The time taken for a complete cycle in a in the calculation is valid only for stresses within the
batch mixer, i.e., the time elapsing between successive proportional limit of the material; nevertheless, the nom-
repetitions of the same operation (e.g., successive dis- inal rupture strength so obtained is considered the rup-
charges of the mixer). ture modulus.
Mixing plant-See Batch plant. Modulus of subgrade reaction-Ratio of load per unit
Mixing speed-Rotation rate of a mixer drum or of the area of horizontal surface (of a mass of soil) to correspond-
paddles in an open-top, pan, or trough mixer, when mix- ing settlement ofthe surface; it is determined as the slope
ing a batch; expressed in revolutions per minute (rpm), of the secant, drawn between the point corresponding to
or in peripheral feet per minute of a point on the circum- zero settlement and a specified point on the load-
ference at maximum diameter. settlement curve obtained from a plate load test on a soil
Mixing time-The period during which the constituents of using a 30 in. or greater diameter loading plate.
a batch of concrete are mixed by a mixer; for a stationary Moist room-A room in which the atmosphere is main-
mixer, time is given in minutes from the completion of tained at a selected temperature (usually 23.0 1.7 Cor
mixer charging until the beginning of discharge; for a 73.4 3.0 F) and a relative humidity of at least 98

percent, for the purpose of curing and storing cementiti- Nom

ous test speciment; the facilities must be sufficient to Mosaic-Inlaid exposed surface designs of aggregates or
maintain free moisture continuously on the exterior of other material.
test specimens. Moving forms-Large prefabricated units of form work
Moisture movement- incorporating supports, and designed to be moved hori-
1. The movement of moisture through a porous zontally on rollers or similar devices, with a minimum
medium. amount of dismantling between successive uses.
2. The effects of such movement on efflorescence and Mud sill-A timber or timber assembly bedded into the
volume change in hardened cement paste, mortar, con- earth grade as a means of supporting framed construc-
crete, or rock. tion.
See also Shrinkage and Swelling. Mud slab-A 2-in. to 6-in. (50-mm to 150-mm) layer of
Mold- concrete below a structural concrete floor or footing over
1. A device containing a cavity into which neat cement, soft, wet soil; also called mud mat.
mortar, or concrete test specimens are cast. Multielement prestressing-Prestressing accomplished
2. A form used in the fabrication of precast mortar or by stressing an assembly of several individual structural
concrete units (e.g., masonry units). elements as a means of producing one integrated struc-
Mold oil-A mineral oil that is applied to the interior tural member.
surface of a clean mold, before casting concrete or mortar Multistage stressing-Prestressing performed in stages
therein, to facilitate removal of the mold after the con- as the construction progresses.
crete or mortar has hardened. (See also Form oil, Bond
breaker, and Release agent.)
Moment-The colloquial expression for the more descrip- Nailable concrete-Concrete, usually made with a suita-
tive term bending moment. (See also Bending mo- ble lightweight aggregate, with or without the addition
ment.) of sawdust, into which nails can be driven.
Moment distribution-A method of structural analysis Nailer-A strip of wood or other fitting attached to or setin
for continuous beams and rigid frames whereby succes- concrete, or attached to steel to facilitate making nailed
sive converging corrections are made to an assumed set of connections.
moments until the desired precision is obtained; also Natural cement-See Cement, natural.
known as the Hardy Cross method. Natural sand-Sand resulting from natural disintegra-
Monolith-A body of plain or reinforced concrete cast or tion and abrasion of rock. (See also Sand and Fine
erected as a single integral mass or structure. aggregate.)
Monolithic concrete-Concrete cast with no joints other
Neat cement-Hydraulic cement in the unhydrated state.
than construction joints.
Neat cement grout-A fluid mixture of hydraulic cement
Monolithic surface treatment-See Dry shake.
and water, with or without admixture; also the hardened
Monolithic terrazzo-The application of a '?/g in. (15 mm)
equivalent of such mixture.
terrazzo topping directly to a specially prepared concrete
Neat cement paste-A mixture of hydraulic cement and
substrata, eliminating an underbed.
water, both before and after setting and hardening.
Monolithic topping-On flatwork: a higher quality, more
Neat line-A line defining the proposed or specified limits
serviceable topping course placed promptly after the base
course has lost all slump and bleeding water. of an excavation or structure.
Monomer-An organic liquid, of relatively low molecular Negative moment-A condition of flexure in which top
weight, that creates a solid polymer by reacting with fibers of a horizontally placed member, or external fibers
itself or other compounds of low molecular weight or of a vertically placed exterior member, are subjected to
both. tensile stresses.
Monomolecular-Composed of single molecules; specifi- Negative reinforcement-Steel reinforcement for nega-
cally, films that are one molecule thick. Denotes a thick- tive moment.
ness equal to one molecule (e.g., certain chemical com- Net mixing water-See Mixing water.
pounds develop a "monomolecular film" over bleeding Neutral axis-A line in the plane of a structural member
water at the surface of freshly placed concrete or mortar subject to bending where the longitudinal stress is zero.
as a means of reducing the rate of evaporation). (See also Nicol prism-A system of two optically clear crystals of
Evaporation retardant.) calcite ("Iceland spar") used in producing plane-polarized
Montmorillonite-See Montmorillonoid. light.
Montmorillonoid-A group of clay minerals, including No-fines concrete-A concrete mixture containing little
montmorillonite characterized by a sheet-like internal or no fine aggregate.
molecular structure; consisting of extremely finely- No-slump concrete-Concrete with a slump of 1/4 in. (6
divided hydrous aluminum or magnesium silicates that mm) or less. (See also Zero-slump concrete.)
swell on wetting, shrink on drying, and are subject to ion Nominal maximum size of aggregate-In specifications
exchange. for or descriptions of aggregate, the smallest sieve open-
~ortar-A mixture of cement paste and fine aggregate; in ing through which the entire amount of aggregate is
fresh concrete, the material occupying the interstices permitted to pass. (See also Maximum size of aggre-
among particles of coarse aggregate; in masonry con- gate.)
struction, mortar may contain masonry cement, or may Note: Specifications on aggregates usually stipulates a
contain hydraulic cement with lime (and possibly other sieve opening through which all the aggregate may, but
admixtures) to afford greater plasticity and workability not need, pass so that a stated maximum proportion of
than are attainable with standard hydraulic cement the aggregate may be retained on that sieve. A sieve
mortar. (See also Cement, masonry and Masonry opening so designated is the nominal size of the aggre-

Non Open-circuit grouting-A grouting system with no pro-

Nominal mix-The proportions of the constituents of a vision for recirculation of grout to the pump.
proposed concrete mixture. Open-top mixer-A truck-mounted mixer consisting of a
Nonagitating unit-A truck-mounted container, for trough or a segment of a cylindrical mixing compartment
transporting central-mixed concrete, not equipped to within which paddles or blades rotate about the horizon-
provide agitation (slow mixing) during delivery. tal axis of the trough. (See also Mixer, horizontal
Non-air-entrained concrete-Concrete in which neither shaft.)
an air-entraining admixture nor air-entraining cement Orthotropic-A contraction of the terms "orthogonal
has been used. aIi.istropic" as in the phrase "orthogonal anistropic
Nonconcordant tendons-In statically indeterminate plate;" a hypothetical plate consisting of beams and a
structures, tendons that are not coincident with the pres- slab acting together with different flexural rigidities in
sure line caused by the tendons. (See also Cap cables.) the longitudinal and transverse directions, as in a com-
Nonevaporable water-The water that is chemically posite beam bridge.
combined during cement hydration; not removable by Ottawa sand-Silica sand produced by processing of ma-
specified drying. (See also Evaporable water.) terial obtained by hydraulic mining of massive or-
Nonprestressed reinforcement-Reinforcing steel, not thoquartzite situated in deposits near Ottawa, Illinois,
subjected to either pretensioning or post-tensioning. composed almost entirely of naturally rounded grains of
Nonsimultaneous prestressing-The post-tensioning of nearly pure quartz; used in mortars for testing of hy-
tendons individually rather than simultaneously. draulic cement. (See also Standard sand and Graded
Normal consistency- standard sand.)
1. The degree of wetness exhibited by a freshly mixed Ovals-Marble chips which have been tumbled until a
concrete, mortar, or neat cement grout when the worka- smooth oval shape has resulted.
bility of the mixture is considered acceptable for the Ovendry-The condition resulting from having been dried
purpose at hand. to essentially constant weight, in an oven, at a tempera-
2. The physical condition of neat cement paste as de- ture which has been fixed, usually between 221 and
termined with the Vicat apparatus in accordance with a 239 F (l05 and 115 C).
standard method of test (e.g., ASTM C187). ~!!rx-To dry in an oven at a temperature usually
Normal-weight concrete-See Concrete, normal- between 221 and 239 F (105 and 115 C) until the weight
weight. of the test specimen becomes essentially constant.
Nozzle-A metal or rubber tip attached to the discharge Overdesign-To require adherence to structural design
end of a heavy thick-wall rubber hose from which a con- requirements higher than service demands, as a means
tinuous stream of shotcrete is ejected. of compensating for statistical variation or for antici-
Nozzle liner-A replaceable rubber lining, fitted into the pated deficiencies or both.
nozzle tip, to prevent abrasion of the interior surface of Overlay-A layer of concrete or mortar, seldom thinner
the nozzle. than 1 in. (25 mm), placed on and usually bonded onto the
Nozzle velocity-The rate at which shotcrete is ejected worn or cracked surface of a concrete slab to either re-
from the nozzle, usually stated in feet per second or store or improve the function of the previous surface.
meters per second. Oversanded-Containing more sand than would be
Nozzleman-The operator who manipulates the nozzle necessary to produce adequate workability and a satis-
and controls placement of the shotcrete; in the case of factory condition for finishing.
dry-mix shotcrete, the operator also controls the water Overstretching-Stressing of tendons to a value higher
content of the shotcrete. than designed for the initial stress to: (a) overcome fric-
tional losses, (b) temporarily overstress the steel to re-
o duce steel creep that occurs after anchorage, and (c)
counteract loss of prestressing force that is caused by
Obsidian-A natural volcanic glass of relatively low subsequent prestressing of other tendons.
water content. (See also Perlite.) Overvibration-Excessive use of vibrators during place-
Offset-An abrupt change in alignment or dimension, ment of freshly mixed concrete, causing segregation and
either horizontally or vertically; a horizontal ledge oc- excessive bleeding.
curring along a change in wall thickness of the wall
above. p
Offset bend-An intentional distortion from the normal
straightness of a steel reinforcing bar in order to move Pack set-See Sticky cement.
the center line of a segment of the bar to a position Packaged concrete, mortar, grout-Mixtures of dry in-
parallel to the original position of the center line; a gredients in packages, requiring only the addition of
mechanical operation commonly applied to vertical bars water to produce concrete, mortar, or grout.
that reinforce concrete columns. Packer-A device inserted into a hole in which grout is to
Oil well cement-See Cement, oil well. be injected which acts to prevent return of the grout
One-way system-The arrangement of steel reinforce- around the injection pipe; usually an expandable device
ment within a slab that presumably bends in only one actuated mechanically, hydraulically, or pneumatically.
direction. Packer-head process-A method of casting concrete pipe
Opal-A mineral composed of amorphous hydrous silica in a vertical position in which concrete of low water
(SiO" H"O). content is compacted with a revolving compaction tool.
Opaline chert-Chert composed entirely or mainly of Paddle mixer-See Open-top mixer.
opal. Palladiana-See Berliner.

Pan- Phe
1. A prefabricated form unit used in concrete joist floor
construction. Peeling-A process in which thin flakes of mortar are
2. A container that receives particles passing the finest broken away from a concrete surface, such as by dete-
sieve during mechanical analysis of granular materials. rioration or by adherence of surface mortar to forms as
Pan mixer--See Mixer, pan. forms are removed.
Panel- Pencil rod-Plain metal rod of about '4 in. (6 mm) diame-
1. A section of form sheathing, constructed from ter.
boards, plywood, metal sheets, etc., that can be erected Penetration probe-A device for obtaining a measure of
and stripped as a unit. the resistance of concrete to penetration; customarily
2. A concrete member, usually precast, rectangular in determined by the distance that a steel pin is driven into
shape, and relatively thin with respect to other dimen- the concrete from a special gun by a precisely measured
sions. explosive charge.
Panel, drop-See Drop panel. Penetration resistance-The resistance, usually ex-
Panel strip-A strip extending across the length or width pressed in pounds per square inch (psi) or megapascals
of a flat slab for structural design and construction or (MPa), of mortar or cement paste to penetration by a
architectural purposes. plunger or needle under standard conditions.
Paper form-A heavy paper mold used for casting con- Percent fines-Amount, expressed as a percentage, ofma-
crete columns and other structural shapes. terial in aggregate finer than a given sieve, usually the
Parallel-wire unit-A post-tensioning tendon composed No. 200 (75 f.L m) sieve; also the amount of fine aggregate
of a number of wires or strands which are approximately in a concrete mixture expressed as a percent by absolute
volume of the total amount of aggregate.

Parapet-That part of a wall that extends above the roof Percentage of reinforcement-The ratio of cross-
level; a low wall along the top of a dam. sectional area of reinforcing steel to the effective cross-
Parge-To coat with plaster, particularly foundation walls sectional area of a member, expressed as a percentage.
and rough masonry. Periclase-A crystalline mineral, magnesia, MgO, the
Partial prestressing-Prestressing to a stress level such equivalent of which may be present in portland cement
that, under design loads, tensile stresses exist in the clinker, portland cement, and other materials such as
precompressed tensile zone of the prestressed member. open hearth slags, and certain basic refractories.
Partial release-Release into a prestressed concrete Perimeter grouting-Injection of grout, usually at rela-
member of a portion of the total prestress initially held tively low pressure, around the periphery of an area
wholly in the prestressed reinforcement. which is subsequently to be grouted at greater pressure;
Particle shape-The shape of a particle. (See also Cubi- intended to confine subsequent grout injection within the
cal piece, Elongated piece, and Flat piece.) perimeter.
Particle-size distribution--See Grading. Period at maximum temperature--See Maximum-
Parting agent--See Release agent. temperature period.
Pass-Layer of shotcrete placed in one movement over the Perlite-A volcanic glass having a perlitic structure, usu-
field of operation. ally having a higher water content than obsidian; when
Paste content (of concrete)-Proportional volume of ce- expanded by heating, used as an insulating material and
ment paste in concrete, mortar, or the like, expressed as as a lightweight aggregate in concretes, mortars, and
volume percent of the entire mixture. (See also Neat plasters.
cement paste.) Perlitic structure-A structure produced in a homogene-
Paste volume (of concrete)--See Paste content. ous material by contraction during cooling, and consist-
Pat-A specimen of neat cement paste about 3 in. (76 mm) ing of a system of irregular convolute and spheroidal
in diameter and Vz in. (13 mm) in thickness at the center cracks; generally confined to natural glass.
and tapering to a thin edge on a flat glass plate for Permanent form-Any form that remains in place after
indicating setting time. the concrete has developed its design strength; it mayor
Pattern cracking-Fine openings on concrete surfaces in may not become an integral part of the structure.
the form of a pattern; resulting from a decrease in volume Permanent set-Inelastic elongation or shortening.
of the material near the surface, or increase in volume of Permeability to water, coefficient of-The rate of dis-
the material below the surface, or both. charge of water under laminar flow conditions through a
Pavement (concrete)-A layer of concrete over such unit cross-sectional area of a porous medium under a unit
areas as roads, sidewalks, canals, playgrounds, and those hydraulic gradient and standard temperature conditions
used for storage or parking. (See also Rigid pavement.) ~ usually 20 C.
Paving train-An assemblage of equipment designed to 0>etrography-The branch of petrology dealing with de-
place and finish a concrete pavement. scriptIOn and systematic classification of rocks aside
Pea gravel--Screened gravel, most of the particles of from their geologic relations, mainly by laboratory
which will pass a 'jig in. (9.5 mm) sieve and be retained on methods, largely chemical and microscopical; also,
a No.4 (4.75 mm) sieve. loosely, petrology or lithology.
Pedestal-An upright compression member whose height Petrology-The science ofrocks, treating of their origin,
does not exceed three times its average least lateral di- structure, composition, etc., from all aspects and in all
mension, such as a short pier or plinth used as the base relations. (See also Petrography.)
for a column. Phenolic resin-A class of synthetic, oil-soluble resins
Pedestal pile-A cast-in-place concrete pile constructed so (plastics) produced as condensation products of phenol,
that concrete is forced out into a widened bulb or pedestal substituted phenols and formaldehyde, or some similar
shape at the foot of the pipe which forms the pile. aldehyde that may be used in paints for concrete.

Phi Plain bar-A reinforcing bar without surface deforma-

Phi (cp) factor-Capacity reduction factor (in structural de- tions, or one having deformations that do not conform to
sign); a number less than l.0 (usually 0.65-0.90) by the applicable requirements.
which the strength of a structural member or element (in Plain concrete-Concrete without reinforcement; rein-
terms of load, moment, shear, or stress) is required to be forced concrete that does not conform to the definition of
multiplied in order to determine design strength or capa- reinforced concrete; also used loosely to designate con-
city; the magnitude of the factor is stipulated in appli- crete containing no admixture and prepared without spe-
cable codes and construction specifications for respective cial treatment.
types of members and cross sections. Plane of weakness-The plane along which a body under
Philleo factor-A distance, used as an index of the extent stress will tend to fracture; may exist by design, by acci-
to which hardened cement paste is protected from the dent, or because of the nature of the structure and its
effects of freezing, so selected that only a small portion of loading.
the cement paste (usually 10 percent) lies farther than Plaster-A cementitious material or combination of
that distance from the perimeter of the nearest air void. cementitious material and aggregate that, when mixed
(See also Protected paste volume.) with a suitable amount of water, forms a plastic mass or
Photometer-See Flame photometer. paste which when applied to a surface, adheres to it and
Pier-Isolated foundation member of plain or reinforced subsequently hardens, preserving in a rigid state the
concrete. form or texture imposed during the period of plasticity;
Pigment-A coloring matter, usually in the form of an also the placed and hardened mixture. (See also Stucco.)
insoluble fine powder. Plaster mold-A mold or form made from gypsum plaster,
Pilaster-Column built within a wall, usually projecting usually to permit concrete to be formed or cast in intri-
beyond the wall. cate shapes or in conspicuous relief. (See also Mold and
Pilaster face-The form for the front surface of a pilaster Form.)
parallel to the wall. Plaster of Paris-CaS0 4 V2H"O, gypsum, from which
Pilaster side-The form for the side surface of a pilaster three-quarters of the chemically bound water has been
perpendicular to the wall. driven off by heating; when wetted it recombines with
Pile-A slender timber, concrete, or steel structural ele- water and hardens quickly. (See also Hemihydrate.)
ment, driven, jetted, or otherwise embedded on end in Plastic-Possessing plasticity, or possessing adequate
the ground for the purpose of supporting a load or of plasticity. (See also Plasticity.)
compacting the soil. (See also Composite pile.) Plastic centroid-Centroid of the resistance to load com-
Pile bent-Two or more piles driven in a row transverse to puted for the assumptions that the concrete is stressed
the long dimension ofthe structure and fastened together uniformly to 0.85 its design strength and the steel is
by capping and (sometimes) bracing. stressed uniformly to its specified yield point.
Pile cap- Plastic consistency-Condition of freshly mixed cement
1. A structural member placed on, and usually fas- paste, mortar, or concrete such that deformation will be
tened to, the top of a pile or a group of piles and used to sustained continuously in any direction without rupture;
transmit loads into the pile or group of piles and in the in common usage, concrete with slump of 3 to 4 in. (80 to
case of a group to connect them into a bent; also known as 100 mm).
a rider cap or girder; also a masonry, timber, or concrete Plastic cracking-Cracking that occurs in the surface of
footing resting on a group of piles. fresh concrete soon after it is placed and while it is still
2. A metal cap or helmet temporarily fitted over the plastic.
head of a precast pile to protect it during driving; some Plastic deformation-Deformation that does not disap-
form of shock-absorbing material is often incorporated. pear when the force causing the deformation is removed.
Pipe column-Column made of steel pipe; often filled with Plastic design-See illtimate-strength design.
concrete. Plastic flow-See Creep.
Pipe pile-A steel cylinder, usually between 10 and 24 in. Plastic-hinge-Region where ultimate moment capacity
(250 and 600 mm) in diameter, generally driven with in a member may be developed and maintained with
open ends to firm bearing and then excavated and filled corresponding significant inelastic rotation as main ten-
with concrete; this pile may consist of several sections sile steel elongates beyond yield strain.
from 5 to 40 ft (1.5 to 8 m) long joined by special fittings Plastic limit-The water content at which a soil will just
such as cast-steel sleeves and is sometimes used with its begin to crumble when rolled into a thread approxi-
lower end closed by a conical steel shoe. mately Yi; in. (3 mm) in diameter. (See also Atterberg
Pitting-Development of relatively small cavities in a sur- limits.)
face, due to phenomena such as corrosion or cavitation, Plastic loss-See Creep.
or, in concrete, localized disintegration. (See also Pop- Plastic mortar-A mortar of plastic consistency.
out.) Plastic or bond fire clay-A fire clay of sufficient natural
Placeability-See Workability. plasticity to bond nonplastic material; a fire clay used as
Placement-The process of placing and consolidating con- a plasticizing agent in mortar.
crete; a quantity of concrete placed and finished during a Plastic shrinkage cracks-See Plastic cracking_
continuous operation; also inappropriately referred to as Plasticity-A complex property of a material involving a
Pouring. combination of qualities of mobility and magnitude of
Placing-The deposition, distribution, and consolidation yield value; that property of freshly mixed cement paste
of freshly mixed concrete in the place where it is to concrete, or mortar which determines its resistance de-
harden; also inappropriately referred to as Pouring. formation or ease of molding.

Plasticity index-The range in water content through Pos

which a soil remains plastic; numerical difference be-
tween the liquid limit and the plastic limit. (See also Polymer-The product of polymerization; more commonly
Atterberg limits.) a rubber or resin consisting of large molecules formed by
Plasticizer-A material that increases plasticity of a ce- polymerization.
ment paste, mortar, or concrete mixture. Polymer concrete-Concrete in which an organic
Plasticizing-Producing plasticity or becoming plastic. polymer serves as the binder (see Concrete); also known
Plate- as resin concrete; sometimes erroneously employed to
1. In form work for concrete: A flat, horizontal member designate hydraulic cement mortars or concretes in
at the top or bottom or both of studs or posts; a muds ill which part or all of the mixing water is replaced by an
if on the ground. aqueous dispersion of a thermoplastic copolymer.
2. In structural design:. A member, the depth of which Polymer-cement concrete-A mixture of water, hy-
is substantially smaller than its length and width. draulic cement, aggregate, and a monomer or polymer;
See also Flat plate and Load-transfer assembly. polymerized in place when a monomer is used.
Plum-A large random-shaped stone dropped into freshly Polymerization-The reaction in which two or more
placed mass concrete to economize on the volume of the molecules of the same substance combine to form a com-
concrete. (See also Cyclopean concrete.) pound containing the same elements, and in the same
Plumb-Vertical or to make vertical. proportions, but of high molecular weight, from which
Pneumatic feed-Shotcrete delivery equipment in which the original substance can be generated, in some cases
material is conveyed by a pressurized air stream. only with extreme difficulty.
Pneumatically applied mortar-See Shotcrete. Polystyrene resin-Synthetic resins varying in color
Point count-Method for determination of the volumetric from water-white to yellow formed by the polymerization
composition of a solid by observation of the frequency of styrene on heating with or without catalysts that may
with which areas of each component coincide with a regu- be used in paints for concrete, or for making sculptured
lar system of points in one or more planes intersecting a molds, or as insulation.
sample of the solid. Polysulfide coating-A protective coating system pre-
Point count (modified)-The point count method pared by polymerizing a chlorinated alkyl polyether with
supplemented by a determination of the frequency with an inorganic polysulfide; exhibits outstanding resistance
which areas of each component of a solid are intersected to ozone, sunlight, oxidation, and weathering.
by regularly spaced lines in one or more planes intersect- Polyurethane-Reaction product of an isocyanate with
ing a sample of the solid. any of a wide variety of other compounds containing
Point load-A load whose area of contact with the resist- an active hydrogen group; used to formulate tough,
ing body is negligible in comparison with the area of the abrasion-resistant coatings.
resisting body. Polyvinyl acetate-Colorless, permanently thermoplas-
Point of contraflexure-See Point of inflection. tic resin; usually supplied as an emulsion or water-
Point of inflection-The point on the length of a struc dispersible powder characterized by flexibility, stability
tural member subjected to flexure where the curvature towards light, transparency to ultraviolet rays, high
changes from concave to convex or conversely and at dielectric strength, toughness, and hardness; the higher
which the bending moment is zero; also called "point of the degree of polymerization, the higher the softening
contraflexure"; location of an abrupt bend in a plotted temperature; may be used in paints for concrete.
locus of points in a graph. Polyvinyl chloride-A synthetic resin prepared by the
Poisson's ratio-The ratio of transverse (lateral) strain to polymerization of vinyl chloride, used in the manufac-
the corresponding axial (longitudinal) strain resulting ture of nonmetallic waters tops for concrete.
from uniformly distributed axial stress below the propor- Pop-corn concrete-No-fines concrete containing insuf-
tionallimit of the material; the value will average about ficient cement paste to fill voids among the coarse aggre-
0.2 for concrete and 0.25 for most metals. gate so that the particles are bound only at points of
Polarizing microscope-A microscope equipped with contact. (See No-fines concrete.)
elements permitting observations and determinations to Pop out-The breaking away of small portions of a con-
be made using polarized light. (See also Nicol prism.) crete surface due to internal pressure which leaves a
Pole shore-See Post shore. shallow, typically conical, depression.
Polish or final grind-The final operation in which fine Porosity-The ratio, usually expressed as a percentage, of
abrasives are used to hone a surface to its desired the volume of voids in a material to the total volume of
smoothness and appearance. the material, including the voids.
Polyester-One of a large group of synthetic resins, Portland blast-furnace slag cement-See Cement,
mainly produced by reaction of dibasic acids with dihy- portland blast-furnace slag.
droxy alcohols; commonly prepared for application by Portland cement-See Cement, portland.
mixing with a vinyl-group monomer and free-radical Portland cement concrete-See Concrete.
catalysts at ambient temperatures and used as binders Portland-pozzolan cement-See Cement, portland-
for resin mortars and concretes, fiber laminates (mainly pozzolan.
glass), adhesives, and the like. (See also Polymer con- Portlandite-A mineral; calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)t);
crete.) occurs naturally in Ireland; equivalent to a common
Polyethylene-A thermoplastic high-molecular-weight product of hydration of portland cement.
organic compound used in formulating protective coat- Porous fill-See Drainage fill.
ings or, in sheet form, as a protective cover for concrete Positive displacement-Wet-mix shotcrete deli very
surfaces during the curing period, or to provide a tempor- equipment in which the material is pushed through the
ary enclosure for construction operations. material hose in a solid mass by a piston or auger.

Pos Pre-post-tensioning-A method of fabricating pre-

Positive moment.-A condition of flexure in which, for a stressed concrete in which some of the tendons are pre-
horizontally simply supported member, the deflected tensioned and a portion of the tendons are post-
shape is normally considered to be concave downward tensioned.
and the top fibers subjected to compression stresses; for Preset period-See Presteaming period.
other members and other conditions consider positive Preshrunk-
and negative as relative terms. (See also Negative mo- 1. Concrete which has been mixed for a short period in
ment.) a stationary mixer before being transferred to a transit
Note: For structural design and analysis, moments mixer.
may be designated as positive or negative with satisfac- 2. Grout, mortar, or concrete that has been mixed 1 to 3
tory resul ts as long as the sign convention adopted is used hr before placing to reduce shrinkage during hardening.
consistently. Pressed edge-Edge of a footing along which the greatest
Positive reinforcement-Reinforcement for positive soil pressure occurs under conditions of overturning.
moment. Pressure line-Locus of force points within a structure
Post-Vertical form work member used as a brace; also resulting from combined prestressing force and exter-
shore, prop, jack. nally applied load.
Post shore or Pole shore-Individual vertical member Presteaming period-In the manufacture of concrete
used to support loads. products, the time between molding of a concrete product
1. Adjustable timber single-post shore-Individual and start of the temperature-rise period.
timber used with a fabricated clamp to obtain adjustment Prestress-To place a hardened concrete member or an
and not normally manufactured as a complete unit. assembly of units in a state of compression prior to appli-
2. Fabricated single-post shore-Type I: Single cation of service loads; the stress developed by prestres-
all-metal post, with a fine-adjustment screw or device in sing, such as by pretensioning or post-tensioning. (See
combination with pin-and-hole adjustment or clamp; also Prestressed concrete, Prestressing steel, Pre-
Type II: Single or double wooden post members adjust- tensioning, and Post-tensioning.l
able by a metal clamp or screw and usually manufac- Prestressed concrete-Concrete in which internal stresses
tured as a complete unit. of such magnitude and distribution are introduced
3. Timber single-post shore-Timber used as a that the tensile stresses resulting from the service loads
structural member for shoring support. are counteracted to a desired degree; in reinforced con-
Post-tensioning-A method of prestressing reinforced crete the prestress is commonly introduced by tensioning
concrete in which tendons are tensioned after the con- the tendons.
crete has hardened. Prestressing steel-High strength steel used to prestress
Pot life-Time interval after preparation during which a concrete, commonly seven-wire strands, single wires,
liquid or plastic mixture is usable. bars, rods, or groups of wires or strands. (See also Pre-
Pouring (of concretel-See Placement and Placing. stress, Prestressed concrete, Pretensioning, and
Power float-See Rotary float. Post-tensioning.)
Powers spacing factor-See Spacing factor. Pretensioning-A method of prestressing reinforced con-
VPozzolan-A siliceous or siliceous and aluminous mate- crete in which the tendons are tensioned before the con-
rial, which in itself possesses little or no cementitious crete has hardened.
value but will, in finely divided form and in the presence
Pretensioning bed (or Benchl-The casting bed on which
of moisture, chemically react with calcium hydroxide at
pretensioned members are manufactured and which re-
ordinary temperatures to form compounds possessing sists the pretensioning force prior to release.
cementitious properties. Primary crusher-A heavy crusher suitable for the first
Pozzolanic-Of or pertaining to a pozzolan. stage in a process of size reduction of rock, slag, or the
Pozzolanic reaction-See Pozzolan. like.
Precast-A concrete member that is cast and cured in
Primary nuclear vessel-Interior container in a nuclear
other than its final position; the process of placing and
reactor designed for sustained loads and for working
finishing precast concrete.
Precast concrete-Concrete cast elsewhere than its final
position. Principal planes-See Principal stress.
Precast pile-A reinforced concrete pile manufactured in Principal stress-Maximum and minimum stresses at
a casting plant or at the site but not in its final position. any point acting at right angles to the mutually perpen-
Precompressed zone-The area of a flexural member dicular planes of zero shearing stress, which are desig-
which is compressed by the prestressing tendons. nated as the Principal planes.
Precured period-See Presteaming period. Probabilistic design-Method of design of structures
Prefiring-Raising the temperature of refractory concrete using the principles of statistics (probability) as a basis
under controlled conditions prior to placing it in service. for evaluation of structural safety.
Preformed foam-Foam produced in a foam generator Promoter-See Catalyst.
prior to introduction of the foam into a mixer with other Proof stress-Stress applied to materials suflicient to
ingredients to produce cellular concrete. produce a specified permanent strain; a specific stress to
Premature stiffening-See False set and Flash set. which some types of tendons are subjected in the man-
Pre packed concrete-See Concrete, preplaced-aggre- ufacturing process as a means of reducing the deforma-
gate. tion of anchorage, reducing the creep of steel, or insuring
Preplaced-aggregate concrete-See Concrete, pre- that the tendon is sufficiently strong.
placed-aggregate and Colloidal concrete. Prop-See Post and Shore.

Proportionallimit:-The greatest stress which a material Ref

is capable of developing without any deviation from pro- thereof to perform the functions intended, and assuring
portionality of stress to strain (Hooke's Law). that these levels are obtained.
Proportioning---Selection of proportions of ingredients Quality control-A system of procedures and standards
for mortar or concrete to make the most economical use of by which a constructor, product manufacturer, materials
available materials to produce mortar or concrete of the processor, or the like, monitors the properties of the
required properties. finished work.
Protected corner-Corner of a slab with adequate provi- Quartering-A method of obtaining a representative
sion for load transfer, such that at least 20 percent ofthe sample by dividing a circular pile of a larger sample into
load from one slab corner to the corner of an adjacent slab four equal parts and discarding opposite quarters succes-
is transferred by mechanical means or aggregate inter- sively until the desired size of sample is obtained.
lock. Quicklime-Calcium oxide (CaO). (See also Lime.)
Protected paste volume-The portion of hardened ce- Quick set---See Flash set and False set.
ment paste that is protected from the effects of freezing
by proximity to an entrained air void. (See also Philleo R
Proving ring-A device for calibrating load indicators of Raft foundation-A continuous slab of concrete, usually
testing machines, consisting of a calibrated elastic ring reinforced, laid over soft ground or where heavy loads
and a mechanism or device for indicating the magnitude must be supported to form a foundation. (See also Mat
of deformation under load. foundation.)
Psi-Abbreviation for "pounds per square inch." Rail steel reinforcement-Reinforcing bars hot-rolled
Pulverized fuel ash (pfa)-See Fly ash. from standard T -section rails.
Pumice-A highly porous and vesicular lava usually of Rake classifier-Machine for separating coarse and fine
relatively high silica content composed largely of glass particles of granular material temporarily suspended in
drawn into approximately parallel or loosely entwined water; the coarse particles settle to the bottom of a vessel
fibers, which themselves contain sealed vesicles. and are scraped up an incline by a set of blades, the fine
Pumicite-Naturally occurring finely divided pumice. particles, remaining in suspension to be carried over the
Pumped concrete-Concrete which is transported edge of the classifier.
through hose or pipe by means of a pump. Raker-A sloping brace for a shore head.
Pumping (of pavements)-The ejection of water, or water Raked joint-A joint in a masonry wall which has the
and solid materials such as clay or silt along transverse mortar raked out to a specified depth while it is only
or longitudinal joints and cracks, and along pavement slightly hardened.
edges caused by downward slab movement activated by Raking pile-See Batter pile.
the passage of loads over the pavement after the accumu- Ramming-A form of heavy tamping of concrete, grout, or
lation of free water on or in the base course, subgrade, or the like by means of a blunt tool forcibly applied. (See
subbase. also Dry pack, Punning, and Tamping.)
Punching shear- Ranger-See Wale.
1. Shear stress calculated by dividing the load on a Raw mix-Blend of raw materials, ground to desired fine-
column by the product of its perimeter and the thickness ness, correctly proportioned, and blended ready for burn-
of the base or cap or by the product of the perimeter taken ing; such as that used in the manufacture of cement
at one half the slab thickness away from the column and clinker.
the thickness of the base or cap. Reactive aggregate-Aggregate containing substances
2. Failure of a base when a heavily loaded column capable of reacting chemically with the products of solu-
punches a hole through it. tion or hydration of the portland cement in concrete or
Punning-An obsolete term designating a light form of mortar under ordinary conditions of exposure, resulting
ramming. (See also Ramming and Tamping.) in some cases in harmful expansion, cracking, or stain-
Purlin-In roofs, a horizontal member supporting the ing.
common rafters. Reactive silica material-Several types of materials
Pycnometer-A vessel for determination of specific which react at high temperatures with portland cement
gravity of liquids or solids. or lime during autoclaving; includes pulverized silica,
Pyrometric cone-A small, slender, three-sided oblique natural pozzolan, and fly ash.
pyramid made of ceramic or refractory material for use in Ready-mixed concrete-Concrete manufactured for de-
determining the time-temperature effect of heating and livery to a purchaser in a plastic and unhardened state.
in obtaining the pyrometric cone equivalent (PCE) of (See Central-mixed concrete, Shrink-mixed con-
refractory material. crete, and Transit-mixed concrete.)
Pyrometric cone equivalent (PCE)-The number of that Rebar-Abbreviation for "reinforcing bar." (See Rein-
cone whose tip would touch the supporting plaque simul- forcement.)
taneously with that of a cone of the refractory material Rebound-Aggregate and cement or wet shotcrete which
being investigated when tested in accordance with a bounces away from a surface against which shotcrete is
specified procedure such as ASTM C 24. being projected.
Rebound hammer-An apparatus that provides a rapid
Q indication of the mechanical properties of concrete based
on the distance of rebound of a spring-driven missile.
Quality assurance-A system of procedures for selecting Refractories-Materials, usually nonmetallic, used to
the levels of quality required for a project or portion withstand high temperatures.

Ref Reinforcement, transverse-Reinforcement at right

angles to the longitudinal reinforcement; may be main or
Refractoriness-In refractories, the property of being re- secondary reinforcement.
sistant to softening or deformation at high temperatures. Reinforcement, twin-twisted bar-Two bars ofthe same
Refractory-Resistant to high temperatures. nominal diameter twisted together.
Refractory aggregate-Materials having refractory Reinforcement, two-way-Reinforcement arranged in
properties which when bound together into a conglomer- bands of bars at right angles to each other.
ate mass by a matrix form a refractory body. Reinforcement, welded-Reinforcement joined together
Refractory concrete-Concrete having refractory prop- by welding.
erties, and suitable for use at high temperatures (gener- Reinforcement displacement-Movement of reinforcing
ally about 315 to 1315 C), in which the binding agent is a steel from its specified position in the forms.
hydraulic cement. Reinforcement ratio-Ratio of the effective area of the
Refractory insulating concrete-Refractory concrete reinforcement to the effective area of the concrete at any
having low thermal conductivity. section of a structural member. (See also Percentage of
Reglet-A groove in a wall to receive flashing. reinforcement.)
Reinforced concrete-Concrete containing adequate Relative humidity-The ratio of the quantity of water
reinforcement (prestressed or not prestressed) and de- vapor actually present to amount present in a saturated
signed on the assumption that the two materials act atmosphere at a given temperature; expressed as a per-
together in resisting forces. (See also Plain concrete.) centage.
Reinforced masonry-Unit masonry in which rein- Relaxation (of steel)-Decrease in stress in steel as a
forcement is embedded in such a manner that the two result of creep within the steel under prolonged strain;
materials act together in resisting forces. decrease in stress in steel as a resul t of decreased strain of
Reinforcement-Bars, wires, strands, and other slender the steel, such as results from shrinkage and creep of the
members which are embedded in concrete in such a man- concrete in a prestressed concrete unit.
ner that the reinforcement and the concrete act together in Release agent-Material used to prevent bonding of con-
resisting forces. crete to a surface. (See also Bond breaker.)
Reinforcement, cold-drawn wire-Steel wire made Remoldability-The readiness with which freshly mixed
from rods that have been hot rolled from billets, cold- concrete responds to a remolding effort such as jigging
drawn through a die; for concrete reinforcement of small or vibration causing it to reshape its mass around rein-
diameter such as in gages not less than 0.080 in. (2 mm) forcement and to conform to the shape of the form. (See
nor greater than 0.625 in. (16 mm). also Flow.)
Reinforcement, cold-worked steel-Steel bars or wires Remolding t.est-A test to measure remoldability.
which have been rolled, twisted, or drawn at normal Rendering-The application, by means of a trowel or float,
ambient temperatures. of a coat of mortar.
Reinforcement, distribution-bar-Small-diameter bars, Repeatability-Variability among replicate test results
usually at right angles to the main reinforcement, obtained on the same material within a single laboratory
intended to spread a concentrated load on a slab and to by one operator; a quantity that will be exceeded in only
prevent cracking. about 5 percent of the repetitions by the difference, taken
Reinforcement, dowel-bar-See Dowel. in absolute value, of two randomly selected test results
Reinforcement, expanded metal fabric-See Ex- obtained in the same laboratory on a given material; in
panded metal lath. use of the term all variable factors should be specified.
Reinforcement, four-way-A system of reinforcement in Reposting-See Reshoring.
flat slab construction comprising bands of bars parallel to Reproducibility-Variability among replicate test re-
two adjacent edges and also to both diagonals of a rectan- sults obtained on the same material in different
gular slab. laboratories; a quantity that will be exceeded in only
Reinforcement, helical-Steel reinforcement of hot roI- about 5 percent of the repetitions by the difference, taken
led bar or cold drawn wire fabricated into a helix (more in absolute value, of two single test results made on the
commonly known as spiral reinforcement). same material in two different, randomly selected
Reinforcement, high strength-Concrete reinforcing laboratories; in use ofthe term all variable factors should
bars having a minimum yield of 60,000 psi (414 MPa). be specified.
Reinforcement, hoop-A one-piece closed tie or continu- Resetting (offorms)-Setting offorms separately for each
ously wound tie not less than #3 in size, the ends of which successive lift of a wall to avoid offsets at construction
have a standard 135-deg bend with a ten-bar-diameter joints.
extension, that encloses the longitudinal reinforcement. Reshoring-The construction operation in which the orig-
Reinforcement, lateral-Usually applied to ties, hoops, inal shoring or posting is removed and replaced in such a
and spirals in columns or column-like members. manner as to avoid deflection of the shored element or
Reinforcement, mesh-See Welded-wire fabric and damage to partially cured concrete.
Welded-wire fabric reinforcement. Resilience-The work done per unit volume of a material
Reinforcement, principal-Elements or configurations in producing strain.
of reinforcement that provide the main resistance of rein- Resin-A natural or synthetic, solid or semisolid organic
forced concrete to loads borne by structures. (See also material of indefinite and often high molecular weight
Reinforcement, secondary.) having a tendency to flow under stress, usually has a
Reinforcement, secondary-Reinforcement other than softening or melting range and usually fractures con-
main reinforcement. choidally.
Reinforcement, spiral-See Spiral reinforcement. Resin mortar (or Concrete)-See Polymer concrete.

Restraint (of concretel-Restriction of free movement of Rus

fresh or hardened concrete following completion of plac- Rod buster (colloquial)-One who installs reinforcement
ing in formwork or molds or within an otherwise confined for concrete.
space; restraint can be internal or external and may act Rodding-Compaction of concrete or the like by means of
in one or more directions. a tamping rod. (See also Rod, tamping and Rodability.)
Retardation-Reduction in the rate of hardening or set- Rolling-The use of heavy metal or stone rollers on ter-
ting, i.e., an'increase in the time required to reach initial razzo topping to extract excess matrix.
and final set or to develop early strength of fresh con- Roman cement-A misnomer for a hydraulic cement
crete, mortar, or grout. (See also Retarder.) made by calcining a natural mixture of calcium carbo-
Retarder-An admixture which delays the setting of ce- nate and clay, such as argillaceous limestone, to a tem-
ment paste, and hence of mixtures such as mortar or perature below that required to sinter the material but
concrete containing cement. high enough to decarbonate the calcium carbonate, fol-
Retempering-Addition of water and remixing of con- lowed by grinding, so named because its brownish color
crete or mortar which has lost enough workability to resembles ancient Roman cements produced by use of
become unplaceable or unusable. (See also Temper- lime-pozzolan mixtures.
ing.) Roof insulation-Lightweight concrete used primarily as
Reveal-The side of an opening in a wall for a window or insulating material over structural roof systems.
door; depth of exposure of aggregate in an exposed aggre- Rosiwal method-See Linear traverse method.
gate finish. (See also Exposed-aggregate finish.) Rotary float (also called Power float)-A motor-driven
Revibration-One or more applications of vibration to revolving disc that smooths, flattens, and compacts the
concrete after completion of placing and initial compac- surface of concrete floors or floor toppings.
tion but preceding initial setting of the concrete. Rotary kiln-A long steel cylinder with a refractory lin-
Revolving-blade (or paddle) mixer-See Open-top ing, supported on rollers so that it can rotate about its
mixer. own axis, and erected with a slight inclination from the
Rheology-The science dealing with flow of materials, horizontal so that prepared raw materials fed into the
including studies of deformation of hardened concrete, higher end move to the lower end, where fuel is blown in
the handling and placing of freshly mixed concrete, and by air blast. (See also Kiln, cement.)
the behavior of slurries, pastes, and the like. Rough grind-The initial operation in which coarse abra-
Rib-One of a number of parallel structural members sives are used to cut the projecting chips in hardened
backing sheathing; the portion of a T-beam which pro- terrazzo down to a level surface.
jects below the slab; in deformed reinforcing bars, the Rout-To deepen and widen a crack to prepare it for patch-
deformations or the longitudinal parting ridge. ing or sealing.
Ribbed panel-A panel composed of a thin slab reinforced Rub brick-See Rubbing brick.
by a system of ribs in one or two directions, usually Rubbing brick-A silicon-carbide brick used to smooth
orthogonal. and remove irregularities from surfaces of hardened con-
Ribbed slab-See Ribbed panel. crete.
Ribbon-A narrow strip of wood or other material used in Rubbed finish-A finish obtained by using an abrasive to
formwork. remove surface irregularities from concrete. (See also
Ribbon loading-Method of batching concrete in which Sack rub.)
the solid ingredients, and sometimes also the water, Rubber set-See False set.
enter the mixer simultaneously. Rubble-Rough stones of irregular shape and size, broken
Rich concrete-Concrete of high cement content. (See from larger masses by geological processes or by quarry-
also Lean concrete.) ing.
Rich mixture-A concrete mixture containing a high pro- Rubble concrete-
portion of cement. 1. Concrete similar to cyclopean concrete except that
small stones (such as one man can handle) are used.
Rider cap-See Pile cap.
2. Concrete made with rubble from demolished struc-
Rigid frame-A frame depending on moment in joints for
See also Cyclopean concrete.
Rigid pavement-Pavement that will provide high bend- Runway-Decking over area of concrete placement, us-
ing resistance and distribute loads to the foundation over ually of movable panels and supports, on which buggies
a comparatively large area. of concrete travel to points of placement.
Rock pocket-A porous, mortar-deficient portion of har- Rupture modulus-See Modulus of rupture.
dened concrete consisting primarily of coarse aggregate Rupture strength-See Modulus of rupture.
and open voids, caused by leakage of mortar from form, Rustic or washed finish-A type of terrazzo topping in
separation (segregation) during placement, or insuffi- which the matrix is recessed by washing prior to setting
cient consolidation. (See also Honeycomb.) so as to expose the chips without destroying the bond
Rod-Sharp-edged cutting screed used to trim shotcrete to between chip and matrix; a retarder is sometimes ap-
forms or ground wires. (See also Screed.) plied to the surface to facilitate this operation. (See also
Rod, Dowel-See Dowel. Exposed aggregate finisb.)
Rod, tamping-A round, straight, steel rod having one or Rustication-A groove in a concrete or masonry surface.
both ends rounded to a hemispherical tip. Rustication strip-A strip of wood or other material
Rodability-The susceptibility offresh concrete or mortar attached to a form surface to produce a groove or rusti-
to compaction by means of a tamping rod. cation in the concrete.

s Sand pocket-A zone in concrete or mortar containing

sand without cement.
Sandstone-A cemented or otherwise compacted sedi-
Sack-See Bag. mentary rock composed predominantly of sand grains.
Sack rub-A finish for formed concrete surfaces, designed Sand streak-A streak of exposed fine aggregate in the
to produce even texture and fill all pits and air holes (see surface of formed concrete caused by bleeding.
Bug holes); after dampening tqe surface, mortar is rub- Sandwich panel-A prefabricated panel which is a
bed over surface; then, before it dries, a mixture of dry layered composite, formed by attaching two thin facings
cement and sand is rubbed over it with a wad of burlap or to a thicker core; such as a precast concrete panel consist-
a sponge-rubber float to remove surplus mortar and fill ing of two layers of concrete separated by a nonstructural
voids. insulating core.
Safe leg load-The load which can safely be directly im- Santorin earth-A volcanic tuff originating on the Gre-
posed on the frame leg of a scaffold. (See also Allowable cian island of Santorin and used as a pozzolan.
load.) Saturated surface dry-Condition of an aggregate parti-
Sagging-Subsidence of shotcrete material from a sloping, cle or other porous solid when the permeable voids are
vertical, or overhead placement; also, the condition of a filled with water and no water is on the exposed surfaces.
horizontal structural member bending downward under Saturation-Act or process of saturating, or state of being
load. (See also Sloughing.) saturated.
Salamander-A portable source of heat, customarily oil- Saw cut-A cut in hardened concrete utilizing diamond or
burning, used to heat an enclosure around or over newly silicone-carbide blades or discs.
placed concrete to prevent the concrete from freezing. Sawdust concrete-Concrete in which the aggregate con-
Sand- sists mainly of sawdust from wood.
I. Granular material passing the 'Va-in. (9.5-mm) sieve Sawed joint-A joint cut in hardened concrete, generally
and almost entirely passing the No.4 (4.75-mm) sieve not to the full depth of the member, by means of special
and predominantly retained on the No. 200 (75-lLm) equipment.
sieve, and resulting from natural disintegration and ab- Scab-A short piece of wood fastened to two form work
rasion of rock or processing of completely friable members to secure a butt joint.
sandstone; or Scaffolding-A temporary structure for the support of
2. that portion of an aggregate passing the No.4 deck forms, cartways, or workmen, or a combination of
(4.75-mm) sieve and predominantly retained on the No. these such as an elevated platform for supporting work-
200 (75-lLm) sieve, and resulting from natural disinte- men, tools, and materials; adjustable metal scaffolding is
gration and abrasion of rock or processing of completely frequently adapted for shoring in concrete work.
friable sandstone.
Scaling-Local flaking or peeling away ofthe near-surface
See also Fine aggregate.
portion of hardened concrete or mortar; also of a layer
Note: The definitions are alternatives to be applied from metal. (See also Peeling, Spalling, and Mill scale.)
under differing circumstances. Definition (1) is applied to
Note: Light scaling of concrete does not expose coarse
an entire aggregate either in a natural condition or after
aggregate; medium scaling involves loss of surface
processing. Definition (2) is applied to a portion of an
mortar to 5 to 10 mm in depth and exposure of coarse
aggregate. Requirements for properties and grading
aggregate; severe scaling involves loss of surface
should be stated in the specifications. Fine aggregate
mortar to 5 to 10 mm in depth with some loss of mortar
produced by crushing rock, gravel, or slag commonly is
surrounding aggregate particles 10 to 20 mm in depth;
known as Manufactured sand.
very severe scaling involves loss of coarse aggregate
Sandblast-A system of cutting or abrading a surface
particles as well as mortar generally to a depth greater
such as concrete by a stream of sand ejected from a nozzle
than 20 mm.
at high speed by compressed air; often used for cleanup of
Scalper-A sieve for removing oversize particles.
horizontal construction joints or for exposure of aggre-
gate in architectural concrete. Scalping-The removal of particles larger than a specified
Sand box (or Sand jackl-A tight box filled with clean, size by sieving.
dry, sand on which rests a tight-fitting timber plunger Scarf connection-A connection made by precasting,
beveling, halving, or notching two pieces to fit together;
that supports the bottom of posts used in centering; re-
after overlapping, the pieces are secured by bolts or other
moval of a plug from a hole near the bottom of the box
permits the sand to run out when it is necessary to lower
the centering. Scarf joint-See Scarf connection.
Sand-coarse aggregate ratio-Ratio of fine to coarse Scoria-Vesicular volcanic ejecta of larger size, usually of
aggregate in a batch of concrete, by weight or volume. basic composition and characterized by dark color; the
Sand equivalent-A measure of the relative proportions material is relatively heavy and partly glassy, partly
of detrimental fine dust or claylike material in soils or crystalline; the vesicles do not generally interconnect.
fine aggregate. (See also Aggregate, lightweight.)
Sand grout-Any grout in which fine aggregate is incor- Scour-Erosion of a concrete surface, exposing the aggre-
porated into the mixture; also termed sanded grout. gate.
Sanded grout-See Sand grout. Scratch coat-The first coat of plaster or stucco applied to
Sand jack-See Sand box. a surface in three-coat work; usually cross-raked or
Sand-lime brick-See Calcium-silicate brick. scratched to form a mechanical key with the brown coat.
Sand, Ottawa-See Ottawa sand. Screed-
Sand plate-A flat steel plate or strip welded to the legs of 1. To strike off concrete lying above the desired plane
bar supports for use on compacted soil. or shape.

2. A tool for striking off the concrete surface, some- She

times referred to as a Strikeoff.
Screed guide-Firmly established grade strips or side
forms for unformed concrete which will guide the similar arrangements, for coarse aggregate to separate
strikeoff in producing the desired plane or shape. from the concrete and accumulate at one side; the ten-
Screed wire-See Ground wire. dency, as processed aggregate leaves the ends of conveyor
Screeding-The operation of forming a surface by the use belts, chutes, or similar devices with confining sides, for
of screed guides and a strikeoff. (See also Strikeoff.) the larger aggregate to separate from the mass and ac-
Screen-See Sieve. cumulate at one side; or the tendency for the solids to
Screen analysis-See Sieve analysis. separate from the water by gravitational settlement.
Sealant-See Joint sealant and Membrane curing. (See also Bleeding and Segregation.)
Sealing compound-See Joint sealant and Membrane Sequence-stressing loss-In post-tensioning, the elastic
curing. loss in a stressed tendon resulting from the shortening of
Secant modulus-See Modulus of elasticity. the member when additional tendons are stressed.
Secondary beam-A flexural member that is not a por- Service dead load-The dead weight supported by a
tion of the principal structural frame of a structure. member.
Secondary crusher-A crusher used for the second stage Service live load-The live load specifi~d by the general
in a process of size reduction. (See also Primary building code or bridge specification, or the actual non-
crusher.) permanent load applied in service.
Secondary moment-In statically indeterminate struc- Service load-See Service dead load and Service live
tures, the additional moments caused by deformation of load.
the structure due to the applied forces; in statically inde- Set-The condition reached by a cement paste, mortar, or
terminate prestressed concrete structures, the additional concrete when it has lost plasticity to an arbitrary de-
moments caused by the use of a nonconcordant prestres- gree, usually measured in terms of resistance to penetra-
sing tendon. tion or deformation; initial set refers to first stiffening;
Secondary nuclear vessel-Exterior container or safety final set refers to attainment of significant rigidity; also,
container in a nuclear reactor subjected to design load strain remaining after removal of stress. (See Perma-
only once in its lifetime, if at all. nent set.)
Section modulus-A term pertaining to the cross section Setting shrinkage-A reduction in volume of concrete
of a flexural member; the section modulus with respect to prior to the final set of cement, caused by settling of the
either principal axis is the moment of inertia with re- solids and by the decrease in volume due to the chemical
spect to either principal axis is the moment of inertia combination of water with cement.
with respect to that axis divided by the distance from that Setting time-See Initial setting time and Final setting
axis to the most remote point of the tension or compres- time.
sion area of the section, as required; the section modulus Settlement-Sinking of solid particles in grout, mortar, or
is used to determine the flexural stress in a beam. fresh concrete, after placement and before initial set.
Segmental member-A structural member made up of (See also Bleeding.)
individual elements prestressed together to act as a Settling-The lowering in elevation of sections of pave-
monolithic unit under service loads. ment or structures due to their mass, the loads imposed
Segregation-The differential concentration of the com- on them, or shrinkage or displacement of the support.
ponents of mixed concrete, aggregate, or the like, result- Shale-A laminated and fissile sedimentary rock, the con-
ing in nonuniform proportions in the mass. (See also stituent particles of which are principally in clay and silt
Separation.) sizes; the laminations bedding planes of rock.
Self-desiccation-The removal of free water by chemical Sharp sand-Coarse sand of which the particles are of
reaction so as to leave insufficient water to cover the solid angular shape.
surfaces and to cause a decrease in the relative humidity She bolt-A type ofform tie and spreader bolt in which the
of the system; applied to an effect occurring in sealed end fastenings are threaded into the end of the bolt, thus
concretes, mortars, and pastes. eliminating cones and reducing the size of holes left in
Self-furring-Metal lath or welded wire fabric formed in the concrete surface.
the manufacturing process to include means by which Shear-An internal force tangential to the plane on which
the material is held away from the supporting surface, it acts. (See also Shearing force.)
thus creating a space for "keying" of the insulating con- Shearhead-Assembled unit in the top of the columns of
crete, plaster, or stucco. flat slab or flat plate construction to transmit loads from
Self-furring nail-Nails with flat heads and a washer or a slab to column.
spacer on the shank; for fastening reinforcing wire mesh Shear modulus-See Modulus of rigidity.
and spacing it from the nailing member. Shear reinforcement-Reinforcement designed to resist
Self-stressing concrete (mortar or grout)-Expansive- shear or diagonal tension stresses. (See Dowel.)
cement concrete (mortar or grout) in which expansion, if Shear strength-The maximum shearing stress which a
restrained, induces-persistent compressive stresses in material or structural member is capable of developing,
the concrete (mortar or grout); also known as chemically based on the original area of cross section.
prestressed concrete. Shearwall-A wall portion of a structural frame intended
Semiautomatic batcher-See Batcher. to resist lateral forces, such as earthquake, wind, and
Semiflexible joint-A connection in which the reinforce- blast, acting in or parallel to the plane of the wall.
ment is arranged to permit some rotation of the joint. Shearing force-The algebraic sum of all the tangential
Separation-The tendency, as concrete is caused to pass forces acting on either side of the section at a particular
from the unconfined ends of chutes or conveyor belts, or location in a flexural member.

She Shrink-mixed concrete-Ready-mixed concrete mixed

partially in a stationary mixer and then mixed in a truck
mixer. (See also Preshrunk.)
Sheath-An enclosure in which post-tensioning tendons Shrinkage-Volume decrease caused by drying and chem-
are encased to prevent bonding during concrete place- ical changes; a function of time but not of temperature or
ment. (See Duct.) of stress due to external load. (See also Contraction and
Sheathing-The material forming the contact face of Expansion.)
forms; also called lagging or sheeting. Shrinkage, drying--See Drying shrinkage and Shrin-
Sheet pile-A pile in the form of a plank driven in close kage.
contact or interlocking with others to provide a tight wall Shrinkage-compensating-A characteristic of grout,
to resist the lateral pressure of water, adjacent earth, or mortar, or concrete made using an expansive cement in
other materials; may be tongued and grooved if made of which volume increase if restrained, induces compres-
timber or concrete and interlocking if made of metal. sive stresses which are intended to approximately offset
Sheeting-See Sheathing. the tendency of drying shrinkage to induce tensile stres-
Shelf angles--Structural angles with holes or slots in one ses. (See also Expansive cement.)
leg for bolting to the structure to support brick work, Shrinkage crack-Crack due to restraint of shrinkage.
stone, or terra cotta. Shrinkage cracking-Cracking of a structure or member
Shelf life-Maximum interval during which a material due to failure in tension caused by external or internal
may be stored and remain in a usable condition. restraints as reduction in moisture content develops, or
Shell construction-Construction using thin curved as carbonation occurs, or both.
slabs. Shrinkage limit-The maximum water content at which a
Shelly structure--See Perlitic structure. reduction in water content will not cause a decrease in
Shielding concrete-Concrete, employed as a biological volume of the soil mass. (See also Atterberg limits.)
shield to attenuate or absorb nuclear radiation, usually Shrinkage loss-Reduction of stress in prestressing steel
characterized by high specific gravity or high hydrogen resulting from shrinkage of concrete.
(water) content or boron content, having specific radia- Shrinkage reinforcement-Reinforcement designed to
tion attenuation effects. (See also Biological shielding.) resist shrinkage stresses in concrete.
Shim-A strip of metal, wood, or other material employed Shuttering--See Formwork.
to set base plates or structural members at the proper Sieve-A metallic plate or sheet, a woven wire cloth, or
level for placement of grout, or to maintain the elonga- other similar device, with regularly spaced apertures of
tion in some types of post-tensioning anchorages. uniform size, mounted in a suitable frame or holder for
Shiplap-A type of joint in lumber or precast concrete, use in separating material according to size; in mechani-
made by using pieces having a portion of the width cut cal analysis, an apparatus with square openings is a
away on both edges, but on opposite sides, so as to make a sieve, one with circular apertures is a screen .
flush joint with similar pieces. .siev!LlW,alysj~-Determination of the proportions of par-
Shock--See Thermal shock. ticles lying within certain size ranges in a granular ma-
Shock load-Impact of material such as aggregate or con- terial by separation on sieves of different size openings.
crete as it is released or dumpted during placement. (See also Grading.)
Shooting-Placing of shotcrete. (See also Gunning.) Sieve correction-Correction of a sieve analysis to adjust
Shore-A temporary support for form work and fresh con- for deviation of sieve performance from that of standard
crete or for recently built structures which have not de- calibrated sieves.
veloped full design strength; also called Prop, Tom, Sieve number-A number used to designate the size of a
Post, strut. (See also L-head and T-head.) sieve, usually the approximate number of openings per
Shore head-Wood or metal horizontal member placed on linear inch; applied to sieves with openings smaller than
and fastened to vertical shoring member. (See also 6.3 mm (14 in.).
Raker.) Sieve size-Nominal size of openings between cross wires
Shoring-Props or posts of timber or other material in of a testing sieve, usually.
compression used for the temporary support of excava- Silica-Siiicon dioxide (SiO e).
tions, formwork, or unsafe structures; the process of Silica flour-Very finely divided silica, a siliceous binder
erecting shores. component which reacts with lime under autoclave cur-
Shoring, horizontal-Metal or wood load-carrying strut, ing conditions; prepared by grinding silica, such as
beam, or trussed section used to carry a shoring load from quartz, to a fine powder; also known as silica powder.
one bearing point, column, frame, post, or wall to Silica powder--See Silica flour.
another; may be adjustable. Silicate-Salt of a silicic acid.
Shoring layout-A drawing prepared prior to erection Silicon carbide-An artificial product (SiC) granules of
showing arrangement of equipment for shoring. which may be embedded in concrete surfaces to increase
Short column--See Column, short. resistance to wear or as a means of reducing skidding or
Shotcrete-Mortar or concrete pneumatically projected at slipping on stair treads or pavements; also used as an
high velocity onto a surface; also known as air-blown abrasive in saws and drills for cutting concrete and
mortar; also pneumatically applied mortar or concrete, masonry.
sprayed mortar and gunned concrete. (See also Dry-mix Silicone-A resin, characterized by water-repellant prop-
shotcrete, Pneumatic feed, Positive displacement, erties, in which the main polymer chain consists of alter-
and Wet-mix shotcrete.) nating silicon and oxygen atoms, with carbon-containing
Shoulder-An unintentional offset in a formed concrete side groups; silicones may be used in caulking or coating
surface usually caused by bulging or movement of compounds or admixtures for concrete.
formwork. Sill--See Mud sill.

Silt-A granular material resulting from the disintegra- Spa

tion of rock, with grains largely passing a No. 200 (75 to the nearest 'lit in. (6 mm) of the molded specimen
f.Lm) sieve; alternatively, such particles in the range from immediately after removal of the slump cone.
2 to 50 f.Lm diameter. Slump cone-A mold in the form of the lateral surface of
Simple beam-A beam without restraint or continuity at the frustum of a cone with a base diameter of 8 in. (203
its supports. mm), top diameter 4 in. (102 mm), and height 12 in. (305
Single-sized aggregate-Aggregate in which a major mm), used to fabricate a specimen of freshly mixed con-
portion of the particles are of sizes lying between narrow crete for the slump test; a cone 6 in. (152 mm) high is used
limits. for tests of freshly mixed mortar and stucco.
Single-stage curing-Autoclave curing process in which Slump loss-The amount by which the slump of freshly
precast concrete products are put on metal pallets for mixed concrete changes during a period of time after an
autoclaving and remain there until stacked for delivery initial slump test was made on a sample or samples
or yard storage. thereof.
Sintering -The formation of a porous mass of material by Slump test-The procedure for measuring slump.
the agglomeration of fine particles by partial fusion. Slurry-A mixture of water and any finely divided inso-
Sintering grate-A grate on which material is sintered. luble material, such as portland cement, slag, or clay in
Skew back-Sloping surface against which the end of an suspension.
arch rests, such as a concrete thrust block supporting Slush grouting-Distribution of a grout with or without
thrust of an arch bridge. (See also Chamfer strip.) fine aggregate as required over a rock or concrete surface
Skid resistance-A measure of the frictional characteris- which is subsequently to be covered with concrete, usu-
tics of a surface. ally by brooming it into place to fill surface voids and
Slab-A flat, horizontal or nearly so, molded layer of plain fissures.
or reinforced concrete, usually of uniform but sometimes Snap tie-A proprietary concrete wall-form tie, the end of
of variable thickness, either on the ground or supported which can be twisted or snapped off after the forms have
by beams, columns, walls, or other framework. (See also been removed.
Flat slab and Flat plate.) Soaking period-In high-pressure and low-pressure
Slab bolster-See Bolster, slab. steam curing, the time during which the live steam sup-
Slab spacer-Bar support and spacer for slab reinforce- ply to the kiln or autoclave is shut off and the concrete
ment, similar to slab bolster but without corrugations in products are exposed to the residual heat and moisture.
top wire, no longer in general use. (See also Bolster, Soffit-The underside of a part or member of a structure,
slab.) such as a beam, stairway, or arch.
Slab strip-See Middle strip. Soft particle-An aggregate particle possessing less than
Slag-See Blast-furnace slag. an established degree of hardness or strength as deter-
Slag cement-See Cement, slag. mined by a specific testing procedure.
Slate-A fine-grained metamorphic rock possessing a Soil-A generic term for unconsolidated natural surface
well-developed fissility (slaty cleavage) usually not material above bedrock.
parallel to the bedding planes of the rock. Soil pressure-See Contact pressure.
Slender beam-A beam, which ifloaded to failure without Soldier-A vertical wale used to strengthen or align
lateral bracing of the compression flange, would fail by formwork or excavations.
buckling rather than in flexure. Solid panel-A solid slab, usually of constant thickness.
Solid volume-See Absolute volume.
Slenderness ratio-The ratio of effective length or height
Solution-A liquid consisting of at least two substances,
of a wall, column, or pier to the radius of gyration; used as
one of which is a liquid solvent in which the other or
a means of assessing the stability of the element.
others, which may be solid or liquid, are dissolved.
Slick line-End section of a pipe line used in placing con
Solvent-A liquid in which another substance may be
crete by pump which is immersed in the placed concrete dissolved.
and moved as the work progresses. Sonic modulus-See Dynamic modulus of elasticity.
Sliding form-See Slipform.
Sounding well-A vertical conduit in the mass of coarse
Slip-Movement occurring between steel reinforcement aggregate for preplaced aggregate concrete, provided
and concrete in stressed reinforced concrete indicating with continuous or closely spaced openings to permit
anchorage breakdown. entrance of grout; the grout level is determined by means
Slipform-A form which is pulled or raised as concrete is of a float on a measured line.
placed; may move in a generally horizontal direction to Soundness-The freedom of a solid from cracks, flaws,
lay concrete evenly for highway paving or on slopes and fissures, or variations from an accepted standard; in the
inverts of canals, tunnels, and siphons; or vertically to case of a cement, freedom from excessive volume change
form walls, bins, or silos. after setting; in the case of aggregate, the ability to
Sloped footing-A footing having sloping top or side faces. withstand the aggressive action to which concrete con-
Sloughing-Subsidence of shotcrete, due generally to ex taining it might be exposed, particularly that due to
cessive water in mixture; also called sagging. (See also weather.
Sagging.) Spacer-Device which maintains reinforcement in proper
Slugging-Pulsating and intermittent flow of shotcrete position, or wall forms at a given distance apart before
material due to improper use of delivery equipment and and during concreting. (See also Spreader.)
materials. Spacing factor-An index related to the maximum dis-
Slump-A measure of consistency of freshly mixed con- tance of any point in a cement paste or in the cement
crete, mortar, or stucco equal to the subsidence measured paste fraction of mortar or concrete from the periphery of

Spa atoms of molecules; substances are analyzed by convert-

ing the absorbed energy to electrical signals, propor-
tional to the intensity of radiation. (See also Infrared
an air void; also known as Powers spacing factor. (See spectroscopy and Flame photometer.)
also Philleo factor.) Spinning-The essential element of the process of produc-
Spading-Consolidation of mortar or concrete by repeated ing spun concrete. (See also Spun concrete.)
insertion and withdrawal of a flat, spadelike tool. Spiral reinforcement-Continuously wound reinforce-
Spall-A fragment, usually in the shape of a flake, de- ment in the form of a cylindrical helix.
tached from a larger mass by a blow, by the action of Spirally reinforced column-A column in which the ver-
weather, by pressure, or by expansion within the larger tical bars are enveloped by spiral reinforcement; i.e.,
mass; a small spall involves a roughly circular depres- closely spaced continuous hooping.
sion not greater than 20 mm in depth nor 150 mm in any Splice-Connection of one reinforcing bar to another by
dimension; a large spall may be roughly circular or oval lapping, welding, mechanical couplers, or other means;
or, in some cases elongated, more than 20 mm in depth connection of welded wire fabric by lapping; connection of
and 150 mm in greatest dimension. piles by mechanical couplers.
Spalling-The development of spalls. Split batch charging-Method of charging a mixer in
Span-The distance between supports of a member. which the solid ingredients do not all enter the mixer
Span length-See Effective span. together; cement, and sometimes different sizes of aggre-
Spandrel-That part of a wall between the head of a win- gate, may be added separately.
dow and the sill of the window above it. Split block-See Split-face block.
Spandrel beam-A beam in the perimeter of a building, Split-face block-Concrete masonry unit with one or
spanning between columns and usually supporting floors more faces produced by purposeful fracturing of the unit,
or roof. to provide architectural effects in masonry wall construc-
Spatterdash-A rich mixture of portland cement and tion.
coarse sand; it is thrown onto a background by a trowel, Splitting tensile strength-Tensile strength of concrete
scoop, or other appliance so as to form a thin, coarse- determined by a splitting tensile test.
textured, continuous coating; as a preliminary treatment Splitting tensile test (diametral compression tesO-A
before rendering, it assists bond of the undercoat to the test for tensile strength in which a cylindrical specimen
background, improves resistance to rain penetration, is loaded to failure in diametral compression applied
and evens out the suction of variable backgrounds. (See along the entire length.
also Parge and Dash-bond coat.) Spray drying-A method of evaporating the liquid from a
Specific gravity-The ratio of the mass ofa unit volume of solution by spraying it into a heated gas.
a material at a stated temperature to the mass of the Sprayed mortar-See Shotcrete.
same volume of gas-free distilled water at a stated tem- Spread footing-A generally rectangular prism of con-
perature. crete larger in lateral dimensions than the column or
1. Apparent specific gravity-The ratio of the mass wall it supports, to distribute the load of a column or wall
in air of a unit volume of a material at a stated tempera- to the sub grade.
ture to the mass in air of equal density of an equal volume Spreader-A piece oflumber, usually about 1 x 2 in. (25 x
of gas-free distilled water at a stated temperature. Ifthe 50 mm), cut to thickness of wall or other form and in-
material is a solid, the volume is that of the impermeable serted to hold it temporarily at the correct dimension
portion. against tension of form ties; wires are usually attached to
2. Bulk specific gravity-The ratio of the mass in air spreaders so they can be pulled up out of the forms as the
of a unit volume of a permeable material (including both pressure of concrete permits their removal; also a device
permeable and impermeable voids normal to the mate- consisting of reciprocating paddles, a revolving screw, or
rial) at a stated temperature to the mass in air of equal other mechanism for distributing concrete to required
density of an equal volume of gas-free distilled water at a uniform thickness in a paving slab.
stated temperature. Spud vibrator-A vibrator used for consolidating con-
3. Bulk (saturated-surface-dry basis) specific crete, having a vibrating casing or head, that is used by
gravity-Same as bulk specific gravity except that the insertion into freshly placed concrete.
mass includes the water in the permeable voids. Spun concrete-Concrete compacted by centrifugal ac-
See also Absolute specific gravity. tion, e.g., in the manufacture of pipes.
Specific gravity factor-The ratio ofthe weight of aggre- Stabilizer-A substance which makes a solution or sus-
gates (including all moisture), as introduced into the pension more stable, usually by keeping particles from
mixer, to the effective volume displaced by the aggre- precipitating.
gates. Stage grouting-Sequential grouting of a hole in separate
Specific heat-The amount of heat required per unit mass steps or stages in lieu of grouting the entire length at
to cause a unit rise of temperature, over a small range of once.
temperature. Stalactite-A downward pointing deposit formed as an
Specific surface-The surface area of particles or of air accretion of mineral matter produced by evaporation of
voids contained in a unit weight or unit volume of a dripping water from the surface of rock or of concrete,
material; in the case of air voids in hardened concrete, commonly shaped like an icicle. (See also Stalagmite.)
the surface area of the air void volume expressed as Stalagmite-An upward pointing deposit formed as an
square inches per cubic inch or square millimeters per accretion of mineral matter produced by evaporation of
cubic millimeter. dripping water, projecting from the surface of rock or
Spectrophotometer-Instrument for measuring inten- concrete, commonly conical in shape. (See also Stalac-
sity of radiant energy of desired frequencies absorbed by tite.)

Standard curing-Exposure of test specimens to specified Str

conditions of moisture or humidity and of temperature.
(See also Fog curing.) the modulus of elasticity for the material to the length of
Standard deviation-The root mean square deviation of the member.
individual values from their average. Stirrup-A reinforcement used to resist shear and
Standard hook-A hook at the end of a reinforcing bar diagonal tension stresses in a structual member; typi-
made in accordance with a standard. cally a steel bar bent into a U or box shape and installed
Standard matched-Tongue-and-groove lumber with the perpendicular to or at an angle to the longitudinal rein-
tongue and groove offset rather than centered as in forcement, and properly anchored; lateral reinforcement
center matched lumber. (See also Center matched.) formed of individual units, open or closed, or of continu-
Standard sand-Ottawa sand accurately graded to pass a ously wound reinforcement. (The term "stirrups" is usu-
U.S. Standard No. 20 (850-flm) sieve and be retained on a ally applied to lateral reinforcement in flexural members
U.S. Standard No. 30 (600-flm) sieve, for use in the test- and the term "ties" to lateral reinforcement in vertical
ing of cements. (See also Ottawa sand and Graded compression members.) (See also Tie.)
standard sand.) Stockhouse set-See Sticky cement and Warehouse
Static load-The weight of a single stationary body or the set.
combined weights of all stationary bodies in a structure Stone sand-Fine aggregate resulting from the mechani-
(such as the load of a stationary vehicle on a roadway); or, cal crushing and processing of rock (See also Sand and
during construction, the combined weight of forms, Fine aggregate.)
stringers, joists, reinforcing bars, and the actual concrete Storage hopper-See Stationary hopper.
to be placed. (See also Dead load.) Straightedge-A rigid, straight piece of wood or metal
Static modulus of elasticity-The value of Young's used to strikeoff or screed a concrete surface to proper
modulus of elasticity obtained by arbitrary criteria from grade, or to check the planeness of a finished grade. (See
measured stress-strain relationships derived from other also Rod, Screed, and Strikeoff.)
than dynamic loading. (See also Modulus of elasticity.) Straight-line theory-An assumption in reinforced-
Stationary hopper-A container used to receive and tem- concrete analysis according to which the strains and
porarily store freshly mixed concrete. stresses in a member under flexure are assumed to vary
Steam box-Enclosure for steam curing concrete prod- in proportion to the distance from the neutral axis.
ucts. (See also Steam curing room.) Strain-Deformation of a material resulting from external
Steam curing-Curing of concrete or mortar in water loading, or the restrained portion of potential length and
vapor at atmospheric or higher pressures and at temper- volume change resulting from internal causes.
atures between about 100 and 420 F (40 and 215 C). (See Strain, unit-Deformation of a material expressed as the
also Atmospheric-pressure steam curing, Autoclave ratio of linear unit deformation to the distance within
curing, Single-stage curing, and Two-stage curing.) which that deformation occurs.
Steam-curing cycle-The time interval between the start Strand-A prestressing tendon composed of a number of
of the temperature-rise period and the end ofthe soaking wires twisted about center wire or core.
period or the cooling-off period; also a schedule of the Strand grip-A device used to anchor strands.
time and temperature of periods which make up the Stratification-The separation of overwet or overvibrated
cycle. concrete into horizontal layers with increasingly lighter
Steam-curing room-A chamber for steam curing of con- material toward the top; water, laitance, mortar, and
crete products at atmospheric pressure. coarse aggregate will tend to occupy successively lower
Steam kiln-See Steam-curing room. positions in that order; a layered structure in concrete
Steel sheet-Cold-formed sheet or strip steel shaped as a resulting from placing of successive batches that differ in
structural member for the purpose of carrying the live appearance; occurrence in aggregate stockpiles of layers
and dead loads in lightweight concrete roof construction. of differing grading or composition; a layered structure in
Steel trowel-See Trowel. a rock formation.
Stem bars-Bars used in the wall section of a cantilevered Stratling's compound-Dicalcium aluminate monosili-
retaining wall or in the webs of a box; when a cantile- cate-8-hydrate, a compound that has been found in
vered retaining wall and its footing are considered as an reacted lime-pozzolan and cement-pozzolan mixtures.
integral unit, the wall is often referred to as the stem of Strength-See Compressive strength, Fatigue strength,
the unit. Flexural strength, Shear strength, Splitting tensile
Stepped footing-A step-like support consisting ofprisms strength, Tensile strength, Ultimate strength, and
of concrete of progressively diminishing lateral dimen- Yield strength.
sions superimposed on each other to distribute the load of Strength design method-A design method which re-
a column or wall to the subgrade. quires service loads to be increased by specified load
Sticky cement-Finished cement which develops low or factors and computed theoretical strengths to be reduced
zero flowability during or after storage in silos, or after by the specified phi () factors.
transportation in bulk containers, hopper-bottom cars, Stress-Intensity of internal force (i.e., force per unit area)
etc.; may be caused by: (a) interlocking of particles; (b) exerted by either of two adjacent parts of a body on the
mechanical compaction; (c) electrostatic attraction be- other across an imagined plane of separation; when the
tween particles. (See also Warehouse set.) forces are parallel to the plane, the stress is called shear
Stiffback-See Strongback. stress; when the forces are normal to the plane the stress
Stiffness-Resistance to deformation. is called normal stress; when the normal stress is di-
Stiffness factor-A measure of the stiffness ofa structural rected toward the part on which it acts it is called com-
member; for a prismatic member equal to the ratio of the pressive stress; when it is directed away from the part on
product of the moment of inertia of the cross section and which it acts it is called tensile stress.

Str Sulfate attack-Chemical or physical reaction or both

Stress corrosion-Corrosion of a metal initiated or accel- between sulfates usually in soil or ground water and
erated by stress. concrete or mortar, primarily with calcium aluminate
Stress relaxation--Stress loss developed when a constant hydrates in the cement-paste matrix, often causing dete-
length is maintained under stress at constant tempera- rioration.
ture. Sulfate resistance-Ability of concrete or mortar to with-
Stressing end-In prestressed concrete, the end of the stand sulfate attack. (See also Sulfate attack.)
tendon from which the load is applied when tendons are Sulfate-resistant cement-See Cement, sulfate-resis-
stressed (rom one end only. tant.
Stretcher-A masonry unit laid with its length horizontal Superimposed load-The load other than its own weight
and parallel with the face of a wall or other masonry that is resisted by a structural member or system.
member. (See also Header.) Super-sulfated cement--See Cement, super-sulfated.
Strike--See Striking. Surface, specific-See Specific surface.
Strikeoff-To remove concrete in excess of that which is Surface active-Having the ability to modify surface
required to fill the form evenly or bring the surface to energy and to facilitate wetting, penetrating, emulsify-
grade; performed with a straightedged piece of wood or ing, dispersing, solubilizing, foaming, frothing, etc., of
metal by means of a forward sawing movement or by a other substances.
power operated tool appropriate for this purpose; also the Surface area--See Specific surface.
name applied to the tool. (See also Screed and Screed- Surface moisture-Free water retained on surfaces of
ing.) aggregate particles and considered to be part of the mix-
Striking-The releasing or lowering of centering or other ing water in concrete, as distinguished from absorbed
temporary support. moisture.
Stringer-A secondary flexural member which is parallel Surface retarder-A retarder used by application to a
to the longitudinal axis of a bridge or other structure. form or to the surface of freshly mixed concrete to delay
(See also Beam.) setting of the cement to facilitate construction joint
Strip-To remove formwork or a mold; also a long thin cleanup or to facilitate production of exposed aggregate
piece of wood, metal, or other material. (See also De- finish.
molding.) Surface tension-That property, due to molecular forces,
Strip footing--See Continuous footing. that exists in the surface film of all liquids and tends to
Strip foundation-A continuous foundation of which the prevent the liquid from spreading.
length considerably exceeds the breadth. Surfact texture-Degree of roughness or irregularity of
Stripper-A liquid compound formulated to remove coat- the exterior surfaces of aggregate particles or hardened
ings by chemical or solvent action, or both. concrete.
Stripping-The removal of formwork or a mold. (See also Surface vibrator-A vibrator used for consolidating con-
Demolding.) crete by application to the top surface of a mass of freshly
Strongback-A frame attached to the back of a form or mixed concrete; four principal types exist: vibrating
precast structural member to stiffen or reinforce it dur- screeds, pan vibrators, plate or grid vibratory tampers,
ing concrete placing operations or handling operations. and vibratory roller screeds.
Structural concrete-See Concrete, structural. Surface voids-Cavities visible on the surface of a solid.
Structural lightweight concrete-See Concrete, struc- (See also Bugholes.)
tural lightweight. Surface water--See Surface moisture.
Strut--See Shore. Surkhi-A pozzolan consisting of burned clay powder
Stub wall-Low wall, usually 4 to 8 in. (100 to 200 mm) principally produced in India.
high, placed monolithically with concrete floor or other Sustained modulus of elasticity-Term including elas-
members to provide for control and attachment of wall tic and inelastic effects in one expression to aid in
forms; called Kicker in the United Kingdom. visualizing net effects of stress-strain up to any given
Stucco-A cement plaster used for coating exterior walls time; computed by dividing the unit sustained stress by
and other exterior surfaces of buildings. (See also Plas- the sum of the elastic and inelastic deformations at that
ter.) time. (See Modulus of elasticity.)
Stud-Vertical member of appropriate size (2 x 4 to 4 x 10 Swaybrace-A diagonal brace used to resist wind or other
in.) (50 x 100 to 100 x 250 mm) and spacing (16 to lateral forces. (See also Bracing and X-brace.)
30 in.) (400 to 750 mm) to support sheathing of concrete Swelling-Volume increase caused by wetting or chemical
forms; also a headed steel device used to anchor steel changes, or both; a function of time but not of tempera-
plates or shapes to concrete members. ture or of stress due to external load.
Subbase-A layer in a pavement system between the sub- Swift-A reel or turntable on which prestressing tendons
grade and base course or between the sub grade and a are placed to facilitate handling and placing.
portland cement concrete pavement. Swirl finish-A nonskid texture imparted to a concrete
Subgrade-The soil prepared and compacted to support a surface during final troweling by keeping the trowel flat
structure or a pavement system. and using a rotary motion.
Subgrade reaction--See Contact pressure. Swiss hammer--See Rebound hammer.
Sub-purlin-A light structural section used as a secon- Syneresis-The contraction of a gel, usually evidenced by
dary structural member; in lightweight concrete roof the separation from the gel of small amounts of liquid; a
construction used to support the form boards over which process possibly significant in bleeding and cracking of
the lightweight concrete is placed. fresh portland cement mixtures.

Syngenite-Potassium calcium sulfate hydrate, a com- Thi

pound sometimes produced during hydration of portland
cement, found in deteriorating portland-cement concrete
and said to form in portland cement during storage by
reaction of potassium sulfate and gypsum. Tendon-A steel element such as a wire, cable, bar, rod, or
Systems building-See Industrialized building. strand used to impart prestress to concrete when the
element is tensioned.
T Tendon profile-The path or trajectory of the prestres-
sing tendon.
Talc-A mineral with a greasy or soapy feel, very soft, Tensile strength-Maximum unit stress which a material
having the composition Mg"Si 4 0 IO (OR)2. (See also Ceo is capable of resisting under axial tensile loading, based
ment, masonry.) on the cross-sectional area of the specimen before load-
Tamper- ing.
1. An implement used to consolidate concrete or mortar Tensile stress-Stress resulting from tension.
in molds or forms. Tension reinforcement-Reinforcement designed to
2. A hand-operated device for compacting floor topping carry tensile stresses such as those in the bottom of a
or other unformed concrete by impact from the dropped simple beam.
device in preparation for strikeoff and finishing; contact Terrazzo concrete-See Concrete, terrazzo.
surface often consists of a screen or a grid of bars to force Tesserae-Small pieces of marble tile or glass used in
coarse aggregates below the surface to prevent inter- mosaics.
ference with floating or trowelling. Test-A trial, examination, observation, or evaluation
See also Jitterbug. used as a means of measuring a physical or chemical
Tamping-The operation of compacting freshly placed characteristic of a material, or a physical characteristic
concrete by repeated blows or penetrations with a tamp- of a structural element or a structure.
ing device. Testing machine-A device for applying test conditions
Tamping rod-See Rod, tamping. and accurately measuring results.
Tangent modulus-See Modulus of elasticity. Tetracalcium aluminoferrite-A compound in the cal-
T-beam-A beam composed of a stem and a flange in the cium aluminoferrite series, having the composition
form of a "T." 4CaO AI 2 0: I Fe 2 0", abbreviated C"AF, which is usually
Telltale-Any device designed to indicate movement of assumed to be the aluminoferrite present when com-
formwork or a point along the length of a pile under load. pound calculations are made from the results of chemical
Temperature cracking-Cracking due to tensile failure, analysis of portland cement. (See also Brown-millerite.)
caused by temperature drop in members subjected to Texture-The pattern or configuration apparent in an ex-
external restraints or temperature differential in mem- posed surface, as of concrete or mortar, including rough-
bers subjected to internal restraints. ness, streaking, striation, or departure from flatness.
Temperature reinforcement-Reinforcement designed Texturing-The process of producing a special texture on
to carry stresses resulting from temperature changes; unhardened or hardened concrete.
also the minimum reinforcement for areas of members T-head-In precast framing, a segment of girder crossing
which are not subjected to primary stresses or necessar- the top of an interior column; also the top of a shore
ily to temperature stresses. formed with a braced horizontal member projecting on
Temperature rise-The increase of temperature caused two sides forming a T-shaped assembly.
by absorption of heat or internal generation of heat, as by Thermal conductivity-A property of a homogeneous
hydration of cement in concrete. body measured by the ratio of the steady state heat flux
Temperature rise period-The time interval during (time rate of heat flow per unit area) to the temperature
which the temperature of a concrete product rises at a gradient (temperature difference per unit length of heat
controlled rate to the desired maximum in autoclave or flow path) in the direction perpendicular to the area.
atmospheric-pressure steam curing. Thermal diffusivity-Thermal conductivity divided by
Temperature stress-Stress in a structure or a member the product of specific heat and unit weight; an index of
due to changes or differentials in temperature in the the facility with which a material undergoes tempera-
structure or member. ture change.
Tempering-The addition of water and mixing of concrete Thermal shock-The subjection of a material or body,
or mortar as necessary to bring it to the desired consis- such as partially hardened concrete, to a rapid change in
tency during the prescribed mixing period; for truck- temperature which may be expected to have a potentially
mixed concrete this will include any addition of water as deleterious effect.
may be necessary to bring the load to the correct slump Thermoplastic-Becoming soft when heated and hard
on arrival at the work site but not after a period of when cooled.
waiting to discharge the concrete. Thermosetting-Recoming rigid by chemical reaction
Template-A thin plate or board frame used as a guide in and not remeltable.
positioning or spacing form parts, reinforcement, or an- Thin-shell precast-Precast concrete characterized by
chors; also a full-size mold, pattern or frame, shaped to thin slabs and web sections. (See also Shell construc-
serve as a guide in forming or testing contour or shape. tion.)
Temporary stress-A stress which may be produced in a Thixotropy-The property of a material that enables it to
precast concrete member or component of a precast con- stiffen in a short period on standing, but to acquire a
crete member during fabrication or erection, or in cast- lower viscosity on mechanical agitation, the process
in-place concrete structures due to construction or test being reversible; a material having this property is
loadings. termed thixotropic or shear thinning. (See Rheology.)

Thr Tongue and groove-A type oflumber or precast concrete

pile having mated projecting and grooved edges to pro-
Threaded anchorage-An anchorage device which is vide a tight fit, abbreviated "T & G."
provided with threads to facilitate attaching the jacking Top form-Form required on the upper or outer surface of
device and to effect the anchorage. a sloping slab or thin shell.
Tie- Topping-
l. Loop of reinforcing bars encircling the longitudinal 1. A layer of concrete or mortar placed to form a floor
steel in columns. surface on a concrete base.
2. A tensile unit adapted to holding concrete forms 2. A structural, cast-in-place surface for precast floor
secure against the lateral pressure of unhardened con- and roof systems.
crete, with or without provision for spacing the forms a 3. The mixture of marble chips and matrix which,
definite distance apart, and with or without provision for when properly processed, produces a terrazzo surface.
removal of metal to a specified distance from the finished Torque viscometer-An apparatus used for measuring
concrete surface. the consistency of slurries in which the energy required
Tie bar-Bar at right angles to and tied to minimum rein- to rotate a device suspended in a rotating cup is propor-
forcement to keep it in place; bar extending across a tional to viscosity.
construction joint. Toughness-The property of matter which resists fracture
Tie rod-See Form tie and Tieback. by impact or shock.
Tieback-A rod fastened to a deadman, a rigid foundation, Tower-A composite structure of frames, braces, and ac-
or a rock or soil anchor to prevent lateral movement of cessories.
formwork, sheet pile walls, retaining walls, bulkheads, Trajectory of prestressing force-The path along which
etc. the prestress is effective in a structure or member; it is
Tied column-A column laterally reinforced with ties. coincident with the center of gravity of the tendons for
Tiers-See Lifts. simple flexural members and statically indeterminate
Tilting concrete mixer-See Mixer, tilting. members which are prestressed with concordant ten-
Tilt-up-A method of concrete construction in which dons, but is not coincident with the center of gravity of
members are cast horizontally at a location adjacent to the tendons of a statically indeterminate structure which
their eventual position, and tilted into place after re- is prestressed with nonconcordant tendons.
moval of molds. Transfer-The act of transferring the stress in prestres-
Time-dependent deformation-Combined effects of au- sing tendons from the jacks or pretensioning bed to the
togenous volume change, contraction, creep, expansion, concrete member.
shrinkage, and swelling occurring during an appreciable Transfer bond-In pretensioning, the bond stress result-
period of time; not synonymous with Inelastic behavior ing from the transfer of stress resulting from the tendon
or Volume change. to the concrete.
Time of haul-In production of ready-mixed concrete, the Transfer length-See Transmission length.
period from first contact between mixing water and ce- Transfer strength-The concrete strength required be-
ment until completion of discharge of the freshly mixed fore stress is transferred from the stressing mechanism
concrete. to the concrete.
Time of setting-See Initial setting time and Final set- Transformed section-A hypothetical section of one ma-
ting time. terial arranged so as to have the same elastic properties
Time of set-See Initial setting time and Final setting as a section of two materials.
time. Transit-mixed concrete-Concrete, the mixing of which
Tobermorite-A mineral found in Northern Ireland and is wholly or principally accomplished in a truck mixer.
elsewhere, having the approximate formula Ca4(Si"OJ8H2)' Translucent concrete-See Concrete, translucent.
Ca' 4H 2 0 identified approximately with the artificial Transmission length-The distance at the end of a pre-
product tobermorite (G) of Brunauer, a hydrated calcium tensioned tendon necessary for the bond stress to develop
silicate having CaO SiO e ratio in the range 1.39 to 1.75 the maximum tendon stress; sometimes called Transfer
and forming minute layered crystals that constitute the length.
principal cementing medium in portland cement con- Transverse cracks-Cracks that develop at right angles
crete; a mineral with 5 mols of lime to 6 mols of silica, to the long direction of the member.
usually occurring in plate like crystals, which is easily Transverse joint-A joint parallel to the intermediate
synthesized at steam pressures of about 100 psig and dimension of a structure.
higher; the binder in several properly autoclaved pro- Transverse prestress-Prestress that is applied at right
ducts. angles to the principal axis of a member.
To bermorite gel-The binder of concrete cured moist or in Transverse reinforcement-Reinforcement at right an-
atmospheric-pressure steam, a lime-rich gel-like solid gles to the principal axis of a member.
containing 1.5 to 2.0 mols of lime per mol of silica. Transverse strength-See Flexural strength and
Toenail-To drive a nail at an angle. Modulus of rupture.
Tolerance- Traprock-Any of various fine-grained, dense, dark
1. The permitted variation from a given dimension or colored igneous rocks, typically basalt or diabase; also
quantity. called "trap."
2. The range of variation permitted in maintaining a Trass-A natural pozzolan of volcanic origin found in
specified dimension. Germany.
3. A permitted variation from location or alignment. Traveler-An inverted-U-shaped structure usually
Tom-See Shore. mounted on tracks which permit it to move from one

location to another to facilitate the construction of an Vac

arch, bridge, or building.
Tremie-A pipe or tube through which concrete is depos- Two-way system-A system of reinforcement: bars, rods,
ited under water, having at its upper end a hopper for or wires placed at right angles to each other in a slab and
filling and a bail for moving the assemblage. intended to resist stresses due to bending of the slab in
Tremie concrete--Subaqueous concrete placed by means two directions.
of a tremie.
Tremie seal-The depth to which the discharge end of the u
tremie pipe is kept embedded in the fresh concrete that is
being placed; a layer oftremie concrete placed in a coffer- IDtimate design resisting Illoment-The moment at
dam for the purpose of preventing the intrusion of water which a section reaches its ultimate usable strength,
when the cofferdam is dewatered. most commonly the moment at which the tensile rein-
Trial batch-A batch of concrete prepared to establish or forcement reaches its specified yield strength.
check proportions of the constituents. Ultimate load-The maximum load which may be placed
Triaxial compression test-A test in which a specimen is on a structure before its failure due to buckling of column
subjected to a confining hydrostatic pressure and then members or failure of some component; also the load at
loaded axially to failure. which a unit or structure fails.
Triaxial test-A test in which a specimen is subjected Ultimate moment-The bending moment at which a sec-
simultaneously to lateral and axial loads. tion reaches it ultimate usable strength, most commonly
Tricalcium aluminate-A compound having the composi- the moment at which the tensile reinforcement reaches
tion 3CaO AI"O:l> abbreviated C"A. its specified yield strength.
TricalciuIll silicate-A compound having the composition IDtiIllate shear stress-The stress at a section which is
3CaO'Si02 , abbreviated C"S, an impure form of which loaded to its maximum in shear. (See also Shear
(alite) is a main constituent of portland cement. (See also strength.)
Alite.) IDtiIllate strength-The maximum resistance to load that
Trough mixer--See Open-top mixer. a member or structure is capable of developing before
Trowel-A flat, broad-blade steel hand tool used in the failure occurs; or, with reference to cross sections of
final stages of finishing operations to impart a relatively members, the largest moment, axial force, torsion or
smooth surface to concrete floors and other unformed shear a structural concrete cross section will support.
concrete surfaces; also a flat triangular-blade tool used IDtimate strength design-See Strength design method.
for applying mortar to masonry. Unbonded IlleIllber-Post-tensioned, prestressed con-
Trowel finish-The smooth finish surface produced by crete element in which tensioning force is applied
troweling. against end anchorages only, tendons being free to move
Troweling--Smoothing and compacting the unformed within the elements.
surface of fresh concrete by strokes of a trowel. Unbonded post-tensioning-Post-tensioning in which
Troweling machine-A motor driven device which oper- the tendons are not grouted after stressing.
ates orbiting steel trowels on radial arms from a vertical Unbonded tendon-A tendon which is not bonded to the
shaft. concrete section.
Truck-mixed concrete--See Transit-Illixed concrete. Unbraced length of column-Distance between
Truck mixer-A concrete mixer suitable for mounting on adequate lateral supports.
a truck chassis and capable of mixing concrete in transit. Underbed-The base mortar, usually horizontal, into
(See also Horizontal-axis mixer, Inclined-axis mixer, which strips are embedded and on which terrazzo topping
Open-top mixer, and Agitator.) is applied.
T-shore-A shore- with aT-head. Undersanded-With respect to concrete, containing an
Tub mixer--See Open-top mixer. insufficient proportion of fine aggregate to produce op-
Tube-and-coupler shoring-A load-carrying assembly timum properties in the fresh mixture, especially worka-
of tubing or pipe which serves as posts, braces, and ties, a bility and finishing characteristics.
base supporting the posts, and special couplers which Unit water content-The quantity of water per unit vol-
connect the uprights and join the various members. ume offreshly mixed concrete, often expressed as pounds
TurbidiIlleter-A device for measuring the particle-size or gallons per cubic yard; the quantity of water on which
distribution of a finely divided material by taking suc- the water-cement ratio is based, not including water
cessive measurements of the turbidity of a suspension in absorbed by the aggregate.
a fluid. Unit weight--See Bulk density and Specific gravity.
Turbidimeter fineness-The fineness of a material such Unprotected corner-Corner of a slab with no adequate
as portland cement, usually expressed as total surface provision for load transfer, so that the corner must carry
area in square centimeters per gram, as determined with over 80 percent of the load. (See also Protected corner.)
a turbidimeter. (See also Wagner fineness.) Unreinforced concrete--See Plain concrete.
Turbine Illixer--See Open-top Illixer. Unsound-Not firmly made, placed, or fixed; subject to
Twin-twisted reinforcement--See ReinforceIllent, twin- deterioration or disintegration during service exposure.
twisted bar.
Two-stage curing-A process in which concrete products
are cured in low-pressure steam, stacked, and then auto- v
Two-way reinforced footing-A footing having rein- Vacuum concrete-Concrete from which water and en-
forcement in two directions generally perpendicular to trapped air are extracted by a vacuum process before
each other. hardening occurs.

Vac Vicat needle-A weighted needle for determining setting

time of hydraulic cements.
Viscometer-Instrument for determining viscosity of
slurries, mortars, or concretes.
Viscosity-A property of a material which resists change
Vacuum saturation-A process for increasing the in the shape or arrangement of its elements during flow,
amount of filling of the pores in a porous material, such and the measure there of.
as lightweight aggregate, with a fluid, such as water, by Visual concrete-See Exposed concrete.
subjecting the porous material to reduced pressure in the Void-cement ratio-Volumetric ratio of air plus net mix-
presence of the fluid. ing water to cement in a concrete or mortar mixture.
Valve bag-Paper bag for cement or other material, either Volatile material-Material that is subject to release as a
glued or sewn, made offour or five plies of kraft paper and gas or vapor; liquids that evaporate readily.
completely closed except for a self-sealing paper valve Volume batching-The measuring of the constituent ma-
through which the contents are introduced. terials for mortar or concrete by volume.
Vapor barrier-Waterproof membrane placed under con- Volume change-An increase or decrease in volume. (See
crete floor slabs that are placed on grade. also Deformation.)
Vapor pressure-A component of atmospheric pressure
which is caused by the presence of vapor; expressed in w
inches, centimeters, or millimeters of height of a column
of mercury. Waffle-See Dome.
Vehicle-Liquid carrier or binder of solids. Wagner fineness-The fineness of portland cement, ex-
Veneer-A masonry facing which is attached to the back- pressed as total surface area in square centimeters per
up but not so bonded as to act with it under load. gram, determined by the Wagner turbidimeter ap-
Venetian-A type of terrazzo topping in which large chips paratus and procedure.
are incorporated. Wale-A long horizontal formwork member (usually dou-
Vent pipe-A small-diameter pipe used in concrete con- ble) used to hold studs in place; also called Waler or
struction to permit escape of air in a structure being Ranger.
concreted or grouted. WaU-A vertical element used primarily to enclose or
Vented form-A form so constructed as to retain the solid separate spaces.
constituents of concrete and permit the escape of water Wall form-A retainer or mold so erected as to give the
and air. necessary shape, support and finish to a concrete wall.
Vermiculite-A group name for certain platy minerals, Warehouse set-The partial hydration of cement stored
hydrous silicates of aluminum, magnesium, and iron; for a time and exposed to atmospheric moisture, or
characterized by marked exfoliation on heating; also a mechanical compaction occurring during storage.
constituent of clays. Warping-A deviation of a slab or wall surface from its
Vermiculite concrete-Concrete in which the aggregate original shape, usually caused by temperature or
consists of exfoliated vermiculite. moisture differentials or both within the slab or wall.
Vibrated concrete-Concrete compacted by vibration (See also Curling.)
during and after placing. Warping joint-A joint with the sole function of permit-
Vibration-Energetic agitation of freshly mixed concrete ting warping of pavement slabs when moisture and tem-
during placement by mechanical devices either pneu- perature differentials occur in the pavement, i.e., lon-
matic or electric, that create vibratory impulses of mod- gitudinal or transverse joints with bonded steel or tie
erately high frequency that assist in consolidating the bars passing through them.
concrete in the form or mold. Wash (or flush) water-Water carried on a truck mixer in
1. External vibration employs vibrating devices at- a special tank for flushing the interior of the mixer after
tached at strategic positions on the forms and is particu- discharge of the concrete.
larly applicable to manufacture of precast items and for Water gain-See Bleeding.
vibration of tunnel-lining forms; in manufacture of con- Water-cement ratio-The ratio of the amount of water,
crete products, external vibration or impact may be --- exclUSIve only of that absorbed by the aggregates, to the
applied to a casting table. amount of cement in a concrete or mortar mixture; pre-
2. Internal vibration employs one or more vibrating ferably stated as a decimal by weight.
elements that can be inserted into the concrete at "Waterproofed" cement-Cement interground with a
selected locations, and is more generally applicable to water repellent material such as calcium stearate.
in-place construction. "Waterproofing" compound-See Compound, "water-
3. Surface vibration employs a portable horizontal proofing."
platform on which a vibrating element is mounted. Water-reducing agent-A material which either in-
Vibration limit-That time at which fresh concrete has creases slump of freshly mixed mortar or concrete with-
hardened sufficiently to prevent its becoming mobile out increasing water content or maintains workability
when subjected to vibration. with a reduced amount of water, the effect being due to
Vibrator-An oscillating machine used to agitate fresh factors other than air entrainment.
concrete so as to eliminate gross voids, including entrap- "Water-repellent" cement-A hydraulic cement having
ped air but not entrained air, and produce intimate con- a water-repellent agent added during the process of
tact with form surfaces and embedded materials. manufacture, with the intention of resisting the absorp-
Vicat apparatus-A penetration device used in the test- tion of water by the concrete or mortar.
ing of hydraulic cements and similar materials. Water ring-Perforated manifold in nozzle of dry-mix

shotcrete equipment through which water is added to the Vie

Waterstop-A thin sheet of metal, rubber, plastic, or other shotcrete walls, domes, or other tension resisting struc-
material inserted across a joint to obstruct the seeping of tural cOIpponents.
water through the joint. Wobble coefficient-A coefficient used in determining
Weakened-plane joint-See Groove joint. the friction loss occurring in post-tensioning, which is
Wearing course-A topping or surface treatment to in- assumed to account for the secondary curvature of the
crease the resistance of a concrete pavement or slab to tendons.
abrasion. Wobble friction-In prestressed concrete, the friction
Weathering-Changes in color, texture, strength, chemi- caused by the unintended deviation of the prestressing
cal composition or other properties of a natural or artifi- sheath or duct from its specified profile.
cial material due to the action of the weather. Workability-That property of freshly mixed concrete or
Web bar-See Web reinforcement. mortar which determines the ease and homogencity with
Web reinforcement-Reinforcement placed in a concrete which it can be mixed, placed, compacted, and finished.
member to resist shear and diagonal tension. Working load-Forces normally imposed on a member in
Wedge-A piece of wood or metal tapering to a thin edge, service.
used to adjust elevation or tighten formwork. Working stress-Maximum permissible design stress
Wedge anchorage-A device for providing the means of using working stress design methods.
anchoring a tendon by wedging. Working stress design-A method of proportioning
Weight batching-Measuring the constituent materials structures or members for prescribed working loads at
for mortar or concrete by weight. stresses well below the ultimate, and assuming linear
Welded butt splice-A reinforcing bar splice made by distribution of flexural stresses.
welding the butted ends. Woven-wire fabric-A prefabricated steel reinforcement
Welded-wire fabric-A series of longitudinal and trans- composed of cold-drawn steel wires mechanically twisted
verse wires arranged substantially at right angles to together to form hexagonally shaped openings.
each other and welded together at all points of intersec- Woven-wire reinforcement-See Welded-wire fabric.
tion. Wrecking strip-Small piece or panel fitted into a
Welded-wire fabric reinforcement-Welded-wire fabric form work assembly in such a way that it can be easily
in either sheets or rolls, used to reinforce concrete. removed ahead of main panels or forms, making it easier
Well-graded aggregate-Aggregate having a particle to strip those major form components.
size distribution which will produce maximum density, Wythe (leaD-Each continuous vertical section of a wall
i.e., minimum void space. one masonry unit in thickness.
Wet process-In the manufacture of cement, the process
in which the raw materials are ground, blended, mixed, x
and pumped while mixed with water; the wet process is
chosen where raw materials are extremely wet and X-brace-Paired set of sway braces.
sticky, which would make drying before crushing and Xonotlite-5-calcium-5-silicate monohydrate (C"S,-,H), a
grinding difficult. (See also Dry process.) natural mineral that is readily synthesized at 150 to
Wet screening-Screening to remove from fresh concrete 350 C under saturated steam pressure; a constituent of
all aggregate particles larger than a certain size. sand-lime masonry units.
Wet-mix shotcrete-Shotcrete wherein all ingredients, X-ray diffraction-The diffraction of x-rays by sub-
including mixing water, are mixed before introduction stances having a regular arrangement of atoms; a pheno-
into the delivery hose; it may be pneumatically conveyed menon used to identify substances having such struc-
or moved by displacement. (See also Pneumatic feed ture.
and Positive displacement.) X-ray fluorescence-Characteristic secondary radiation
Wet sieving-Use of water during sieving of a material on emitted by an element as a result of excitation by x-rays,
a No. 200 (75 /-Lm) or No. 325 (45 /-Lm) sieve. used to yield chemical analysis of a sample.
Wettest stable consistency-The condition of maximum
water content at which cement grout or mortar will y
adhere to a vertical surface without sloughing.
Wetting agent-A substance capable oflowering the sur- Yellowing-Development of yellow color or cast in white
face tension of liquids, facilitating the wetting of solid or clear coatings, on aging.
surfaces and permitting the penetration of liquids into Yield-The volume of freshly mixed concrete produced
the capillaries. from a known quantity of ingredients; the total weight of
Wheel load-The portion of the gross weight of a loaded ingredients divided by the unit weight of the freshly
vehicle transferred to a supporting structure under a mixed concrete; also, the number of product units, such
given wheel of the vehicle. as block, produced per bag of cement or per batch of
White cement-See Cement, white. concrete.
Wing pile-A bearing pile, usually of concrete, widened in Yield !Joint-That point during increasing stress when the
the upper portion to form part of a sheet pile wall. proportion of stress to strain becomes substantially less
Wire, cold-drawn-Wire made from the rods hot rolled than it has been at smaller values of stress.
from billets and then cold-drawn through dies. (See also Yield strength-The stress, less than the maximum at-
Reinforcement, cold-drawn wire.) tainable stress, at which the ratio of stress to strain has
Wire mesh-See Welded-wire fabric. dropped well below its value at low stresses, or at which a .
Wire winding-Application of high tensile wire, wound material exhibits a specified limiting deviation from the
under tension by machines, around circular concrete or usual proportionality of stress to strain.

Yok Young's modulus-See Modulus of elasticity.

Yoke-A tie or clamping device around column forms or
over the top of wall or footing forms to keep them from
spreading because of the lateral pressure of fresh con- Zero-slump concrete-Concrete of stiff or extremely dry
crete; also part of a structural assembly for slipforming consistency showing no measurable slump after removal
which keeps the forms from spreading and transfers form ofthe slump cone. (See also Slump and No-slump con-
loads to the jacks_ crete.)
ACI Committee Reports, Guides, Standard Practices, and Com- A CI 201.2 R-7 7
mentaries are intended for guidance in designing, planning, executing,
or inspecting construction, and in preparing specifications. Reference
to these documents shall not be made in the Project Documents. If From ACI JOURNAL, Dec. 1977
items found in these documents are desired to be part of the Project
Documents, they should be incorporated directly into the Project

Guide to Durable Concrete

Reported by ACI Committee 201

Chairman Secretary



Corresponding Members

This guide is essentially an update of the committee report "Durability of Concrete

in Service" which appeared in the December 1962 ACI JOU RNAL. There are a
number of major revisions reflecting increased knowledge of the subject.
A separate chapter is devoted to each of the main types of concrete deterioration.
Their mechanism is described and the requirements for materials, design, and con-
struction procedures necessary to prevent damage to the concrete are given. A
selected bibliography is included with each chapter.
Keywords: a brasion; abrasion resistance; acid re,ista nce; adhesives; ad m ixtu res; aggregates; air
entrainment; alkali-aggregate reactions; alkali-carbonate reactions; bridge decks; calcium chlorides;
cement-aggregate reactions; cement pastes; chemical analysis; chemical attack; chlorides; coatings;
concrete durability; concrete pavements; corrosion; corrosion resistance; cracking (fracturing); dam
age; deicers; deterioration; durability; epoxy resins; floors; freeze-thaw durability; freezing; pe-
trography; plastics, polymers, and resins; protective coatings; reinforced concrete; reinforcing steels;
repairs; skid resistance; spalling; sulfate attack; waterproof coatings.

ACI Committee 201 was organized in 1957, and published a report "Dura-
bility of Concrete in Service" in the December 1962 ACI Journal.
The committee has also published a "Guide for Making a Condition Survey
of Concrete in Service" in the November 1968 ACI Journal, and a symposium
volume, Durability of Concrete, SP-47, in 1975.
Charles F. Scholer was chairman of Committee 201 during the early de-
velopment of this guide.

by any photo process, or by any electronic or mechanical device,

'Deceased printed or written or oral, or recording for sound or visual
Copyright 1977, American Concrete Institute. reproduction or for use in any knowledge or retrieval system or
All rights reserved including rights of reproduction and use device, unless permission in writing is obtained from the copy-
in any form or by any means, including the making of copies right proprietors.

Introduction 201-2
Chapter 1-Freezing and thawing 201-3
l.l-General 1.3-Ice removal agents
1.2-Mechanism of frost action 1.4-Recommendations for durable

Chapter 2-Aggressive chemical exposure ................................. 201-10

2.I-General 2.3-Acid attack
2.2-Sulfate attack

Chapter 3-Abrasion .................................................... 201-13

3. I-Introduction 3.5-Improving wear resistance of existing
3.2-Testing concrete for resistance floors
to abrasion 3.6-Studded tire wear on concrete
3.3-Factors affecting abrasion pavements
resistance of concrete 3.7-Skid resistance of pavements
3.4-Recommendations for obtaining
abrasion-resistant concrete surfaces
Chapter 4-Corrosion of steel and other materials embedded in concrete ....... 201-17
4. I-Introduction 4.5-Recommendations where corrosion
4.2-Effect of concrete condition on may be a problem
corrosion of embedded steel 4.6-Corrective measures
4.3-Causes of corrosion 4.7-General remarks
4.4-Corrosion characteristics of various
materials in concrete
Chapter 5-Chemical reactions of aggregates .............................. 201-24
5.I-Types of reactions 5.5-Preservation of concrete containing
5.2-Alkali-silica reaction reactive aggregate
5.3-Cement-aggregate reaction 5.6-Recommendations for future
5.4-Expansive alkali-carbonate studies
Chapter 6-Repair of concrete ................... _........................ 201-32
6.I-Evaluation of damage and selection 6.5-Appearance
of repair method 6.6-Curing
6.2-Types of repairs 6.7-Treatment of cracks
6.3-Preparations for repair
6A-Bonding agents
Chapter 7-Use of coatings to enhance concrete durability ................... 201-34
7.I-Surface water repellents 7.3-Future of coatings
7.2-Plastic and elastomeric coatings

Durability of portland cement concrete is de- aggregates, corrosion of embedded materials, re-
fined as its ability to resist weathering action, pair methods, and the use of coatings to enhance
chemical attack, abrasion, or any other process of durability. The fire resistance of concrete is not
deterioration. Durable concrete will retain its covered, since it is included in the mission of ACI
original form, quality, and serviceability when Committee 216.
exposed to its environment. Some excellent gen- Freezing and thawing damage is a serious prob-
eral references on the subject are available.1-3* lem in northern climates, and the mechanisms in-
This report discusses in some depth the more im- volved are now fairly well understood. In pave-
portant causes of concrete deterioration, and gives ments the damage is greatly accelerated by the
recommendations on how to prevent such damage. use of deiCing salts, often resulting in severe
Chapters are included on freezing and thawing,
aggressive chemical exposure, abrasion, reactive 'References are listed at the end of each chapter.

scaling at the surface. Fortunately, concrete made Although aggregate is commonly considered to
with good aggregates, low water-cement ratio, and be an inert filler in concrete, such is not always
air entrainment will have good resistance to cyclic the case. Certain aggregates can react with port-
freezing. land cement, causing expansion and deterioration.
By using a suitable cement and a properly pro- Fortunately, care in the selection of aggregate
portioned mix, concrete will resist sulfates in soil, sources, and use of low-alkali cement and poz-
ground water, or seawater. High quality concrete zolans where appropriate, will prevent this prob-
will resist mild acid attack, but no concrete offers lem.
good resistance to attack by strong acids; special The final chapters of this report discuss the
protection is necessary in this case. repair of concrete which has not withstood the
forces of deterioration, and the use of protective
Sometimes concrete surfaces will wear away coatings to enhance durability.
as the result of abrasive action. Wear can be a The committee wishes to stress that good design
particular problem in industrial floors. In hy- and materials alone will not assure durable con-
draulic structures, particles of sand or gravel in crete. Good quality control and workmanship are
flowing water can erode surfaces. The use of high absolutely essential to the production of durable
quality concrete and, in extreme cases, a very concrete. Experience has shown that two areas
hard aggregate will usually result in adequate should receive special attention: (1) control of
durability under these exposures. The recent use entrained air and (2) finishing of slabs. The ACI
of studded tires on automobiles has caused serious Manual of Concrete Inspection describes good con-
wear in concrete pavements; conventional concrete crete practices and inspection procedures:1
will not withstand this action.
The spalling of concrete in bridge decks has be- REFERENCES
come a serious problem in recent years. The prin- 1. ACI Committee 201, "Durability of Concrete in
cipal cause is corrosion of the reinforcing steel, Service," ACI JOURNAL, Proceedings V. 59, No. 12, Dec.
1962, pp. 1771-1820.
which is largely due to the use of deicing salts. The 2. ACI Committee 201, "Guide for Making a Condition
corrosion products produce an expansive force Survey of Concrete in Service," ACI JOURNAL, Proceed-
which causes the concrete to spall out above the ings V. 65, No. 11, Nov. 1968, pp. 905-918.
steel. Ample cover over the steel and use of a 3. Woods, Hubert, Durability of Concrete Construc-
low-permeability, air-entrained concrete will as- tion, Monograph No.4, American Concrete Institute!
Iowa State University Press, Detroit, 1968, 190 pp.
sure good durability in the great majority of 4. ACI Committee 311, ACT Manual of Concrete In-
cases, but more positive protection is needed for spection, SP-2, 6th Edition, American Concrete Institute,
very severe exposures. Detroit, 1975, 268 pp.


1.1-General A good general discussion on the subject of frost

Exposing damp concrete to freezing and thaw- action in concrete is provided by Cordon. 1
ing cycles is a severe test of the material, and
poor concrete will certainly fail. On the other 1.2-Mechanism of frost action
hand, air-entrained concrete which is properly Powers and his associates conducted extensive
proportioned, manufactured, placed, finished, and research on frost action in concrete from 1933 to
cured will almost always resist cyclic freezing for 1961. They were able to develop reasonable hypo-
many years. theses to explain the rather complex mechanisms
It should be recognized, however, that even good involved.
concrete may suffer damage from cyclic freezing Hardened cement paste and aggregate behave
in unusual conditions, particularly concrete which quite differently when subjected to cyclic freez-
is kept in a state of nearly complete saturation. ing, and it is generally agreed that each must be
Also, in cases where the concrete is saturated on considered separately.
the back side and exposed to air on the front side, 1.2.1 Freezing in cement paste-In his early
it may exhibit extremely variable behavior, rang- papers, Powers~-5 attributed frost damage in ce-
ing from complete freedom from damage to total ment paste to stresses caused by hydraulic pres-
failure. sure in the pores, the pressure being due to re-

sistance to movement of water away from the pores and which cannot freeze plays a major role.
regions of freezing. It was believed that the mag- Because of the difference in vapor pressure of this
nitude of the pressure depended on the rate of supercooled liquid and the bulk ice in the sur-
freezing, degree of saturation and coefficient of roundings of the paste system, there will be mi-
permeability of the paste, and the length of the gration of water to locations where it is able to
flow-path to the nearest place for the water to freeze, such as the larger pores or the outer sur-
escape. The benefits of entrained air were ex- face. The process leads to partial desiccation of
plained in terms of the shortening of flow-paths the paste and accumulation of ice in crevices and
to places of escape. Some authorities still accept cracks. Failure occurs when the required redistri-
this hypothesis. btition of water cannot take place in an orderly
Later studies by Powers and Helmuth produced fashion either because the amount of water is too
strong evidence that the hydraulic pressure hy- large (high water-cement ratio for the same de-
potheses are not consistent with the experimental gree of saturation), the available time is too short
results.!; They found that during freezing of ce- (rapid cooling), or the path of migration is too
ment paste most of the water movement is long (lack of entrained air bubbles). Litvan be-
toward, not away from, sites of freezing as had lieves that in such cases, the freezing forms a
been previously believed. Also, the dilations (ex- semi-amorphous solid (not ice crystals) resulting
pansions) during freezing generally decreased in great internal stresses.
with increased rate of cooling.i-n Both of these There is general agreement that cement paste
findings were contrary to the hydraulic pressure can be made completely immune to damage from
hypothesis, and indicated that a modified form of freezing temperatures by means of entrained air,
a theory previously advanced by Collins 10 (orig- unless special exposure conditions result in filling
inally developed to explain frost action in soil) is of the air voids. However, air entrainment alone
applicable. does not preclude the possibility of damage of
Powers and Helmuth point out that the water concrete due to freezing; freezing phenomena in
in cement paste is in the form of a weak alkali aggregate particles must also be taken into con-
solution. When the temperature of the concrete sideration.
drops below the freezing point, there will be an
initial period of supercooling, after which ice 1.2.2 Freezing in aggregate particles-Most rocks
crystals will form in the larger capillaries. This have pore sizes much larger than those in cement
results in an increase in alkali content in the un- paste, and Powers 2 found that they expel water
frozen portion of the solution in these capillaries, during freezing. The committee believes the hy-
creating an osmotic potential which impels water draulic pressure theory, previously described for
molecules in the nearby unfrozen pores to begin cement paste, is applicable in most cases.
diffusing into the solution in the frozen cavities. Dunn and Hudec 12 advanced the "ordered water"
The resulting dilution of the solution in contact theory, which states that the principal cause of
with the ice allows further growth of the body deterioration of rock is not freezing but the ex-
of ice (ice-accretion). When the cavity becomes pansion of adsorbed water (which is not freez-
full of ice and solution, any further ice-accretion able) ; specific cases of failure without freezing of
produces dilative pressure which can cause the claybearing limestone aggregates seemed to sup-
paste to fail. When water is being drawn out of port this conclusion. This, however, is not con-
unfrozen capillaries, the paste tends to shrink. sistent with the results of research by Helmuthl~
(Experiments have verified that shrinkage of who found that adsorbed water does not expand,
paste, or concrete, occurs during part of the freez- but actually contracts during cooling. Neverthe-
ing cycle.) less, Helmuth agrees that the adsorption of large
According to Powers, when the paste contains amounts of water in aggregates having a very
entrained air, and the average distance between fine pore structure can disrupt concrete (but
air bubbles is not too great, the bubbles compete through ice formation).
with the capillaries for the unfrozen water and The size of the coarse aggregate has been shown
normally win this competition. For a better un- to be an important factor in its frost resistance.
derstanding of the mechanism involved, the reader Verbeck and LandgrenH have demonstrated that
is directed to the references cited above. Many for any given natural rock, frozen unconfined by
researchers now believe that stresses resulting cement paste, there is a critical size below which
from osmotic pressure cause most of the frost it can be frozen without damage. They showed
damage to cement paste. that the critical size of rocks of good quality range
In recent years, Litvan 11 has further studied upwards from perhaps a quarter of an inch. How-
frost action in cement paste. Litvan believes the ever, some aggregates (e.g., granite, basalt, dia-
water adsorbed on the surface or contained in the base, quartzite, marble) have capacities for freez-

able water so low that they do not produce stress saturable type. This type, even when dry at the
when freezing occurs-regardless of the particle start, may reach high levels of saturation while
size. in a concrete mixer, and might not become suf-
The role of entrained air in alleviating the effect ficiently dried by self-desiccation; hence, with
of freezing in rock particles is minimal. such a material, trouble is in prospect if there is
1.2.3 OveraLL effects in concrete-Without en- not a sufficiently long dry period before the winter
tranied air, the paste matrix surrounding the ag- season sets in. A small percentage of readily
gregate particles may fail when it becomes crit- saturable rocks in an aggregate can cause serious
ically saturated and is frozen. However, if the damage. Rocks which are difficult to saturate,
matrix contains an appropriate distribution of en- which are generally coarse grained, are less likely
trained air voids characterized by a spacing factor to cause trouble. ObViously, data on the proneness
less than about 0.008 in. (0.20 mm), freezing does to saturation of each kind of rock in an aggregate
not produce destructive stress. 15 could be useful.
There are some rocks which contain practically Whatever the absorption characteristics of a
given aggregate, its rate of absorption in concrete
no freezable water. Air-entrained concrete made
with an aggregate composed entirely of such rocks is limited by the rate at which water can pass
will withstand freezing even under continuously through its envelope of hardened paste. Because
wet exposures for a long time. This time may be the coefficient of permeability of hardened paste is
shortened if the air voids fill with water and solid lower the higher its cement content and the
matter. longer it has wet-cured, the rate of absorption of
any kind of aggregate can be lowered by reducing
If absorptive aggregates (such as structural
the water-cement ratio of the paste and by requir-
lightweight) are used and the concrete is in a
ing good curing.
continuously wet environment, it will probably
fail if the coarse aggregate becomes saturated. The
pressure developed when the particles expel 1.3-lce removal agents
water during freezing ruptures the particles and When the practice of removing ice from
the matrix. If the particle is near the concrete sur- concrete pavements by means of salt (sodium
face, a popout can result. chloride or calcium chloride) became common
Normally, aggregate in concrete is not in a some years ago, it was soon learned that these
critical state of saturation at the end of the con- materials caused or accelerated surface disinte-
struction period because of desiccation produced gration in the form of pitting or scaling. (These
by the chemical reaction during hardening (self- chemicals also accelerate the corrosion of rein-
desiccation of the cement paste) and loss by evap- forcement which can cause the concrete to spall,
oration. Therefore, if any of the aggregate ever as described in Chapter 4.)
becomes critically saturated, it will be by water The mechanism by which deicing agents damage
obtained from an ou tside source later on. Yet concrete is fairly well understood. It is generally
structures so situated that all exposed surfaces agreed that the action is physical rather than
are kept continuously wet, and yet are periodically chemical. It involves the development of disrup-
subject to freezing, are uncommon. Usually the tive osmotic and hydraulic pressures during
situation is that concrete sections tend to dry out freezing, principally in the paste, similar to or-
during dry seasons, at least one surface being ex- dinary frost action which is described in Section
posed to the atmosphere. That is why air-entrained 1.2. It is, however, more severe.
concrete generally is not damaged by frost action
The concentration of deicer in the concrete plays
even where nearly all of it is made with absorptive
an important role in the development of these
pressures. Verbeck and KliegertG showed that
Obviously, the drier the aggregate is at the time scaling of the concrete is greatest at intermediate
the concrete is cast, the more water it must receive concentrations (3 to 4 percent). Similar behavior
to reach critical saturation, and the longer it will was observed for the four deicers tested: calcium
take. This is an important consideration, because chloride, sodium chloride, urea, and ethyl alcohol.
the length of the wet and cold season is limited. Browne and Cady17 drew similar conclusions.
It may prove a disadvantage to use gravel directly Litvan's findings 1s . 10 were consistent with the
from an underwater source, especially if the above mentioned studies. He further concluded
structure goes into service during the wet season that deicing agents cause a high degree of satura-
or shortly before the beginning of winter. tion in the concrete, and this is mainly responsible
Some kinds of rock when dried and then placed for their detrimental effect. Sale solutions (at a
in water are able to absorb water rapidly and given temperature) have a lower vapor pressure
reach saturation quickly; they are the readily than water; therefore, little or no drying takes


FROST-RESIST ANT CONCRETE 6. Special attention to construction practices
Nominal maximum Average air content, percent* These items are described in detail below.
aggregate Severe Moderate
size, in. (mm) exposurei" exposuret 1.4.1 Exposure to moisture-Since the vulner-
ability of concrete to cyclic freezing is influenced
% (9.5) 7% 6 so greatly by the concrete's degree of saturation,
% (12.5 ) 7 5% every precaution should be taken to minimize
water uptake. Much can be accomplished along
% (19) 6 5
these lines by careful initial design of the struc-
1% (38) 5% 4% ture.
3 (75) 4% 3% The geometry of the structure should promote
6 (150) 4 3 good drainage. Tops of walls and all outer sur-
faces should be sloped. Low spots conducive to
*A reasonable tolerance for air content in field construction the formation of puddles should be avoided. Weep
is 11/1: percent.
',Outdoor exposure in a cold climate where the concrete may holes should not discharge over the face of exposed
be in almost continuous contact with moisture prior to freezing,
or where deicing salts arc used. Examples are pavements, bridge concrete. Drainage from higher ground should not
decks. sidewalks. and water tanks.
~Outdoor exposure in a cold climate where the concrete will flow over the tops or faces of concrete walls. 20
be only occasionally exposed to moisture prior to freezing, and
where no deicing salts will be used. Examples arc certain exterior Unnecessary joints should be eliminated and
walls, beams, girders. alld slabs not in direct contact with soil.
These air contents apply to the whole mix, as for the pre- provisions for suitable drainage should be made.
ceding aggregate sizes. When testing these concretes, however,
aggregate larger than 11/2 in. (38 mm) is removed by hand- Drip beads can prevent water from running under
picking or sieving and the air content is determined on the
minus ns in. (38 mm) fraction of the mix. (The field tolerance edges of structural members. "Water traps" or
applies to this value.) From this the air content of the whole
m".i.x is computed. reservoirs, such as may result from extending
There is conflicting opinion on whether air contents lower
than those given in the table should be permitted for high
diaphragms to the bent caps of bridges, should not
strength (more about 5500 psi) (37.8 MPa) concrete. This com- be designed into the structure.
mittee believes that where supporting experience and/or ex-
perimental data exists for particular combinations of materials,
construction practices, and exposure, the air contents lnay be Even though it is seldom possible to keep mois-
reduced by approximately I percent. [For maximum aggregate
sizes over ns in. (38 mm). this reduction applies to the minus ture from the underside of slabs on grade, subbase
lIS in, (38 mm) fraction of the mix.]
foundations incorporating the features recom-
mended fn ACI 316-74 21 will minimize moisture
place between wettings (see Section 1.2.3) or cool- bUildup. Care should also be taken to minimize
ing. structural cracks which may collect or transmit
There have been a few examples of excellent water.
performance of non-air-entrained concrete sub- Extensive surveys of concrete bridges and other
jected to deicing salts attributable to a very low structures have shown a striking correlation be-
water-cement ratio, excellent aggregates, and tween freezing and thawing damage of certain por-
superior construction practices. Fortunately, how- tions, and excessive exposure to moisture of these
ever, air entrainment was discovered at about the portions due to the structural design.:w,22-24
time the use of deicers became widespread. The 1.4.2 Water-cement ratio-Frost-resistant regu-
benefit from entrained air in concrete exposed to lar weight concrete should have a water-cement
deicers is explained in the same way as for or- ratio not to exceed the following:
dinary frost action. Laboratory tests and field
Thin sections (bridge decks, railings,
experience have confirmed that air entrainment
curbs, sills, ledges, and ornamental works)
greatly improves resistance to deicers and is
and sections with less than 1 in. (25 mm)
actually essential under severe conditions. It is
of cover over the reinforcement, and any
now possible to consistently build scale-resistant
concrete exposed to deicing salts 0.45
All other structures 0.50
1.4-Recommendations for durable structures Because the determination of absorption of
lightweight aggregates is uncertain, it is imprac-
Concrete which will be exposed to a combina- ticable to calculate the water-cement ratio of con-
tion of moisture and cyclic freezing requires the
cretes containing such aggregates. For these con-
cretes, a specified 28-day compressive strength of
1. Design of the structure to minimize exposure 4000 psi (27.6 MPa) is recommended. For severe
to moisture exposures, some have found it also desirable to
2. Low water-cement ratio specify a minimum cement content of 564 lb per
cu yd (335 kg/m 3 ), and only that amount of
3. Air entrainment
water necessary to achieve the desired con-
4. Suitable materials sistency.

1.4.3 Entrained air-Too little entrained air will Aggregates. Natural aggregates should
not protect cement paste against cyclic freezing. meet the requirements of ASTM C 33, although
Too much air will unduly penalize the strength. this will not necessarily assure their durability.
Recommended air contents of concrete are given Lightweight aggregates should meet the require-
in Table 1.4.3. ments of ASTM C 330. These specifications provide
It will be noted that air contents are given for many requirements but leave the final selection
two conditions of exposure-severe and moderate. of the aggregate largely up to the judgment of
These values provide about 9 percent of air in the concrete engineer. If the engineer is familiar
the mortar for severe exposure, and about 7 per- with the field performance of the aggregate pro-
cent for moderate exposure. posed, his judgment may be quite adequate. In
some situations it may be possible to carry out
Air-entrained concrete is produced through the
use of an air-entraining admixture (added at the field service record studies to arrive at a basis
concrete mixer), an air-entraining cement, or for acceptance or rejection of the aggregate. When
both if necessary.~G The resulting air content de- this is not feasible, heavy reliance must be placed
on laboratory tests.
pends on the cement, mix proportions, slump,
aggregates, type of mixer, mixing time, tempera Laboratory tests on the aggregate include ab-
ture, and other factors (including the presence sorption, specific gravity, soundness tests, and
of any material in the mix which increases or determination of the pore structure. Descriptions
decreases the air content). Where an admixture of the tests, and opinions on their usefulness,
is used, the dosage is varied as necessary to give have been published.~r.~7 Although these data are
the desired air content. This is not possible where useful, and some organizations have felt justified
an air-entraining cement alone is used, and oc- in setting test limits on aggregates, it is generally
casionally the air content will be inadequate or agreed that principal reliance should be placed on
excessive. Nevertheless, this is the most convenient tests of concrete made with the aggregate in ques-
method for providing some assurance of protection tion.
from cyclic freezing on small jobs where equip- Petrographic studies of both the aggregate~~ and
ment to check the air content is not available. concrete~n.3o are useful for evaluating the physical
Obviously the preferred procedure is to use air- and chemical characteristics of the aggregate and
entraining admixtures. concrete made from it.
Frequent determinations of the air content of
Laboratory tests on concrete include the rapid
the concrete should be made. For regular weight
freezing and thawing tests (ASTM C 666), where
concrete, the following test methods may be used:
the durability of the concrete is measured by the
volumetric method (ASTM C 173) , pressure meth-
reduction in dynamic modulus of elasticity of the
od (ASTM C 231), or the unit weight test (ASTM
concrete. Many agencies believe this is the most
C 138). An air meter may be used to provide an
reliable indicator of the relative durability of an
approximate indication of air content. For light-
weight concrete, the volumetric method is recom-
mended. The results of tests using ASTM C 666 have been
The air content and other cl:]aracteristics of the widely analyzed and discussed. These tests
air void system in hardened concrete may be de- have been criticized because they are accelerated
termined microscopically (ASTM C 457). ASTM tests and do not duplicate conditions in the field.
C 672 is often used to assess the resistance of con- It has been pointed out that test specimens are
crete to deicer scaling. initially saturated, while this is not normally the
case for field concretes at the beginning of the
1.4.4 Materials freezing season. Furthermore, the test methods do Cementing materials. The different not realistically duplicate the actual moisture con-
types of portland and blended cements, when used dition of the aggregates in field concretes. The
in properly proportioned and manufactured air- rapid methods have also been criticized because
entrained concrete, will provide similar resistance they require cooling rates greater than those en-
to cyclic freezing. Cement should conform to countered in the field. Also, the small test speci-
ASTM C 150 or C 595.
mens used are unable to accommodate large ag-
Most pozzolans when used as admixtures have gregate sizes, which may be more vulnerable to
Ii ttle effect on the frost resistance of concrete pro-
deterioration than smaller sizes.
vided the air content, strength, and moisture con-
tent of the concrete are similar. However, a suit- It is rather generally conceded that while these
able investigation should be made before using tests may classify aggregates from excellent to
new or questionable materials. Pozzolans should poor in approximately the correct order, they are
('()nform to ASTM r: filR. unable to predict whether a fair aggregate will

give satisfactory performance when used in con- Detailed guidance on the use of admixtures is
crete with a particular moisture content and cyclic provided by ACI Committee 212.21
freezing exposure. The ability to make such a 1.4.5 Curing-Air-entrained concrete should be
determination would be of great economic impor- able to withstand one or two freezing and thawing
tance in many areas where high grade aggregates cycles as soon as it attains a compressive strength
are in short supply, by permitting the use of local of about 500 psi (3.45 MPa) provided there is no
marginal aggregates. external source of moisture. At temperatures of
Because of these objections to ASTM C 666, a 50 F (10 C), most well-proportioned concrete will
dilation test was conceived by Powers:l and further reach this strength sometime during the second
developed by others.:l:u' ASTM C 671 requires that day.
air-en trained concrete specimens be ini tially Before being exposed to extended freezing in a
brought to the moisture condition expected for the severe exposure, it is desirable that concrete attain
concrete at the start of the winter season, this a specified compressive strength of 4000 psi (27.6
moisure con ten t preferably having been deter- MPa). A period of drying following curing is ad-
mined by field tests. The specimens are then im- visable. For moderate exposure conditions, a
mersed in water and periodically frozen at the specified strength of 3000 psi (20.7 MPa) should
rate and frequency to be expected in the field. be attained.
The increase in length (dilation) of the specimen 1.4.6 Construction practices-Good construction
during the freezing portion of the cycle is ac- practices are essential where durable concrete is
curately measured. ASTM C 682 assists in in- required.
terpreting the results. Particular attention should be given to the con-
An excessive length change in this test is an struction of pavement slabs to be exposed to de-
indication that the aggregate has become critically icing salts because of the problems inherent in
saturated and vulnerable to damage. If the time obtaining durable slab finishes, and the severity
to reach critical saturation is less than the duration of the exposure. The concrete in such slabs should
of the freezing season at the job site, the aggre- be adequately consolidated; however, overwork-
gate is judged unsuitable for use in that exposure. ing the surface, overfinishing, and the addition of
If it is more, it is judged that the concrete will water to aid in finishing must be avoided because
not be vulnerable to cyclic freezing. they bring excessive mortar or water to the sur-
The time required for conducting dilation tests face. The resulting laitance is particularly vulner-
may be greater than required by other cyclic able to the action of ice removal salts. These
freezing tests. Also, the test results are very sen- practices may also remove entrained air. This is
sitive to the moisture content of the aggregate and of little consequence where only the larger air
concrete. Results are fairly promising,:;:) although bubbles are expelled, but durability can be
most agencies are continuing to use ASTM C 666 seriously affected if the small bubbles are re-
pending improvements in C 671. moved.
When natural aggregates are found to be un- Prior to the application of any deicer, pavement
acceptable by service records and/or tests, they concrete should have received some drying and
may sometimes be improved by removal of light- the strength level specified for the opening of traf-
weight, soft, or otherwise inferior particles in fic should have been achieved. These recommenda-
processing. tions should be considered in the scheduling of Admixtures. Air-entraining admixtures late fall paving. In some cases, it may be possible
should conform to ASTM C 260. to employ methods other than ice removal agents,
Chemical admixtures should conform to ASTM such as abrasives, for control of slipperiness
C 494. Some such admixtures do not impart ade- where it is felt the concrete may still be vulner-
quate durability, even though they entrain suffi- able.
cient air, because they produce coarse air void Where greater than normal protection is needed
systems with void spacing factors greater than the or for additional insurance, such as for pavements
0.008 in. (0.20 mm) needed to adequately protect placed in the fall subjected to deicing salts the
concrete. These admixtures should be required to first winter, a water-repellent surface treatment
meet ASTM C 260 in addition to any other require- is advisable (see Section 7.1).
ments. Where lightweight concrete is proposed, care
Some mineral admixtures (especially emulsi- should be exercised not to exceSSively saturate the
fied carbon black, and fly ashes having a high aggregate prior to mixing. Saturation by vacuum
carbon content) will require a larger amount of or thermal means (where necessary for pumping,
air-entraining admixture to develop the required for example) may bring lightweight aggregates to
amount of entrained air. Dirty aggregates have a a condition where the absorbed water may cause
similar effect. concrete failure when cyclically frozen-unless the

concrete has the opportunity to dry out before crete and Concrete-Making Materials, STP-169A,
American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadel-
freezing. Additional details and recommendations
phia, 1966, pp. 211-219.
are given in Reference 35.
16. Verbeck, George J., and Klieger, Paul, "Studies
of 'Salt' Scaling of Concrete," Bulletin No. 150, Highway
(Transportation) Research Board, 1957, pp. 1-13.
REFERENCES 17. Browne, Frederick P., and Cady, Philip D., "De-
1. Cordon, William A., Freezing and Thawing of Con- icer Scaling Mechanisms in Concrete," Dumbility of
crete-Mechanisms and Control, Monograph No.3, Concrete, SP-47, American Concrete Institute, Detroit,
American Concrete Institute/Iowa State University 1975, pp. 101-119.
Press, Detroit, 1966, 99 pp. 13. Litvan, G. G., "Phase Transitions of Adsorbates:
2. Powers, T. C., "A Working Hypothesis for Further VI, Effect of Deicing Agents on the Freezing of Cement
Studies of Frost Resistance of Concrete," ACI JOURNAL, Paste," Journal, American Ceramic Society, V. 53, No.
Proceedings V. 41, No.4, Feb. 1945, pp. 245-272. 1-2, Jan.-Feb. 1975, pp. 26-30.
3. Powers, T. C., "Void Spacing as a Basis for Pro- 19. Litvan, G. G., "Frost Action in Cement in the
ducing Air-Entrained Concrete," ACI JOURNAL, Proceed- Presence of De-icers," Cement and Concrete Research,
ings V. 50, No.9, May 1954, pp. 741-760. V. 6, No.3, May 1976, pp. 351-356.
4. Powers, T. C., "Basic Considerations Pertaining 20. Miesenhelder, P. D., "EHect of Design and Details
to Freezing-and-Thawing Tests," Proceedings, ASTM, on Concrete Deterioration," ACI JOURNAL, Proceedings
V. 55, 1955, pp. 1132-1155. V. 56, No.7, Jan. 1960, pp. 531-590.
5. Powers, T. C., "The Mechanism of Frost Action in
21. ACI Committee 316, "Recommended Practice for
Concrete," Stanton Walker Lecture No.3, National Sand
Construction of Concrete Pavements and Concrete
and Gravel Association/National Ready Mixed Concrete
Bases (ACI 316-74) (Revised 1975)," American Con-
Association, Silver Spring, Md., 1965, 35 pp.
crete Institute, Detroit, 25 pp.
6. Powers, T. C., "Resistance of Concrete to Frost at
Early Ages," Proceedings, RILEM Symposium on 22. Callahan, Joseph P.; Lott, James L.; and Kesler,
Winter Concreting (Copenhagen, 1956), Danish National Clyde E., "Bridge Deck Deterioration and Crack Con-
Institute of Building Research, Copenhagen, 1956, Ses- trol," Proceedings, ASCE, V. 96, ST10, Oct. 1970, pp.
sion C, pp. 1-50. Also, Research Bulletin No. 71, Portland 2021-2036.
Cement Association. 23. Jackson, F. H., "The Durability of Concrete in
7. Helmuth, R. A., "Capillary Size Restrictions on Service," ACI JOURNAL, Proceedings V. 43, No.2, Oct.
Ice Formation in Hardened Portland Cement Pastes," 1946, pp. 165-180.
Proceedings, Fourth International Symposium on the 24. Lewis, D. W., "Deterioration of Structural Con-
Chemistry of Cement (Washington, D. C., 1960), Mono- crete in Indiana," Extension Series No. 33, Engineering
graph No. 43. National Bureau of Standards, Washing- Reprint No. 83, Engineering Experiment Station, Pur-
ton, D. C., 1962, V. 2, pp. 355-369. due University, 1956, 97 pp.
3. Helmuth, R. A., Discussion of "Frost Action in
25. ACI Committee 212, "Guide for Use of Admix-
Concrete" by Paul Nerenst, Proceedings, Fourth Inter-
tures in Concrete," ACI JOURNAL, Proceedings V. 63, No.
national Symposium on the Chemistry of Cement
9, Sept. 1971, pp. 646-676. Also, ACI Manual of Concrete
(Washington, D. C., 1960), Monograph No. 43, National
Practice, Part 1.
Bureau of Standards, Washington, D. C., 1962, V. 2, pp.
329-833. 26. Ami, H. T., "Resistance to Weathering-Hard-
9. Pickett, Gerald, "Flow of Moisture in Hardened ened Concrete," Significance of Tests and Properties of
Cement During Freezing," Proceedings, Highway Re- Concrete and Concrete-Making Materials, STP-169A,
search Board, V. 32, lQ53, pp. 276-284. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadel-
phia, 1966, pp. 261-274.
10. Collins, A. R., "The Destruction of Concrete by
Frost," Journal, Institution of Civil Engineers (London), 27. Buth, Eugene, and Ledbetter, W. B., "Influence
1944, Paper No. 5412, pp. 29-41. of the Degree of Saturation of Coarse Aggregate on
11. Litvan, G. G., "Phase Transitions of Adsorbates: the Resistance of Structural Lightweight Concrete to
IV, Mechanism of Frost Action in Hardened Cement FreeZing and Thawing," Highway Research Record,
Paste," Journal, American Ceramic Society, V. 55, No. Highway (Transportation) Board, No. 323, 1970, pp.
1, Jan. 1972, pp. 33-42. 1-13.
12. Dunn, J. R., and Hudec, P. P., "The Influence of 23. Mielenz, Richard C., "Petrographic Examination-
Clays on Water and Ice in Rock Pores," Report No. Concrete Aggregates," Significance oJ Tests and Proper-
RR65-5, New York State Department of Public Works, ties of Concrete and Concrete-Making Materials, STP-
1965. 169A, American Society for Testing and Materials,
13. Helmuth, R. A., "Dimensional Changes of Hard- Philadelphia, 1966, pp. 381-403.
ened Portland Cement Pastes Caused by Temperature 29. Erlin, B., "Methods Used in Petrographic Studies
Changes," Proceedings, Highway (Transportation) Re- of Concrete," Technical Publicati011 No. 395, American
search Board, V. 40, 1961, pp. 315-336. Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, 1966,
14. Verbeck, George, and Landgren, Robert, "Influ- p. 17.
ence of Physical Characteristics of Aggregates on the 30. Mather, K.. "Petrographic Examination-Hard-
Frost Resistance of Concrete," Proceedings, ASTM, V. ened Concrete," Significance of Tests and Properties of
60, 1960, pp. 1063-1079. Concrete and Concrete-Making Materials STP-169A
15. Verbeck, George, "Pore Structure - Hardened American Society for Testing and Materi;ls, Philadel~
r'nnrrptp" Sinni.firnnrp nf Tpsts nnrl. Prmwrties of Con- ohia. 1966. ~o. 125-143.

31. ACI Committee 221, "Selection and Use of Aggre- bility of Pennsylvania Aggregates," Highway Research
gates for Concrete," ACI JOURNAL, Proceedings V. 58, Record, Highway (Transportation) Research Board, No.
No.5, Nov. 1961, pp. 513-542. Also, ACI Manual oj Con- 328, 1970, pp. 26-37.
crete Practice, Part 1.
32. "Report on Cooperative Freezing and Thawing 34. Tremper, Bailey, and Spellman, D. L., "Tests for
Tests of Concrete," Special Report No. 47, Highway Freeze-Thaw Durability of Concrete Aggregates," Bulle-
(Transportation) Research Board, 1959, 67 pp. tin No. 305, Highway (Transportation) Research Board,
33. Harman, John W., Jr.; Cady, Philip D.; and Bol- 1961, pp. 28-50.
ling, Nanna B., "Slow-Cooling Tests for Frost Suscepti- 35. Report No. 528A, California Highway Department.


2.1-General Therefore Table 2.1 should be considered as only
Concrete can be made which will perform satis- a preliminary guide.
factorily when exposed to various atmospheric Chemical attack on concrete is generally the
conditions, to most waters and soils containing result of exposure to sulfates or acids, and these
chemicals, and to many other kinds of chemicals. are discussed in some detail below.
There are, however, some chemical environments
under which the useful life of even the best con- 2.2-Sulfate attack
crete will be short. An understanding of these 2.2.1 Occurrence-Naturally occurring sulfates
conditions permits measures to be taken to prevent of sodium, potassium, calcium, or magnesium are
or reduce deterioration. sometimes found in soil or dissolved in ground-
Concrete is rarely, if ever, attacked by solid, water adjacent to concrete structures, and they
dry chemicals. In order to produce significant at- can attack concrete. When evaporation can take
tack on concrete, corrosive chemicals must be in place from an exposed face, the dissolved sulfates
solution form and above some minimum concen- (salts) may accumulate at that face, thus increas-
tration. Concrete which is subjected to aggressive ing their concentration and potential for deteriora-
solutions under pressure on one side is more vul- tion. Sulfate attack has occurred at various loca-
nerable than otherwise, because the pressures tend tions throughout the world, and is a particular
to force the aggressive solution into the concrete. problem in arid areas, such as the northern Great
Comprehensive tables have been prepared by Plains area of the United States and the prairie
ACI Committee 515 1 and the Portland Cement As- provinces of Canada,'!." and in parts of the western
sociation~ giving the effect of many chemicals United States. I;
on concrete. Biczok l gives a detailed discussion of The water used in concrete cooling towers can
the deteriorating effect of chemicals on concrete, also be a potential source of sulfate attack be-
including data both from Europe and the United cause of the gradual build-up of sulfates from
States. evaporation of the water, particularly where such
The effects of some of the more common chemi- systems use relatively small amounts of make-up
cals on the deterioration of concrete are sum- water. Sulfates are also present in groundwater
marized in Table 2.1. It should be kept in mind that in fill containing blast furnace slag or cinders.
there are numerous factors which influence the 2.2.2 Mechanism-As Lea,' Mehta,S and others
ability of concrete to resist deterioration, some of point out, there are apparently two chemical re-
which are shown below: actions involved in sulfate attack on concrete.
Factors increasing Factors decreasing 1. Combination of sulfate with free calcium hy-
deterioration deterioration droxide (hydrated lime) liberated during the
hydration of the cement, to form calcium sulfate
Higher temperatures Lower water-cement
2. Combination of gypsum and hydrated cal-
Increased fluid velocities Proper cement type (in
cium aluminate to form calcium sulfoaluminate
some circumstances)
(ettringite) .
Poor consolidation of Lower absorption
Both of these reactions result in an increase in
solid volume. The latter is generally blamed for
Poor curing of concrete Lower permeability most of the expansion and disruption of concretes
Alternate wetting and caused by sulfate solutions.
In addition to the chemical reactions, TuthilP
Corrosion of reinforcing and Reading" cite evidence that a purely physical
steel action (not involving the cement), crystallization
DURABI L1TY 201-11


Rate of
attack at
ambient Inorganic Organic Alkaline Salt
temperature acids acids solutions solutions Miscellaneous

Rapid Hydrochloric Acetic - Aluminum -

Hydrofluoric Formic chloride
Nitric Lactic
Ammonium Bromine (gas)
sulfate Sulfite liquor
Moderate Phosphoric Tannic Sodium Magnesium
hydroxide- sulfate
> 20 percent" Calcium

Sodium Ammonium Chlorine (gas)

hydroxide chloride Seawater
10-20 percent'" Magnesium Softwater
Sodium chloride
Slow Carbonic - hypochlorite Sodium

Sodium Calcium Ammonia

hydroxide chloride (liquid)
Negligible - Oxalic < 10 percent'" Sodium
Tartaric Sodium chloride
hypochlorite Zinc nitrate
Ammonium Sodium
hydroxide chromate
*Avoid siliceous aggregates because they are attacked by strong solutions of sodium hydroxide.

of the sulfate salts in the pores of the concrete, can There is fairly good correlation between the sul-
account for considerable damage. Reading also fate resistance of cement and its tricalcium alum-
found that where heavy sections are exposed to a inate (C:1A) content.l~ Accordingly, ASTM C 150
strong sulfate solution on the backside, most of includes a Type V (sulfate resisting) cement
the damage is confined to the outer surface ad- which sets a maximum of 5 percent on C:1A, and
j acen t to leaking joints and cracks. a Type II (moderately sulfate resisting) cement
which limits the C:1A to 8 percent. There is also
The chemical deterioration of concrete in sea-
some evidence that a high C,AF is detrimental,
water has concerned concrete technologists for
generations, and the discussion continues with re-
and for Type V cement the C,AF +
2 C:1A must
not exceed 20 percent.
spect to the mechanism itself and its practical
In the case of Type V cement, the sulfate ex-
importance.i.t!' Seawater has a high sulfate con-
pansion test (ASTM C 452) may be used in lieu
tent, and it might be expected that stringent
of the above chemical requirements.
measures would be needed to prevent chemical
Recommendations for the type of cement and
attack. Actually, experience has shown that sea-
water-cement ratio for normal weight concrete
water is only moderately aggressive to concrete. It
which will be exposed to sulfates in soil, ground-
has been suggested by some that the chlorides in
water, or seawater are given in Table 2.2.3. The
seawater mitigate the action of the sulfates.
values also apply to areas in the splash or spray
2.2.3 Recommendations-Protection against sul- zone.
fate attack is obtained by using a dense, high These values are also applicable to structural
quality concrete with low water-cement ratio, and lightweight concrete except that the maximum
a portland cement having the needed sulfate re- water-cement ratios of 0.50 and 0.45 should be re-
sistance. Air entrainment is of benefit insofar as placed by specified 28-day strengths of 3750 and
42,'i0 nsi (25.8 and 29.4 MPa) , respectively.

TABLE 2.2.3-RECOMMENDATIONS FOR use should be prohibited in the last two exposure
NORMAL WEIGHT CONCRETE SUBJECT categories in Table 2.2.3.
TO SULFATE ATTACK It is recognized that these recommendations are
Water conservative, being intended to insure long life
soluble Water-
sulfate I Sulfate cement construction. Less stringent requirements are per-
(SO,) in (SO,) in ratio, mitted by certain agencies where dictated by their
Exposure soil, percent water, ppm Cement maximum'" experience and shorter life requirements.
Mild 0.00-0.10 0-150 - -
2.3-Acid attack
Moderate"' 0.10-0.20 150-1500 Type
II'I 0.50
In general, portland cement does not have good
IS(MS) resistance to acid attack, although weak acids
Severe 0.20-2.00 1500-10,000 Type V 0.45 can be tolerated.
Very SeVere Over 2.00 Over 10,000 Type V 0.45 2.3.1 Occurrence-The products of combustion of
+ Poz- many fuels contain sulfurous gases which com-
zolan:i: bine with moisture to form sulfuric acid. Also,
*A lower vvater-cen1ent ratio n1ay be necessary to prevent sewage may be collected under conditions which
corrosion of embedded items. See Section
":"Seawater also falls in this category. lead to acid formation.
:::Use a pozzolan which has been determined by tests to improve
sulfate resistance when used in concrete containing Type V Water draining from some mines, and some in-
dustrial waters, may contain or form acids which
Studies have shown that some pozzolans used attack concrete.
either in blended cement or added separately to Peat soils may contain iron sulfide (pyrite)
the mixer, in the amount of approximately 15 to which, upon oxidation, produces sulfuric acid.
25 percent of the portland cement, increase the Further reaction may produce sulfate salts, which
life expectancy of concrete in sulfate exposures can produce sulfate attack lC
considerably. Pozzolans combine with the free Mountain water streams are sometimes mildly
lime resulting from the hydration of the cement, acidic, due to dissolved free carbon dioxide.
and thereby reduce the amount of gypsum Usually these waters attack only the surface if the
formed. 3 . 78 .1 3 It will be noted that Table 2.2.3 concrete is of good quality. However, some mineral
requires a suitable pozzolan along with Type V waters containing large amounts of either dis-
cement in very severe exposures. Recent research solved carbon dioxide or hydrogen sulfide, or both,
has indicated that pozzolans may be effective in can seriously damage any concrete. Ii In the case of
the other categories as well; that is, most Type I hydrogen sulfide, bacteria that convert this com-
cements, even where the C;A content of the port- pound to sulfuric acid may play an important role. 7
land cement clinker exceeds the 8 percent allowed
Organic acids from farm silage, or from manu-
for Type IP (MS), would be suitable for moderate
facturing or processing industries such as brew-
exposures -and most Type II cements would be
eries, dairies, canneries, and wood pulp mills, can
suitable for severe exposures if a suitable poz-
cause surface damage. This may be of considerable
zolan is added. Best results have been obtained
concern in the case of floors, even where their
when the pozzolan is a fly ash meeting the re-
structural integrity is not impaired.
quirements of ASTM C 618 Class F.IUG
2.3.2 Mechanism-The deterioration of concrete
The effectiveness of the combination probably
by acids is primarily the result of a reaction be-
depends on the chemical composition of the port-
tween these chemicals and the calcium hydroxide
land cement and pozzolan, the percentage of each
of the hydrated portland cement. (Where lime-
in the mixture, and other factors. It is not yet
stone and dolomitic aggregates are used, they
feasible, however, to predict performance on the
are also subject to attack by acids.) In most cases
basis of these factors. Actual tests of the combina-
the chemical reaction results in the formation of
tion should be made using mildly accelerated test
water-soluble calcium compounds which are then
procedures such as those described in Reference
leached away by the aqueous solutions.;; Oxalic
14; information from long-time field performance
and phosphoric acid are exceptions, because the
in structures or field exposure stations should
resulting calcium salts are insoluble in water and
also be considered where available. A highly ac-
are not readily removed from the concrete surface.
celerated test corresponding to ASTM C 452 for
In the case of sulfuric acid attack, additional or
portland cement would be very helpful and is now
accelerated deterioration results because the cal-
under development in ASTM.
cium sulfate formed will affect concrete by the
The addition of calcium chloride to concrete re- sulfate attack mechanism described in Section
duces its resistance to attack by sulfates,G and its 2.2.2.

If acids or salt solutions are able to reach the 6. Concrete Manual, 8th Edition, U. S. Bureau of
Reclamation, Denver, 1975, 627 pp.
reinforcing steel through cracks or pores in the
7. Lea, F. M., The Chemistry of Cement and Concrete,
concrete, corrosion of the steel can result (see 1st American Edition, Chemical Publishing Company,
Chapter 4) which will in turn cause cracking and New York, 1971, 727 pp.
spalling of the concrete. 8. Mehta, P. K, Discussion of "Combating Sulfate
2.3.3 Recommendations-A dense concrete with Attack in Corps of Engineers Concrete Construction"
by Thomas J. Reading, ACI JOURNAL, PToceedings V. 73,
low-water cement ratio may provide an acceptable
No.4, Apr. 1976, pp. 237-238.
degree of protection against mild acid attack. 9. Tuthill, L. H., "Resistance to Chemical Attack-
No portland cement concrete, regardless of its Hardened Concrete," Significance of Tests and Proper-
composition, will long withstand water of high ties of Concrete and Concrete-Making Materials, STP-
acid concentration. In such cases, an appropriate 169A, American Society for Testing and Materials,
surface coating or treatment must be used. The Philadelphia, 1966, pp. 275-289.
10. Gjorv, Odd E., Conc?'ete in the Oceans, Marine
ACI Committee 515 report I gives recommendations Science Publications, 1957, pp. 51-74.
for barrier coatings to protect concrete from 11. Verbeck, G. J., "Field and Laboratory Studies of
various chemicals. Chapter 7 of this guide dis- the Sulphate Resistance of Concrete," Performance of
cusses the general principles involved in the use Concrete-Resistance of Concrete to Sulphate and
of coatings. Other Environmental Conditions, Thorvaldson Sym-
posium, University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1968, pp.
REFERENCES 12. Mather, Bryant, "Field and Laboratory Studies of
the Sulphate Resistance of Concrete," Pe?'formance of
1. ACI Committee 515. "Guide for the Protection of
Concrete-Resistance of Concrete to Stilphate and Other
Concrete Against Chemical Attack by Means of Coat-
ings and Other Corrosion-Resistant Materials." ACI
En'Uironmental Conditions, Thorvaldson Symposium.
JOURNAL, Proceedings V. 63, No. 12. Dec. 1966, pp. 1305- University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1968, pp. 66-76.
13. Kalousek, G. L.; Porter, L. C.; and Benton, E. J.,
1392. Also, ACT Manual of Concrete Pmctice, Part 3.
"Concrete for Long-Time Service in Sulfate Environ-
2. "Effect of Various Substances on Concrete and ment," Cement and Concrete Research, V. 2, No.1, Jan.
Protective Treatments. Where Required," Publication 1972, pp. 79-89.
No. 1S001 T, Portland Cement Association, Skokie, 1968, 14. Dikeou, J. T., "Flyash Increases Resistance of
11 pp. Concrete to Sulfate Attack," Research Report No. 23,
3. Biczak, Imre, Concrete Corrosion-Concrete Protec- U. S. Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, 1975, 17 pp.
tion, 8th Edition, Akademiai Kiad6, Budapest, 1972. 545 15. Dunstan, E. R, Jr., "Performance of Lignite and
pp. Subbituminous Flyash in Concrete-A Progress Report,"
4. Performance of Concrete-Resistance of Concrete Report No. REC-ERC-76-1, U. S. Bureau of Reclamation,
to Sulphate and Other Environmental Conditions, Thor- Denver, 1976, 23 pp.
valdson Symposium, University of Toronto Press, To- 16. Hagerman, T., and Roosaar, H., "Damage to Con-
ronto, 1968, 243 pp. crete Caused by Sulfide Minerals," Betong (Stockholm),
5. Reading, Thomas J., "Combating Sulfate Attack in V. 40, No.2, 1955, pp. 151-161.
Corps of Engineers Concrete Construction," Dumbility . 17. "Durability of Concrete," Rilem Symposium, Gen-
of Concrete, SP-47, American Concrete Institute, De- eral Reports, Rilem Bulletin (Paris), No. 14, Mar. 1962,
troit, 1975, pp. 343-366. 149 pp.


3.1-lntroduction 3.2-Testing concrete for resistance to abrasion

The abrasion resistance of concrete is defined as Research to develop meaningful laboratory tests
the "ability of a surface to resist being worn away on concrete abrasion has been underway for more
by rubbing and friction."l Abrasion of floors and than a century. The problem is complicated be-
pavements may result from production operations, cause there are several different types of abrasion,
or foot or vehicular traffic; abrasion resistance is and no single test method has been found which
therefore of concern in industrial floors.~ Wind or is adequate for all conditions. Following the rec-
waterborne particles can also abrade concrete ommendations of Prior,'> abrasion is classified into
surfaces.:\ There are instances where abrasion is four types:
of little concern structurally, yet there may be a 1. Wear on concrete floors due to foot traffic
dusting problem which can be quite objectionable and light trucking, skidding, scraping, or sliding
in some kinds of service. Abrasion (erosion) of of 0 bj ects on the surface (a ttri tion)
concrete in hydraulic structures is discussed only 2. Wear on concrete road surfaces due to heavy
briefly in this guide; the subject is treated in detail trucks and automobiles with studded tires or
in thp l'pnort of ACT Committee 210. 4 chains (a ttri tion, scraping and percussion)

3. Erosion in hydraulic structures such as dams, Another highly important element is the abra-
spillways, tunnels, and bridge abutments, due to sion resistance'i of the coarse and fine aggregate

the action of abrasive materials carried by flowing (at the surface). The service life of some concrete,
water (attrition and scraping) such as warehouse floors subjected to abrasion by
4. Wear on concrete dams, spillways, tunnels, steel or hard rubber-wheeled traffic, may be
and other water-carrying systems where high greatly lengthened by the use of especially hard
velocities and negative pressures are present. This and tough aggregates. The effect of differences in
is generally known as cavitation erosion which is hardness between aggregates is more pronounced
mainly the result of design and is not covered in in lower strength concrete; it becomes less in
this guide. high strength concrete and toppings.
In 1974 ASTM adopted C 779-74, "Standard Proper finishing procedures and timing are
Method of Test for Abrasion Resistance of Hori- essential if the quality of concrete near the surface
zontal Concrete Surfaces." It includes three op- of a slab is to be as good as that for the underlying
tional procedures: (1) the revolving-disc adapta- section. Delaying the floating and troweling op-
tion of the Schuman and Tucker machine,'; (2) the erations increases resistance to abrasion.
dressing-wheel machine, and (3) the ball-bearing In a two-course floor it is possible to provide a
machine. surface course having excellent abrasion resist-
In order to properly evaluate abrasion resist- ance, while using ordinary concrete in the re-
ance, the type of concrete being tested must be mainder of the slab.
considered. If it is of the same mix throughout, Applying to the surface dry shake coats of
the abrasion resistance can be expected to be a cement and hard fine aggregate, or of cement and
direct function of the concrete strength. If, how- iron aggregate, will also make the surface layer
ever, metallic or other hardeners have been ap- more abrasion resistant.
plied, the time required for the abrasion apparatus Another highly important ingredient in wear-
to penetrate the hard surface must be determined resistant, nondusting concrete surfaces is adequate
to properly evaluate the test results. curing. 5 ,1O,1l One study showed that a surface cured
It is not yet possible to set precise limits for for 7 days is nearly twice as wear-resistant as
abrasion resistance of concrete. It is instead neces- one cured for only 3 days, and additional curing
sary to rely on relative values based on weight or resulted in further improvement. 1 0.
volume loss, depth of wear, or visual inspection for In cold weather concreting, carbon dioxide
judging the wearing qualities of concrete surfaces. from unvented heaters can have a detrimental
This is not to suggest that the laboratory tests effect on abrasion resistance.
are not useful, but rather that field experience
provides more reliable data.

3.4-Recommendations for obtaining abrasion-

3.3-Factors affecting abrasion resistance of resistant concrete surfaces
concrete The following measures will result in abrasion-
The abrasion resistance of concrete is affected resistan t concrete surfaces.
primarily by: 3.4.1 Appropriate concrete strength level-The
1. Compressive strength strength selected should be appropriate for the
service and time. In no case should the compressive
2. Aggregate properties
strength be less than 4000 psi (27.6 MPa). Suitable
3. Finishing methods strength levels may be attained by:
4. Use of toppings 1. A low water-cement ratio
5. Curing
2. Proper grading of fine and coarse aggregate
Tests7.~ and field experience have generally
(meeting ASTM C 33). Limit the maximum size
shown that compressive strength is the most im- to nominal 1 in. (25 mm)
portant single factor controlling the abrasion re-
sistance of concrete, with abrasion resistance in- 3. Lowest consistency practicable for proper
creasing with increase in compressive strength. placing and consolidation. Maximum slump of 3
Compressive strength and abrasion resistance vary in. (75 mm), 1 in. (25 mm) for toppings
inversely with the ratio of voids (water plus air) 4. Minimum air content consistent with the
to cement. For rich mixes, limiting the maximum exposure conditions. For indoor floors not sub-
size of the aggregate will improve compressive jected to freezing and thawing, air contents of 3
strengths and result in maximum abrasion re- percent or less are preferable. In addition to a
sistance of concrete surfaces. detrimental effect on strength, high air contents

can cause blistering-particularly when using dry gasoline-powered equipment be used in enclosed
shakes. areas because the carbon monoxide fumes are
3.4.2 Two-course floors-When wear conditions dangerous to human life and also can damage
are severe, use a high strength [not less than 5000 floor surfaces.
psi (34.5 MPa)] topping layer. 10 Limit the maxi-
mum size of aggregate to 1/2 in. (12 mm) in the 3.5-lmproving wear resistance of existing floors
Liquid surface treatments (hardeners) may
3.4.3 Special aggregates-Using hard, tough
sometimes be used to improve the wear resistance
coarse aggregates will provide additional abrasion
of floors.lO Magnesium or zinc fluosilicate, or
resistance. In two-course floors, they need be in-
sodium silicate, are most commonly used. Their
cluded in only the topping layer.
principal benefit is in redUCing dusting. They may
3.4.4 Proper finishing procedures-Delay floating also slightly resist deterioration by some oils and
and troweling un til the concrete has lost its sur- chemicals coming in contact with the concrete.
face water sheen or all free water on the surface Liquid hardeners are most useful on older floors
has disappeared or been carefully removed. The which have started to abrade or dust, as a result
delay period is usually for 2 or more hr after of poor quality concrete or poor construction
placing the concrete (depending on temperatures, practices (particularly finishing while bleed water
mix proportions, and air content). Follow the is on the surface, and inadequate curing). In such
recommendations of ACI 302-6910 and 304-731~ with cases, they serve a useful purpose in prolonging
respect to finishing of unformed surfaces. the service life of the floor. New floors should be
3.4.5 Vacuum dewatering-Vacuum dewatering of such quality that treatments with liquid hard-
is a method of removing excess water from con- eners should not be required, except where even
crete immediately after placement. The process slight dusting cannot be tolerated (as in power-
results in increased strength, hardness, and wear house floors).
resistance of concrete surfaces; it is primarily Liquid hardeners should not be applied to new
applicable to slabYl ACI Committee 302 is investi- floors until they are 23 days old. The floor should
gating this procedure. be moist cured and then allowed to air dry during
3.4.6 Special dry shakes and toppings-Where this period. Curing compounds should not be used
severe wear is anticipated, the use of special top- if hardeners are to be applied, because they re-
pings or dry shakes should be considered and, if duce the penetration of the liquid into the concrete.
selected, the recommendations of ACI Committee The hardener should be applied in accordance
302 should be followed. with the manufacturer's instructions.
3.4.7 Proper curing procedures-Curing should
start immediately after the concrete has been fin- 3.G-Studded tire wear on concrete pavements
ished and be continued for at least 7 days with
Type I cement (5 days with Type III). Curing with Tire chains and studded snow tires cause con-
water by spray, damp burlap, or cotton mats is siderable wear to concrete surfaces, even where
preferred, provided the concrete is kept continu- the concrete is of good quality. Abrasive materials
ously moist. Waterproof paper or plastic sheets such as sand are often applied to the pavement
are satisfactory, provided the concrete is first surface when roads are slippery. However, ex-
sprayed with water and then immediately covered perience from many years' use of sand in winter
with the paper or plastic with the edges over- indicates that this causes little wear if the concrete
lapped and sealed with waterproof tape. Curing is of good quality and the aggregates are wear-
compounds meeting ASTM C 309 seal the moisture resistant.
in the concrete and are economical and easy to In the case of tire chains, wear is caused by a
apply; they may be used where other methods are flailing and scuffing action as the rotil.ting tire
impracticable. The curing compound should be brings the metal in contact with the concrete sur-
covered with scuff-proof paper if a floor area face. Fortunately, the use of chains is limited
must be used before curing is completed. Curing mainly to roads in the snow belt or mountain
compounds must be specially formulated where areas, and even there they are used only when
paint or resilient tile are to be applied later on. essentiaL
Curing methods are described in detail in ACI Studded snow tires have caused widespread and
308-71.11 serious damage, even to high quality concrete. In
Unvented salamanders or other unvented heat- this case the damage is due to the dynamic impact
ers producing carbon dioxide should not be used of the small tungsten carbide tip of the studs, of
during cold weather floor construction because which there are roughly 100 in each tire. Pave-
+h ...... .,-r Y'\Y'r'lrlllr>a ro'".lrh{yy,\ rli{"\virlCl <1'!=Ic,: 1-1- Nnr c:.hn111fl mpnt SllrfClCeS in the northern United States,

Canada, and the northern European countries, surface layer. In time, rubber-tired traffic abrades
where pavements are bare for much of the winter the immediate surface layer, removing the bene-
season and these tires remain on until the spring, ficial macro texture and eventually exposing the
have suffered the most. One laboratory study coarse aggregate particles. The rate at which this
showed that studded tires running on surfaces to will occur and the consequences on the skid re-
which sand and salt were applied caused 100 times sistance of the pavement depend on the depth and
as much wear as unstudded tires. lo quality of the surface layer and the rock types
Wear caused by studded tires is usually concen- in the fine and coarse aggregate.
trated in the wheel tracks. Ruts from 1/4 to % in. Fine aggregates containing significant amounts
(6 to 12 mm) deep may form in a single winter of silica in the larger particle sizes will assist in
in regions where approximately 30 percent of slowing down the rate of wear and maintaining
passenger cars are equipped with studded tires the micro texture necessary for satisfactory skid
and traffic is heavy. Ii More severe wear occurs resistance at the lower speeds. Certain rock types,
where vehicles stop, start, or turn,li,18 however, polish under rubber tire wear. These in-
Investigations have been made, principally in clude very fine textured limestones, dolomites,
Scandinavia, Canada, and the United States, to and serpentine. Where both the fine and coarse
examine the properties of existing concretes as aggregate are of this type there may be a rapid
related to studded tire weary-2~ In some cases polishing of the entire pavement surface with a
there was considerable variability in the data, and serious reduction in skid resistance. Where only
the conclusions of the different investigators were the coarse aggregate is of the polishing type, the
not in agreement. However, most found th8.t a problem is delayed until the coarse aggregate is
hard coarse aggregate and high strength mortar exposed by wear. On the other hand, if the coarse
matrix are somewhat beneficial in resisting aggregate is, for example, a coarse grained silica
abrasion. or vesicular slag, the skid resistance may be in-
Another investigation in the United States was creased when it is exposed.
aimed at developing more wear-resistant types of At speeds greater than about 50 mph (80 km/
concrete overlays.2! It was concluded that polymer hr), the macro texture becomes quite important
cement and polymer fly ash concretes provided because it must be relied on to prevent hydro-
better resistance to wear-though at the sacrifice planing. This texture is accomplished by construct-
of skid resistance. Steel fibrous concrete overlays ing grooves in the concrete-either during the
were also tested and showed reduced wear as com- plastic stage or by sawing later on-to provide
pared with sections of regular concrete. Although channels for the escape of water otherwise trapped
these results are fairly promising, no "affordable" between the tire and pavement. It is vital that the
concrete surface has yet been developed which will "islands" between the grooves be particularly re-
provide a wear life when studded tires are used sistant to abrasion and frost action. A high quality
approaching that of normal surfaces under rubber concrete, properly finished and cured, possesses
tire wear. the required durability.
A recently published reporF" summarizes avail-
able data on pavement wear, and on the per- REFERENCES
formance and winter accident record while 1. ACI Committee 116, Cement and Concrete Termi-
studded tires have been in use. nology, SP-19, American Concrete Institute, Detroit,
1967, 144 pp.
2. Lovell, C. E., "Heavy Duty Concrete Floors,"
3.7-Skid resistance of pavements Proceedings, American Concrete Institute, V. 24, 1928,
pp. 454-465.
The skid resistance of concrete pavement de-
3. Price, Walter H., "Erosion of Concrete by Cavita-
pends on its surface texture. Two types of texture tion and Solids in Flowing Water," ACI JOURNAL,
are in vol ved : Proceedings V. 43, No.9, May 1947, pp. 1009-1023. See
1. Macro (large scale) texture resulting from also Dis2ussion, Pl). 1024-1 and 1024-2.
surface irregularities "built in" at the time of con- 4. ACI Committee 210, "Erosion Resistance of Con-
struction crete in Hydraulic Structures," ACI JOURNAL, Proceed-
ings V. 52, No.3, Nov. 1955, pp. 259-271.
2. Micro (small scale) texture resulting from 5. Prior, M. E., "Abrasion Resistance-Hardened Con-
the harshness and type of fine aggregate used crete," Significance of Tests and Properties of Concrete
The micro texture is the more important, par- and Concrete-Making Materials, STP-169A, American
ticularly at speeds of less than about 50 mph (80 Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, 1966,
km/hr) .2r.-28 pp. 246-260.
6. Schuman, Louis, and Tucker, John, Jr., "A Port-
The skid resistance of concrete pavement able Apparatus for Determining the Relative Wear Re-
initially depends on the texture built into the sistance of Concrete Floors," Journal of Research, N a-

tional Bureau of Standards, V. 23, No.5, Research Paper (Transportation) Research Board, No. 331, 1970, pp.
RP-1252, Nov. 1939, pp. 549-570. 54-79.
7. Scripture, E. W., Jr.; Benedict, S. W.; and Bryant, 18. Heyser, J. Hode, "Resistance of Various Types of
D. E., "Floor Aggregates," ACI JOURNAL, Proceedings Bituminous Concrete and Cement Concrete to Wear by
V. 50, No.4, Dec. 1953, pp. 305-216. See also Discussion, Studded Tires," Highway Research Record, Highway
pp. 316-1 through 316-5. (Transportation) Research Board, No. 352, 1971, pp.
8. Witte, L. P., and Backstrom, J. E., "Some Proper- 16-31.
ties Affecting the Abrasion Resistance of Air-Entrained 19. Smith, P., and Schonfeld, R., "Studies of Studded-
Concrete," Proceedings, ASTM, V. 51, 1951, pp. 1141- Tire Damage and Performance in Ontario During the
1155. Winter of 1969-70," Highway Research Record, Highway
9. Smith, F. L., "The Effect of Aggregate Quality on (Transportation) Research Board, No. 352, 1971, pp. 1-15.
Resistance of Concrete to Abrasion," Cement and Con- 20. Preus, C. K., "After Studs in Minnesota," Highway
crete, STP-205, American Society for Testing and Ma- Research Record, Highway (Transportation) Research
terials, Philadelphia, 1958, pp. 91-106. Board, No. 477, 1973, pp. 11-15.
10. ACI Committee 302, "Recommended Practice for 21. Orbom, B., "The Effect on Concrete Pavement of
Concrete Floor and Slab Construction (ACI 302-69) ," Studded Winter Tires," First European Symposium on
American Concrete Institute, Detroit, 1969, 34 pp. Also, Concrete Pavements, Paris, 1969.
ACT Manual oj Concrete Practice, Part 1. 22. Wehner, B., "Beanspruchung del' Strassenober-
11. ACI Committee 308, "Recommended Practice for flaech durch Winterreifen mit Spikes," Technische Uni-
Curing Concrete (ACI 308-71) ," American Concrete In- versitaet Berlin, Institut fur Strassen und Verkehrs-
stitute, Detroit, 1971, 11 pp. Also, ACT Manual of Con- wesen, 1966.
crete Practice, Part 1. 23. Thurmann, Moe, T., "Pavement Wear Caused by
12. ACI Committee 304, "Recommended Practice for Studded Tires (Piggdekkenes Slitasge pa Vegdekker),"
Measuring, Mixing, Transporting, and Placing Concrete Norwegian State Highway Laboratory, Oslo, 1969.
(ACI 304-73)," American Concrete Institute, Detroit, 24. Preus, C. K., Discussion of "Resistance of Various
1973, 40 pp. Also, ACT Manual of Concrete Practice, Types of Bituminous Concrete and Cement Concrete to
Part 1. Wear by Studded Tires" by J. Hode Keyser, Highway
13. "Vacuum Concrete Dewatering," IBOOl, New Zea- Research Record, Highway (Transportation) Research
land Portland Cement Association, Wellington, Dec. Board, No. 352, 1971, pp. 31-38.
1975. 25. "Effects of Studded Tires," NCHRP Synthesis of
14. Kauer, J. A., and Freeman, R. L., "Effect of Car- Highway Practice No. 32, Transportation Research
bon Dioxide on Fresh Concrete," ACI JOURNAL, Pro- Board, 1975, 46 pp.
ceedings V. 52, No.4, Dec. 1955, pp. 447-454. See also 26. Kummer, H. W.. and Meyer, W. E., "Tentative
Discussion, pp. 1299-1304. Skid-Resistance Requirements for Main Rural High-
15. Smith, F. L., "The Effect of Various Surface ways," NCHRP Report No. 37, Highway (Transporta-
Treatments Using Magnesium and Zinc Fluosilicate tion) Research Board, 1967, 80 pp.
Crystals on Abrasion Resistance of Concrete Surfaces," 27. Rose, J. G., and Ledbetter, W. B., "Summary of
Concrete Laboratory Report No. C-819, U. S. Bureau of Surface Factors Influencing the Friction Properties of
Reclamation, Denver, Feb. 1956. Concrete Pavements," Highway Research Record, High-
16. Krukar, Milan, and Cook John C., "Effect of way (Transportation) Research Board, No. 357, 1971,
Studded Tires on Various Pavements and Surfaces" pp. 53-63.
Highway Research Record, Highway (Transportatio~) 28. Murphy, William E., "The Skidding Resistance of
Research Board, No. 477, 1973, pp. 4-8. Concrete Pavements: A Review of Research, Develop-
17. Smith, P., and Schonfeld, R., "Pavements Wear ment, and Practice in the United Kingdom," Roadways
Due to Studded Tires and the Economic Consequences and Airport Pavements, SP-51, American Concrete In-
in Ontario," Highway Research Record, Highway stitute, Detroit, 1975, 283 pp.


4.1-lntroduction tices are followed throughout the entire con-
struction operation.
Under most conditions, portland cement concrete
provides adequate protection of embedded ma- Notwithstanding the immunity against cor-
terials against corrosion, (Le., rusting, oxidation, rosion usually afforded by concrete, a disconcert-
etc.). The protective value of the concrete is at- ing number of cases have been reported in which
tributable to its high alkalinity and relatively corrosion of embedded items has necessitated
high electrical resistivity in atmospheric exposure. large expenditures for repair and maintenance.
The degree to which concrete will provide satis- Deterioration of concrete and reinforcement
factory protection is in most instances a function caused by steel corrosion have been reported from
of the quality of the concrete, the depth of con- many parts of the world.1-n Similar problems with

It should be noted that corrosion, or other dis- surface, that corrosion is likely to become a prob-
tress of embedded items, is not only damaging to lem from this cause.
the item involved but, in most cases, is also dam- Deterioration of concrete from other causes-
aging to the concrete. Where concrete has deteriorated from freeze-thaw
The corrosion of metals is being studied in con- cycles, sulfate attack, reactive aggregates, or
siderable detail and depth by ACI Committee 222. other cause, it will be cracked or weakened and
The purpose of this chapter is to briefly describe thus become less able to protect embedded items.
corrosion problems encountered with various ma- Recommendations for making durable concrete are
terials, and to recommend procedures which will given elsewhere in this report. The point here is
provide the required protection (1) under normal that nondurable concrete can contribute to cor-
circumstances and (2) under unusually severe rosion of embedded materials.
The literature on the subject, with respect to 4.3-Causes of corrosion
corrosion of steel and to a lesser extent for other 4.3.1 Stray electrical currents-The passage of
embedded materials, is very extensive. It is not direct electrical current through concrete or con-
practicable to discuss all aspects of corrosion in crete reinforcement may cause rapid and serious
this chapter or to even cite all of the pertinent corrosion. Such current frequently has been
references. The references have been selected caused by electrical leakage or by failure to pro-
primarily to provide as broad a coverage as possi- vide positive and permanent means of grounding
ble and still keep the list within reasonable limits. electrical systems. Corrosion from this source
should be considered a possibility in the vicinity
4.2-Effect of concrete condition on corrosion of of any direct current equipment, including elec-
embedded steel trified railways and cathodically protected pipe-
lines, particularly where there is an electrolyte
Concrete may not provide permanent protection such as sodium or calcium chloride solution within
to embedded items under the following conditions: or in contact with the concrete.
Presence of cracks-The common belief that 4.3.2 Corrosion cells within the concrete-The
cracks are necessary for widespread damage due most frequent form of corrosion of metals in con-
to corrosion is erroneous. Corrosion of reinforcing crete is caused by a flow of electric current gener-
steel can occur in uncracked concrete when the ated within the concrete itself. (This is a different
exposure conditions are severe and when the con- source of corrosion than "stray current corrosion,"
crete cover over the steel is insufficient. (Ade- where the current originates externally.) Electri-
quate concrete cover over the steel for differing cal potential differences can occur in various
exposure conditions is discussed in Section 4.5.2.) spots in concrete containing metals because of
Nevertheless, cracks extending in from the con- differences in moisture content, oxygen concentra-
crete surface contribute to corrosion because they tion, electrolyte concentration, and by contact of
may give access to moisture, air, and contaminants. dissimilar metals. In such concrete, a corrosion cell
Narrow cracks in a direction transverse to that of is set up along a reinforcing bar or other embedded
the embedded item may not lead to serious cor- metal through the formation of an anode-where
rosion except in severe environments, since the corrosion occurs, and a cathode-which does not
corrosion will probably be localized and shallow. corrode. The distance between these parts of a cell
Wider cracks, and particularly cracks parallel to can vary from a fraction of an inch to 20 ft or
the direction of the embedded item, may provide more ( from about 10 mm to 6 m or more).
greater access to corroding substances and thus The presence of an electrolyte is necessary for
accelerate their attack while aggravating other the creation of a corrosion cell. An electrolyte is a
causes of corrosion which are discussed later. solution capable of conducting electric current by
Carbonation-Hydrated portland cement is sub- ionic flow. Any moist concrete contains enough
ject to chemical reaction with the carbon dioxide electrolyte to conduct a corrosion current. The drier
of the atmosphere. Such carbonation increases the the concrete, the lower its conductivity. Exposure
shrinkage of concrete on drying and thus tends to of concrete to wetting by water containing soluble
promote the development of cracks. Carbonation salts such as seawater, sulfate bearing waters,
also reduces the alkalinity of concrete and thus chlorides applied to pavements and bridge decks
reduces its effectiveness as a protecting medium. for ice control, and brine drippings from railroad
In good quality concrete, properly consolidated refrigerator cars are sources of danger. In addition,
and cured, carbonation does not penetrate deeply. excessive amounts of salts may be incorporated in
It is only in the permeable or porous concrete, or the fresh concrete by the use of mixing water
where the reinforcement is relatively close to the containing soluble salts (e.g., seawater), aggre-

gates which contain salts (either naturally or particularly in the presence of appreciable
through contamination), or by the use of admix- amounts of chloride, increases corrosion of the
tures containing chloride salts.7 aluminum. Additionally, hydrogen gas evolution
may occur when fresh concrete contacts alumi-
Another ingredient essential to corrosion of most
num and this may increase the porosity of the
metals in concrete is oxygen. Therefore, the rate of
concrete and therefore the penetration of future
corrosion (and thus the rate of damage) can be
corrosive agents. Some aluminum alloys are more
reduced or inhibited by choking off the access to
susceptible to this problem than others.
oxygen. Various procedures, one being deep poly-
mer impregnation of chloride contaminated con- 4.4.3 Lead-Lead in damp concrete can be at-
crete, are being tested for effectiveness in this tacked by the calcium hydroxide in the concrete
regard. and may be destroyed in a few years. Contact of
Corrosion cells can produce pits in normal rein- the lead with reinforcing steel can accelerate the
forcing steel and in some other metals. Loss of attack. It is recommended that a protective coat-
section due to pitting or widespread corrosion is ing of bituminous material, plastic, or sleeves
of much greater consequence in prestressing cables which are unaffected by damp concrete be used on
and other small stressed member than in large lead to be em bedded in concrete. Corrosion of
reinforcing bars. A catastrophic failure can occur embedded lead is not likely to damage the con-
in a stressed cable if the cross section is reduced crete.
sufficiently by corrosion or by embrittlement of 4.4.4 Copper and copper alloys-Copper is not
the steel from hydrogen evolution during the cor- normally corroded by concrete as evidenced by
rosion process. Conversely, the concrete surround- the widespread and successful use of copper
ing a large reinforcing bar is often cracked as the waterstops and the embedment of copper pipes
result of the expansive forces of corrosion long in concrete for many years. However, corrosion of
before loss of section becomes critical from a load copper pipes has been reported where ammonia is
carrying standpoint. In this instance, repairs are present. Also, there have been reports that small
often necessary because of loss of bond, cracks, or amounts of ammonia and possibly of nitrates can
spalling. Thus, corrosion in either instance is cause stress corrosion cracking of embedded cop-
costly. per. It should further be noted that unfavorable
circumstances are created if the concrete also con-
tains steel connected to the copper. In this case it
4.4-Corrosion characteristics of various materials
is the steel which will corrode.
in concrete
4.4.5 Zinc-Zinc reacts with alkaline materials
4.4.1 Steel-In the early stages of corrosion, rust such as those found in concrete. However, zinc in
stains (generally dark gray or reddish in color) the form of a galvanizing coating on reinforcing
may be observed in the pores of the concrete and steel is sometimes intentionally embedded in con-
in small cracks at the surface. Later, there is more crete. Available data are conflicting as to the
prominent cracking of the concrete in a direction benefit, if any,of this coating.n-ll A chromate dip
parallel to the reinforcement, and a delamination on the galvanized bars or the use of 400 parts per
(disbonding) of the concrete at the level of the million of chromate in the mix water is recom-
steel. In advanced cases, spalling down to the mended to prevent hydrogen evolution in the
level of the reinforcement occurs. fresh concrete. Additionally, users are cautioned
Techniques are available for locating areas of against permitting galvanized and black steel to
corroding steel and subsurface delaminations, and come in contact with each other in a structure,
for determining the chloride content (and thus since theory indicates that the use of dissimilar
the potential for corrosion of embedded metal) of metals can cause galvanic corrosion.
the concrete at the level of the embedded metaLR-l0 Some difficulty has been experienced with the
The latter procedure requires that samples of corrosion and perforation of corrugated galvanized
concrete be obtained, whereas the other pro- sheets used as permanent bottom forms for con-
cedures are nondestructive. crete roofs and bridge decks. Such damage has
4.4.2 Aluminum-Corrosion of aluminum em- been confined largely to concrete containing ap-
bedded in concrete can occur and can crack the preciable amounts of chloride and to areas where
concrete. Conditions conducive to corrosion are chloride solutions are permitted to drain directly
created if: the concrete contains steel in contact onto the galvanized sheet.
with the aluminum, chlorides are present in ap- 4.4.6 Other metals-Chromium and nickel al-
preciable concentrations, or the cement is high loyed metals generally have good resistance to
in alkali content:; Increasing ratios of steel area to corrosion in concrete, as do silver and tin. How-
::llllrninllrn ::lrt:>::l furht:>n tht:> rnt:>hlc: ::lrt:> (>ollnlt:>rl) t:>vt:>r tht:> (>orr()s;on rpsist:mC'P of somp of thpsp

metals may be adversely affected by the presence woods, preferably with a high resinous content,
of soluble chlorides in seawater or deicing salts. are reported to be most suitable for such use.
Special circumstances might justify the cost of
Monel or Type 316 stainless steel in marine loca- 4.5-Recommendations where corrosion may be a
tion, if data are available to document their su-
perior performance in concrete containing mois-
ture and chlorides or other electrolytes. However, 4.5.1 Concrete of low permeability-The perme-
the 300 series stainless steels are susceptible to ability of concrete is a major factor affecting the
stress corrosion cracking when the temperature is process of corrosion of embedded materials. It is
over 140 F (60 C) and chloride solutions are in also a major factor affecting the service life of the
contact with the material. Natural weathering concrete itself. Less water can enter and remain
steels generally do not perform well in a concrete in a low permeability concrete under a given ex-
containing moisture and chloride. posure and hence such concrete is more likely to
have low electrical conductivity. It also resists the
4.4.7 Plastics-Plastics are being used increas-
absorption of salts and their penetration to the
ingly in concrete as pipes, shields, waterstops,
embedded items and provides a barrier against the
chairs, etc., as well as a component in the con-
ingress of oxygen. Although no conventional con-
crete. Many plastics are resistant to strong alkalies
crete is completely impermeable, proper attention
and therefore would be expected to perform sat-
to mix proportioning, workmanship, and curing
isfactorily in concrete. However, because of the
will give a concrete having a low permeability.
great varieties of plastics and materials com-
pounded with them, specific test data should be Mix proportioning. Low water-cement
developed for each intended use. Special epoxies ratios produce less permeable concrete and thus
have been used successfully as reinforcing bar provide greater assurance against corrosion. In
coatings and will be discussed later in this guide. seawater exposure tests of reinforced concrete
Another rapidly expanding field involving the piles with a nominal cover of 1% in. (38 mm) over
use of plastics includes polymer impregnated con- the steel, a water-cement ratio of 0.45 (by weight)
crete (hardened concrete impregnated with plas- provided good protection against corrosion, 0.53
tic), polymer concrete (where the plastic is the provided an intermediate degree of protection,
binder) and polymer-portland cement concrete and 0.62 afforded relatively poor protection. 3 Ex-
(where the polymer is an additional component of posure tests on 20 fF (1.85 m~) slabs which were
a conventional concrete) .1:; The use of polymers salted daily yielded similar results; concrete with
can result in a superior concrete, both from the a water-cement ratio of 0.40 performed signifi-
strength and permeability standpoints. Several cantly better than concretes with water-cement
applications are discussed later on in this report. ratios of 0.50 and 0.60, even with equal cement
contents. n
4.4.8 Wood-Wood has been widely used in or
against mortars and concretes. Such use varies Therefore, the water-cement ratio should not
from the incorporation of sawdust, wood pulp, and exceed 0.40 for concrete exposed to sea or brackish
wood fibers in the concrete mix to the embedment water, or in contact with more than moderate
of timber. concentrations of chlorides at the water or ground
The incorporation of untreated sawdust, wood line or within the range of fluctuating water level
chips or fibers in "nailing concrete," and the like, or spray. If this water-cement ratio cannot be
usually results in slow setting and low strength. achieved in a specific instance, a maximum water-
The addition of hydrated lime equal to 113 to % cement ratio of 0.45 may be used provided the
the volume of cement has often been effective in thickness of concrete cover over any metal is in-
overcoming this action. Further improvement has creased by 0.5 in. (1.3 cm) .
resulted from the use of up to 5 percent of cal- Above the se'l and spray range for a height of
cium chloride dihydrate along with the lime. 25 ft (8 m) or within a horizontal distance of 100
However, calcium chloride in such amounts can ft (30 m), the water-cement ratio should not
cause corrosion of embedded metals and can have exceed 0.50 by weight.
adverse effects on the concrete itself.
These recommended limitations on water-ce-
Another problem with such concrete is the high ment ratio apply to all types of portland cement,
volume change, which occurs even with changes in although long-term studies at PCA on durability of
atmospheric humidity. This volume change may concrete (seaw2ter exposure) showed that cement
lead to cracking and warping. containing 5 to 8 percent tricalcium aluminate
The embedment of lumber in concrete has some- (C;A) showed less cracking due to steel corrosion
times resulted in leaching of the wood by calcium than cement with a CIA content less than 5 per-
hydroxide with subsequent deterioration. Soft- cent.1n In the absence of specific test data, ACI

211.1-74 may be used to determine the cement least 2.6 in. (65 mm) would need to be specified
factor required for the stated water-cement ratio. to obtain a minimum cover of 2.0 in. (50 mm)
A low water-cement ratio does not of itself over 90 to 95 percent of the deck reinforcing
assure a low permeability concrete. As an extreme steelY A nondestructive magnetic device (pach-
example, so-called "no-fines" concrete could have ometer) is available for use in determining the
a low water-cement ratio and yet be highly perme- depth of cover over reinforcing steel in hardened
able, as evidenced by the use of such concrete to concrete. 10 .17
produce porous pipe. Well-graded coarse and fine 4.5.3 Good drainage-In areas of severe expo-
aggregates are therefore also requisite to low sure, especially in concrete bridge decks, particular
permea bili ty. attention shoould be given to design details deal-
Air entrainment is recommended to reduce ing with drainage. They should insure that the
damage from freezing and thawing and may im- water will drain, and standing pools are avoided.
prove workability. Also, tests have shown that the 4.5.4 Limiting chlorides in the concrete mix-The
time for corrosion-caused cracking to develop is potential hazard of chlorides to concrete containing
increased significantly by incorporating air in steel in a marine environment or other exposure
the mix. 1 :l to soluble salts suggests a recommendation that Workmanship. Good workmanship is a no chloride should be allowed in the concrete mix.
most important factor in securing uniform con- This would reject the use of seawater as mixing
crete of low permeability. This includes the use of water, aggregates which have been washed with
low slump concrete, precautions against segrega- seawater or otherwise contain salts, and admix-
tion, thorough vibration to insure good consolida- tures containing chloride.
tion, and good finishing practices. Low slump con-
Specifying a zero chloride content for the mix,
cretes are often difficult to consolidate and a
however, is impossible to realize in practice.
density monitoring device (such as a direct trans-
Chlorides are among the more abundant materials
mission nuclear gage) may be helpful.
on earth, and are present in variable amounts in Curing. Permeability is reduced by in- all of the ingredients of concrete. Neither is it
creased hydration of the cement. Therefore, ade- effective to place a prohibition only on calcium
quate curing is essential. At least 7 days of unin- chloride, since other chlorides can react in the
terrupted moist curing, or membrane curing, same manner. The proper approach is to limit the
should be required. Members that are cured with total chloride in the mix (i.e., in the aggregate,
low pressure steam to obtain a high early strength cement, mixing water, and admixtures) to a
will benefit significantly from additional moist value less than that required to promote corrosion.
curing at normal temperatures. Research has shown that the threshold value
4.5.2 Adequate steel cover-Protection against for a chloride content in concrete necessary for
penetration of salts to reinforcing steel and other the corrosion of embedded steel can be as low as
embedded items is affected considerably by the 0.15 percent by weight of cement.fl1S-~t At first
thickness of concrete cover over the steel. It is sight, therefore, this limit should be universally
generally recognized that at or near the waterline specified. However, this approach is undesirable
or in other locations exposed to a combination of because it does not take into account the physical
seawater (including spray) and atmospheric (free) availability of the chloride nor does it consider
oxygen in marine construction and other severe if the other components necessary for corrosion
environments, more cover is required than is of steel, oxygen and moisture, will be present or
normally used. A minimum cover of 3 in. (75 mm) not. The availability of oxygen and moisture ad-
is recommended for such exposure [AASHTO jacent to the steel will vary with service exposure
recommends 4 in. (100 mm) except for precast from one structure to another and between dif-
piles]. Exposure of concrete at inland sites, other feren t parts of the same structure as well as with
than brackish water, has not generally been recog- the quality of concrete and depth of cover to steel
nized as constituting a corrosion problem except provided. Also, prior to any meaningful discussion
for bridge decks. On bridges, salts applied in ice of limits the form in which the chloric:e occurs
control operations are absorbed by the concrete must be taken into account.
roadway decks and adjacent appurtenances such Chloride in concrete may be in the water soluble
as curbs, sidewalks, and railings. In such locations form or may be chemically combined with other
a minimum cover of 2 in. (50 mm) and a concrete ingredients. Soluble chlorides induce corrosion,
of low water-cement ratio (0.40 maximum by while combined chloride is believed to have little
weight) are recommended. It should be noted that effect. It has been shown that when the total
because of construction tolerances in steel cover chloride content is near the corrosion threshold
on bridge decks. a design or "plan" cover of at level, from 50 to 85 percent of it will be soluble.n,li)

There are exceptions, however. Some data indi- The user should exercise good judgment in ap-
cates that a large percentage of calcium chloride plying these limits, keeping in mind that other
admixture combines chemically with the cement factors (moisture and oxygen) are always neces-
and thus is not available to induce corrosion. 2G * sary for electrochemical corrosion.
Some chloride-bearing aggregates have a high The routine measurement of total chloride~1 for
total chloride content but very little of it is solu- direct comparison with the suggested limits is
ble. On the other hand, some aggregates with recommended. This may be made on the con-
high chloride content are known to have caused stituents of the concrete, in concrete from trial
corrosion. batches, or on production concrete shortly after
When considering the probability of corrosion, mixing. However, as discussed above, if the total
it is therefore logical to measure only the soluble chloride content exceeds the limit, the potential
chloride content of concrete, rather than total for corrosion can be further studied using the
soluble chloride test described in Reference 24. If
chloride. Tests for soluble chloride, however, are
these results are less than the limit, the probability
time-consuming and difficult to control. Factors
of corrosion caused by chloride contained in the
such as sample size, boiling and/or soaking time,
concrete mix will be low.
temperature, and quantity of distilled water used
all affect the results. 1n Therefore the test must be No calcium chloride should be in ten tionally
performed in a standardized manner. Conversely, added to the mix in prestressed concrete or con-
the test for total chloride, which involves a nitric ventionally reinforced concrete which will be ex-
acid extraction, is not significantly affected by the posed to moisture and chlorides in service, even if
above factors. H)~I-~'1 Most interested parties, there- the naturally occurring chlorides in the materials
fore, measure total (soluble plus combined) are less than the stated limits.
chloride and test for soluble chloride only when Obviously the effect of chlorides in concrete is
follow-up studies are desired. complex. ACI Committee 222 is continuing to
study the subject. The recommendations of Com-
If the total chloride is less than the allowable
mittees 212 and 443 are also pertinent.
limit, obviously soluble chloride need not be
4.5.5 Careful attention to protruding items-
measured. Should the total chloride content ex-
When embedded items, such as bolts, must pro-
ceed this limit, additional information on the
trude from the concrete in a corrosive environ-
risk involved in using the material may be ob-
ment, careful attention should be given to the
tained by performing a soluble chloride test. When
resistance of the material selected, to the type of
this value is found to be above the limit, corrosion
corrosive environment, to the avoidance of coup-
is likely if moisture and oxygen are readily avail-
ling it with a dissimilar metal inside the concrete,
able (in a bridge deck, for example). If it is below
to the careful placement of the concrete around
the limit, the risk of corrosion is low.
the protruding item, and to the avoidance of creat-
At the present state of knowledge this commit- ing channels which will permit the corrosive media
tee, in agreement with ACI Committee 222, sug- to reach the interior of the concrete.
gests the following limits for chloride ion (CI-) 4.5.6 Positive protective systems-Because of
in concrete prior to service exposure, expressed as the very high cost of repairing corrosion-caused
a percent by weight of cement: damage, positive protective systems are being
1. Prestressed concrete 0.06 percent used for bridge decks in severe deicing salt areas
and for some marine structures. Many protective
2. Conventionally reinforced concrete systems have been proposed, some of which have
in a moist environment and ex- been shown to be effective while others have
posed to chloride 0.10 percent failed. It is beyond the scope of this guide to
3. Con ven tionally reinforced concrete discuss all possible systems. However, the most
in a moist environment but not successful systems in use for bridge decks (some
exposed to chloride (includes loca- of which are applicable to other structures) are
tions where the concrete will be listed below:
occasionally wetted-such as kitch- 1. Very low water-cement ratio (0.32 by
ens, parking garages, waterfront weigh t), low slump dense concrete overlay.\l.ZG
structures, and areas with poten-
tial moisture condensation 0.15 percent
"This has led some to conclude that up to 1 percent of admix-
ture in the usual flake form (the dihydrate. CaC]'. 2H,O) may
4. Above ground building construc- be acceptable in lTIOst conventionally reinforced concrete v..'hich
does not contain other embedded metals and which will not
tion where the concrete will stay be exposed to chloride in service.
dry No limit for tIf calcium chloride is used as an admixture. a limit of 2 per-
cent is generally recommended for reasons other than corrosion.
corrosiont Using 2 percent of the usual form (the dihydrate. CaC]" 2HD)
results in apprOXimately 1 percent chloride ion (Cl-).

2. Styrene-butadiene latex modified concrete repair of delaminated areas:IG or prior to cathodic

over lay. 9,2(; protection to achieve more permanent results. The
3. Epoxy (electrostatically applied powder) judicious application of waterproof coatings on a
coated reinforcing steel,27,28 concrete containing corroding metal may serve to
prolong the useful life of a structure, but their
4. Specific waterproof membranes with an
asphaltic concrete wearing surface. 2n ,29 indiscriminate use may raise the level of moisture
within the concrete and thus accelerate corrosion.
The reader is referred to the indicated references
None of the coatings offer permanent protection.
for details.
Research on the removal of the chlorides which
Other promising protective systems in the final cause corrosion, and on deep impregnation of the
development stages include surface polymer im- concrete with polymer after drying, is underway
pregna ted concrete:lO and internally sealed con- and promising but not yet operational. Remedial
crete. :11,32 Galvanized reinforcing steel is being measures of these types are recommended for use
used on an experimental basis; available data on only after careful study by those versed in cor-
laboratory and field performance are conflicting rosion problems.
and generally not encouraging. 12-15.28
4.6-Corrective measures 1. Halstead, S., and Woodworth, L. A., "The Deteriora-
tion of Reinforced Concrete Structures Under Coastal
Methods of repairing concrete which has de- Conditions," Transactions, South African Institution of
teriorated as a result of corrosion of the reinforc- Civil Engineers, V. 5, No.4, Apr. 1955, pp. 115-134.
ing steel or other embedded items are given in 2. Tremper, Bailey; Beaton, John L.; and Stratfull,
the literature.:13 . 3l Chapter 6 of this guide also R. F., "Causes and Repair of Deterioration to a Cali-
describes repair procedures. fornia Bridge Due to Corrosion of Reinforcing Steel in
a Marine Environment: Part II-Fundamental Factors
In situations where electrochemical phenomena Causing Corrosion," Bulletin No. 182, Highway (Trans-
exist it should be noted that repairs to one part portation) Research Board, 1958, pp. 18-41.
of a structural unit may aggravate corrosion in 3. Tyler, I. L., "Long-Time Study of Cement Per-
other parts. Continued repair may well be the formance in Concrete, Chapter 12, Concrete Exposed to
most economical solution, but the simple repair of Sea Water and Fresh Water," ACI JOURNAL, Proceed-
affected portions may not necessarily result in a ings V. 56, No.9, Mar. 1960, pp. 825-836.
permanent cure. 4. Gjorv, Odd E., Durability of Reinforced Concrete
Wharves in Norwegian Harbours, The Norwegian Com-
Several methods of stopping or retarding fur- mittee on Concrete in Sea Water, Ingeniorforlaget A/S,
ther corrosion have been studied and are discussed Oslo, 1968, 208 pp.
in Section 4.7. 5, Idorn, G. M., Durability of Concrete Structures in
Denmark, Technical University of Denmark, Copen-
4.7-General remarks hagen, 1967, 208 pp.
6, Woods, Hubert, DtLrability of Concrete Construc-
As stated at the beginning of this chapter, un- tion, Monograph No.4, American Concrete Institute/
der most conditions, portland cement concrete pro- Iowa State University Press, Detroit, 1968, pp. 83-120.
vides adequate protection of embedded materials 7. "The Role of Calcium Chloride in Concrete," Con-
against corrosion. Corrosion sometimes occurs, crete Construction, V. 21, No.2, Feb. 1976, pp. 57-61.
however, and when it does, it can be a very costly 8. Stratfull, R. F., "Half Cell Potentials and the
experience. The complexity of the causes, high Corrosion of Steel in Concrete," Presented at the 52nd
cost of present repairs, and the experimental Annual Meeting of the Highway Research Board, 1973.
status of the more promising corrective measures 9. Clear, K. C., and Hay, R. E., "Time-to-Corrosion
emphasize the importance of good design, the use of Reinforcing Steel in Concrete Slabs, V. 1: Effect of
of good quality concrete, good workmanship, and Mix Design and Construction Parameters," Interim Re-
port No. FHWA-RD-73-32, Federal Highway Adminis-
good curing for the original construction. tration, Apr. 1973.
In some environments (such as bridge decks 10. Clear, K. C., "Permanent Bridge Deck Repair,"
and other exposed members in marine and de- Public Roads, V. 39, No.2, Sept. 1975, pp. 53-62. Also,
icing salt environments), the use of a positive Report No. FHWA-RD-74-5, Federal Highway Admin-
protective system at the time of construction is istration, Feb. 1974.
recommended. 11. Stark, David, and Perenchio, William, "The Per-
It is a difficult and uncertain undertaking to formance of Galvanized Reinforcement in Concrete
Bridge Decks," Final Report, Portland Cement Associa-
stop corrosion after conditions leading to its de- tion, Oct. 1975.
velopment have been built into the structure.
12. Hill, G. A.; Spellman, D. L.; and Stratfull, R. F.,
Cathodic protection of corroding bridge decks is
"Laboratory Corrosion Tests of Galvanized Steel in
being applied experimentally with success. Ro Concrete," Presented at the 55th Annual Meeting of the
-p1nAvH ;n;n.n+l{yn iC' ho.;Y'lr1 l1C'Orl <.::Ie ':I tt:lrnn{\r~r"U "rr':lnC'nf'\rt':ltifln "RDC'.o'.lY'f"h Pn.'.lr~ T<;IYl 1 Q7~

13. Griffin, Donald F., "Effectiveness of Zinc Coat- FHWA-RD77-85, Federal Highway Administration,
ing on Reinforcing Steel in Concrete Exposed to a Washington, D. C., Aug. 1977 (Available as PB 275-
Marine Environment," Technical Note No. N-1032, U. S. 428/ AS National Technical Information Services).
Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme, 25. Monfore, G. E., and Verbeck, G. J., "Corrosion of
July 1969, 42 pp. Also, 1st Supplement, June 1970, and Prestressed Wire in Concrete," ACI JOURNAL, Proceed-
2nd Supplement, June 1971. ings V. 57, No.5, Nov. 1960, pp. 491-515.
14. "Use of Galvanized Rebars in Bridge Decks," 26. "Bridge Deck Protective Systems, Membranes,
Notice No.5, 140.10, Federal Highway Administration, Polymer Concrete, and Dense Portland Cement Con-
Washington, D. C., July 9, 1976. crete," Interim Report NEEP No. 12, Notice N5080.28,
15. Dikeou, J. T., "Review of Worldwide Develop- Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D. C.,
ments and Use of Polymers in Concrete," Polymers in Jan. 1975.
Concrete, Proceedings of the 1st International Congress, 27. Clifton, J. R; Beeghly, H. F.; and Mathey, R. G.,
Concrete Construction Publications, Addison, Ill., 1976, "Nonmetallic Coatings for Concrete Reinforcing Bars,"
pp. 2-8. Final Report No. FHWA-RD-74-18, National Bureau of
16. Verbeck, G. J., "Field and Laboratory Studies of Standards for Federal Highway Administration, Wash-
the SUlphate Resistance of Concrete," Performance of ington, D. C., Feb. 1974.
Concrete-Resistance of Concrete to Sulphate and Other 28. "Coated Reinforcing Steel," NEEP Project No. 16,
Environmental Conditions, Thorvaldson Symposium, Interim Report No.1, FHWA Notice N5080.33, Federal
University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1968, pp. 113- Highway Administration, Washington, D. C., Apr. 1975.
124. 29. Van Til, C. J.; Carr, B. J.; and Vall erg a, B. A.,
"Waterproof Membranes for Protection of Concrete
17. Van Daveer, J. R, and Sheret, G. D., "Concrete
Bridge Decks-Laboratory Phase," NCHRP Report No.
Cover Study," Final Report No. FHWA-DP-15, Federal
165, Transportation Research Board, 1976, 70 pp.
Highway Administration, Washington, D. C., Sept. 1975.
30. Smoak, J. G., "Polymer Impregnation of New
18. Chamberlain, William P.; Irwin, Richard J.; and
Concrete Bridge Deck Surfaces, Interim User's Manual
Amsler, Duane E., "Waterproofing Membranes for
of Procedures and Specifications," Report No. FHWA-
Bridge Deck Rehabilitation," Research Report No. 52, RD-75-72, U. S. Bureau of Reclamation for the Federal
New York State Department of Transportation, May
Highway Administration, Washington, D. C., June 1975.
1977. 31. Clear, K. C.. and Ormsby, W. C., "Concept in
19. Lewis, D. A., "Some Aspects of the Corrosion of Internally Sealed Concrete," Interim Report No.
Steel in Concrete," Proceedings, First International FHWA-RD-75-21, Federal Highway Administration,
Congress on Metallic Corrosion, London, 1962, pp. 547- Washington, D. C., Apr. 1975.
555. 32. Jenkins, G. H., and Butler, J. M., "Internally
20. Stratfull, R F.; Jurkovich, W. J.; and Spellman, Sealed Concrete," Report No. FHWA-RD-75-20, Mon-
D. L., "Corrosion Testing of Bridge Decks," Trans- santo Research Corp. for the Federal Highway Admin-
portation Research Record, Transportation Research istration, Washington, D. C., Final Report, Jan. 1975.
Board, No. 539, 1975, pp. 50-59. 33. Gewertz, M. W., "Causes and Repair of Deteriora-
21. Clear, K. C., "Evaluation of Portland Cement tion to a California Bridge Due to Corrosion of Rein-
Concrete for Permanent Bridge Deck Repair," Report forcing Steel in a Marine Environment: Part I-Method
No. FHWA-RD-74-5, Federal Highway Administration, of Repair," Bulletin No. 182, Highway (Transportation)
Washington, D. C., Feb. 1974. Research Board, 1958, pp. 1-17.
22. Clemena, Gerardo G.; Reynolds, John W.; and 34. Johnson, Sidney M., Deterioration, Maintenance,
McCormick, Randy, "Comparative Study of Procedures and Repair of Structures, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New
for the Analysis of Chloride in Hardened Concrete," York, 1965, 373 pp.
Report No. VHTR-77-R7, Virginia Highway and Trans- 35. Stratfull, R F., "Experimental Cathodic Protection
portation Research Council, Aug. 1976, Appendix B. of a Bridge Deck," Interim Report No. FHWA-RD-74-31,
23. Berman, H. A., "Determination of Chloride in California Department of Transportation, Jan. 1974.
Hardened Cement Paste, Mortar, and Concrete," Report 36. Stratton, F. W., and McCollum, B. F., "Repair of
No. FHWA-RD-72-12, Federal Highway Administration, Hollow or Softened Areas in Bridge Decks in Rebonding
Washington, D. C., Sept. 1972. with Injected Epoxy Resin or Other Polymers," Report
24. Clear, K. C., and Harrigan, E. T., "Sampling and No. K-F-72-5, State Highway Commission of Kansas,
Testing for Chloride Ion in Concrete," Report No. July 1974.


5.1-Types of reactions the cement, or from other sources, with hydroxyl,
and certain siliceous constituents that may be
Chemical reactions of aggregates in concrete
present in the aggregate. This phenomenon was
can affect the performance of concrete. Some re-
originally, and is still sometimes, referred to as
actions may be beneficial, but others result in
"alkali-aggregate reaction," but in recent years it
serious damage to the concrete by causing ab-
has been more properly designated as "alkali-silica
normal expansion, cracking, and loss of strength.l
reaction." The earliest paper discussing alkali-
The reaction that has received greatest attention silica reaction, by Stanton,2 appeared in 1940.
and which was the first to be recognized involves Deterioration of concrete has occurred in Kan-
a reaction between alkalies (Na 2 0 and K 2 0) from sas, Nebraska, and eastern Wyoming involving

certain sand-gravel aggregates. The deterioration the presence of such reactive impurities and their
has been regarded as a chemical phenomenon.3.4 use in concrete can be avoided.
Because early studies showed no consistent re- The alkali-silica, cement-aggregate, and expan-
lationship between the distress and alkali content sive carbonate reactions are more important than
of the cement, as is normally the case with alkali- the others and will be discussed in detail in the
aggregate reactions, the term "cement-aggregate following section.
reaction" is used because it has been deemed de-
sirable to distinguish between this phenomenon 5.2-Alkali-silica reaction
and the more widely occurring alkali-silica reac-
5.2.1 Occurrence-A map2H and data 27 - 3i are
tion. Subsequent research indicated that this
available showing areas known to have natural
phenomenon is a reaction between the alkalies in
aggregates suspected of or known to be capable
cement and some siliceous constituents of the
of alkali-silica reaction. Most of these references
aggregates, complicated by environmental condi-
refer to North America; however, the available
tions that produce high concrete shrinkage and
evidence~li suggests that similar considerations are
concentration by drying."
applicable elsewhere. Data are available for New
It has also been clearly demonstrated that cer- Zealand, India, Germany, Iceland, Denmark,
tain carbonate rocks participate in reactions with Turkey, and other countries.:n
alkalies which, in some instances, produce detri- At the time of the 1960 report by Committee
mental expansion and cracking. Detrimental re- 201, it appeared that the greatest abundance of
actions are usually associated with argillaceous alkali-silica reactive rocks in the United States
dolomitic limestones which have somewhat un- was in the western half of the country. This is
usual textural characteristics. H This reaction is probably still a correct estimate, if the kind of
designated as "expansive alkali-carbonate reac- alkali-silica reaction intended is the quickly de-
tion." It has been extensively studied in Canada veloping type which was the first to be recog-
where it was originally recognizedi-l~ and in the nized. 2 ,27,28,3o However, there is also a slowly de-
United States. 13 -1S veloping type. 29
In addition to the detrimental expansive alkali- The minerals, mineraloids, and rocks recognized
carbonate reaction, a phenomenon associated with as reactive in 1958 are shown in Table 5.2.1.:\0
some carbonate rocks occurs wherein the peri- Since 1958, other rocks have been recognized as
pheral zones of the aggregate particles in contact reactive. These include argillites, graywackes/\1
with cement paste are modified and develop phyllites,2il quartzites,:;:; schists,:I(; as well as frac-
prominent rims within the particle and extensive tured and strained quartz, recognized as reactive
carbonation of the surrounding paste. 6 ,14,19-22 Some by L. S. Brown,:!:! and granite gneiss.:: 1 Several of
rims when etched with dilute acid appear in these rocks-including granite gneisses, meta-
positive relief, while others exhibit negative re- morphosed subgraywackes, and some quartz and
lief; hence the terms "positive rims" and "negative quartzite gravels-appear to react slowly even
rims" are commonly used. As contrasted with al- with high alkali cement, the reactivity not having
kali-carbonate reactions which cause detrimental been recognized until the structures were over 20
expansion and cracking, it is doubtful that rim- years old.:;~-:lI
forming alkali-carbonate reaction is, per se, a Lightweight aggregates, being composed of
deleterious reaction.2:l predominantly amorphous silicates, would appear
In addition to the above types, other damaging to have the potential for being reactive with ce-
chemical reactions involving aggregates should be ment alkalies. However, there is no evidence of
mentioned. These include the oxidation or hydra- distress of lightweight concrete caused by alkali
reaction. ;IS
tion of certain unstable mineral oxides, sulfates,
or sulfides that occur after the aggregate is in- 5.2.2 Mechanism-Alkali-silica reaction can
corporated in the concrete (for example, the hy- cause expansion and severe cracking of concrete
structures and pavements, The phenomenon is
dration of anhydrous magnesium oxide, calcium
complex and various theories have been advanced
oxide, or calcium sulfate, or the oxidation of
to explain field and laboratory evidence. 34 ,36,39-42
pyrite) .21 Metallic iron may occur as a contaminant
Unanswered questions remain. Apparently reac-
in aggregate and subsequently be oxidized. Still tive material in the presence of potassium, sodium,
other reactions may result from organic impurities and calcium hydroxide derived from the cement
(humus, sugar, etc.) .2:; Engineers should be aware reacts to form either a solid nonexpansive cal-
of these possibilities and supply corrective cium-alkali-silica complex, or an alkali-silica com-
measures where necessary. Careful testing and plex (also solid) which can expand by imbibition of


Reactive substance Chemical composition Physical character

Opal SiO,' nRD Amorphous

Chalcedony SiO, Microcrystalline to
commonly fibrous
Certain forms of quartz (a) Microcrystalline
to cryptocrystalline;
(b) Crystalline, but
intensely fractured,
strained, and/or
Cristo bali te SiO, Crystalline
Tridymite SiO, Crystalline
Rhyolitic, dacitic, Siliceous, with lesser Glass or cryptocrystal-
latitic, or ande- proportions of ALO", line material as the
sitic glass or Fe,O", alkaline matrix of volcanic
cryptocrystalline earths, and alkalies rocks or fragments
devitrification in tuffs
Synthetic siliceous Siliceous, with lesser Glass
glasses proportions of alka-
lies, alumina, and/
or other substances

The most important deleteriously alkali-reactive rocks (that is, rocks containing
excessive amounts of one or more of the substances listed above) are as follows:
Opaline cherts Andesites and tuffs
Chalcedonic cherts Siliceous shales
Quartzose cherts Phyllites
Siliceous limestones Opaline concretions
Siliceous dolomites Fractured, strained, and
Rhyolites and tuffs inclusion-filled quartz
Dacites and tuffs and quartzites

Note: A rock may be classified as, for example. a "siliceous limestone" and be innocuous if its
siliceous constituents are other than those indicated above.

concentrations of alkali and calcium hydroxide, gates from new sources and when service records
and on the available surface of the reactive ma- indicate that reactivity may be possible. The most
terial. When the alkali concentration is low useful are:
enough, the initial product of reaction is non- (a) Petrographic examination - ASTM C 295
expansive; when the alkali concentration is high, provides a recommended practice for the pe-
the initial product of reaction is the expansive trographic examination of aggregates. The types
one. In the former case, for reaction to continue of minerals involved in alkali-aggregate reaction
safely, the amount of reactive material must have been listed in Section 6.2.1, and procedures
either be negligible or more than a certain for recognizing these constituents have been de-
amount, depending on the amount of alkali and scribed.29.33.41,42 Recommendations are available
fineness of reactive material. In the latter case, which show the amounts of reactive minerals, as
rapid reversal to a safe reaction (that is, formation determined petrographically, which can be tol-
of the nonexpansive product) is desirable and erated.!NS The procedures referenced above apply
will occur if the reactive particles present suf- to reactive constituents recognized prior to 1960.
ficient surface for reaction, that is, if the reactive The reactive rocks and minerals that have been
particles are sufficiently numerous or sufficiently more frequently encountered since 1960 appear to
fine. have larger pessimum proportions and are harder
5.2.3 Laboratory tests for alkali-silica reactiv- to recognize in petrographic examination. Highly
ity-Laboratory tests should be made on aggre- deformed quartz with an angle of undulatory ex-

tinction of 35 to 50 deg or more, and with de- 5.2.5 Recommended procedures to be used with
formation lamellae appear characteristic of the alkali-reactive aggregates - If aggregates are
reactive quartz-bearing rocks. Relatively coarse- shown by service records or laboratory examina-
grained micas 35 have also been regarded as reactive tion to be potentially reactive, they should not be
constituents; fine-grained micas are reactive in used when the concrete is to be exposed to sea-
argilli ties.~! water or alkali environments if nonreactive ag-
(b) Mortar bar test for potential reactivity gregates are available.:m When reactive aggregates
(ASTM C 227)-This method is the one most gen- must be used, this should be done only after
erally relied on to indicate potential alkali reac- thorough tests, and preferably after service rec-
tivity. Acceptance criteria are given by ASTM ords have established that with appropriate limits
C 33 for evaluating these test results. The pro- on the alkali content of the cement, or with the
cedure is useful not only for the evaluation of use of appropriate amounts of an effective poz-
aggregates, but also for the evaluation of specific zolan, or both, satisfactory service can be antici-
aggregate-cement combinations. However, criteria pated:!S In cases where seawater or alkaline soil
have not been developed for the metamorphic environments are not involved and there are no
siliceous and silicate rocks. From the results of sound materials available economically, reactive
Swenson, Gillott, and Duncan,;]" it may be ex- materials may be used provided the following
pected that these rocks will not reliably develop safeguards are employed:
expansive reaction in storage at 100 F (38 C) but (a) Low-alkali cement-Specify a "low alkali"
will require more elevated temperatures and cement (maximum of 0.6 percent equivalent
longer periods in test, probably 1 to 3 years, to Na 2 0). (Low alkali cement will become less read-
develop evidence of reactivity. This prolongation ily available except at a premium price with the
of testing time makes it particularly desirable to need to use less energy in manufacturing cement
employ petrographic criteria that will allow iden- and with environmental control of cement plant
tification of these rocks. emissions.) Prohibit the use of seawater or alkali
soil water as mixing water and avoid addition of
(c) Chemical test for potential reactivity (ASTM
sodium or potassium chloride.
289)-This method is used primarily for a quick
(b) Pozzolan-Where low-alkali cements are
evaluation of natural aggregates, the results being
not economically available, use a suitable poz-
obtainable in a few days as compared with 3 to 6
zolanic material as prescribed by ASTM C 618.
months or more with the mortar bar test. Accept-
Pozzolans should be tested in accordance with
ance criteria for this test are given in ASTM C 33
ASTM C 441 to determine their effectiveness in
and elsewhere. Care must be exercised in in-
preventing excessive expansion due to the alkali-
terpreting the results of this test. Highway Re-
aggregate reaction. The criterion of 75 percent re-
search Board Special Report No. 3po and Highway
duction based on an arbitrary cement-to-pozzolan
Research Board Bulletin No. 239 11> give more de-
ratio merely provides a basis of comparison. Pep-
tails concerning proper interpretation of the re-
per and Mather!S showed that many pozzolans
sults. Some of the reactive rocks identified since
would neeci to be used at higher proportions to
1960 fall into a region below the end of the curve
cement to achieve 75 percent reduction in expan-
(Fig. 2, ASTM C 289) so that the results cannot
sion of a glass mixture with a cement having a
be interpreted.
1.0 percent Na"O equivalent. Fortunately, most
This test method has given questionable results reactive aggregates are less reactive than glass.
when evaluating lightweight aggregates, and it is Whenever the use of pozzolanic materials is con-
therefore not recommended for this purpose. 47 sidered, it should be remembered that if these
5.2.4 General criteria for judging reactivity- materials increase water demand, they may cause
When available, the field performance record of increased drying shrinkage in concrete exposed
a particular aggregate, if it has been used with to drying. Increased water demand results from
cement of high-alkali content, is the best means high fineness and poor particle shape. The rate of
for judging its reactivity.44 If such records are strength develop men t in correctly proportioned
not available, the most reliable criteria are pozzolanic concrete can equal that of portland ce-
petrographic examination with corroborating evi- ment concretes at 28 days.
dence from the mortar bar test;l:; and sometimes
supplemented by tests on concrete although these
5.3-Cement-aggregate reaction
have not been standardized. The chemical test
results should also be used in conjunction with 5.3.1 Occurrence-Sand-gravel aggregates in the
results of the petrographic examination and mortar Kansas, Nebraska, and Wyoming areas, especially
bar test. It is preferable not to rely on the results those from the Platte, Republican, and Laramie
of only one kind of test in any evaluation."G river areas, have been involved in concrete de-

terioration attributed to cement-aggregate reac- leading to the formation of brucite and the regen-
tion.:l -:' eration of alkali occurs. This is a distinguishing
5.3.2 Mechanism-Recent research indicates that feature from alkali-silica reactivity in which the
the cement-aggregate reaction is mainly a reaction initial alkali is used up as the reaction proceeds.
between the alkalies in the cement that produce The presence of clay minerals appears significant
high pH and abundant hydroxyl and siliceous con- and their swelling, when opened to moisture by
stituents of the aggregates. However, the field dedolomitization, is the basis for one of the possi-
performance of concretes made with reactive sand- ble explanations of the reaction. l l
gravels does not correlate well with cement alkali Rim growth is not unusual in many carbonate
content. The concrete deterioration results from rocks, and it has been reported as associated with
moderate interior expansion caused by alkali- distress in pavements in Iowa. 50 However, this
silica reactivity, and surface shrinkage caused by is not always the case. The nature of rim forma-
severe drying conditions in areas such as western tion is not fully understoodY It is, however, as-
Kansas and Nebraska. Evaporation at the surface sociated with a change in the disposition of silica
of the concrete causes an increase in alkali con- and carbonate between the aggregate particle and
centration in the pore fluids near the drying sur- the surrounding cement paste, the rims appearing
face, and a net migration of alkali toward this to extend concentrically deeper into the aggregate
surface. Under these conditions even a low-alkali with time.
cement may cause objectionable deterioration, par- The affected concrete is characterized by a net-
ticularly near the surface. This alkali distribution work of pattern or map cracks uS 11ally most
is altered by the leaching of alkalies near the strongly developed in areas of the structure where
surface during periods of heavy rain." the concrete has a constantly renewable supply of
5.3.3 Identification by laboratory tests-Al- moisture, such as close to the waterline in piers,
though special tests, such as ASTM C 342, have from the ground behind retaining walls, beneath
been devised to indicate potential damage from road or sidewalk slabs, or by wick action in posts
this phenomenon, their reliability is doubtful. or columns. A distinguishing feature from alkali-
Petrographic examination (ASTM C 295) and silica reaction is the general absence of silica gel
mortar bars (ASTM C 227), with the results in- exudations at cracks. Additional signs of the sever-
terpreted as described by Hadley,5 are regarded as ity of the reaction are closed expansion joints
more reliable. with possible crushing of the adjacent concrete. G,G4
5.3.4 Recommended procedure to be employed 5.4.3 Identification by laboratory tests
with potentially deleterious cement-aggregate
combinations-The use of potentially deleterious (a) Petrographic examination of aggregate-
cement-aggregate combinations should be avoided Such examination may be used to identify the
where possible. However, if they must be used, a features of the rock, as listed by Hadley,G and
suitable pozzolan that does not increase drying modified by Buck 51 and Dolar-Mantuani. 52 ,03
shrinkage and 30 percent or more (by weight) of While it is generally true that reactive rocks
coarse limestone should be used with potentially can be characterized as having dolomitic rhombs
deleterious cement-aggregate combinations. Con- from 1 to 200 I,m in maximum dimension in a
crete tests should be used to determine whether background of finer calcite and insoluble residue,
the resulting combination is satisfactory,:w"l!) and the presence of all or any dolomite in a fine-
whether the limestone is frost resistant in air- grained * carbonate rock makes it desirable to
entrained concrete in the grading in which it is make the rock-cylinder test (ASTM C 586). This
used. is recommended whether or not the texture is
believed to be typical, and whether or not insolu-
ble residue including clay amounts to a substan-
5.4-Expansive alkali-carbonate reactivity tial portion of the aggregate. As expansive
5.4.1 Occurrence-Certain limestone aggregates, rocks are recognized from more areas, the more
usually dolomitic, have been reported as reactive variable the textures and compositions appear to
in concrete structures in Canada (Ontario) and in be.
the United States (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michi- (b) Expansion of concrete prisms-The prisms
gan, Missouri, New York, South Dakota, Virginia, are made with job materials and stored at 100
and Wisconsin). Both quarried aggregates and percent relative humidity at 73 F (23 C) ,51 or (in
gravels from the same formation may be reactive. order to a.ccelerate the reaction) they may be made
5.4.2 Mechanism-Many unanswered questions with additional alkali and/or stored at elevated
remain, and more than one mechanism to explain
expansive carbonate reactivity has been pro- *Fine-grained is generally regarded as 1 mm and finer. How-
posed. 6 ,lO,Il,13,16 It is clear that dedolomitization ever, as a precautionary measure rocks with grains 2 mm and
finer should be tested in rock cylinders.

temperature. 50-57 Comparison is usually made with many carbonate rocks that expand in rock cylin-
the expansion of prisms containing a nonreactive ders do not expand in concrete.
control aggregate. 5.4.5 Recommended procedures to minimize al-
(c) Dilation of the aggregate in finely powdered kali-carbonate reactivity-Procedures that can be
form in the presence of alkali in the Powder Cell employed to mitigate the effects of the reaction
Test 57 include:
( a) Avoiding reactive rocks by selective quarry-
(d) Petrographic analysis of the concrete-This
ing 1n ,!)?i,;i7
can confirm the type of aggregate present and its
characteristics as outlined in Section (a) above. (b) Dilution with nonreactive aggregates, or
Distress that has occurred in the aggregate and use of a smaller maximum size. 14 . 54
surrounding matrix, such as micro- and macro- (c) Use of low alkali cement (probably 0.4 per-
cracking, may be observed. Reaction rims may be cen t com bined alkali or lower). This will prevent
observed in certain aggregate particles and may harmful expansions in most cases;,,4.:'R however, in
be identified as negative or positive by acid etch- pavements where sodium chloride is used as a
ing. They do not necessarily signify harmful re- deicing chemical, this cannot be taken as cer-
sults. Secondary deposits of calcium carbonate, tain. SCi.oS
calcium hydroxide, and ettringite may be found Of these measures, the first is the safest and
in voids within the concrete. Deposits of silica, usually the most economical.
hardened or in gel form, associated with the
suspect aggregate pieces will not be found.r- 5.5-Preservation of concrete containing reactive
(e) Other laboratory tests - Alkali-carbonate aggregate
reaction may be identified by visual observation
There are no known methods of adequately
of sawed or ground surfaces. X-ray examination of
preserving existing concrete which contains the
reaction products is also sometimes useful. *
elements that contribute to the previously de-
5:4.4 Criteria for judging reactivity-Definitive scribed chemical reactions. Water or moisture is
correlations between expansions occurring in the partly involved in at least two of these reactions.
laboratory in rock cylinders or concrete prisms and The destructive effects of freezing and thawing
deleterious field performance have not yet been are more pronounced after the initial stages of
established. The factors involved are complex and destruction by these chemical reactions. Therefore,
include the heterogeneity of the rock, coarse ag- any practicable means of decreasing the exposure
gregate size, permeability of the concrete, and of such concrete to water may extend its useful
seasonal changes in environmental conditions in life.
service, principally availability of moisture, level
of temperature, and possibly the use of sodium 5.S-Recommendations for future stUdies
chloride as a deicing chemical.
Current criteria employed in the United States
Cracking is usually observed in concrete prisms
that provide a basis for separating aggregates
at an expansion of about 0.05 percent. Experience
into "reactive" and "nonreactive," while generally
in Ontario s4 ."r, indicates that if concrete prisms
effective in preventing recurrences of catastrophic
with the proposed combination of job materials
destruction of concrete structures, are now seen
stored at 73 F (23 C) at 100 percent relative hu-
to be inefficient in two ways. First, they have
midity do not show expansion greater than 0.02
caused more severe precautions to have been taken
percent before 84 days, harmful reactivity is un-
(limiting calculated cement alkalies to 0.60 per-
likely. Slightly less restrictive criteria have been
suggested elsewhere.or, cent Na20 equivalent when a higher maximum
would surely have been "safe") than were justi-
It is not certain that rapid determination of fied. Second, they have sometimes permitted al-
potential reactivity can always be made by using kali-silica reaction to occur to a degree causing
the rock cylinder test, since some rocks showing notable cracking when aggregates classed as "non-
an initial contraction may develop considerable ex- reactive" were used with cements containing more
pansion later on."2.on No universal correlation ex- than 0.60 percent Na20 equivalent.
ists between the expansion of rock cylinders and
It is concluded that new research, or a reinter-
concrete in service, though it may exist with con-
pretation of the results of previous research, is
crete prisms stored in the laboratory.6.14,58
needed to better characterize the following rele-
Expansions greater than 0.10 percent in the rock vant parameters:
cylinders are usually taken as a warning that fur-
ther tests should be undertaken to determine ex-

(a) Degree and rate of aggregate reactivity 10. Gillott, J. E., and Swenson, E. G., "Mechanism of
the Alkali-Carbonate Reaction," Journal of Engineering
(b) Influence of concrete mixture proportions,
Geology, V. 2, 1969, pp. 7-23.
especially unit cement content 11. Gillott, J. E., "Mechanism and Kinetics of the
(c) Influence of environment on the concrete Alkali-Carbonate Rock Reaction," Canadian Journal of
Earth Sciences (Ottawa), V. 1, 1963, pp. 121-145.
(d) Influence of dimensions of structures
12. Swenson, E. G., and Gillott, J. E., "Alkali Reac-
If these parameters were better understood, one tivity of Dolomitic Limestone Aggregate," Magazine of
could develop the sort of prescription for safe Concrete Research (London), V. 19, No. 59, June 1967,
structural behavior that would serve efficiently to pp. 95-104.
13. Sherwood, W. Cullen, and Newlon, Howard H.,
preven t damage to concrete from reactions be-
Jr., "Studies on the Mechanisms of Alkali-Carbonate
tween aggregates and alkalies. This prescription Reaction, Part 1., Chemical Reactions," Highway Re-
might be a sort of nomograph where one selected search Record, Highway (Transportation) Research
a point on a scale of low to high aggregate re- Board, No. 45, 1964, pp. 41-56.
activity, a point on a scale of cement content, a 14. Newlon, Howard H., Jr., and Sherwood, W. Cullen,
"Methods for Reducing Expansion of Concrete Caused
point on a scale of structural dimensions, a point
by Alkali-Carbonate Rock Reactions," Highway Re-
on a scale of environmental exposure (tempera- search Record, Highway (Transportation) Research
ture, moisture), and by connecting these one could Board, No. 45, 1964, pp. 134-150.
be directed to a point on a scale of degree of pre- 15. Newlon, Howard H., Jr.; Ozol, Michael A; and
caution to take. Then one could work from the Sherwood, W. Cullen, "Potentially Reactive Carbonate
Rocks, Progress Report No.5, An Evaluation of Several
other side of the coin, taking the type and amount
Methods for Detecting Alkali Carbonate Reaction,"
of slag or pozzolan in the cementitious medium, Virginia Highway Research Council, lVIay 1972.
the Na~O: K 2 0 ratio in the cement, the ratio of 16. Newlon, Howard H., Jr.; Sherwood, W. Cullen;
water-soluble to total alkali, and finally establish and Ozol, Michael A, "Potentially Reactive Carbonate
the limit on alkali in the cement appropriate for Rocks, Progress Report No.8, A Strategy for Use and
Control of Potentially Reactive Carbonate Rocks In-
the concrete to be used in a given structure, in a cluding an Annotated Bibliography of Virginia Re-
given location, to be constructed with aggregate search," Virginia Highway Reseaxch Council, 1972.
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sion Test Specimens of Carbonate Aggregate," Trans-
pmtation Research Record, Transportation Research
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36. Gogte, B. S., "An Evaluation of Some Common 51. Buck, A. D., "Potential Alkali Reactivity of Car-
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38. ACI Committee 213, "Guide for Structural Light- 53. Dolal' Mantuani, Ludmila, "Late Expansion of

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353, 1971, pp. 1-14. 525, 1974, pp. 23-27.
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1964, pp. 21-40. 58. "Effects of Reactive Carbonate Aggregates on the
55. Smith, Peter, "Learning to Live with a Reactive Durability of Laboratory Concrete Specimens, Report
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(Transportation) Research Board, No. 45, 1964, pp. gram, 1967.
126-133. 59. "Alkali Reactivity of Carbonate Rocks in Mis-
56. Smith, Peter, "Fifteen Years of Living at Kings- souri," Report No. 67-6, Missouri Cooperative Highway
ton with a Reactive Carbonate Rock," Transportation Research Program, 1967.


Detailed coverage of concrete repairs falls and restoring the original cover over the steel
within the mission of ACI Committee 546. 1 A will not solve the problem. Also, if the structure
guide for the repair of reinforced concrete is salt-contaminated, the electrolytic conditions
bridges is now in preparation, and other reports will be changed by the application of new con-
will follow. This chapter will therefore give only crete, and the consequences of these changed con-
a brief, general coverage of the subject, with ditions must be considered before any repairs are
emphasis on the durability aspect. undertaken.

6.1-Evaluation of damage and selection of repair 6.2-Types of repairs

method 6.2.1 Concrete replacement-The concrete re-
To objectively evaluate the damage to a struc- placement method consists of replacing defective
ture, it is necessary to determine what caused the concrete with machine-mixed concrete of suit-
damage in the first place. The damage may be able proportions and consistency, so that it will
the result of poor design, faulty workmanship, become integral with the base concrete.
mechanical abrasive action, cavitation or erosion Concrete replacement is the desired method if
from hydraulic action, leaching, chemical attack, there is honeycomb in new construction or deterio-
chemical reaction inherent in the concrete mixture, ration of old concrete which goes entirely through
exposure to deicing agents, corrosion of em- the wall or beyond the reinforcement, or if the
bedded metal, or other lengthy exposure to an quantity is large. For new work, the repairs
unfavorable environment. Guidance for examining should be made immediately after stripping the
forms.~:\ Considerable concrete removal is always
and sampling concrete in construction may be
found in ASTM C 823. required for this type of repair. Excavation of
affected areas should continue until there is no
Whatever may have been the cause, it is essen- question that sound concrete has been reached.
tial to establish the extent of the damage, and Additional chipping may be necessary to accom-
determine if the major portion of the structure is modate the repair method and shape the cavity
of suitable quality on which to build a sound re- properly.
pair. Based on this information, the type and ex- Concrete for the repair should generally be sim-
ten t of the repair are chosen. This is the most ilar to the old concrete in maximum size of aggre-
difficult step-one which requires a thorough gate and water-cement ratio.
knowledge of the subject and mature judgment Forming will usually be required for large re-
by the engineer. If the damage is the result of pairs in vertical surfaces.
moderate exposure of what was an inferior con- 6.2.2 Dry pack-The dry pack method consists
crete in the first place, then replacement by good of ramming a very stiff mix into place in thin
quality concrete should assure lasting results. On layers. It is suitable for filling form tie-rod holes
the other hand, if good quality concrete was and narrow slots, and for repairing any cavity
destroyed, the problem becomes more complex. which has a relatively high ratio of depth to area.
In that case, a very superior quality of concrete Practically no shrinkage will occur with this mix,
is required, or the exposure conditions must be and it develops a strength equalling or exceeding
altered. that of the parent concrete. The method does not
The repair of spalls from reinforcing bar cor- require any special equipment, but cement fin-
rosion (see Section 4.6) requires a more detailed ishers must be trained in this type of repair if
study. Simply replacing the deteriorated concrete the results are to be satisfactory.:l

6.2.3 Prep laced aggregate concrete-Preplaced Section 6.4). The repair should proceed immedi-
aggregate concrete may be used advantageously ately.
for certain types of repairs. It bonds well to con-
crete and has low drying shrinkage. It is also
6A-Bonding agents
well adapted to underwater repairs. This is a
specialized process which is described elsewhere.+ Bonding agents are used to establish unity be-
6.2.4 Shotcrete-Shotcrete has excellent bond tween fresh concrete or mortar and the parent
with new or old concrete and is frequently the concrete. Sand-cement mortar or neat cement
most satisfactory and economical method of mak- paste has generally been used in the past. Many
ing shallow repairs. It is particularly adapted to reports in the literature testify to the success of
vertical or overhead surfaces where it is capable these treatments where recommended practices
of supporting itself (without a form) without have been followed.
sagging or sloughing. Shotcrete repairs generally Epoxy resin is now used considerably as a bond-
perform satisfactorily where recommended pro- ing agent, with the expectation of durable results.fI
cedures are followed." Simplified equipment has This material develops a bond having greater ten-
been developed for use in small repairs.3 sile, compressive, and shear strength than con-
6.2.5 Repair of scaled areas and spalls in slabs- crete. It is waterproof and highly resistant to
Scaling of concrete pavement surfaces is not un- chemical and solvent action. It is possible to have
usual where they are subject to deicing salts, par- acceptable results when the concrete is brought
ticularly if the concrete is inadequately air-en- to a feather edge; better results, however, are ob-
trained. Such areas may be satisfactorily repaired tained if a 1-in. (25 mm) minimum thickness is
by a thin concrete overlay provided the surface maintained. There are some disadvantages in
of the old concrete is sound, durable, and clean. 6 ,7 using epoxy resin, including its high cost, toxicity,
A minimum overlay thickness of about 1 % in. and short pot life.
(38 mm) is needed for good performance. The Other types of bonding agents have recently
temperature of the underlying slab should be as become available. Certain latexes, supplied as an
close as possible to that of the new concrete. emulsion or dispersion, improve the bond and have
Spalls may occur adjacent to pavement joints or good crack resistance. Polyvinyl acetates, stryrene-
cracks. Spalls usually are several inches in depth, butadiene, and acrylic are among those used. These
and even deeper excavation may be required to ma terials, particularly the polyvinyl acetates,
remove all concrete which has undergone some must be properly compounded if the dried film is
slight degree of deterioration. They may be re- to be resistant to moisture. They may be used
paired by methods similar to those used for scaled either as a bonding layer or added to the concrete
areas. or mortar mix.
Numerous quick setting patching materials,
some of which are proprietary, are available. In-
formation on the field performance of these ma-
terials is given in Reference 8. Unless proper attention is given to all of the
factors influencing the appearance of concrete re-
6.3-Preparations for repair pairs, they are likely to be unsightly. In concrete
where appearance is important, particular care
Sawcuts around the perimeter of a repair are should be taken to insure that the texture and
usually advisable, particularly in the case of slabs, color of the repair will match the surrounding
to eliminate feather edges. If practicable, the saw- concrete. A proper blend of white cement with the
cuts should be made at a slight angle so that the job cement will enable the patch to come close to
width at the base of the patch is greater than at matching the color of the original concrete. A
the surface, thereby providing some keying action. patch on a formed concrete surface should never
All deteriorated or defective concrete must be be fini:ohed with a steel trowel, since this produces
removed; in the case of slabs, suitable mechanical a dark color which is impossible to remove.
scarification equipment should be used. Next, the
surfaces of the concrete must be thoroughly
cleaned, preferably by wet sandblasting.
The bonding surface should have been previ- All patches (except where epoxy mortar or
ously wet down, but should be dry at the time of epoxy concrete is used) must be properly cured
patching. The dry surface should be carefully to assure proper hydration of the cement and
coated with a layer of mortar about Vs in. (3 mm) durable concrete or mortar. The recommendations
thick, or with another suitable bonding agent (see of ACI Committee 308 should be followed.1

6.7-Treatment of cracks REFERENCES

The decision of whether a crack should be re- 1. ACI Committee 546, "A Guide for the Repair of
paired to restore structural integrity or merely Reinforced Concrete Bridges" (in preparation).
2. Tuthill, Lewis H., "Conventional Methods of Re-
sealed is dependent on the nature of the structure pairing Concrete," ACI JOURNAL, Proceedings V. 57, No.
and the cause of the crack, and upon its location 2, Aug. 1960, pp. 129-138.
and extent. If the stresses which caused the crack 3. Concrete Manual, 8th Edition, U. S. Bureau of
have been relieved by its occurrence, the struc- Reclamation, Denver, 1975, 627 pp.
tural integrity can be restored with some expec- 4. ACI Committee 304, "Preplaced Aggregate Con-
crete for Structural and Mass Concrete," ACI JOURNAL,
tation of permanency. However, in the case of
Proceedings V. 66, No. 10, Oct. 1969, pp. 785-797.
working cracks (such as cracks caused by foun- 5. ACI Committee 506, "Recommended Practice for
dation movements, or cracks which open and Shotcreting (ACI 506-66)," American Concrete Insti-
close from temperature changes), the only satis- tute, Detroit, 1966, 26 pp.
factory solution is to seal them with a flexible or 6. Felt, Earl J., "Resurfacing and Patching Concrete
Pavement with Bonded Concrete," Proceedings, Highway
extensi ble material.
(Transportation) Research Board, V. 35, 1956, pp. 444-
Thorough cleaning of the crack is essential be- 469.
fore any treatment takes place. All loose concrete, 7. Felt, Earl J., "Repair of Concrete Pavement," ACI
oil joint sealant, and other foreign material must JOURNAL, Proceedings V. 57, No.2, Aug. 1960, pp. 139-
be removed. The method of cleaning is dependent 154.
upon the size of the crack and the nature of the 8. "AASHTO-FHWA Special Products Evaluation
List (SPEL)," Report No. FHWA-RD-76-41, Federal
contaminants. It may include any combination of
Highway Administration, Washington, D. C., Dec. 1975.
the following: compressed air, wire brushing,
9. ACI Committee 503, "Use of Epoxy Compounds
sandblasting, routing, or the use of picks or similar With Concrete," ACI JOURNAL, Proceedings V. 70, No.
tools. 9, Sept. 1973, pp. 614-645.
Restoration of structural integrity across a crack 10. ACI Committee 308, "Recommended Practice for
has been successfully accomplished using pressure Curing Concrete (ACI 308-71)," American Concrete In-
and vacuum injection of low viscosity epoxiesll,,~ stitute, Detroit, 1971, 10 pp.
and other monomers':l which polymerize in situ 11. Chung, H. W., "Epoxy Repaired Reinforced Con-
crete Beams," ACI JOURNAL, Proceedings V. 72, No.5,
and rebond the parent concrete.
May 1975, pp. 233-234.
Sealing of cracks without restoration of struc-
12. Stratton, F. W., and McCollum, B. F., "Repair of
tural integrity requires the use of materials and Hollow or Soft Areas in Bridge Decks by Rebonding
techniques similar to those used in sealing joints. with Injected Epoxy Resin or Other Polymer," Report
A detailed discussion of the types of joint sealant No. TF 72-5, State Highway Commission of Kansas,
available and methods of installation is contained 1974.
in ACI Committee 504 report, "Guide to Joint 13. Kukacka, L. E., et al., "Concrete-Polymer Mate-
rials for Highway Applications: Progress Report No.
Sealants for Concrete Structures."H Since cracks
3," Report No. FHWA-RD-74-17, Federal Highway Ad-
are generally narrower than joints, some modifi- ministration, Washington, D. C., 1974.
cation in procedure, such as widening the crack 14. ACI Committee 504, "Guide to Joint Sealants for
with a mechanical router or the use of a low Concrete Structures," ACI JOURNAL, Proceedings V. 67,
viscosity material, is often necessary. No.7, July 1970, pp. 489-536.



Coatings are being used increasingly for the 7.1-Surface water repellents
purpose of enhancing concrete durability. Their
Surface water repellents (Class I in Table 7)
proper use requires an understanding of their ad-
may be used on concrete pavements to prevent or
vantages and limitations.' It is the intent of this
minimize scaline; from the use of deicers (see Sec-
chapter to outline only the general principles in-
tion 1.4.6). This is a low cost treatment that many
Table 7 lists several classes of coatings which have found provides a degree of protection for
may be considered for different purposes and en- non-air-entrained concrete, or is added insurance
vironments. Class I (surface water repellents), for air-entrained concrete placed in the fall which
and II and III (plastic and elastomeric coatings), is subjected to deicing salts during the first winter.
are discussed below. It may also be used to prolong the service life of


Class Type and Description of environment
No. thickness of coating Materials or purpose of coating

I Surface water repellent- Linseed oil, polyvinyl Water repellency. Superficial sealing
under 5 mils (0.13 mm) butyral, silicone of surface. Protection against deicing

II Plastic and elastomeric- Epoxy, polyurethane, Improve freeze-thaw resistance. Seal

5 to 50 mils (0.13 to 1.3 mm) asphalt, coal tar, surface for high-purity water service.
chlorinated rubber Protect concrete in contact with solu-
tions having a pH as low as 3.

m Plastic and elastomeric- Glass reinforced epoxy, Protect concrete tanks during con tin-
50 to 250 mils (1.3 to 6.4 mm) glass reinforced poly- uous exposure to dilute mineral and
ester, sheet neoprene, organic acids up to 158 F (70 C)
spray applied neoprene

Sand filled epoxy, Protect concrete floors during inter-

sand filled polyester mittent exposure to dilute acids. Also
to protect floors in dairy and food
processing industries.

IV Composite systems- Asphalt membrane cov- Protect concrete floors from concen-
over 250 mils (6.4 mm) ered with acid proof tile, trated acids or acid/solvent combina-
or brick laid with a chem- tions. Good for liquids up to 212 F
ical resistant mortar* (100 C)
'See Reference 7.

older pavements. A number of materials have been is somewhat water soluble. Retreatment is re-
tested, some being more effective than others. 2 - 4 quired every 1-5 years.
Most studies indicate that linseed oil is the best
choice when both effectiveness and cost are con- 7.2-Plastic and elastomeric coatings
A mixture of 50 percent boiled linseed oil and 7.2.1 Materials-Plastic and elastomeric coatings
50 percent mineral spirits is normally used. It are capable of forming a strong, continuous film.
should be put on in two applications when the Thirty-nine generic types are listed in a report by
concrete surface is dry and clean. For estimating ACI Committee 515." The most promising ones for
purposes, a coverage of 40 sq yd (33 sq m) per application to concrete are listed in Classes II and
gallon for the first application and 65 sq yd (54 III in Table 7. The selection of the coating is based
sq m) per gallon for the second application may be largely on the type of environment, and on its
assumed. However, experience has shown that be- severity or aggressiveness. Those in general used
cause of varying porosities of different concretes, to protect concrete against chemical attack are in-
the actual application rate should be determined cluded in the table, as well as others sometimes
from a test strip on each pavement. Applications used to protect against abrasion or to minimize
which are too light or too heavy are to be avoided; damage from freeze-thaw cycles. To be effective in
both are ineffective in preventing scaling and the protecting concrete, the coatings must have cer-
latter also adversely affects skid resistance. A tain basic properties:
linseed oil treatment should provide temporary 1. The adhesive bond strength of the coating (to
protection (for 1 to 3 years), after which another the concrete) must be at least equal to the tensile
application may be made if needed. strength of the concrete at the surface.
Another surface water repellent, silicone, has 2. The abrasion resistance must be adequate to
sometimes been used on concrete or masonry prevent the coating from being removed.
walls-mainly to minimize moisture penetration 3. Where they are in a chemical environment,
which in turn can affect durability. Results have the chemicals must not cause swelling, dissolving,
not always been good, especially where moisture cracking, or embrittlement of the material. Nor
has access to the back side of the wall and carries should the chemicals permeate or diffuse through
dissolved salts to the front face. Also, silicone oxi- the coating so as to destroy the adhesion between
dizes rapidly due to ozone in the atmosphere, and the coating and concrete.

There is no guarantee that coatings made by and dust, (2) oil or other chemicals that prevent
different manufacturers will perform the same, adhesion, and (3) water. If the surface is not clean,
even where classified as the same generic type. alkaline washing, acid etching, or sandblasting
Coatings vary in the types and amounts of in- may be employed. If these methods prove unsatis-
gredients, so their performance will also vary. In factory, all of the contaminated material at or
addition, the application characteristics, particu- near the surface should be removed by a scarifier
larly the ease of applying a coating to concrete, or jackhammer. Certain coatings have the ability
will affect its performance. to bond to damp surfaces, but their long-term ad-
The type and thickness of coating required will hesion is questionable.
depend on the severity or aggressiveness of the Not only is surface moisture objectionable, but
environment. Coating selection must be based on moisture within the concrete may affect the
testing or past experience. Because there are no ability of a coating to adhere to the surface. 6
standard test methods, the most reliable pro- There are no precise guidelines to indicate when
cedure is to subject the entire coating system to moisture will be a problem, although a qualitative
the environmental conditions that will be en- test is available. A brief explanation of how the
countered in service as closely as possible. If the moisture in concrete can affect the adhesion of a
selection of the coating must be made before tests coating is as follows:
of sufficient duration (6 to 12 months minimum) Poor adhesion between concrete and a coating
can be conducted, the coating supplier should be can result if water vapor diffusing out of the con-
asked to supply fully documented case histories crete condenses at the concrete/coating interface
where his coating system has protected concrete before the coating has had an opportunity to cure.
under the same or similar environmental condi- Whether this will be a problem depends on (1) the
tions. The selection of a reliable coating supplier rate of vapor transmission through the concrete,
is as important as the selection of the coating and (2) the temperature gradient between con-
itself. crete and air while the coating is curing; if the
7.2.2 The coating as part of a system-To under- concrete temperature is below that of the air, there
stand the behavior of a plastic or elastomeric is less likelihood that water vapor will condense.
coating, it is necessary to consider the coating not The qualitative moisture test (for normal weight
as an isolated material, but as part of a system. concrete) is conducted as follows:
The elements of a coating system for concrete are 1. Tape a polyethylene film [0.006 in. (0.15 mm)
shown in Fig. 7.2.2., and the role of each is ex- x 4 ft x 4 ft (1.25 m x 1.25 m)] over the concrete
plained below. Although this analysis is aimed surface.
particularly at slabs-an-grade, the basic principles
2. After the film has been in place for 12 hr,
will apply to many other concrete structures.
determine whether moisture has condensed on Concrete-coating interface. Most coating the underside. (This is the time required for many
materials specifically formulated for use over con- epoxy coatings to develop a partial cure of 30
crete develop and maintain an adhesive bond percent.)
strength greater than the tensile strength of the
3. If condensation is noted, additional drying
concrete. For this reason, adhesion is not a maj or
of the concrete is required. Another moisture test
problem affecting the performance of a coating
should then be made to insure that the moisture
provided it is applied to a clean, dry surface. The
content has dropped to an acceptable level before
surface must be free of (1) loose particles of dirt
applying the coating.
Another problem is air bubbles of varying sizes
CD Coating ----::l~~;;;:;;;;;;:::::;;;;::;;~;:- in the concrete surface, which may prevent the
coating from forming a continuous and impervious
film. Prior to its application, a heavily bodied,
thixotropic plastic mortar should be spread over
@ Concrrt/. To Otlpth the surface to fill or bridge over these defects.
Of k,ln.(6.2mm)
Coating suppliers can furnish such materials,
which should be compatible with the coating. Concrete to a depth of 1/4 in. (6.4 mmJ.
This is the most critical part of the coating system.
Ground And ------jJ....-__ When a coating fails, a thin layer of concrete,
Ground Wattlr usually less than 118 in. (3.2 mm) thick, generally
adheres to the underside of the coating. This means
Fig. 7.2 .2-Elements of a coating system for concrete that the concrete failed because the internal

stresses in the coating were greater than then pier cap (perhaps to protect the concrete against
tensile strength of the concrete near the interface. deicing salts) provided the concrete was dry at
These stresses are derived from two sources: the time the coating was applied. Breathable
1. Shrinkage and locked-up stresses when the coatings, which are claimed to keep additional
material was cured. This is common to all two- water from penetrating a concrete. section, while
component coatings cured by a chemical reaction allowing vapor to escape, are available and show
between the resin and curing agent. some promise.
2. Differential volume change of the concrete
and the coating because of a difference in tempera- 7.3-Future of coatings
ture and, more importantly, of a difference in It is to be expected that coatings will play an
coefficient of thermal expansion. Most coatings increasingly important role in protecting concrete
have a much higher temperature coefficient than in the future, as more knowledge on their proper-
concrete. ties and performance becomes available. Consid-
Weakness of the concrete near the surafce can erable research is underway in this area, including
be caused by overworking during finishing, the many experimental field applications.
presence of laitance on the surface, or by improper
curing. On the other hand, high strength coatings
applied in thick layers may cause even sound REFERENCES
concrete to fail. Low modulus coatings develop
1. Zolin, B. 1., "Protective Coatings: Protective Lining
lower stresses and are recommended where it is Performance," ChemicaL Engineering Progress, V. 66,
anticipated that fairly large stresses will develop No.8, Aug. 1970, pp. 31-37.
in service. 2. Yamaski, R. S., "Coatings to Protect Concrete Concrete structure. The concrete section Against Damage by De-Icer Chemicals," TechnicaL Paper
can destroy the ability of the coating to protect it. No. 257, Division of Building Research, National Re-
Any cracks in the concrete which occur or enlarge search Council of Canada, NRC 9749, Ottawa, Sept.
after the coating has been applied will reflect
through the coating. A poor quality concrete slab 3. Grieb, W. E., and Appleton, Roger, "Effect of
Lindseed Oil Coatings on Resistance of Concrete to
with high permeability may allow ground water Scaling," PubLic Roads, V. 33, No.1, Apr. 1964, pp. 1-3.
to travel through the concrete so rapidly that the
4. Snyder, M. Jack, "Protective Coatings to Prevent
surface will never dry sufficiently to accept a Deterioration of Concrete by De-Icing Chemicals,"
coating, or it may push the coating away from the NCHRP Report No. 16, Highway (Transportation) Re-
concrete later. search Board, 1965, 21 pp. Foundation conditions. A dimensionally 5. ACI Committee 515, "Guide for the Protection of
unstable base or one that does not have sufficient Concrete Against Chemical Attack by Means of Coat-
supporting strength can cause cracks in the con- ings and Other Corrosion-Resistant Materials," ACI
JOURNAL, Proceedings V. 63, No. 12, Dec. 1966, pp. 1305-
crete which are detrimental to coatings, as dis- 1392.
cussed above. Also, the availability and amount
6. ACI Committee 503, "Use of Epoxy Compounds
of ground water is a major factor in the success of with Concrete," ACI JOURNAL, Proceedings V. 70, No.9,
a coating. The use of an impermeable membrane Sept. 1973, pp. 614-645.
to prevent the entry of water into the concrete 7. ASTM Standards for Chemical Resistant Mortar:
is advisable where possible.
ASTM C 259-54, Chemical-Resistant Masonry Units
7.2.3 Precautions when using coatings to mini-
ASTM C 386-71, Use of Chemical-Resistant Sulfur
mize freeze-thaw damage-The intent of coatings Mortars
here is to keep the moisture content of the con-
ASTM C 397-67. Use of Chemically Setting Chemi-
crete below the critical saturation point so that it cal-Resistant Silicate and Silica
will not sustain damage during freezing. Such Mortars
coatings should be used with extreme caution, ASTM C 399-67, Use of Chemical-Resistant Rosin
particularly on slabs or walls which are exposed Mortars
continuously to moisture on the back side. The
indiscriminate use of impervious coatings under
these conditions may actually trap water in the
concrete and adversely affect durability. One This report was submitted to letter ballot of the committee, which
consists of 24 members, all of whom rei'lrned their ballots and
might expect better results from coating a bridge voted affirmatively.

For discussion see ACI JOURNAL. Proceedings v. 75, No.6, June 1978, pp. 269-273.
ACI Committee Reports, Guides, Standard Practices, and Com- ACI 2011R-68
mentaries are intended for guidance in designing, planning, executing,
or inspecting construction, and in preparing specifications, Reference (Reaffirmed 1979)
to these documents shall not be made in the Project Documents, If
From ACI JOURNAL, Nov, 1968
items found in these documents are desired to be part of the Project
Documents, they should be incorporated directly into the Project

uide for aking a Condition Survey of

Concrete in Service
Reported by ACI Committee 201





This guide provides a system for reporting on the condition of concrete in service.
It includes a check list of the many details to be considered in making a report, and
provides standard definitions of 40 terms associated with the durability of concrete.
Its purpose is to establish a uniform system for evaluating the condition of concrete.
Keywords: buildings; concrete construction; concrete durability; concrete pave-
ments; concretes; corrosion; cracking (fracturing); deterioration; environment; freeze-
thaw durability; inspection; joints; popouts; quality control; scaling; serviceability;
spa lIing; strength; surveys (data collection).

Copyright 1968, American Concrete Institute


II A CHECK LIST IS provided for making a survey 2. Present condition of structure

of the condition of concrete. The list is designed to 2.1. Over-all alignment of structure
be used in recording the history of a concrete 2.1.1. Settlement
project from inception through completion and 2.1.2. Deflection
subsequent life of the structure or pavement. 2.1.3. Expansion
While it probably will be used most often in 2.1.4. Contraction
connection with the survey of concrete that is 2.2. Portions showing distress (beams, columns,
showing some degree of distress, its application pavement, walls, etc. Subjected to strains and
is recommended for all important concrete struc- pressures)
tures. In any case, records of the materials and 2.3. Surface condition of concrete
construction practices used should be maintained 2.3.1. General (good, satisfactory, poor, etc.)
because they are difficult to obtain at a later 2.3.2. Cracks
date. Location and frequency
The committee has attempted to include all per- Type and size
tinent items that might have a bearing on the Leaching, stalactites
performance of the concrete. However, those mak- 2.3.3. Scaling
ing the survey should not limit their investigation Area, depth
to the items listed, thereby overlooking or ignor- Type (see definition)
ing other possible contributing factors. Simply 2.3.4. Spalls and popouts
following the guide will not eliminate the need Number, size and depth
for intelligent observation and the use of sound Type (see definitions)
judgment. 2.3.5. Extent of corrosion or chemical attack
Those performing the survey should be ex- 2.3.6. Stains
perienced and competent in this field. In addition 2.3.7. Exposed steel
to verbal descriptions, numerical data obtained by 2.3.8. Previous patching or other repair
laboratory tests and field measurements should 2.4. Interior condition of concrete
be provided wherever possible. Photographs, in- 2.4.1. Strength of cores
cluding a scale to indicate linear dimensions, are 2.4.2. Density of cores
of great value in showing condition of structure. 2.4.3. Moisture content (degree of satura-
One of the objects of a condition survey is to tion)
provide information that will be of value in the 2.4.4. Evidence of alkali-aggregate or other
construction of more economical, serviceable reaction
structures. The survey may show causes of de- 2.4.5. Bond to aggregate, reinforcing steel,
terioration or lack of need of expensive materials joints
or construction methods. The check list should be 2.4.6. Pulse velocity
used in conjunction with the following: 2.4.7. Volume change
2.4.8. Air content and distribution
1. ACI Committee 311, "Recommended Practice for Concrete
Inspection (ACI 311-75)," American Concrete Institute, 1975, 3. Nature of loading and detrimental elements
6 pp. Also ACI Manual of Concrete Practice, Part 2. 3.1. Exposure
2. ACI Committee 201, "Guide to Durable Concrete"-ACI 3.1.1. Environment - arid, subtropical, ma-
201.2R-77, ACI JOURNAL,Proceedings V. 74, No. 12, Dec. 1977,
pp. 573-609. Also ACI Manual of Concrete Practice, Part 1.
rine, freshwater, industrial, etc.
3.1.2. Weather - (July and January mean
CHECK LIST temperatures, mean annual rainfall and months
in which 60 percent of it occurs)
1. Description of structure or pavement 3.1.3. Freezing and thawing
1.1. Name, location, type, and size 3.1.4. Wetting and drying
1.2. Owner, project engineer, contractor, when 3.1.5. Drying under dry atmosphere
built 3.1.6. Chemical attack - sulfates, acids
1.3. Design 3.1.7. Abrasion, erosion, cavitation
1.3.1. Architect and/or engineer 3.1.8. Electric currents
1.3.2. Intended use and history of use 3.2. Drainage
1.3.3. Special features 3.2.1. Flashing
1.4. Photographs 3.2.2. Weepholes
1.4.1. General view 3.2.3. Contour
1.4.2. Detailed close-ups of condition of area 3.3. Loading
1.5. Sketch map - orientation showing sunny 3.3.1. Dead
and shady walls and well and poorly drained re- 3.3.2. Live
gions 3.3.3. Impact

3.3.4. Vibration 5.3. Mixing water

3.3.5. Traffic index 5.3.1. Source and quality
3.3.6. Other 5.4. Air-entraining agents
3.4. Soils (foundation conditions) 5.4.1. Type and source
3.4.1. Stability 5.4.2. Composition
3.4.2. Expansive soil 5.4.3. Amount
3.4.3. Settlement 5.4.4. Manner of introduction
3.4.4. Restraint 5.5. Admixtures
5.5.1. Mineral admixture
4. Original condition of structure Type and source
4.1. Condition of formed and finished SUl'I:1ces Physical properties
4.1.1. Smoothness Chemical properties
4.1.2. Air pockets 5.5.2. Chemical admixture
4.1.3. Sand streaks Type and source
4.1.4. Honeycomb Composition
4.1.5. Soft areas Amount
4.2. Early structural defects 5.6 Concrete
4.2.1. Cracking 5.6.1. Mixture proportions Plastic shrinkage Cement content Settlement Proportions of each size aggrega tf' Cooling Water-cement ratio
4.2.2. Curling Water content
4.2.3. Structural settlement Chemical admixture Mineral admixture
5. Materials of construction Air-entraining agent
5.1. Hydraulic cement 5.6.2. Properties of fresh concrete
5.1.1. Type and source Slump
5.1.2. Chemical analysis (obtain certified test Percent air
data if available) Workability
5.1.3. Physical properties Unit weights
5.2. Aggregates Temperature
5.2.1. Coarse 5.6.3. Type Type, source and mineral composi- Cast-in-place
tion (representative sample available) Precast Quality characteristics Prestressed Percentage of deleterious ma- 5.6.4. Reinforcement
terial Yield strength Percentage of potentially reac- Thickness of cover
tive materials Presence of stirrups Coatings, texture, and particle Use of welding
shape Gradation, soundness, hardness 6. Construction practices Other properties as specified 6.1. Storage and processing of rna terials
in ASTM Designation C 33 (C 330 - for light- 6.1.1. Aggregates
weight aggregate) Grading
5.2.2. Fine aggregate Washing Type, source, and mineral compo- Storage
sition (representative sample available) Stockpiling Quality characteristics Bins Percentage of deleterious ma- 6.1.2. Cement and admixtures
terial Storage Percentage of potentially re- Handling
active materials 6.1.3. Reinforcing steel and inserts Coatings, texture and particle Storage
shape Placement Gradation, soundness and 6.2. Forming
hardness 6.2.1. Type Other properties as specified 6.2.2. Bracing
in ASTM Designation C33 (C330 for lightweight 6.2.3. Coating
aggregate) 6.2.4. Insulation

6.3. Concreting operation Duration

6.3.1. Batching plant Efficiency Type-automatic, manual, etc. 6.3.7. Form removal (time of removal) Condition of equipment Batching sequence
7. Initial physical properties of hardened concrete
6.3.2. Mixing
7.1. Strength-compressive, flexural, elastic Type-central mix, truck mix, job
mix, shrink mix, etc.
7.2. Density Condition of equipment
7.3. Percentage and distribution of air Mixing time
7.4. Volume change potential
6.3.3. Method of transporting-trucks, buc-
7.4.1. Shrinkage or contraction
kets, chutes, pumps, etc.
7.4.2. Expansion or swelling
6.3.4. Placing
7.4.3. Creep Methods-conventional, under-
7.5. Thermal properties
water slipform, etc. Equipment-buckets, elephant
trunks, vibrators, etc. 8. Additional items per~aining to pavements Weather conditions-time of year, 8.1. Structural section (sketch and thickness of
rain, snow, dry wind, temperature, humidity, etc. pavement layers-base, subbase, etc.) Site conditions-cut. fill, presence 8.2. Joints
of water, etc. 8.2.1. Type, spacing, design Construction join ts 8.2.2. Condition
6.3.5. Finishing 8.2.3. Filling material Type-slabs, floors, pavements, ap- 8.2.4. Faulting-(measured in mm)
purtenances R.3. Cracks Method-hand or machine 8.3.1 Type (longitudinal, transverse, corner), Equipment-screeds, floats, trow- size (measured in mm), frequency
els, straight-edge, belt, etc. 8.4. Patching Additives, hardeners, water, dust 8.5. Hiding quality (as measured by instru-
coa t, coloring, etc. ments such as the BPR roughometer, the CHLOE
6.3.6. Curing Procedures profilometer, or profilograph present serviceabil-
(i.3.6.l. Method-water, covering, curing ity index, (PSI), etc.)
compounds 8.6. Condition of shoulders and ditches



A.l Cracks: An incomplete separation into one A.I.4. Hairline cracking: Small cracks of
or more parts with or without space between. random pattern in an exposed concrete surface.
A.1.1. Cracks will be classified by direction, A.1.5. D-cracking: The progressive formation
widt.h and depth. The following adjectives can be on a concrete surface of a series of fine cracks at
used: longitudinal, transverse, vertical, diagonal, rather close intervals, often of random patterns,
and random. Three width ranges are suggested as but in highway slabs paralleling edges, joints, and
follows: fine-generally less than 1 mm; medium cracks and usually curving across slab corners
-between 1 and 2 mm; wide-over 2 mm (see (see Fig. AI.5.a and A1.5.b).
Fig. A1.1.a through A.l.l.h). A.2. Deterioration: Deterioration is any adverse
change of normal mechanical, physical and chemi-
A.1.2. Pattern cracking: Fine openings on cal properties either on the surface or in the
concrete surfaces in the form of a pattern; result- whole body of concrete generally through separa-
ing from a decrease in volume of the material tion of its components.
near the surface, or increase in volume of the A.2.1. Disintegration: Deterioration into
material below the surface, or both (see Fig. small fragments or particles due to any cause (see
A.l.2.a through A1.2.c). Fig. A.2.1).
A.l.3. Checking: Development of shallow A.2.2. Distortion: Any abnormal deforma-
cracks at closely spaced but irregular intervals on tion of concrete from its original shape (see Fig.
the surface of mortar or concrete (see Fig. A1.3). A2.2) .

Fig. A!.!.a-Longitudinal cracks (medium)

Fig. Al.l.d-Vertical crack (medium)

Fig. A.!, I.b-Transverse cracks (wide)

Fig. A.l.l.c-Transverse cracks (fine) Fig. A!.l.e-Vertical crack (wide)


Fig. A. I. I.h-Random cracks (medium)

Fig. A.1.1.f-Diagonal cracks (wide)

Fig. A.1.2.a-Pattern cracking (fine)

Fig. A.l.l.g-Random cracks (wide) Fig. A.1.2.b-Pattern cracking (medium)


Fig. AI.5.b-D-cracking (fine)

Fig.AI.2.c-Pattern cracking (wide)

Fig. A.1.3-Checking (medium)

Fig. A.2.I-Disintegration

A.2.3. Efflorescence: A deposit of salts, us-

ually white, formed on a surface, the substance
having emerged from below the surface.
A.2.4. Exudation: A liquid or viscous gel-like
material discharged through a pore, crack or
opening in the surface (see Fig. A.2.4.a, A.2.4.b,
and A.2.5).
A.2.5. Incrustatton: A crust or coating gen-
erally hard formed on the surface of concrete or
Fig. A.1.5.a-D-cracking (fine) masonry construction (see Fig. A.2.5)

Fig. A.2.4.b-Exudation
Fig. A.2.i-Distortion

Fig. A.2.4.a-Exudation Fig. A.2.5-Exudation and incrustation

A.2.6. Pitting: Development of relatively

small cavities in a surface, due to phenomena A.2.7.3. Popouts, large: Popouts leaving holes
such as corrosion or cavitation, or, in concrete, greater than 50 mm in diameter, or the equivalent
localized disintegration. (see Fig. A.2.7.3).
A.2.7. Popout: The breaking away of small A.2.S. Erosion: Deterioration brought about
portions of a concrete surface due to internal by the abrasive action of fluids or solids in mo-
pressure which leaves a shallow, typical conical, tion (see Fig. A.2.8) .
depression (see Fig. A.2.7). A.2.S. Scaling: Local flaking or peeling away
A.2.7.l.Popouts, small: Popouts leaving holes of the near surface portion of concrete or mortar.
up to 10 mm in diameter, or the equivalent (see Fig. A.2.9.1. Peeling: A process in which thin
A.2.7.1). flakes of mortar are broken away from a concrete
A.2.7.2. Popouts, medium: Popouts leaving surface; such as by deterioration or by adherence
holes between 10 and 50 mm in diameter, or equi- of surface mortar to forms as forms are removed
valent (see Fig. A.2.7.2). (see Fig. A.2.9.1.a and A.2.9.l.b).

Fig. A.2.7.2-Popouts (medium)

Fig. A.2.7-Popout

Fig. A.2.7.3-Popouts (large)

Fig. A.2.7.I-Popouts (small)

A.2.9.2. Scaling, light: Loss of surface

mortar without exposure of coarse aggregate
(see Fig. A.2.9.2.a and A.2.9.2.b).
A.2.9.3. Scaling, medium: Loss of surface
mortar up to 5 to 10 mm in depth and exposure of
coarse aggregate (see Fig. A.2.9.3.a and A.2.9.3.b).
A.2.9.4. Scaling, severe: Loss of surface
mortar 5 to 10 mm in depth with some loss of mortar
surrounding aggregate particles 10 to 20 mm in Fig. A.2.8-Erosion

depth, so that aggregate is clearly exposed and A.2.10.1. Small spall: A roughly circular or
stands out from the concrete (see Fig. A.2.9.4.a and oval depression generally not greater than 20 mm in
A.2.9.4.b). depth nor greater than about 150 mm in any di-
A.2.9.5. Scaling, very severe: Loss of coarse mension, caused by the separation of a portion of the
aggregate particles as well as surface mortar and surface concrete (see Fig. A.2.I0.l).
mortar surrounding aggregate, generally greater A.2.10.2. Large spall: May be roughly cir-
than 20 mm in depth (see Fig. A.2.9.5.a and cular or oval depression, or in some cases an elon-
A.2.9.5.b). gated depression over a reinforcing bar, generally 20
A.2.10. Spall: A fragment, usually in the mm or more in depth and 150 mm or greater in any
shape of a flake, detached from a larger mass by dimension, caused by a separation of the surface
a blow, by the action of weather, by pressure, or concrete (see Fig. A.2.1O.2).
by expansion within the large mass. A.2.11. Joint span: Elongated cavity along a
joint (see Fig. A.2.11.a and A.2.11.b).

Fig. A.2.9.I.a-Close-up of peeling

Fig. A.2.9.2.a-Scaling (light)

Fig. A.2.9.1.b-Peeling on bridge abutment Fig. A.2.9.2.b-Close-up of scaling (light)


A.2.12. Dummy area: Area of concrete sur-

face which gives off a hollow sound when struck.
A.2.13. Stalactite: A downward pointing for-
mation, hanging from the surface of concrete,
shaped like an icicle.
A.2.14. Stalagmite: As stalactite, but upward
A.2.15. Dusting: The development of a pow-
dered material at the surface of hardened con-
crete (see Fig. A.2.15).

Fig. A.2.9.4.b-Scaling severe

Fig. A.2.9.3.a-Scaling (medium)

Fig. A.2.9.5.a-Scaling (very severe)

Fig. A.2.9.3.b-Close-up of scaling (medium)

Fig. A.2.9.4.a-Close-up of scaling (severe) Fig. A.2.9.5.b-Close-up of scaling (very severe)


Fig. A.2.IO.I-Small spall

Fig. A.2.ll.a-Joint spall

Fig. A.2.1 O.2-Large spall Fig. A.2.11.b-Joint spall

Fig. A.2.I5-Dusting: surface at top of ruler is a floor surface of concrete placed very wet and which also carbon-
ated; segregation is also evident

A.2.IS. Corrosion: Disintegration or deterior- A.3A. Stratification: The separation of OVE'r-

ation of concrete or reinforcement by electrolysis wet or overvibrated concrete into horizontal lay-
or by chemical attack (see Fig. A.2.16). en; with increasingly lighter material toward the
A.a. Textural defects: top; water, laitance, mortar, and coarse aggregate
A.a.I. Bleeding channels: Essentially verti- will tend to occupy successively lower positions in
cal localized open channels caused by heavy that order; a layered structure in concrete result-
bleeding (see Fig. A.3.1). ing from placing of successive batches that differ
A.3.2. Sand Streak: Streak in surface of in appearance (see Fig. A.3.4.).
formed concrete caused by bleeding (see Fig. A.3.S. Honeycomb: Voids left in concrete
A.3.2) . due to failure of the mortar to effectively fill the
A.a.a. Water pocket: Voids along the under- spaces among coarse aggregate particles (see Fig.
side of aggregate particles or reinforcing steel A.3.5.a and A.3.5.b).
which formed during the bleeding period. Ini-
tially filled with bleeding water.

Fig. A.2.1 b-Corrosion

Fig. A.3.2-Sand streaking on a vertical formed surface

Fig. A.3.I-Bleeding channels and water pockets of con-

crete in a caisson; note laitance below particles of
coarse aggregate Fig. A.3.4-Stratification

A.3.G. Sand Pocket: Part of concrete contain-

ing sand without cement.
A.3.7. Segregation: The differential concen-
tration of the components of mixed concrete, re-
sulting in non uniform proportions in the mass.
A.3.8. Discoloration: Departure of color from
that which is normal or desired (see Fig. A.3.8).

1. ACI Committee 116, "Cement and Concrete Terminology"-
AC! 116R-78, American Concrete Institute, Detroit, 1978,50 pp.,
Also, ACI Manual of Concrete Practice, Part l.
2. Committee DB-5, "Standard Nomenclature and
Definitions for Use in Pavement Inspection and Mainte-
nance," Highway Research Board, Washington, D.C.
3. Trilingual Dictionary of Engineering Materials
Testing, RILEM Bulletins 20-25, Paris, 1955.

This report was approved by letter ballot of the committee and re-
ported to ACI headquarters Jan. 5, 1967. At the time of balloting
(late 1966), the committee consisted of 22 members, of whom 19
voted affirmatively, 1 negatively, one "conditionally" affirmative,
and one not returning his ballot.

Fig. A.3.5.a-Honeycomb

Fig. A.3.5.b-Honeycomb

Fig. A.3.8-Discoloration
ACI Committee Reports, Guides, Standard Practices, and Com-
mentaries are intended for guidance in designing, planning, executing,
ACI 207.1R-70
or inspecting construction, and in preparing specifications. Reference
to these documents shall not be made in the Project Documents. If From ACI JOURNAL, April 1970
items found in these documents are desired to be part of the Project
Documents, they should be incorporated directly into the Project

Mass Concrete for Dams and

Other Massive Structures
Reported by ACI Committee 207




This report presents a discussion of the materials and practices employed in

proportioning, mixing, placing, and curing mass concrete, and of the properties
and behavior of the hardened mass concrete. Particular emphasis is placed on the
differences between mass concrete and conventional concrete. It is designed to serve
as a reference for those engaged in the design and construction of concrete dams
a nd other massive concrete structures.
Keywords: admixtures; aggregate gradation; aggregate size; aggregates; air
entrainment; arch dams; batching; bridge piers; cements; compacting; compressive
strength; concrete construction; concrete dams; concrete durability; cooling; crack-
ing (fracturing I; creep properties; curing; diffusivity; formwork (construction I; heat
of hydration; history; mass concrete; measuring instruments; mix proportioning;
mixing; modulus of elasticity; permeability; placing; Poisson's ratio; pozzolans; shear
properties; shrinkage; stresses; temperature control; temperature rise (in concrete I;
thermal expansion; thermal gradient; thermal properties; vibration; volume change.

Chapter 1 - Introduction 207-2
1.1- Scope 1.3 - History
1.2 - Definition
Chapter 2 - Materials and mix proportioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 207-6
2.1- Scope 2.5 - Aggregates
2.2 - Cements 2.6 - Water
2.3 - Pozzolans 2.7 - Selection of proportions
2.4 - Chemical admixtures 2.8 - Temperature control
Chapter 3 - Properties ....................... 207-13
3.1 - General 3.6 - Permeability
3.2 - Compressive strength 3.7 - Thermal properties
3.3 - Elastic properties 3.8 - Shear properties
3.4 - Creep 3.9 - Durability
3.5 - Volume change
Chapter 4 - Construction ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 207-21
4.1- Batching 4.5 - Forms
4.2-Mixing 4.6 - Height of lifts
4.3 - Placing 4.7 - Cooling and temperature control
4.4 - Curing 4.8 - Grouting contraction joints
Chapter 5 - Behavior ......... 207-26
5.1- Thermal stresses and cracking 5.4 - Heat dissipation
5.2 - Volume change 5.5 - Instrumentation
5.3 - Heat generation
References 207-36
Copyright 1970, American Concrete Institute

CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION been reached, but they are certainly justified in

1.1 - Scope feeling some satisfaction with the progress that
has been made.
This report presents a detailed discussion of the 1.3.2 Prior to 1900-Prior to the beginning of
materials and practices employed in proportion- the century, much of the portland cement used in
ing, mixing, placing, and curing mass concrete, the United States was imported from Europe. All
and of the properties and behavior of the hard- cements were very coarse by present standards
ened mass concrete. Particular emphasis is placed and quite commonly they were underburned, re-
on mass concrete used in the construction of quiring a long period of storage to develop
concrete gravity and arch type dams and other soundness. For dams of that period, aggregates
nonreinforced structures usually incorporating used were usually bank-run sand and gravel,
large size coarse aggregate. The effEcts of heat employed without benefit of washing to remove
generation and volume changes on the design objectionable dirt and fines. As a result, concrete
and behavior of massive reinforced elements and mixes varied widely in cement content and in
structures are not discussed but will be covered sand-aggregate ratio. Concrete mixing was usual-
in a future report. ly by hand and proportioning was by shovel,
1.2 - Definition wheelbarrow, box, or cart. The effect of water-
Mass concrete is herein defined as: cement ratio was unknown and generally no at-
"Any large volume of cast-in-place concrete tempt was made to control the volume of mixing
with dimensions large enough to require that water. There was no measure of consistency ex-
measures be taken to cope with the generation cept by visual observation of the mix.
of heat and attendant volume change to minimize Some of the dams were of cyclopean masonry
cracking." in which plums (large stones) were partially
Mass concrete structures, such as dams, resist embedded in a very wet concrete. The spaces be-
loads by virtue of their structural shape, mass, tween plums were then filled with concrete, also
and strength. very wet. Some of the early dams were built
without contraction joints and without regular
1.3 - History
lifts. However, there were notable exceptions
1.3.1 General-When concrete was first used in
where concrete was cast in blocks; the height
small dams it was mixed by hand, the portland
of lift was regulated and concrete of very dry
cement usually had to be "aged" to stand the
consistency was placed in thin layers and con-
boiling test, the aggregate was bank-run sand
solidated by rigorous hand tamping.
and gravel, and proportioning was by the shovel-
ful. Tremendous progress has been made, and Generally, mixed concrete was transported to
the art and science of dam building practiced by the forms by wheelbarrow, although where plums
the principal agencies engaged in such work has were employed in cyclopean masonry, stiff-leg
reached a high degree of perfection and control. derricks erected inside the work moved the wet
The selection and proportioning of concrete ma- concrete and plums. The maximum rate of place-
terials to produce suitable properties of the ment was only a few hundred cubic yards a day.
finished product (strength, durability, deforma- Generally, there was no attempt at moist curing.
bility, impermeability) can be predicted and con- One very notable exception to these general
trolled with accuracy. practices was Crystal Springs Dam constructed
in 1888, which is located near San Mateo, Calif.,
This report covers in chronological order the about 20 miles south of San Francisco. According
principal steps from those very small beginnings to available information, this was the first dam
to the present, where on large dam constructions in the United States in which the maximum per-
there is exact and automatic proportioning and missible quantity of mixing water was specified.
mixing of materials, and concrete in 12-cu yd The concrete for this 154 ft high structure was
(9_m:l) buckets is placed at the rate of 10,000 cu cast in a system of interlocking blocks of specified
yd (7650 rna) per day at a temperature of less than shape and dimensions. Fresh concrete was cov-
50 F (10 C) as placed during the hottest weather. ered with planks as a protection from the sun
Lean mixes are now made workable by such and was kept wet until hardening had taken
place. For this very dry concrete, an old photo-
means as air entrainment and the use of finely
graph indicates that five hand tampers were em-
divided pozzolanic materials. Water-reducing and ployed for each man with a wheelbarrow.
set-controlling admixtures are effective in re- Only a few of the concrete dams built in the
ducing the required cement content to a mini- United States prior to 1900 remain serviceable
mum as well as in controlling the time of setting. today, and most of them are small. Of the 2800
Those concerned with concrete dam construction listings in the 1958 Register of Dams in the
certainly should not feel that the ultimate has United States! there appeared to be no more

than 18 that were built prior to 1900. More than Friant, Calif., was employed as a 20-percent re-
a third of these are in the states of California and placement by weight for portland cement.
Arizona where the climate is mild. Of those in During the 1900-1930 period, cyclopean concrete
the more rigorous climate of the East and Middle went out of style. For dams of thick section, the
West, except where they were faced with stone maximum size of aggregate for mass concrete
masonry, time and weather have taken a con- was increased to as large as 10 in. (25 cm). As a
siderable toll. means of measuring consistency, the slump test
1.3.3 Years 1900 to 1930-After the turn of had come into use. The testing of 6 x 12-in. (15 x
the century, between 1900 and about 1930, the 30 cm); and 8 x 16-in. (20 x 40-cm) job cylinders
construction of all types of concrete dams was became common practice in the United States
greatly accelerated. More and higher dams for while European countries generally adopted the
irrigation, power, and water supply were the or- 8 x 8-in. (20 x 20-cm) cubes for testing the
der of the day. Concrete placement by means of strength at various ages. Mixers of 3 cu yd (2.3
towers and chutes became the vogue. In the cm:!) capacity were in common use near the end
United States, the portland cement industry be- of this period and there were some of 4 cu yd
came well established, and cement was rarely (3 cm3 ) capacity.
imported from Europe. ASTM specifications for In the eastern parts of the United States where
portland cement underwent little change during freezing and thawing conditions were severe, it
the first 30 years of this century aside from a was not uncommon to employ as much as 564
modest increase in fineness requirement deter- Ib of cement per cu yd (336 kg/m 3 ) for the entire
mined by sieve analysis. Except for the limits on concrete mass. In the West and other areas of
magnesia and loss on ignition, there were no mild climate, portland cement content as low as
chemical requirements. 376 Ib per cu yd (223 kg/mS) was employed, and
However, much more attention was being given the practice of using a richer mix such as 564 lb
to the character and grading of aggregates and per cu yd for the exterior concrete exposed to
very substantial progress was made in the de- weather with 376 Ib mix for the interior had
velopmen t of methods of proportioning concrete. come into use in areas where the climate was
In general, little attention was paid to quantity severe.
of mixing water, and its effect on the strength An exception was Roosevelt Dam built during
of concrete was largely unknown until the pub- 1905-1911. It is a rubble masonry structure faced
lication of the results of investigations made by with rough ashlar blocks laid in portland cement
Duff Abrams and his associates during the pe- mortar using a cement manufactured in a plant
riod 1916-1926. The use of excessively wet mixes near the dam site. For this structure the average
which could be easily chuted down flat slopes cement content has been calculated to be approxi-
was the rule rather than the exception for sev- mately 282 Ib per cu yd (168 kg/m3). For the
eral years even after the water-cement ratio law interior of the mass, rough quarry stones were
had become well established. embedded in a 1: 2.5 mortar containing about 846
Generally, portland cements were employed Ib of cement per cu yd (500 kg/m 3 ). The voids
without admixture of any kind. Exceptions were between the closely spaced stones in each layer
the sand-cements employed by the U.S. Reclama- were filled with a concrete containing 564 Ib of
tion Service, now the U.S. Bureau of Reclama- cement per cu yd (336 kg/m:!) into which spalls
tion, in the construction of Elephant Butte and were spaded by hand. These conditions account
Arrowrock dams. The latter, 350 ft (107 m) high, for the very low average cement content. The
at the time of its completion in 1915, was the rate of construction was laboriously slow, and
highest dam in the world. The interior mass con- Roosevelt Dam represents perhaps the last of the
crete of this gravity arch dam contained only large dams so built in the United States.
about 376 lb of sand .. cement per cu yd (223 1.3.4 Years 1930 to 1965-By the end of 1929,
kg/m:!). It was produced on the job, inter grind- although sloppy concrete placed by chuting was
ing about equal parts of portland cement and often employed [frequently with 3 in. (7.6 cm)
pulverized granite to a fineness such that not less maximum size aggregate and generally of high
than 90 percent passed the 200-mesh sieve. As water-cement ratio], on the larger and more
compared with portland cements then on the closely controlled constructions, cement and
market, the sand-cement was of unusually high carefully processed aggregates were proportioned
fineness. by weight, and mixing water by volume. Slumps
as low as 3 in. were employed without vibra-
Another exception was one of the abutments of
tion, and concrete was being transported at least
Big Dalton Dam, a multiple arch dam built by
on one job from mixer to form in 8 cu yd
the Los Angeles Flood Control District during (6-cm:1 ) buckets. This was an era of rapid de-
the late twenties. Pumicite (a pozzolan) from velopment in mass concrete construction for dams.

From a study of the records and actual inspec- employed, with some refinements, have been in
tion of a considerable number of dams, it appears use on most of the large concrete dams which
that there were differences in condition which have been constructed in the United States and
could not be explained. Of two structures that in many other countries all over the world since
appeared to be of like quality subjected to the that time.
same environment, one might exhibit excessive During the late twenties and the early thirties,
cracking and other signs of distress while the it was practically the unwritten law that no mass
other, after a like period of service, appeared to concrete for large dams should contain less than
be in perfect condition. Meager records of a few 376 lb of cement per cu yd (223 kg/m 3 ) and some
dams indicated wide variation in temperature of the authorities of that period were of the
due to hydration of cement and that the degree opinion that the cement factor should never be
of cracking was associated with the temperature less than 564 lb per cu yd (336 kg/m3). For
rise. For the purpose of learning more about the Norris Dam, which was completed by the Ten-
significant properties of mass concrete in dams nessee Valley Authority in 1936 and for which
and factors which influence these properties, ACI the cement factor of the interior of the dam was
Committee 207, Mass Concrete, was organized in 376 lb per cu yd the degree of cracking was ob-
1930 (originally as Committee 108). Bogue and his jectionably great although the strength of wet-
associates under the PCA fellowship at the Na- screened 6 x 12-in. (15 x 30-em) job cylinders at
tional Bureau of Standards had already identi- the age of 1 year was nearly 7000 psi (490
fied the principal compounds in portland cement, kg/ cm 2 ) . Later, 18 x 36-in. (45 x 90-cm) cores of
and Hubert Woods and associates were engaged 376 lb per cu yd concrete cut from the first stage
in investigations to determine the contributions of construction of Grand Coulee Dam at the age
of these compounds to heat of hydration and to of 2 years exhibited strengths in excess of 8000
strength of mortars and concretes. psi (560 kg/cm2). Judged by composition, the
By the beginning of 1930, Hoover Dam was in cement was of the moderate heat type correspond-
early prospect. Because of the unprecedented size ing to the present Type II. Considering the mag-
of the structure, investigations much more elabo- nitude of the calculated stresses within the struc-
rate than any that had been previously under- ture, it was evident that such high compressive
taken, were carried out to determine effect of strengths were quite unnecessary and that a re-
composition and fineness of cement, cement fac- duction in cement content on similar future con-
tor, temperature of curing, maximum size of ag- structions might be expected to substantially re-
gregate, etc., on heat of hydration of cement, duce the tendency toward cracking.
compressive strength, and other properties of
mortars and concrete. For Hiwassee Dam, completed by TVA in 1940,
The results of these investigations led to the the 376-lb (223 kg/m 3 ) barrier was broken. For
use of low-heat cement in Hoover Dam. The in- that structure the cement content of the mass
vestigations also furnished information for the concrete was only 282 lb per cu yd (168 kg/mS),
design of the embedded pipe cooling system em- an unusually low value for that time. Hiwassee
ployed for the first time in Hoover Dam. Low- Dam was singularly free from cracks, and there
heat cement was first used in Morris Dam, near began a trend toward reducing the cement con-
Pasadena, Calif., which was started a year before tent which is still continuing. Because of low
Hoover Dam. concrete strengths at early ages, the use of low-
For Hoover Dam, the construction plant was heat portland cement in the construction of
of unprecedented capacity. Batching and mixing dams has been almost entirely discontinued for
were completely automatic. The record days' out- large gravity dams, notably those built by the
put for the two concrete plants [equipped with Corps of Engineers. The Type II cement content
4-cu yd (3 m 3 ) mixers] was over 10,000 cu yd of the interior mass concrete has been in the
(7600 m 3 ). Concrete was transported in 8 cu yd order of 235 lb per cu yd (140 kg/mS) and even
(6 m 3 ) buckets by cableways and compacted as low as 212 lb per cu yd (126 kg/ rn3). An ex-
initially by ramming and tamping. In the spring ample of a large gravity dam for which the Type
of 1933, large internal vibrators were introduced II cement content for mass concrete was 235 lb
and were used extensively for compacting the per cu yd is Pine Flat in California, completed by
remainder of the concrete. Within about 2 years, the Corps of Engineers in 1954. In high dams of
3,200,000 cu yd (2,440,000 m 3 ) of concrete were the arch type where stresses are moderately
placed. high, the cement can ten t of the mass mix is
Hoover Dam marked the beginning of an era usually in the range of 300 to 450 lb per cu yd
of improved practices in large concrete dam con- (180 to 270 kg/m 3 ), the higher cement content
struction. Completed in 1935 at a rate of con- being used in the thinner and more highly'
struction then unprecedented, the practices there stressed dams of this type.

Examples of cement contents for recent high requirement. Maximum stresses under load do not
arch dams are: usually develop until the concrete is at the age of
(1) 282 lb per cu yd (168 kg/m3) of cement 1 year or more. Under mass curing conditions,
and pozzolan in Glen Canyon Dam, a relatively with the cement and pozzolans customarily em-
thick arch dam in Arizona ployed, the gain in concrete strength between
(2) 385 lb per cu yd (230 kg/m3) of cement in 28 days and 1 year is generally large varying
Morrow Point Dam in Colorado from 30 percent to more than 200 percent de-
(3) 420 lb per cu yd (250 kg/m3) of cement in pending on the quantities and proportioning of
EI Etazar Dam near Madrid, Spain cementitious materials and properties of the ag-
1.3.5 Precooling-To reduce the maximum tem- gregates. It has become the practice of some de-
perature of mass concrete during the hydration signers of dams to specify the desired strength of
period, the practice of precooling concrete mate- mass concrete in 18 x 36-in. (45 x 90-cm) test
rials prior to mixing was started in the early cylinders at the age of 1 year or even in some
forties and was extensively employed in the con- cases at the age of 2 years. For routine quality
struction of large dams during the late forties control in the field 6 x 12-in. (15 x 30-cm) cylin-
and fifties. This practice avoids not only the ders are normally used with all aggregate larger
building of high internal stresses, due to the dif- than 1% in. (4 cm) removed by screening of the
ferent temperature drops of the concrete in the wet concrete. Strength requirements of the wet
interior and near the surface, but also the au- screened concrete at 28 days are correlated to the
togenous expansion of the concrete which takes specified full mix strength by laboratory tests.
place in many cases due to the presence of lime 1.3.7 Admixtures
and magnesium oxide. This expansion, when Pozzolans. It was earlier stated that
present, increases with temperature. This phe- prior to 1930, the use of pozzolanic material
nomenon has been observed from data obtained (pumicite) was given a trial in Big Dalton Dam
from "no-stress" strain meters embedded in the by the Los Angeles Flood Control District. For
concrete. Bonneville Dam completed by the Corps of Engi-
The first serious effort undertaken toward pre- neers in 1938, a portland-pozzolan cement was
cooling appears to have been in the construction employed for all of the work. It was produced
of Norfolk Dam during 1941-1945 by the Corps of by intergrinding the cement clinker with a pozzo-
Engineers. During the warmer months the plan Ian processed by calcining an altered volcanic
was to introduce crushed ice into the mixing wa- material at a temperature of about 1500 F (815 C).
ter. By so doing, the temperature of freshly The proportion of clinker to pozzolan was 3: 1 by
mixed mass concrete could be reduced by about weight. This type of cement was selected for use
10 F (5.5 C). On later jobs not only has crushed at Bonneville on the basis of results of tests on
ice been used in the mixing water, but coarse concrete which indicated large extensibility and
aggregates have been precooled either by cold air low temperature rise. This is the only completed
or cold water in the batching plant. Recently, concrete dam in the United States known to the
both fine and coarse aggregates in a moist con- committee in which an interground portland-
dition have been precooled by various means in- pozzolan cement has been employed.
cluding vacuum. It has become almost standard In the intervening years, however, the use of
practice in the United States to employ precooling pozzolan as a separate cementing material to be
for large dams in regions where the summer tem- added at the mixer, in the ratio of one part
peratures are high to assure that the tempera- pozzolan to two or three parts of Type II cement
ture of fresh concrete as it is deposited in the has come to be regular practice by the Bureau
work does not exceed about 50 F (10 C). of Reclamation and more recently by the Corps
On some large dams, a combination of pre- of Engineers. Examples of dams in which pozzo-
cooling as just described and postcooling by em- lans have been employed are given in Table
bedded pipe refrigeration, as at Hoover Dam,
has been used. A good example of this practice
is Glen Canyon Dam where at times during the
summer months the ambient temperatures were TABLE - EXAMPLES OF POZZOLAN USAGE
considerably greater than 100 F (38 C). The tem- Name of dam Type of pozzolan
perature of the precooled fresh concrete did not Davis Finely ground calcined opaline shale
exceed 50 F (10 C). By means of embedded pipe Friant Pumicite (without processing either by
refrigeration, the maximum temperature of hard- calcining OT grinding)
Hungry Horse Low carbon fly ash
ening concrete has been kept below 75 F (24 C).
Hartwell Low carbon fly ash
1.3.6 Strength requirements-Another inter- Yellowtail Low carbon fly ash
esting development of the fifties has been the Glen Canyon Finely ground pumice
abandonment of the 28-day strength as a design John Day Finely ground pumicite

Some experiments conducted by the Corps of content. Most specifications for mass concrete
Engineers indicate that for interior mass concrete, now require that the quantity of entrained air, as
where stresses are moderately low, a much higher determined on concrete samples wet-screened
proportion of pozzolan to cement may be used through the P/2-in. screen, shall be in the order
when there is an economic advantage in so doing of 5 percent.
and still obtain the desired strength at the later 1.3.7~3 Water-reducing, set-controlling admix-
ages. tures. Within the last 10 years there has been a
For example, the results of laboratory tests in- substantial increase in the use of water-reducing,
dicate that an air-entrained mass concrete, con- set-controlling admixtures in mass concrete.
taining 94 lb per cu yd (56 kg/m") of cement and Many such commercially available admixtures,
fly ash of equivalent solid volume to 188 lb per either as derivatives of lignosulfonic acid or of
cu yd (112 kg/m:l) of cement has produced a hydroxylated carboxylic acid, have been found
very workable mix, for which the water content to impart physical properties to concrete which
was less than 100 lb per cu yd (60 kg/m 3 ). The make their use beneficial. Chemical admixtures
1 year compressive strength of wet-screened for concrete are covered by ASTM C 494. 2
6 x 12-in. cylinders was in the order of 3000 psi
Benefits from the use of water-reducing, set-
(210 kg/m~). For such a mix the mass tempera-
ture rise would be exceedingly small. For gravity controlling admixtures used to date are princi-
pally in the areas of reduced water for a given
dams of moderate height, where the materials
slump and extension in the time of setting which
would be precooled so that the concrete as it
lessens the likelihood of cold joints. In many in-
reaches the forms will be, say, 15 fahrenheit deg
stances the reduction in water permits a reduc-
(8 C) below the mean annual or rock tempera-
tion in cement content that would otherwise be
ture, there seems to be the possibility that neither
required to produce concrete of a required
longitudinal nor transverse contraction joints
strength. This in turn lowers the total heat of
would be required. That is, the maximum tem-
hydration developed by the cement and hence
perature of the interior of the mass as hydra-
reduces the temperature rise in the mass con-
tion took place might not be appreciably greater
than the mean annual temperature.
In one other respect the use of pozzolans has Illustrative of major governmental agencies
been shown to be advantageous-the substantial using water-reducing, set-controlling admixtures
reduction in expansion of concretes containing are the Bureau of Reclamation, the California
reactive aggregates and high-alkali cements. The Department of Water Resources, the Corps of
amount of this reduction has been found to vary Engineers, the Tennessee Valley Authority, the
with the character and fineness of the pozzolan Air Force, and the Navy Bureau of Yards and
and the amount employed; for some pozzolans Docks. In some instances their use is optional
the reduction may exceed 90 percent. with the contractor; in others their use is manda-
If reactive aggregates are employed, it is con- tory by specification.
sidered good practice to use both a low-alkali Projects of recent years in which such admix-
cement and a pozzolan of proven corrective tures have been used include Glen Canyon Dam
ability. in Arizona, Morrow Point Dam in Colorado, Air-entraining agents. It became stan- Oroville Dam in California, Nickajack DaIl1 in
dard practice about 1945 to use purposely en- Tennessee, Guri Dam in Venezuela, Bhumiphol
trained air for concrete in most structures that Dam in Thailand, and Peribonka No.1 Dam in
were exposed to severe weathering conditions. Canada, as well as many others in various parts
This practice was applied to the concrete of of the world.
exposed surfaces of dams as well as to the con-
crete pavements and reinforced concrete in gen-
eral. However, because of the very favorable ef- CHAPTER 2 - MATERIALS AND MIX
fect of entrained air on the workability of lean PROPORTION I NG
concrete mixes and also in redUCing the water 2.1 - Scope
requirement and bleeding of fresh concrete, 2.1.l-As in the case with regular concrete,
approved air-entraining agents introduced at the mass concrete is composed of cement, aggregate,
mixer have been employed for both interior and and water and in some cases, pozzolans and
exterior concrete in the construction of practical- other admixtures. The objective of mass concrete
ly all dams built in the United States during mixture proportioning is the selection of the
the past two decades. types and quantities of these materials that will
Purposely entrained air has been the answer give economy and low temperature-rise potential
to the problem of obtaining satisfactory work- with adequate workability for placing and ade-
ability of mass concrete mixes of very low cement quate strength, durability, and impermeability to

serve the intended purpose of the structure in 25 and 65 percent by weight of the portland blast-
which it is used. This chapter will describe ma- furnace slag cement. At the option of the pur-
terials that have been successfully used in mass chaser the C;\A may be limited to 8 percent and
concrete construction and factors influencing their the heat of hydration limited as in the case of
selection and proportioning. Type II cement.
2.2.6-Type IP portland-pozzolan cement is an
2.2 - Cements intimate and uniform blend of portland cement
2.2.1-The following types of hydraulic cement or portland blast-furnace slag cement and fine
as covered by ASTM:I.:; and federal G 10 speci- pozzolan produced either by inter grinding port-
fications have been used in mass concrete con- land cement clinker and pozzolan or by blending
struction. portland cement or portland blast-furnace slag
(a) Portland cement: Types I, II, and IV cement and finely divided pozzolan in which the
(b) Blended cement: Types IS and IP pozzolan constituent is between 15 and 40 percent
(c) Cements other than portland cements: by weight of the portland-pozzolan cement.
Slag cement and natural cement (used only with 2.2.7-Slag cement is finely divided material
portland cement) consisting essentially of an intimate and uni-
Also, mixtures of portland cement and pozzolan, form blend of granulated blast-furnace slag and
portland cement and slag cement, and portland hydrated lime. The amount of granulated blast-
cement and natural cement batched separately furnace slag makes up at least 60 percent by
on the job have been used in mass concrete con- weight of the slag cement. Because of its low
struction. Economy and low temperature rise are strength producing characteristics, it is recom-
both achieved by limiting the cement content to mended that slag cement be blended with port-
as small a value as possible. land cement for making concrete.
2.2.8-Natural cement is the product obtained
2.2.2-Type I portland cement, also referred to
by finely pulverizing calcined argillaceous lime-
as "normal," or "regular," or "standard" cement
stone. The temperature of calcination is no higher
is the common type of cement usually used in
than is required to drive off carbonic acid gas.
ordinary construction.
Natural cement is subject to lack of uniformity
2.2.3-Type II portland cement was developed of its properties and is not recommended for use
for dam construction where moderate heat of where uniform control is required. Natural ce-
hydration is desired. Specifications require that ment is usually blended with portland cement for
it contain no more than 8 percent tricalcium making concrete.
aluminate (CIA), the compound that contrib- 2.2.9-Low-alkali cements are defined by
utes substantially to early heat development in ASTM C 150 as portland cements containing not
the concrete. Also, at the option of the purchaser more than 0.60 percent alkalies calculated as the
the sum of tricalcium silicate (C 3 S) and tri- percentage of Na20 plus 0.658 times the percent-
calcium aluminate may be limited to 58 percent age of K 2 0. These cements should be specified
or less and the heat of hydration to 70 calories when the cement is to be used in concrete with
per gram at 7 days and 80 calories per gram at 28 aggregate that may be deleteriously reactive.
days. Some engineers believe, that for more assured
2.2.4-Type IV portland cement, also referred protection from reactive aggregate, the alkalies
to as "low heat" cement, is used mainly where it should be limited to 0.40 percent.
is desired to produce low heat development in
massive structures. It has not been used in recent 2.3 - Po:z::z:olans
years because it has been found that in most 2.3.1-A pozzolan is defined as "A siliceous or
cases heat development can be controlled satis- siliceous and aluminous material which in itself
factorily by other measures. Type IV specifica- possesses little or no cementitious value but will,
tions limit the C:;A to 7 percent, the CaS to 35 in finely divided form and in the presence of
percent and place a minimum on the C 2 S of 40 moisture, chemically react with calcium hydrox-
percent. The heat of hydration is limited to 60 ide at ordinary temperatures to form compounds
calories per gram at 7 days and 70 calories per possessing cementitous properties." Pozzolans re-
gram at 28 days. act chemically with the alkalies (K 2 0 and Na20)
2.2.5-Type IS portland blast-furnace slag ce- of the portland cement as well as with the cal-
ment is an intimate and uniform blend of port- cium hydroxide or hydrated lime liberated dur-
land cement and fine blast-furnace slag produced ing the hydration of portland cement to form a
either by inter grinding portland cement clinker stable strength-producing cementitious compound.
and granulated blast-furnace slag or by blending For best activity the siliceous ingredient of a
portl~nd cement and finely ground blast-furnace pozzolan must be in an amorphous state such as
slag. The amount of slag used may vary between glass or opal. Crystalline siliceous materials, such

as quartz, do not combine readily with lime at be grouped into three categories: accelerators,
normal temperature unless they are ground into air-entraining agents, and water-reduCing and
a very fine powder. Pozzolans are covered by set-controlling agents.
ASTMll and federaP2 specifications. 2.4.2 Accelerators-Accelerators are seldom
2.3.2 Natural pozzolans-Natural pozzolanic ma- used in mass concrete because generally early
terials occur in large deposits throughout the strength is not required and they contribute to
western United States in the form of obsidian, early undesirable heat development in the mass.
pumicite, volcanic ashes, tuffs, clays, shales, and In rare cases, however, up to 1 percent calcium
diatomaceous earth. These natural pozzolans chloride by weight of the cement has been used
usually require grinding; however, some of the to accelerate strength development in mass con-
volcanic materials are of suitable fineness in crete during winter placing conditions.
their natural state. The clays and shales, in addi- 2.4.3 Air-entraining agents-Most air-entrain-
tion to grinding, must be activated by calcining at ing admixtures are inexpensive soaps that de-
temperatures in the range of 1200 to 1800 F velop bubbles in the concrete. Vinsol resin, a soap
(650 to 980 C). of wood resin, is the main ingredient of many
brand name air-entraining admixtures. Sulfo-
2.3.3 Fly ash-Fly ash is the flue dust from
nated hydrocarbons, detergents, and salts of pe-
powerplants burning ground or powdered coal.
troleum acids form the basis for some other air-
Suitable fly ash can be an excellent pozzolan; it
entraining agents.
has a low carbon content, a fineness about the
The entrainment of air greatly improves the
same as that of portland cement, and occurs in
workability of concrete, permits the use of harsh-
the form of very fine, glassy spheres. Because of
er and more poorly graded aggregates and also
its shape and texture, the water requirement is
those of undesirable shapes; i.e., flat, elongated.
usually reduced when fly ash is used in concrete.
It reduces bleeding, and in general facilitates the
There are indications that in many cases the
placing and handling of mass concrete. Air-en-
pozzolanic activity of the fly ash can be increased
trained concrete can be transported and placed
by cracking the glass spheres by means of grind-
with less segregation than regular concrete. Each
ing. However, this may also reduce its lubricat-
percent of entrained air permits a reduction in
ing qualities and increase its water requirement.
mixing water of from 2 to 4 percent, with some
2.3.4 Use-Pozzolans may be used to improve improvement in workability and with no loss in
the workability and quality of concrete, to effect slump. Entrained air substantially improves the
economy, or to protect against disruptive expan- resistance of concrete to deterioration caused by
sion caused by the reaction between certain ag- freezing and thawing and makes it somewhat
gregates and the alkalies in cement. Caution must more resistant to the passage of moisture than
be exercised in the selection and use of pozzolans, regular concrete.
as their properties vary widely and some may Entrained air reduces the strength of most con-
introduce adverse properties into the concrete, crete. At the same water-cement ratio, strength
such as excessive drying shrinkage and reduced is reduced by about 20 percent for the amounts of
early strength and durability. Before accepting a air recommended in ACI 613-54.14 Where the ce-
pozzolan for a specific job, it is advisable to test ment content is held constant and advantage is
it in combination with the cement and aggregate taken of the reduced water requirement, the re-
to be used, so as to determine accurately the duction in strength becomes negligible in lean
advantages or disadvantages of the pozzolan with mass concrete. Among the factors that influence
respect to quality and economy of the concrete. the amount of air entrained in concrete for a
2.4 - Chemical admixtures given amount of agent are: grading and particle
2.4.1-Admixtures are generally used to modify shape of the aggregate, richness of the mix, mix-
the properties of concrete so that it will be more ing time, slump and temperature of the concrete.
suitable for a particular purpose. This modifica- For a given quantity of air-entraining admixture,
tion may alter the characteristics of the fresh air content increases with increase in slump up
concrete or alter its properties after the concrete to 6 in. and decreases with increases in amount of
has hardened. Among the effects often sought fines, temperature of concrete, and mixing time.
2.4.4 Chemical water-reducing and set-control-
with admixtures are: increased workability or
ling agents-Admixtures of the water-redUCing
reduced W IC, acceleration or retardation of set-
type are materials generally consisting of certain
ting time, acceleration of strength development, organic compounds or mixtures which when
improved resistance to weather and chemical added to portland cement concrete, markedly in-
attack. A complete discussion of admixtures is crease the fluidity of the concrete. These ad-
given in the report of ACI Committee 212.13 The mixtures may be classified in the following ca te-
chemical' admixtures used in mass concrete may gories:

1. Those using lignosulfonic acids and their Percent

salts as a base by weight
2. Those using modifications and derivatives of Material passing No. 200 sieve 3
lignosulfonic acids and their salts as a base Lightweight material 2
3. Those using hydroxylated carboxylic acids Clay lumps 1
and their salts as a base Total of other deleterious substances
4. Those using modifications and derivatives of (such as alkali, mica, coated grains,
hydroxylated carboxylic acids and their salts as a soft flaky particles, and loam) 2
The majority of water-reducing and set-control- Aggregate grading has a definite effect on the
ling chemical admixtures fall into one of these workability of concrete. A good grading of sand
categories. The unmodified acids and salts will for mass concrete will be within the limits shown
generally reduce the water required to produce in Table 2.5.1; however, laboratory investigation
a given slump from 5 to 10 percent and will retard may show other gradings to be satisfactory. This
the initial set by at least 1 hr when used in permits a rather wide latitude in gradings for
amounts recommended by their manufacturers. fine aggregate. Although the grading require-
Although the time of set is retarded, the strength ments themselves may be rather flexible, it is
of the concrete after 12 hr is usually equal to that important that once the proportion is established,
of concrete containing no admixture. Depending the grading of the sand be maintained reason-
on the richness of the mix, composition of the ably uniform to avoid variations in the work-
cement, the temperature and other factors, the ability of the concrete.
use of a water-reducing agent will usually re-
sult in an appreciable increase in 1-, 7-, 28-day,
and later-age strengths. This gain in strength TABLE 2.5.1 - GRADING LIMITS FOR FINE
cannot be explained by reductions in water-ce-
ment ratios alone; the chemicals apparently have Percentage re- Percentage re-
Sieve tained, individ- tained, cumula-
some favorable effect on the hydration of the designation ual, by weight tive, by weight
cement. 3fs in. (9.53 mm) o o
Water-reducing, set-controlling admixtures are No.4 (4.76 mm) 0-8 0-8
used to keep the concrete plastic in massive No.8 (2.38 mm) 5 - 20 10 - 25
blocks so that succesive layers can be placed No. 16 (1.19 mm) 10 - 25 30 - 50
No. 30 (0.60 mm) 10 - 30 50 - 65
and vibrated before the underlayer sets. They No. 50 (0.30 mm) 15 - 30 70 - 83
are also used to increase strength of concrete or No. 100 (0.15 mm) 12 - 20 90 - 97
produce the same strength with less cement. Pan fraction 3 - 10 100

2.5 - Aggregates 2,5.2 Coarse aggregate-Coarse aggregate is de-

fined as gravel, crushed gravel, or crushed rock,
2.5.1 Fine aggregate (sand)-Fine aggregate is
or a mixture of these, generally within the
defined as aggregate passing the No.4 (4.76 mm)
range of No.4 (4.76 mm) to 6 in. (15 cm) in size.
sieve. It may be composed of natural grains, man-
In general the maximum size of coarse aggregate
ufactured grains obtained by crushing larger size
should not exceed one-fourth of the least dimen-
rock particles, or a mixture of the two. Fine ag-
sion of the structure concreted nor two-thirds of
gregate should consist of hard, dense, durable,
the least clear distance between reinforcement
uncoated rock fragments. Fine aggregate should
not contain harmful amounts of clay, silt, dust, bars.
mica, organic matter, or other impurities to such aggregate should consist of
an extent that, either together or separately, hard, dense, durable, uncoated rock fragments.
they render it impossible to attain the required Rock which is very friable or which tends to
properties of concrete when employing normal degrade during processing, transporting, or in
proportions of the ingredients. For dams and storage should be avoided. Also, rock having an
other hydraulic structures the maximum per- absorption greater than 3 percent or a specific
centage of the deleterious substances should be gravity less than 2.5 are not considered suitable
lower for face concrete in the zone of fluctuating for mass concrete. Sulfates and sulfides, de-
water levels and for concrete in thin arch dams. termined by chemical analysis and calculated as
It can be higher for concrete constantly im- S03, should not exceed 0.5 percent by weight of
mersed in water and for concrete in the interior the coarse aggregate. The percentages of other
of massive dams as well as for face concrete deleterious substances such as clay, silt, and fine
above the zone of fluctuating water levels. dust in the coarse aggregate as delivered to the
Deleterious substances are usually limited to mixer should in general not exceed the follow-
the following values: ing values:

Percent between the particles decreases as the range in

by weight
sizes increases. However, it has been demon-
Material passing No. 200 sieve 1fz strated (Fig. 2.5.2) that to achieve the greatest
Lightweight material 2
Clay lumps 1fz cement efficiency there is an optimum maxi-
Other deleterious substances 1 mum size for each compressive strength level to, the larger the maxi- be obtained with a given aggregate and cemenU"
mum aggregate size the less cement is required While the maximum size of coarse aggregate for
in a given volume of concrete to achieve the de- most structures is limited by the configuration
sired quality. This theory is based on the fact of the forms and reinforcing steel, in most mass
that with well-graded materials the void space concrete structures these requirements permit





+ t
'\ ~ I
650 6540-7050----67----

~E 600~--~_ _+------~--~~----------~---------~~-----------------4---4

~ t
~ ~ro

~ 550 1--4_~_+-~--+_-- "v-

--"01''.'>\ ' l . L - - - j r - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - f - - - - - j
~(326) ~ t>,'l.\ .Q



m 500r--i--~-----~~~--------------_+------------------------------~~~--~

I- +
I- 450 I----+-'..--+---=~----~----",...






'18 3 6

Fig. 2.5.2 -- Effect of aggregate size and cement content on compressive strength at I year (from Higginson, et of.,
Reference 15)

an almost unlimited maximum aggregate size. where

In ~ddition to availability, the economical max- d = sieve opening
imum size is therefore determined by the de- D = maximum size of aggregate
P = cumulative percent passing sieve size d
sign strength and plant requirements for pro- n = factor related to the particle shape and tex-
cessing, batching, mixing, transporting, placing, ture of the coaTse aggregate
and consolidating the concrete. Large aggregate
The exponent n is usually in the range of 0.4
particles of irregular shape tend to promote crack-
to 0.5 with rounded aggregate assigned the higher
ing around the larger particles because of differen-
number. The theoretical methods are only de-
tial volume change. They also cause voids to form
vices for obtaining an initial approximate coarse
underneath them due to water and air accumulat-
aggregate grading. Experience has shown th~t a
ing during vibration. Although larger sizes have
rather wide range of coarse aggregate gradmgs
been used on occasion, an aggregate size of 6 in.
may be used (Table 2.5.2). Workability i~ fre-
(15 cm) has been normally adopted as the maxi-
quently improved by reducing the proportIOn of
mum practical size.
cobbles called for by the theoretical gradings. The particle shape has an important When natural gravel is used, it is economically
bearing on workability and consequently, on wa- desirable to depart from theoretical gradings to
ter requirement. Rounded particles, such as those approximate as closely as workability permits the
which occur in deposits of streamworn sand and average grading of material in the deposit. Where
gravel, provide best workability. However, mod- there are extreme excesses or deficiencies in a
ern crushing and grinding equipment is capa- particular size, it is preferable to waste a portion
ble of producing both fine and coarse aggregate of the material rather than to produce unwork-
of entirely adequate particle shape from ledge able concrete. The problem of waste usually does
rock. Thus, in spite of the slightly lower water not occur when the aggregate is crushed stone.
requirement of natural rounded aggregates, it is With modern two- and three-stage crushing it is
seldom economical to import natural aggregates normally possible to adjust the operation so that
when a source of high quality crushed aggregate a workable grading is obtained. Unless finish
is available near the site of the work. It is neces- screening is employed, it is well to reduce the
sary, however, to determine that an adequate amount of the finest size of coarse aggregate
crushing job is being obtained. One procedure since that size contains the accumulated under-
commonly used is to include in coarse aggregate size of the larger sizes. However, finish screening
specifications a requirement limiting flat and is strongly recommended for aggregate for mass
elongated particles to 25 percent in each size concrete. With finish screening, there is little dif-
group. A flat particle is defined as one having ficulty meeting specifications which limit under-
a ratio of width to thickness greater than three, size to 4 percent in the cobble size, 3 percent in
while an elongated particle is defined as one the intermediate sizes, and 2 percent in the fine
having a ratio of length to width greater than size.
three. In some parts of the world "gap" Aggregate grading has a definite effect gradings are used in mass concrete. These are
on the workability of concrete, and it is one of gradings in which the material in one or more
the factors over which the concrete technician sieve sizes is missing. In United States practice
has some control. In United States practice it is continuous gradings are normally used.
customary to divide coarse aggregate into the
following sizes: TABLE 2.5.2 - GRADING LIMITS FOR COARSE
Cobbles 6 in. to 3 in. (152 mm to 76 mm) AGGREGATES IN MASS CONCRETE
Coarse Percentage of coarse aggregate frac Ions
fraction 3 in. to 1% in. (76 mm to 38 mm) (clean separation)
fraction 1% in. to % in. (38 mm to 19 mm) Fine
fraction 3/4 in. to No.4 (19 mm to 4.76 mm) i

Sizes are satisfactorily graded when one-third Cob- o/J.6 in. 3fs to o/J.6 in.
to one-half of the aggregate within the limiting Maximum bles Coarse Medium (#4) % (#4)
screens is retained on an intermediate screen. size aggre- 3-6 in. 1% to %to to % in. * to 3Js
gate in con- (76- 3 in. 1% in. in. (lO- in. *
Distribution of the particles among the sizes crete, in. 152 (38-76 (19-38 (5-19 19 (5-10
may be accomplished by trial or by anyone of (mm) mm) mm) mm) mm) mm) mm)
several theories. A commonly used theoretical % (19mm) 0 0 0 100 55-73 27-45
approach is the exponential grading characterized 1% (38 mm) 0 0 40-55 45-60 30-35 15-25
3 (76 mm) 0 20-40 20-40 25-40 15-25 10-15
by the following equation: 6 (152 mm) 20-35 20-32 20-30 20-35 12-20 8-15

p = (~rX 100 'These columns used only when fine gravel is separated into
two sizes.

Gap gradings can be used economically where and impermeability. In addition, there must be
the material occurs naturally gap-graded. But sufficient fine material to provide proper place-
comparisons which can be made between con- ability. Experience has shown that with the best
cretes containing gap-graded aggregate and con- shaped aggregates of 6 in. (15 cm) maximum size
tinuously graded aggregate indicate there is no the quantity of cement-size material required for
advantage in purposely producing gapgradings. workability is about 210 lb per cu yd (125 kg/m3)
Continuous gradings produce more workable mass of concrete while angular aggregates require at
concrete requiring somewhat lower slump, less least 235 lb per cu yd (140 kg/rn3). Although a
water and cement and having higher compres- lower cement factor may be calculated from the
sive strength. Continuous gradings can always be required water-cement ratio and the observed
produced from crushing operations, and most water requirement for the job materials, these
natural aggregate deposits in the United States figures should be used until field trials demon-
contain material from which continuous gradings strate that the cement factor may be safely
can be economically prepared. reduced.
2.6-Water 2.7.3 Trial batch weights-The first step in
2.6.1-Water used for mIxmg concrete should arriving at the actual batch weights is to select
be free of materials that significantly affect the the maximum aggregate size for each part of the
hydration reactions of portland cement or that work. Criteria for this selection are given in
otherwise interfere with the phenomena that are Section 2.5.2. The next step is to assume or de-
intended to occur during the mixing, placing, and termine the total water content required to pro-
curing of concrete. Water that is fit to drink may vide a slump of from 1Y2 in. (3.8 cm) to 2 in.
generally be regarded as acceptable for use in (5 cm). [In tests for slump, aggregate larger than
mixing concrete. When it is desired to determine 1Y2 in. must be removed by screening the wet
whether a water contains materials that sig- concrete. Slumps in excess of 2 in. (5 cm) and
nificantly affect the strength development of ce- 2Y2 in. (6 cm) for 6 in. (15 cm) and 3 in. (7.5 cm)
ment, tests should be made comparing the com- maximum size aggregates respectively are sus-
pressive strength of mortars made with water ceptible to undesirable segregation in handling.]
from the proposed source with that of mortars For 6 in. maximum size aggregate, water contents
made with distilled water. If the average of the for air-entrained concrete may vary from about
results of these tests on specimens containing the 120 to 150 lb per cu yd (71 to 89 kg/m3) for natu-
water being evaluated is less than 90 percent of ral aggregates, and from 140 to 180 lb per cu yd
that obtained with specimens containing distilled (83 to 107 kg/m3 ) for crushed aggregates. Cor-
water, the water represented by the sample responding water requirements for 3 in. maxi-
should not be used for mixing concrete. If a mum size aggregate are approximately 20 percent
potential water source lacking a service record is higher.
so unusual as to contain amounts of impurities as The batch weight of cement is the quotient of
large as 5000 to 10,000 ppm, or more, then, to in- the total weight of water divided by the water-
sure durable concrete, tests for volume stability cement ratio or, when workability governs, is
(length change) may be advisable as well as for merely the minimum weight of cement required
strength.IG to satisfactorily place the concrete (see Section
Waters containing up to several thousand parts 2.7.2). With the batch weights of cement and
per million of normally found mineral acids such water determined and with an assumed air con-
as hydrochloric acid or sulfuric acid can be tol- tent of 3 to 5 percent, the remainder of the mate-
erated so far as strength development is con- rial is aggregate. The only remaining decision is
cerned. I6 Waters containing even very small to select the relative proportions of fine and
amounts of various sugars or sugar derivatives coarse aggregate. The optimum proportions de-
should not be used as set may be retarded un- pend on aggregate grading and particle shape,
acceptably. The harmfulness of such waters may and they can be finally determined only in the
be revealed in the comparative strength tests. field. For 6 in. aggregate concrete containing
natural sand and gravel, the ratio of fine ag-
2.7 - Selection of proportions
gregate to total aggregate by absolute volume
2.7.1-The procedure generally used for estab-
may be as low as 21 percent. With crushed ag-
lishing a mix for mass concrete is to select mix
gregates the ratio may be in the range 25 to 27
proportions by the trial mix method, generally
following the recommendations of ACI Committee
211.14 2.7.4 Pozzolans-Mixture proportioning proce-
2.7.2 Water-cement ratio-The key to propor- dures do not change appreciably when a pozzolan
tioning is. the selection of the water-cement ratio is included as a part of the cementitious materials.
which will provide adequate strength, durability, Attention must be given to the following matters:

(a) water requirement may change; (b) very CHAPTER 3 - PROPERTIES

early strength may become critical; and (c) for 3.1-Ceneral
maximum economy the age at which design 3.1.1-The design and construction of massive
strength is attained should be greater. Concrete
concrete structures, especially dams, is influenced
containing pozzolan gains strength somewhat
by the topography and foundation characteristics
slower than concrete made with straight port-
of the site and availability of suitable materials
land cement; however, the load on mass concrete
is generally not applied until the concrete is of construction. Economics, subservient only to
safety requirements, is the most important single
relatively old. Therefore, mass concrete contain-
parameter to consider. Economics may dictate the
ing pozzolan is usually designed on the basis of
choice of type of structure for a given site. The
90-day to I-year strengths. While mass concrete
does not require strength at early ages to per- proportioning of the concrete mix is, in turn,
governed by the requirements of the type of
form its design function, most systems of con-
structure and such properties as the strength,
struction require that the forms for each lift be
durability, and thermal properties. For large
anchored to the next lower lift. Therefore, the
structures extensive investigations of aggregate,
early strength must be great enough to prevent
admixtures, and pozzolan are justified. Concrete
pullout of the form anchors. Specially designed
mix investigations to determine the most eco-
form anchors may be required if the 3-day
nomical proportions of selected ingredients to
strength is less than 350 psi (25 kg/cm2), which
produce the desired properties of the concrete
may occur when large amounts of pozzolan are
are necessary.
3.1.2-The specific properties of concrete which
2.8 - Temperature control should be known are compressive strength, mod-
The principal technical problem peculiar to ulus of elasticity, Poisson's ratio, triaxial shear
mass concrete is the probability of high tensile strength, volume change during drying, thermal
stresses resulting from heat generated by the coefficient of expansion, specific heat, thermal
hydration of cement with subsequent differential conductivity, diffusivity, permeability, and dura-
cooling. Control of temperature drop is achieved bility. Approximate values of these properties
by controlling placing temperature, limiting the based on computations or past experience are
temperature-rise potential of the concrete, con- often used in preliminary evaluations. Useful as
trolling lift thickness and placing schedule, and such approximations may be, the complex heter-
removal of heat through embedded cooling coils. ogeneous nature of concrete and the physical and
It is practical to cool coarse aggregate, somewhat chemical interactions of aggregate and paste are
more difficult to cool fine aggregate, and practical still not sufficiently known to permit computation
to batch a portion or all of the added mixing of reliable values. For this reason, it is again
water in the form of ice. As a result, placing emphasized that extensive laboratory and field
temperatures of as low as 50 F (10 C) are quite investigations must be conducted to assure a safe
easily obtained and commonly specified. Lower structure at lowest cost.
temperatures are obtainable with more difficulty. 3.1.3-Search of the literature17 - 32 for proper-
Cooled concrete is advantageous in mixture pro- ties of mass concrete produced only a limited
portioning since water requirement usually de- amount of data, other than strength, except for
creases as temperature drops. some dams in the United States. A compilation
The chief means for limiting temperature rise of mix proportion data on representative dams
is controlling the type and amount of cementi- is given in Table,20,25,27 Reference will be
tious materials. The ASTM specification for Type made to concrete mixes described in Table 3.1.3
II portland cement contains an option which in discussions of properties reported in Tables
makes it possible to limit the heat of hydration 3.2.1 through 3.8.1.
to 70 calories per gram at 7 days and 80 calories
per gram at 28 days. Use of a pozzolan as a re- 3.2 - Compressive strength
placement further delays and reduces heat gen- 3.2.1-The water-cement ratio to a large extent
eration. This delay is an advantage except that governs the quality of the hardened portland
when cooling coils are used the period of opera- cement binder. Strength, impermeability, and
tion must be extended. If the mixture can be most other sought-for properties of concrete are
proportioned so that the cementitious materials improved by lowering the water-cement ratio. A
can be limited to not more than 235 lb per cu yd comparison of strength data given in Table 3.2.1
(140 kg/m 3 ), the temperature rise for most con- shows a considerable variation from a uniform
cretes will not exceed 35 F (19 C). A complete dis- relationship oetween water-cement ratio and
cussion of temperature control is given in Chap- strength. Factors, totally or partially independent
ter 5. of the water-cement ratio, which affect the
Cement Pozzolan Sand Coarse aggregate En-
Year MSA. Water trained Parts Density WRA
com- Ib/cu yd. Ib/cuyd. Ib/cu yd. Ib/cu yd. in., Ib/cu yd. air. aggre- Ib/cu yd. admixture
No. Name pleted Type Type (kg/m') Type (kg/m') (kg/m') (kg/m') Type (cm) (kg/m') W/C percent gate (kg/m') used
1 Hoover 1936 Arch IV 380 - 0 931 2679 Limestone 9.0 220 0.58 0 9.5 4210 No
gravity (225) (552) (1589) and (22.9) (130) (2497)
2 Grand Coulee 1942 Straight Hand 377 - 0 982 2568 Basalt 6.0 226 0.60 0 9.4 4153 No
gravity IV (224) (582) (1523) (15.2) (134) (2463)
3 Friant 1942 Straight IV 300 Pumicite 60 942 2634 Quartzite. 8.0 214 0.59 0 9.9 4150 No
gravity (178) (36) (559) (1562) granite. (20.3) (127) (2461)
4 Shasta 1945 Curved IV 370 - 0 906 2721 Andesite 6.0 206 0.56 0 9.8 4203 No
gravity (219) (537) (1614) and slate (15.2) (122) (2492)
5 Hungry Horse 1952 Arch II 188 Fly Ash 90 842 2820 Sandstone 6.0 130 0.47 3.0 13.2 4070 No
gravity (111) (53) (499) (1672) (15.2) (77) (2414)
6 Glen Canyon 1963 Arch II 188 Pumicite 94 777 2784 Limestone. 6.0 153 0.54 3.5 12.6 3996 No
gravity (111) (56) (461) (1651) ehalee- (15.2) (91) (2370)
donie 6.0 140 0.50 3.5 13.0 4020 Yes
6A (0.37 percent 1963 Arch II 188 Pumicite 90 800 2802 chert. and (15.2) (83) (2384)
admixture added) gravity (111) (53) (474) (1662) sandstone
7 Flaming Gorge 1962 Arch II 188 Calc. 94 729 2900 Limestone 6.0 149 0.53 3.5 12.9 4060 No
gravity (111) shale (56) (432) (1720) and sand- (15.2) (88) (2408) ~
8 Yellowtail 1965 Arch II 197 Fly Ash 85 890 2817 Limestone 6.0 139 0.49 3.0 13.1 4128 No z
gravity (117) (50) (528) (1670) and an- (15.2) (82) (2448) c
9 Morrow Point 1967 Thin II 373 - 0 634 2851 Andesite. 4.5 156 0.42 4.3 9.3 4015 Yes
Arch (221) (376) (1691) tuff. and
(1l.4) (93) (2381) a
10 Bartlett 1939 Multiple IV 466 - 0 1202 2269 Quartzite. 3.0 270 0.58 0 7.5 4180 No ()
Arch (276) (713) (1346) and
(7.6) (160) (2479)
11 Bonneville 1938 Gravity Portland 329 - 0 1094 2551 Basalt 6.0 251 0.76 0 11.1 4223 No ()
pozzolan (195) (649) (1513) (15.2) (149) (2504) ;:c
12 Detroit 1953 Straight IIiandIV 226 - 0 1000 2690 Diorite 6.0 191 0.85 5.5 16.3 4107 No -I
gravity (134) (593) (1595) (15.2) (113) (2435) m
13 Norris 1936 Straight II 338 - 0 1264 2508 Dolomite 6.0 227 0.67 0 1l.2 4212 No "'tJ
gravity (200) (750) (1487) (15.2) (135) (2498)
14 Kentucky 1944 Straight II 338 - 0 967 2614 Limestone 6.0 213 0.63 0 10.6 4136 No

gravity (200) (573) (1550) (15.2) (126) (2453) -I
15 Hartwell 1961 Gravity II 165 Fly Ash 57 797 2880 Granite 6.0 183 0.82 5.5 16.6 4082 No ()
(98) (34) (472) (1708) (15.2) (108) (2421) m
16 John Day U.C. Gravity II 148 Calc. 50 937 2970 Nat. 6.0 135 0.68 6.0 19.7 4240 No
(88) shale (30) (554) (1761) gravel (15.2) (80) (2515)
17 Salamonde 1953 Thin II 421 - 0 739 2621 Granite 7.9 225 0.54 0 8.0 4006
(Portugal) Arch (250) (438) (1554) (20.0) (133) (2376)
18 Pieve di Cadore 1949 Arch Ferric- 253 Natural 84' 1180 2089 Limestone 4.7 213 0.63 2.0 9.7 4316 Yes
(Italy) gravity pozzo- (150) (SO) (700) (1239) (12.0) (126) (2560)
19 Rossens 1948 Arch I 421 - 0 Limestone 3.1 225 0.53 0 No
( Switzerland) (250) (8.0) (133)
20 Chastang (France) 1951 Arch 250/315 379 759 2765 Granite 9.8 169 0.45 9.3 4072
gravity (225) (450) (1640) (25.0) (100) (2415)
21 Warragamba 1960 Straight II 330 - 0 848 2845 Prophyry 6.0 175 0.53 0 1l.2 4163 No
(Australia) gravity (196) (503) (1687) and (15.2) (104) (2469)
22 Francisco Madero 1949 Round- IV 372 893 2381 Rhyolite 6.0 223 0.60 8.8
(Mexico) Head (221) (530) (1412) and (15.2) (132)
Buttress basalt
23 Krasnoiarsk U.C.t Straight IV and 388 - 0 Granite 3.9 213 0.55 Yes
(USSR) gravity portland (230) (10.0) (126)
Pozzolan mterground with cement (25 percent pozzolan for the summer months) . tData gathered in 1964.


90-day Cement
Cement Water Predominant MSA. str efficiency
lb/cu yd lb/cu yd aggregate in. W/C psi psi/lb
Dam Country (kg/m') (kg/m') type (em) (kg/em") (kg/cm"/kg)
La Palisse France 506 250 Granite 4.7 0.49 4790 9.5
(3000) (148) (12.0) (337) (Ll)
Le Gage France 590 253 Granite 4.7 0.43 5060 8.6
(350) (150) (12.0) (356) (1.0)
Chastang France 379 169 Granite 9.8 0.45 3770 10.0
(225) (100) (25.0) (265) (1.2)
Tignes France 349 1900 Granite 7.9 0.54 4250 12.2
(207) (113) (20.0) (299) (1.4)
L'Aigle France 379 211 Granite 9.8 0.56 3200 8.5
(225) (125) (25.0) (225) (1.0)
Barrea Italy 5000 225 Limestone 3.2 0.45 5000 10.0
(297) (133) (8.0) (352) (1.2)
Pieve di Cadore Italy 337 213 Dolomite 4.0 0.63 6400 19.0
(200) (126) (10.0) (450) (2.3)
Forte Baso Italy 404 238 Porphyry 3.8 0.59 4920 12.2
(240) (141) (9.6) (346) (1.4)
Lumiei Italy 455 226 Limestone 3.1 0.50 5670 12.5
(270) (134) (8.0) (399) ( 1.5)
Cabril Portugal 370 195 Granite 5.9 0.53 41500 11.2
(220) (116) (15.0) (292) (1.3)
Bouca Portugal 420 195 Granite 5.9 0.46 5500 13.1
(249) (116) (15.0) (387) (1.6)
Salamonde Portugal 420 225 Granite 7.9 0.54 4250 10.1
(249) (133) (20.0) (299) (1.2)
Canicada Portugal 420 225 Granite 7.9 0.54 4650 ILl
(249) (133) (20.0) (327) (1.3)
Castelo Bode Portugal 370 180 Quartzite 7.9 0.49 3800 10.3
(220) (107) (20.0) (267) (1.2)
Rossens Switzerland 420 225 Glacial mix 2.5 0.54 5990 14.3
(249) (133) (6.4) (421) (1.7)
Mauvoisin Switzerland 319 162 Gneiss 3.8 0.51 4960 15.5
(189) (96) (9.6) (349) (1.8)
Zervreila Switzerland 336 212 Gneiss 3.8 0.63 3850 10.5
(199) (126) (9.6) (271) (1.4)
Hungry Horse USA 188-90 130 Sandstone 6 0.47 3100 11.1
(111-53) (77) (15.2) (218) (1.3)
Glen Canyon USA 188-94 153 Limestone 6 0.54 3810 13.5
(111-56) (91) (15.2) (268) (1.6)
Flaming Gorge USA 188-94 149 Limestone 6 0.53 3500 12.4
(111-56) (88) and (15.2) (246) (1.5)
Krasnoiarsk USSR 338 213 Granite 3.9 0.55 3280 8.4
(230) (126) (10.0) (230) (1.0)


Compressive strength, Elastic properties
Modulus of elasticity,
EX 1()-6 psi
psi (kg/em2 ) (E X 1()-6 kg/em2 ) ,Poisson's ratio
Age, days Age, days Age, days
28 90 180 365 28 90 180 365 28 90 180 365
1. Hoover 3030 3300 -
--- --- --
4290 5.5 6.2 - 6.8 0.18 0.20 - 0.21
(213) (232) (302) (0.39) (0.44) (0.48)
2. Grand Coulee 4780 5160 - 5990 4.7 6.1 - 6.0 0.17 -
(336) (363) 0.20 0.23
(421) (0.33) (0.43) (0.42)
3. Friant 4000 - 4240 4170 5.5 - 4.7
(281) (298)
5.9 - - - -
(293) (0.39) (0.33) (0.41)
4. Shasta 4210 4650 - 5140 4.9 5.1 -
(296) (327)
5.7 - - - -
(361) (0.34) (0.36) (0.40)
5. Hungry Horse 2660 3100 3800 3850 4.4 4.6 4.8 4.3 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.18
(187) (218) (267) (271) (0.31) (0.32) (0.34) (0.30)
6. Glen Canyon 2550 3810 3950 - 5.4 -
(179) (268)
5.8 - 0.11 - 0.14 -
(278) (0.38) (0.41)
6A. Glen Canyon' 3500 4900 6560 6820 5.3 6.3 6.7 -
(246) (344) (461)
0.15 0.15 0.19 -
(479) (0.37) (0.44) (0.47)
7. Flaming Gorge 2950 3500 3870 4680 3.5
4.3 4.6 - 0.13 0.25 0.20 -
(246) (272) (329) (0.25) (0.30) (0.32)
8. Yellowtail - 4580 5420 5640 - 6.1 5.4 6.2 - 0.24 0.26 0.27
(322) (381) (396) (0.43) (0.38) (0.44)
a. Morrow Point 4770 59600 6430 6680 4.4 4.9 5.3 4.6 0.22 0.22 0.23 0.20
(335) (419) (452) (470) (0.31) (0.35) (0.38) (0.33)
10. Bartlett 3200 - 7540 7620 - - 4.1 4.4 - - - -
(225) (530) (536) (0.29) (0.31)
'Water-reducmg agent added.

strength are: (1) type and brand of cement, (2)

amount and type of pozzolan, (3) surface texture
and shape of the aggregate, (4) the mineralogic
makeup and strength of the aggregate, (5) ag-
gregate grading, and (6) the improvement of
strength by admixtures above that attributable
to a reduction in water-cement ratio.
3.2.2-High concrete strengths are usually not
required in mass concretes except for thin arch
dams. Mix proportioning should determine the
minimum cement content for adequate strength
to give greatest economy and minimum tempera-
ture rise. Cement requirements for adequate
workability and durability frequently govern the
portland cement content rather than the
3.2.3-Mass concrete is seldom required to with-
stand substantial stress at early age. Therefore,
to take full advantage of the strength properties
of the cementing materials the design strength is
usually based on the strength at ages from 90
days to 1 year. Job-control cylinders must of
necessity be tested at an earlier age if they are
to be useful in exercising control and uniformity
in the concrete being placed. For the sake of con-
venience job-control test specimens are usually
6 x 12-in. (15 x 30 cm) cylinders or 8 x 8-in.
(20 x 20 cm) cubes containing concrete wet
screened to Ph in. (38 mm) maximum-size ag-
gregate. Correlation tests should, therefore, be
made well in advance of construction between
the strength of wet screened concrete tested at
28 days and test specimens not smaller than
18 x 36 in. (46 x 91 cm) containing the full mass
concrete tested at the design test age. The
strength of large test specimens will usually be
80 to 90 percent of the strength of 6 x 12-in.
cylinders tested at the same age. Accounting for
the continued strength development beyond 28
days, particularly where pozzolans are employed,
the correlation factors at 1 year may range from
1.15 to 3.0 times the strength of the wet screened
control specimens tested at 28 days.
3.2A-The factors involved in relating results
of strength tests on small samples to the prob-
able strength of mass concrete structures are
several and complex and still essentially unre-
solved. Because of these complexities, concrete
strength requirements are usually several times
the calculated maximum design stresses for mass
concrete structures.

3.3 - Elastic properties

3.3.1-Concrete is not a truly elastic material,
and the graphic stress-strain relationship for
continuously increasing load is generally in the
form of a curved line. However, the modulus of
elasticity is for practical purposes considered a

constant within the range of stresses to which strain reflects the volume taken up by these in-
mass concrete is usually subjected. terncoJ fissures, and Poisson's ratio and the elas-
3.3.2-The modulus of elasticity of concrete tic moduli are no longer constant.
representative of various dams is given in Table 3.4-Creep
3.3.2. These values range from 3.5 to 5.5 X 10(; psi 3.4.1-Creep of concrete is deformation that
(0.25 to 0.39 X 10(; kg/cm2) at 28 days and from occurs while concrete is under sustained stress.
4.3 to 6.8 X lOG psi (0.30 to 0.48 X 10 6 kg/cm 2 ) at Creep appears to be mainly related to the modulus
1 year. Usually, concretes having higher strengths of elasticity of the concrete. Concretes having
have higher values of elastic modulus and show high values of modulus of elasticity generally
a general correlation of increase in modulus with have low values of creep deformation and con-
increase in strength, although modulus of elas- cretes having a low value of modulus of elasticity
ticity is not directly proportional to strength. show greater amounts of creep deformation.
The modulus of elasticity of concrete is to some 3.4.2-0ne method of expressing the effect of
extent dependent on the modulus of elasticity of creep is as the sustained modulus of elasticity of
the aggregate. However, for a given cement paste the concrete in which the stress is divided by
the modulus of elasticity of the aggregate has the total deformation for the time under load.
less effect on the modulus of elasticity of the The instantaneous and sustained modulus of
concrete than can be accounted for by the volu- elasticity values obtained on 6 in. diameter by
metric proportions of the aggregate,:!:l 16-in. (15 x 40 cm) creep test cylinders made with
Modulus of elasticity for a given concrete ex- wet screened concrete, 1.5 in. (38 mm) maxi-
hibits a much higher coefficient of variation than mum-size aggregate, are recorded in Table 3.4.2.
the compressive strength. The greater variation The instantaneous modulus is measured immedi-
results in part from the greater inaccuracies of ately after the concrete is subjected to load. The
the test procedures necessary to measure small sustained modulus represents values after 365
strains on a heterogeneous mixture containing and 1000 days under load. The sustained modulus
large size aggregate. is approximately one-half that of the instan-
3.3.3-Poisson's ratio data given in Table 3.3.2 taneous modulus when load is applied at early
tend to range between the values of 0.16 to 0.20 ages and is a slightly higher percentage of the
with generally a small increase with increasing instantaneous modulus when the loading age is
time of cure. Extreme values may vary from 90 days and greater. Creep of concrete appears
0.11 to 0.27. Poisson's ratio, like modulus of to be approximately directly proportional to the
elasticity, varies with the Poisson's ratio of the applied stress up to about 40 percent of the ulti-
aggregate, the cement paste, and the relative mate strength of the concrete.
proportions of the two. 3.5 - Volume change
3.3.4-The growth of internal microcracks in 3.5.1-Volume changes are caused by changes
concrete under load commences at compressive in moisture content of the concrete, chemical re-
stresses equal to about 35 to 50 percent of the actions, changes in temperature, and stresses
nominal compressive strength under short term from applied loads. Excessive volume change is
loading. Above this stress, the over-all volumetric detrimental to concrete. Cracks are formed in


Autogenous volume change shrinkage
90 days, 1 year, 1 year,
Structure millionths millionths millionths Permeability Kq*
Hoover - - -270 0.62 X 10- 4
Grand Coulee - - -420 -
Angostura +3 0 -390 -
Kortes +14 -23 -600 -
Hungry Horse -44 -52 -520 1.85 X 10- 4
Canyon Ferry +6 -37 -397 1.93 X 10- 4
Monticello -15 -38 -998 8.20 X 10- 4
Anchor -33 -36 -588 45.2 X 10- 4
Glen Canyon -32 -61 -459 1.81 X 10- 4
Flaming Gorge - - -496 11.09 X 10- 4
Yellowtail -12 -38 -345 1.97 X 10-4t
Volume change specimens for Hoover, Grand Coulee, Angostura, and Kortes dams were
4 X 4 X 40-m. (10 X 10 X 100-cm) prisms. Specimens for all other dams tabulated were 4 X 4 X 30-
in. (10 X 10 X 76-cm) prisms.
*18 X 18-in. (45.7 X 45.7-cm) specimen, standard correction to age of 60 days. K'l is in cu
ft/sq ft/yr/ft (m"/m'/yr/m head); it is a relative measure of the flow of water through con-
tPreliminary mix investigations.
Metric units
Coefficient of Coefficient of
i expansion, * expansion, * I
I ~
X ]0- 0 X 10- 0
I I Thermal Specific
D iffus- Thermal
heat, Density,
Di ffusivity,
Coarse I Temper- 11,2 in. 4~2 in. conductivity, heat, iv ity, Temper- 1;2 in. 41/2 in. m'
I aggregate i ature, (3.8 cm) (11.4 em) Btu Btu Ib Ft' ature, (3.8 em) (11.4 em) Keal Keal kg hr
I I Ft X hr X of Ft" hr C max max m X hr X 'C kg X 'C m" X 10-3
Structure type of max max Ib X 'F
Hoover Limestone 50 1.70 0.212 156.0 o.051 10 2.53 I 0.212 2500 4.7
and granite 100 5.3 4.8 1.67 0.225 o.047 38 9.5 8.6 2.48 0.225 4.4
150 1.65 0.251 o.042 66 2.45 0.251 3.9

50 1.08 0.219 158.1 o.031 10 1.61 0.219 2534 2.9

Grand Coulee Basalt 100 4.4 4.6 1.08 0.231 o.029 38 7.9 8.3 1.61 I
0.231 2.7
150 1.09 0.257 o.027 66 I 1.62 0.257 2.5 ;I>
Friant Quartzite, 50 1.23 0.216 153.8 o.037 10 1.83 0.216 2465 3.4 C
granite and 100 - - 1.23 0.230 o.035 38 - - 1.83 0.230 3.2 ;I>
rhyolite 150 1.24 0.243 o.033 66 1.84 0.243 3.1

Shasta Andesite and 50 I 1.32 0.219 156.6 o.039 10 1.96 0.219 2510 3.6 0'TI
slate 100 - 4.8 1.31 0.233 o.036 38 - 8.6 1.95 0.233 3.3
150 1.31 0.247 o.034 66 1.95 0.247 3.2 ()

50 1.49 0.221 151.2 o.045 10 2.22 0.221 2423 4.2 0

100 4.0 - 1.48 0.237 () .()41 38 7.2 - 2.20 0.237 3.8 Z
Angostura Limestone ()
150 1.46 0.252 o.038 66 2.17 I 0.252 3.5

Kortes Granite, 50 1.61 I 0.208 151.8 o,050 10 2.40 0,208 2433 4.6 ~
gabbros and 100 5.2 4.5 1.60 0.221 o.047 38 9,4 8.1 2.38 0.221 4.1 m
quartz 150 1.59 0.234 o.044 66 2.36 0.234 4.1
50 1.72 0.217 150.1 o,053 10 2.56 0.217 2406 4.9 ;I>
Hungry Horse Sandstone 100 6.2 5.7 1.71 0.232 o.049 38 11.2 10.3 2.54 0.232 4.6 ()
150 1.69 0.247 o.046 66 2.51 0.247 4.3 -I

Canyon Ferry Sandstone, 50 1.63 0.214 151.3 o.050 10 2.42 0.214 2425 4.6 n
metasiltstone, 100 5.4 5.2 1.61 0.224 o.047 38 9.7 9.4 2.40 0.224 4.4
quartzite, and 150 1.59 0.235 o.C45 66 2.36 0.235 4.2
Monticello Sandstone 50 1.57 0.225 153.1 o.046 10 2.34 0.225 2454 4.3
(graywacke), 100 5.2 - 1.55 0.237 o.043 38 9.4 - 2.31 0.237 4.0
and quartz 150 1.53 0.250 o.040 66 2.28 0.250 3.7

Anchor Andesite, 50 1.14 0.227 149.0 o.034 10 1.70 0.227 2388 3.2
latite, and 100 5.6 4.5 l.14 0.242 o.032 38 10.1 8.1 1.70 0.242 3.0
limestone 150 1.15 0.258 o.030 66 1.71 0.258 2.8
Glen Canyon Limestone, 50 2.13 0.217 150.2 o.065 10 3.17 0.217 2407 6.0
i chert, and 100 - - 2.05 0.232 o.059 38 I - - 3.05 0.232 5.5
sandstone 150 l.97 0.247 ! o.053 66 2.93 0.247 4.9
I i
I oo.054
2.65 0.221 2411 5.0
Flaming Gorge Limestone 'll1d
leO - -
I 1.78
38 - I - 2.60 0.234 4.6
150 [ 1.73 0.248 o.046 66 I 2.57 0.248 4.3
Yellowtail Linlestone and 50 1.55 0.226 152.5 o.045 10 II 2.31
0.226 2444 4.2
andesite 100 4.3 1.52 o.042 38 - 7.7 2.26 0.239 3.9
150 1.48 o.039 66 I I 2.20 I
0.252 3.6

restrained concrete as a result of shrinkage and cretes containing pozzolans usually have greater
insufficient tensile strength. Cracking is a weak- autogenous shrinkage than portland cement con-
ening factor that may affect the ability of the crete without pozzolans.
concrete to withstand its designed loads and may 3.5.4-The thermal coefficient of expansion of
also detract from durability and appearance. Vol- a concrete varies mainly with the type and
ume change data for some mass concretes are amount of coarse aggregate in the concrete. Vari-
given in Table 3.5.l. ous mineral aggregates may range in thermal
3.5.2-Drying shrinkage ranges from less than coefficients from below 2 millionths to above 8
200 millionths for low slump lean mixes with millionths per deg F. Neat cement pastes will
good quality aggregates to over 1000 millionths vary from about 6 millionths to 12 millionths de-
for rich mortars or some concretes containing pending on the chemical composition and the de-
poor quality aggregates and an excessive amount gree of hydration. The thermal coefficient of the
of water. The principal drying shrinkage of concrete usually reflects the weighted average of
hardened concrete is usually occasioned by the the various constituents. Coefficient of expansion
drying and shrinking of the cement gel which is tests are frequently conducted on concrete that
formed by hydration of portland cement. The has been wet screened to H2 in. (38 mm) maxi-
main factors affecting drying shrinkage are the mum-size aggregate in order to work with smaller
unit water content and aggregate composition. size specimens. However, the disproportionately
Other factors influence drying shrinkage princi- larger amount of cement paste which has a higher
pally as they influence the total amount of water coefficient results in values higher than that of
in the mix. The addition of pozzolans generally the mass concrete.
increases drying shrinkage except where the wa- 3.5.5-Volume changes can also result from
ter requirement is significantly reduced, such as chemical reactions between reactive constituents
with fly ash. Some aggregates, notably gray- in the aggregate and the alkalies (Na20 and
wacke, have been known to contribute to ex- K 20) in the cement and also between soluble sul-
tremely high drying shrinkage. fates occurring in the soil or water in contact
3.5.3-Autogenous volume change results from with a concrete structure and the tricalcium
the chemical reactions within the concrete. Un- aluminate (C;IA) compound in the cement. These
like drying shrinkage it is unrelated to the volume changes result in deterioration of the
amount of water in the mix. The net auto- concrete and should be avoided. Low-alkali
genous volume change of most concretes is a cement should be specified when reactive aggre-
shrinkage of from 0 to 150 millionths. When gates are present and cement low in tricalcium
autogenous expansion occurs it usually takes aluminate specified when the concrete is ex-
place within the first 30 days after placing. Con- posed to sulfate waters.


Compressive strength Shear strength St
I Age,
Dam days w/e psi kg/em:! psi kg/em:! Tan</> C
Grand Coulee 28 0.52 5250 369.08 1170 82.25 0.90 0.223
28 0.58 4530 318.46 1020 71.71 0.89 0.225
28 0.64 3810 267.84 830 58.35 0.92 0.218
90 0.58 4750 333.93 1010 71.00 0.97 0.212
112 0.58 4920 345.88 980 68.89 1.05 0.199
365 0.58 8500 597.55 1880 132.16 0.91 0.221
Hungry Horse 104 0.55t 2250 158.18 500 35.15 0.90 0.222
144 0.55t 3040 213.71 680 47.80 0.89 0.224
622 0.60t 1750 123.02 400 28.12 0.86 0.229
Monticello 28 0.62t 2800 I
196.84 610 42.88 0.93 0.218
40 0.62t 4120 289.64 950 66.78 0.85 0.231
Shasta 28 0.50 5740 403.52 1140 80.14 1.05 0.199
28 0.60 4920 345.88 1060 74.52 0.95 0.215
90 0.50 5450 383.14 1090 76.63 1.05 0.200
90 0.50 6590 463.28 1360 95.61 1.01 0.206
90 0.60 5000 351.50 1040 73.11 1.00 0(208
245 0.50 6120 430.24 1230 86.47 1.04 0.201
- .. -.--~~--~.-~-.- .. -~-------------

*6 X 12 in. (15.2 X 30.5 cm) test specimens - dry. ns in. (3.8 em) maximum-size aggregate.

tShear strength divided by compressive strength.

3.6 - Permeability 3.8.2-The shear strength relationships re-

3.6.1-Concrete is inherently pervious to water. ported are linearly analyzed using the Mohr
However, with properly proportioned mixes that envelope equation Y = C + X tan <j> in which C
are well compacted by vibration, permeability is (unit cohesive strength) is defined as the shear
not a serious problem. Permeability of concrete strength at zero normal stress. Tan <j>, slope of the
increases with increasing water-cement ratios. line, represents the coefficient of internal fric-
Therefore, low water-cement ratio and good con- tion. X and Yare normal and shear stresses, re-
solidation are the most important factors in pro- spectively. In many cases, the shear strengths
ducing concrete with low permeability. Air-en- in Table 3.8.1 were higher for specimens of
training agents permit the same workability greater age; however, no definite trend is in
with reduced water content and therefore con- evidence. Shear strength varied from 0.20 to 0.23
tribute to reduced permeability. Pozzolans usual- of the compressive strength for the various con-
ly reduce the permeability of the concrete. Per- cretes shown.
meability coefficients for some mass concretes are
given in Table 3.5.1. 3.9 - Durability
3.9.1-A durable concrete is one which will
3.7 - Thermal properties
withstand the effects of service conditions to
3.7.1-Thermal properties of concrete are sig-
which it will be subjected, such as weathering,
nificant in connection with keeping differential
chemical action, and wear. Numerous laboratory
volume change at a minimum in mass con-
tests have been devised for measuring durability
crete, extracting excess heat from the concrete,
of concrete, but it is extremely difficult to ob-
and dealing with similar operations involving
tain a direct correlation between laboratory tests
heat transfer. These properties are specific heat,
and field service.
conductivity, and diffusivity. The main factor
affecting the thermal properties of a concrete is 3.9.2 Weathering resistance-Disintegration of
the mineralogic composition of the aggregate. concrete by weathering is caused mainly by the
Since the selection of the aggregate to be used is disruptive action of freezing and thawing and
based on other considerations little or no control by expansion and contraction, under restraint,
can be exercised over the thermal properties of resulting from temperature variations and alter-
the concrete and tests for thermal properties are nate wetting and drying. Entrained air improves
conducted only for providing constants to be the resistance of concrete to damage from frost
used in behavior studies as described in Chap- action and should be specified for all concrete
ter 5. Specification requirements for cement, subject to cycles of freezing and thawing. Selec-
pozzolan, percent sand, and water content are tion of good materials, use of entrained air, low
modifying factors but with negligible effect. En- water-cement ratio, proper proportioning, and
trained air is' an insulator and reduces thermal placement to provide a watertight structure usu-
conductivity but other considerations which gov- ally provide a concrete that has excellent re-
ern the use of the entrained air outweigh the sistance to weathering action.
significance of its effect on thermal properties. 3.9.3 Resistance to deterioration from chemical
Although the thermal properties of the concrete attack-Chemical attack can occur from: (1)
are largely dependent on the mineralogic com- chemical reactions between constituents of the
position of the aggregate, an aggregate such as concrete, (2) exposure to acid waters, (3) ex-
granite, for example, can have a rather wide posure to sulfate bearing waters, and (4) leach-
range of thermal properties depending on the ing by mineral-free waters. In mass concretes
source of the aggregate. Quartz aggregate is par- usually only the first of these presents a serious
ticularly noted for its high value of thermal problem. Chemical reactions between alkalies in
conductivity. Thermal property values for some cement and some mineral constituents of aggre-
mass concretes are given in Table 3.7.1. Thermal gates are characterized by excessive expansion
coefficient of expansion is discussed in Section
and cracking of the concrete. Where it is neces-
3.5.5 under volume change.
sary to use an aggregate containing reactive
3.8 - Shear properties constituents, low-alkali cement should be speci-
3.8.1-Shear properties for concretes contain- fied. Also as further insurance against alkali-ag-
ing 11/2 in. (3.8 cm) maximum-size aggregates are gregate reaction a suitable pozzolan should be
listed in Table 3.8.1. These include compressive specified.
strength, shear strength, and coefficient of inter-
nal friction (tan <j which are related linear func- No type of portland cement concrete is very
tions determined from results of triaxial tests. resistant to attack by acids. Should this type of
Linear analysis of triaxial results gives a shear exposure occur the concrete is best protected by
strength slightly above the true value. surface coatings.

Sulfate attack can be rapid and severe. The ing and mixing operations. In large central plant
sulfates react chemically with the hydrated lime mixers, the large batches commonly used for
and hydrated tricalcium aluminate in cement mass concrete also tend to minimize the effect
paste to form calcium sulfate and calcium sulfo- of variations.
aluminate; these reactions are accompanied by 4.1.2-Since greater use is made in mass con-
considerable expansion and disruptions of the crete of such special purpose ingredients as ice,
concrete. Concrete containing cement low in tri- air-entraining agents, water-reducing and set-
calcium aluminate is more resistant to attack by controlling admixtures, and fly ash or other
sulfates. pozzolans, the dependable batching of these ma-
Hydrated lime is one of the products formed terials has become a very important aspect of
when cement and water combine in concrete. This the batching facilities. For most efficient use of
product is readily dissolved in pure water which ice, its temperature must be less than 32 F
may occur in high mountain streams. Surfaces (0 C); it must be brittle-hard, dry, and finely
of tunnel linings, retaining walls, piers, and other broken. Such ice is best batched by weighing
structures are often disfigured by lime deposits from a well insulated storage bin, and if quick-
from water seeping through cracks, joints, and ly discharged thereafter with the aggregates, it
interconnected voids. With dense, impermeable will achieve its full potential for reducing the
concrete leaching is seldom severe enough to im- temperature of the concrete. Pozzolan is batched
pair the serviceability of the structure. much the same as cement.
3.9.4 Resistance to erosion-The principal 4.1.3-Liquid admixtures are generally batched
causes of erosion of concrete surfaces are cavita- by volume, although weighing equipment has
tion and the movement of abrasive material due also been used successfully. Reliable admixture
to flowing water. Use of concrete of increased batching equipment is available from some ad-
strength and wear resistance offers some relief mixture or batch plant manufacturers. Batching
but the best solution lies in the prevention, elimi- accuracy of volumetric batchers should be within
nation, or reduction of the causes by proper 3 percent of the amount required or 1 fluid
design, construction, and operation of the con- ounce (30 cc), whichever is greater. When batch-
crete structure. ing by weight, accuracy should be 3 percent of
that required. Means should be provided so that
CHAPTER 4 - CONSTRUCTION a visual accuracy check may be made. Provi-
4.1 - Batching sions should be made to prevent batching of ad-
4.1.1.-Proper batching of mass concrete re- mixture while discharge valve is open. Interlocks
quires little that is different from the accurate, should also be provided that will prevent inad-
uniform, reliable batching that is essential for vertent extra or overdose of the admixture. Par-
other classes of concrete. 34 ,35 ticularly with air-entraining and water-reducing
admixtures, any irregularities in batching can
However, because efficient mixes for mass con-
cause troublesome variation with slump and/or
crete contain unusually low portions of cementing
air control. The use of comparatively dilute solu-
materials, sand, and water, the critical level of
tions reduces gumming in the equipment. For
workability of these mixes is more sensitive to
continuing good operation the equipment must
shortcomings in the uniformity of batching. For-
be maintained and kept clean. The use of timed-
tunately, there are several factors which tend to
flow systems is discouraged. Also it is important
compensate for these requirements. Foremost
to provide winter protection for storage tanks
among these is the fact that usually production
and related delivery lines.
of mass concrete is on a larger scale, particularly
where it is used in dams, and it is therefore eco- 4.2- Mixing
nomically more feasible than it often is on smaller 4.2.1-To quickly discharge concrete with a
jobs to specify and use the most effective methods slump less than 2 in. (5 cm), and to ensure even
and equipment. Foremost among these are: (1) distribution of the larger coarse aggregate in the
finish screening of coarse aggregate at the batch- concrete as discharged, mixers for mass concrete
ing plant, preferably on horizontally operating are limited to stationary, central plant mixers.
screens; (2) refinements in batching equipment Commonly these mix a 4-cu yd (3-m3 ) batch al-
such as full scale springless dials which register though good work has been done with 2-
all stages of the weighing operation; (3) auto- (1.5 m 3 ) and 8-cu yd (6-m:l) mixers. The qUick
matic weighing and cutoff features; (4) inter- and uniform discharge features are accomplished
locks to prevent recharging when some material by a tilting discharge arrangement. Paving mixers
remains in a scale hopper; (5) a device for instant and truck mixers are not as well suited for mass
reading of approximate moisture content of sand; concrete. There is no record of the performance
and (6) graphic recording of the various weigh- of turbine-type mixers for mass concrete of low

slump, lean mix, and aggregate larger than 3 in. crete placement. Actually, for the high caliber of
(7% cm) except for one European dam where results it provides, the cost of wet sandblasting
4-in. (lO-cm) aggregate was reportedly used. is little, if any, more than the cost of trying to
Turbine-type mixers have been successfully used obtain a high quality surface by other means.
for mass concrete containing 3-in. aggregate. The less effective methods frequently have to
give way to sandblasting at the final inspection
4.2.2-Specifications for mixing time range from
before starting the next lift of concrete.
a minimum of 1 min for the first cubic yard plus
15 sec for each additional cubic yard of mixer 4.3.3-Brooming a thin layer of sand-cement
capacity 34 to 1% min for the first yard, or the mortar on horizontal construction joints has long
first 2 yd, plus 30 sec for each additional yard of been standard before placing mass concrete.
capacity.3;' Blending the materials during batch- Often this is brushed into and mixed with
ing makes it possible to reduce the mixing pe- puddles of water on a surface that is too wet.
riod. Some of the mixing water and aggregate Mortar batches delivered at intervals during the
should lead other materials into the mixer to placement as the fresh concrete face advances
prevent sticking and clogging. Specifications across the lift surface tend to interfere with a
usually state that mlxmg times must be smooth running batching, mixing and placing op-
lengthened or may be shortened, depending on eration. In spite of these possible problems the
the results of mixer performance tests. Criteria mortar coat is considered by some agencies as
for these are found in ASTM C 94, Table l,36 good insurance for bond under normal job
Mixing time is best controlled by a timing device conditions.
which will not release the discharge mechanism Tests conducted by the U. S. Army Engineer
until the time set for it has expired. Waterways Experiment Station3D failed to es-
4.2.3-During mixing the last opportunity exists tablish superiority of bond or watertightness by
to obtain a batch that has the desired uniform use or exclusion of a mortar coat. For mortar of
consistency or slump. This requires alertness and the same water-cement ratio as the concrete, su-
attentiveness on the part of the inspector and perior joints were obtained without the mortar
operator but the operator must have and must coat on joints sandblasted at 2 days of age and
use the necessary facilities for this purpose. Pref- covered after 3 days age. Mortar of slightly lower
erably the operator should be stationed in the water-cement ratio than the concrete was bene-
plant where he can see the batch in the mixer ficial on joints green-cut with air-water jet,
and be able to judge whether its slump is correct. cured 14 days and air dried 13 days before placing
If the slump is low, perhaps due to suddenly the second lift. Other tests indicated no definite
drier aggregate, he can immediately compensate superiority of joints made with or without mortar.
with a little more water and maintain the desired Dry surface conditions proved superior on sur-
slump. Lacking this arrangement to see into the faces covered within 28 days; however no ad-
mixer, he should be able to see the batch as it is vantages could be detected for dry surfaces sub-
discharged. From this he can note any change jected to 62 days of air drying prior to treatment.
from former batches and make water adjust- To ensure a tight, invisible joint (as shown by
ments accordingly. A sand moisture meter will drill cores), it is imperative that the first layer
assist in arriving at the appropriate quantitative of concrete be very thoroughly and systematical-
adjustment. ly vibrated to full depth and that any rock clus-
ters at batch perimeters where buckets are
4.3 - Placing dumped, are scattered.
4.3.1-Placing includes preparation of horizon-
4.3.4-Mass concrete for dams is transported in
tal construction joints, transportation, handling,
buckets which may range from 2 to 12 cu yd
placement, and vibration of the concrete. 17 .:J4,3G,
37,38 (1.5 to 9 m 3 ) in capacity. Railcars, trucks, cable-
ways or cranes, or some combination of these,
4.3.2-There are various methods for cleanup of may be used to deliver the buckets to the point
horizontal joint surfaces preparatory to placement of placement. As a rule, a bucket size of 4 to 8
of the next lift, including green cutting, sand-'
cu yd (3 to 6 m 3 ) is preferable, since smaller
blasting, high pressure water jet, and the use
of surface retarders. Under some but by no buckets often do not discharge readily and each
means all circumstances, each of these methods delivery is too small to organize well into the
may do a fairly acceptable job. * However, to be placement scheme. On the other hand, the 12-yd
certain of a first class, unquestionably clean and (9-m3 ) bucket puts such a large pile in one place
satisfactory surface every time under varying 'Of methods other than sandblast, the high pressure jet of not
circumstances, sandblasting, preferably wet to less than 6000 PSI (420. kg/em") is showing the most reliable per-
for'l'ance for normal Jomt ''?tervals and mass concrete mixes. It
avoid dust hazard, is required just prior to con- has the advantage of mvolvmg no cleanup and disposal of used
sandblast sand or supplying and handling it initially.

that much of the crew's time is devoted to vi- anything less than this should not be tolerated.
brating and spreading. Extra care must be taken Ineffectual equipment is more costly to the
to offset the possibility of insufficient vibration builder because of a slower placing rate and the
at depth in the center or around the perimeter hazard of poor consolidation. Specific recom-
contacts. Usually, mass concrete of proper mix mendations for mass concrete vibration are given
proportions and low slump does not segregate in the report of ACI Committee 609."1
during such transportation over the relatively It is impossible to overemphasize that vibra-
short distances usually involved. tion of each batch must be systematic and should
4.3.5-Mass concrete is best placed in successive thoroughly cover and deeply penetrate the batch.
layers. These layers should not exceed 18 to 20 Particular attention must be paid to ensure full
in. (45 to 50 cm) in thickness for mass concrete vibration where the perimeters of two batches
with 4 to 6 in. (10 to 15 cm) maximum-size ag- join, since the outer edge of the first batch is not
gregate and less than I1f2-in. (4-cm) slump, vibrated (lest it flatten and pull away) until the
placed with 4 to 8-cu yd (3 to 6-m3 ) buckets and next batch is placed against it. Then the two can
powerful 6 in. (15 cm) diameter vibrators. The be vibrated monolithically together without caus-
layers should not exceed 12 to 15 in. (30 to 38 cm) ing either edge to flow downward. To ensure
in thickness for mass concrete with 3 to 4 in. penetration for several inches into lower layers,
(7.6 to 10 cm) maximum-size aggregate and less vibrators are operated in a vertical position and
than 2-in. (5-cm) slump, placed with smaller should remain in operation at each penetration
buckets and less powerful vibrators. Shallower point until large air bubbles have ceased to rise
rather than deeper layers give better assurance and escape from the concrete. The average time
of satisfactory consolidation and freedom from for one vibrator to fully consolidate a cubic yard
rock pockets at joint lines, corners, and other of this concrete may be as much as 1 min. Over-
form faces, as well as within the block itself. vibration of low-slump mass concrete is unlikely.
The layer thicknesses should be an even frac- To simplify cleanup operations, the top of the
tion of the lift height or of the depth of the uppermost layer should be leveled and made
block. (One-third of a 5-ft lift is 20 in.; one-fifth reasonably even by means of vibration. Large
of a 7.5-ft lift is 18 in.) The layers are carried aggregate should be all but embedded and boards
forward and added in the block by means of should be laid on the surface in sufficient number
successive rows of bucket dumps so there will be to prevent deep footprints.
a setback of about 5 ft (1.5 m) between the for-
4.4 -Curing
ward edges of successive layers. Placement of the
4.4.1-Mass concrete is best cured with water
steps is or.ganized so as to expose a minimum of
for the additional cooling benefit in warm weath-
surface to lessen warming of the concrete in er. In cold weather, probably little curing is
daytime warm weather and reduce the area af- needed beyond the moisture provided to keep
fected by rain in wet weather. This minimizes the concrete from drying during its initial protec-
the effort that may be necessary to offset these tion from freezing, but it should not be saturated
effectsyH A greater setback than 5 ft unneces- when it is exposed to freezing. In above-freezing
sarily exposes cold concrete to heat gain in warm weather when moisture is likely to be lost from
weather and, in rainy weather, increases the its surfaces, mass concrete should be water cured
danger of water damage; a narrower setback will for at least 14 days or up to twice this time if
cause concrete above it to sag when the step is pozzolan is used as one of the cementing mate-
rials. Except when insulation is required in cold
vibrated afterwards to make it monolithic with
weather, surfaces of horizontal construction
the succession of adjacent forward batches placed
joints should be kept moist until new concrete is
later against that step. This stepped front pro- placed on them or until the wetting will no
gresses forward until the block forms are filled. longer provide beneficial cooling. Sealing-com-
4.3.6-Vibration is the key to successful use of pound curing is not the best method of curing
efficient, lean, low-slump, large MSA mass con- mass concrete but in some instances is the most
crete. In recent years in the United States, vibra- practical. If used on construction joints it must
tion has for the most part been done by large be completely removed by sandblasting or im-
perfect bond will result.
one-man, air-driven, spud-type vibrators. In
Europe and Japan a battery of large vibrators is 4.5 - Forms
operated on the front of a track-mounted trac- 4.5.1-Forms for mass concrete have the same
tor, but concrete must be placed (and exposed) basic requirements for strength, mortar-tightness
in horizontal layers over the entire block. Ample under vibration, accuracy of position, and gen-
and effective vibration equipment is available; erally good surface condition as those described

III Formwork for Concrete, (ACI SP-4) .40 In 4.5.4-A common forming problem for spillway
United States practice they differ somewhat from sections of gravity dams is encountered in the
other formwork because of the comparatively flatly sloping and curved portions forming the
low height normally required of each lift. There crest and the bucket. These are the slopes that
may be some increase of form pressures due to range from horizontal to about 1% to 1 when use
use of low temperature concrete and the impact of fixed forms begins. Some builders attempt to
of dumping large buckets of concrete near the shape such slopes the hard way with screed
forms, despite the relieving effect of the general- guides and strikeoff. Actually such surfaces are
ly low slump of mass concrete. Form pressures much more easily shaped with temporary
actually depend on the methods used in placing holding forms. With no strikeoff involved the
concrete next to the form. For this reason some regular mass concrete face mix is as readily used
designers use 80-90 percent of equivalent hydro- as one with small aggregate. All that is required
static pressure plus 25 percent for impact when are strong, solidly anchored ribs between which
control of field conditions is questionable. rows of form panels are placed row-on-row up-
Form ties to wire loop anchors in the previous ward as the lift space is filled, and removed
lift and braces have long been used. Many large starting row-on-row at the bottom when the
jobs are now equipped with forms supported by concrete will no longer bulge out of shape but is
cantilever strongbacks anchored firmly into the still responsive to finishing operations. Consid-
lift below. Some of these are given the addi- erable time and labor are saved by this method
tional support of form ties, particularly when the and it permits a proper concrete to be used.
concrete is low in early strength. These forms are
raised by mechanized A-frames and considerable 4.6 - Height of lifts
4.6.1-From the standpoint of construction, the
care is necessary to avoid spalling concrete
higher the lift the fewer construction joints;
around the anchor bolts in the low-early-strength
with 7.5-ft (2.3-m) lifts there are only two-thirds
concrete of the lift being stripped. These are
as many joints as when 5-ft (1.5-m) lifts are used.
bolts which will be used to hold the forms from
From the standpoint of temperature control in
moving outward in the next form setup.
cold weather, the shallower the lift, the more
High lift concrete formwork of the type used
heat of hydration will escape before the next lift
in Canada is comparable to that for structural
is placed and the maximum temperature reached
concrete except that ties may be 20 to 40 ft
will be lower. In hot weather with lean mixes
(6 to 12m) long rather than 20 to 40 in. (50 to
and precooling the reverse may be true. In gen-
100 cm). To use large aggregate concrete, widely
eral, the longer the time between lifts the better
spaced large diameter high tensile ties are re-
for cooling, provided ambient temperatures are
quired to permit passage of concrete buckets.
lower than those of the concrete surfaces while
4.5.2-To mask offsets in nonoverflow sections
internal temperature is rising, since a lower am-
that sometimes occur at horizontal joint lines,
bient temperature will reduce the maximum
and to generally dress up and improve appear-
temperature attained. *
ance of formed surfaces, it has been found that
a beveled grade-strip and 1 in. (2% cm) or larger 4.6.2-The concern over temperature rise and
triangular toe fillet at the top and bottom of the the specified means to limit it are design con-
forms can be used to create an effective and siderations which will be reflected in designa-
pleasing groove which serves these purposes. A tion of lift height and placing frequency on draw-
I-in. chamfer should also be used in the corners ings and in specifications. (Reference is made to
of the forms at the upstream and downstream Chapter 5.) Influencing factors are size and type
end of contraction jOints for the sake of ap- of dam or other massive structure which involves
pearance, because sharp corners of the blocks concrete properties and cement content, prevail-
otherwise are often damaged and cannot be ef- ing climate during construction and in service,
fectively repaired. Such chamfers also prevent construction schedule required, and other temper-
pinching and spalling of joint edges caused by ature controls imposed. Accordingly, heights of
high surface temperatures. lift commonly range from 2% ft (76 em) for sev-
4.5.3-Sloping forms sometimes reach so far eral lifts just above the foundation in some cases,
over the construction joint that it is difficult to through 5-ft (1.5-m) and 7%-ft (2.3-m) lifts in
get buckets close enough to place concrete with-
many dams and other work, to 10 ft (3 m) or
out separation in the toe and to vibrate it well.
Accordingly, some specifications require such When lift thickness is increased above 10 ft (3 m), the law of
diminishing returns becomes increasingly apparent as losses from
forms to be hinged so the top half can be held in the upper surface become a decreasing percentage of the heat
generated within the full depth of the lift. Hence, with very
a vertical position until concrete is placed up to deep lifts, the internal temperature does not differ greatly
whether long delays are enforced or whether the lifts are
the hinged elevation. The top half is then low- stacked in rapid succession. In such extreme cases, continuous
placing in high lifts may be preferable, especially as a means of
ered into position and concrete placing continued. minimizing joint cleanup, or to permit the use of slipforms, e.g.,
for massive piers.

more in thin arch dams, piers, and abutments, is made and temperatures lower than can be ob-
and other semimass concrete structures of such tained by this means are desired, coarse aggre-
limited horizontal thickness that temperature rise gate can usually be cooled sufficiently by passing
due to cement hydration is not a matter of major frigid air through it in the batch plant bins, and
concern. sand can be cooled by shading. Sand must also
High lift mass concrete construction has been have a uniformly low moisture content.
adopted by some authorities, particularly in Can- 4.7.2-To obtain full advantage of the low plac-
ada, in an attempt to reduce potential leak paths ing temperature, the concrete temperature should
and minimize cracking in dams built in cold not be allowed to rise, due to ambient conditions,
and even subzero weather. In its extreme form, higher than it naturally would due to heat of
the method provides for continuous placing of hydration alone in the first few weeks after
lifts up to 50 ft (15 m) high using wood or in- placement. Preferably, heat should be removed
sulated forms with housings and steam heat. and the surfaces cured as cold as possible. 43
Under these placing conditions the adiabatic This will reduce the thermal differential tending
temperature rise of the concrete and the maxi- to crack the surface later when much colder am-
mum temperature drop to low stable tempera- bient conditions may occur. During placement in
tures are approximately equal. For control of warm weather, warming of the cold concrete can
cracking most design criteria restrict this maxi- be minimized by placing it at night, by managing
mum drop to 25 or 35 F (14 to 20 C). Design re- placement so that minimum areas are exposed,
quirements can be met, under these conditions, and, if placement must be done in the sun, by
by controlling, through mix proportioning, the fog spraying the work area so that temperatures
adiabatic rise to these levelsY With precooled are at least as low as they are in the shade.
[50 F (10 C)] mass concrete of low cement con- Cooling sprays should also be started immediate-
tent in a warm climate, ambient heat removes ly over completed portions of the block.
the advantage of shallower lifts and is the 4.7.3-Aside from pipe cooling, much can be
reason 7% (2.3 m) or even 10-ft (3-m) lifts have done during the curing period to prevent heating
been permitted by specifications on several dam and to remove heat from the hardening concrete.
proj ects in recent years. Specifically the following practices are sug-
4.7 - Cooling and temperature control gested: (1) steel forms can be used for quick
4.7.1-Currently it is common practice to pre- transfer of heat and, when air is warmer than
cool mass concrete before placement. Efficient the concrete, the steel forms can be kept sprayed
equipment is now available to produce such con- with cold water, cooled with fine evaporating
crete at temperatures less than 50 F (10 C) in sprays, and shaded until they are removed (See
practically any summer weather. Merely the use Chapter 5 for conditions favoring insulated
of finely chipped ice instead of mixing water forms); (2) water curing and shading of formed
and the shading of damp (but not wet) aggre- and finished surfaces can be conducted in the
gate will reduce the temperature to a value ap- same manner, designed to cool as well as to pro-
proaching 50 F (10 C) in all but the hottest vide moisture for curing; and (3) water curing of
weather. By this means the temperature of 4 in. horizontal construction joints can be arranged
(10 cm) MSA mass concrete in the hot Sacramen- with controlled evaporative spraying such that
to Valley in California was held to an average no water remains on the surface long enough to
of 51 F (11 C) during August 1962. In hot, humid become warm.
areas aggregates can be cooled by vacuum and 4.7.4-Pipe cooling is used to control the rise in
inundation of aggregates. For other recommen- concrete temperature in restrained zones near
dations see ACI 605-59. 42 foundations when maximum temperatures can-
It has been found that the best uniformity of not be maintained by other, less expensive, cool-
mix results when maximum use of ice is made ing measures. It is also normally required to
for precooling mass concrete. Cooling methods control the minimum opening of contraction
which rely on moisture in the aggregate invari- joints when grouting of joints is necessary. It
ably cause moisture fluctuation in the aggregate consists of a series of evenly spaced pipe coils
as batched, with corresponding detriment to the through which refrigerated or cold water is cir-
uniformity of slump. Moreover, systems which culated. The size and spacing of pipes depends on
involve considerable handling 'and movement of block size, thickness of lift, and amount of heat to
the coarse aggregate are likely to develop con- be removed. (Examples of design are given in
siderable fines which, if the aggregate is moist, Chapter 5). When precooled [50 F (10 C)] con-
will not be removed during the finish screening crete is used pipe cooling is usually not re-
and will serve only to increase mixing water re- quired except in certain lifts immediately above
quirement and reduce strength, If full use of ice the foundation if placed in warm weather.

4.8 - Grouting contraction joints the temperature rise in mass concrete as dis-
4.8.1-"1s this necessary?" might well be asked cussed in previous chapters, is nearly adiabatic
concerning the grouting of many contraction and must be dealt with in mass concrete struc-
joints, particularly those in straight or nearly tures.
straight gravity dams. With increasingly effective 5.1.2-1n mass concrete, thermal stresses are
use of cold concrete as placed, and especially developed in two ways: from the dissipation of
when narrow shrinkage slots are left and later the heat of hydration and from periodic cycles of
filled with cold concrete, it may be questioned ambient temperature. Since all cements, as they
whether contraction joint grouting serves much hydrate, cause concrete to heat up to some de-
purpose fvr high, thin, arch dams, since a little gree, it is fortunate that the strength and the
downstream cantilever movement will bring corresponding cement requirements for mass con-
the joints into tight contact. Grouting relieves crete are much less than those of normal struc-
later arch and cantilever stresses and it remains tural concretes; hence, temperature rise is re-
general practice to grout contraction joints in stricted. As has been described in preceding
arch dams. chapters, some relief in temperature rise can be
4.8.2-Where there is reason to grout contrac- gained, in addition to the minimal use of cement,
tion joints, the program of precooling and post- by the use of substitutions for cement, and by
cooling should be so arranged as to secure a joint the use of special types of cement with lower, or
opening of at least 0.025 in. (0.064 cm) to assure delayed heats of hydration. When the potential
complete filling with grout even though, under temperature rise of a concrete has been reduced
special test conditions, grout may penetrate much to the minimum, the temperature drop that causes
narrower openings. tensile stress and cracking can be reduced to
zero if the initial temperature of the concrete is
CHAPTER. 5 - BEHAVIOR. set below the final stable temperature of the
structure by the amount of the potential tem-
5.1 - Thermal stresses and cracking
perature rise. Economy in construction can be
5.1.1-The most important characteristic of
gained if the initial temperature is set slightly
mass concrete that differentiates its behavior
above this value so that a slight temperature
from that of structural concrete is its thermal
drop is allowed, such that the tensile stresses
behavior. Mass concrete structures are typically
built up during this temperature drop are less
structures having large dimensions. These large
than the tensile strength of the concrete at that
dimensions in a material whose thermal proper-
ties allow only slow movements of heat, means
that heat trapped within a mass concrete struc- 5.1.3-Previous chapters describe methods for
ture can hardly escape unless aided artificially. reducing the initial temperature of concrete, and
For instance, the laws of heat transfer tell us the benefits on placing of the use of cold con-
that heat can escape from a body inversely as crete. It can be seen that if the maximum tem-
the square of its least dimension. Consider a num- perature of the concrete is appreciably above
ber of walls, made of average concrete and ex- that of the final stable temperature of the mass,
posed to cooler air on both faces. For a wall 6 in. volume changes will take place continuously in
(15 cm) thick, 95 percent of the heat in the con- massive structures for centuries. Since this is
crete will be lost to the air in Ph hr. For a 5 ft intolerable in some structures that depend on fast
(1.5 m) thick wall, this same amount of heat construction for economy, this excess heat must
would be lost in a week. For a 50 ft (15 m) thick be removed artificially. The usual method is by
wall, which might represent the thickness of an circulating a cooling medium in embedded pipes.
arch dam, it would take 2 years to dissipate 95 5.IA-The behavior of the surface of mass con-
percent of the heat stored, and for a 500 ft crete structures is tremendously affected by
(152 m) thick dam, such as Boulder, Shasta, daily and annual cycles of temperature. At the
Grand Coulee, and many other massive dams, surface the temperature of concrete responds al-
it would take 200 years to dissipate this amount most completely to daily variations in air tem-
of heat. Thus in ordinary structural construction perature, while 2 ft (60 cm) from the surface,
most of the heat generated by the hydrating ce- only 10 percent of the daily surface temperature
ment is dissipated almost as fast as it is gen- variation is felt in the concrete. The annual tem-
erated and there is little temperature differential perature cycle, however, affects the concrete at
from the inside to the outside of the body. Since much greater depths. Ten percent of the annual
change of temperature results in change of vol- variation in temperature can be felt 25 ft (7.6 m)
ume, and when restrained, in change of stress from the surface. Directing our attention back to
in the tensile direction, very thin structures are the surface, it can be seen that the surface is
relatively free from thermal cracking. However, absolutely defenseless against stress cracking

caused by temperature change. Since the interior stress due to the difference between the average
reacts so much more slowly than the surface to temperature rise and the temperature at a par-
cycles of temperature it is as though the surface ticular location. Most arch dams are designed
were completely restrained by the interior con- merely for the average temperature change; de-
crete. Thus in a location where the surface tem- signers should also consider the effect of the ad-
perature varies annually by 100 F (56 C) which is ditional stresses caused by the differential tem-
only average, if the concrete is assumed to have perature between the average and the maximum.
a modulus of elasticity as low as 3.0 x lOG psi
(0.21 x 10 6 kg/cm 2 ), without cracking the sur- 5.2 - Volume change
face stresses would vary about 1000 psi (70 5.2.1-In Chapter 3, properties affecting volume
kg/cm 2 ) above and below the average. While change have been listed for a number of dams.
concrete can quite easily take 1000 psi (70 Before accepting for use in mass concrete the
kg/cm~) compression, it usually has nowhere near numerical values given for drying shrinkage,
that capacity in tension, and cracking is inevit- autogenous volume change and permeability, it
able. However, because of the rapid deterioration must be remembered that all of these tests were
of the temperature cycles with distance from the performed on quite small specimens, and except
surface the variation in stress is likewise dissi- for the permeability tests, none actually con-
pated rapidly, with the result that surface crack- tained mass concrete. However, the values given
ing due to temperature changes is confined to a can be used as a guide to the actual behavior of
relatively shallow region at and near the surface. mass concrete in service. First, it can be seen
Thus it can be considered that mass concrete as that the permeability of mass concrete is very
in dams behaves as though the surface, even small, a fraction of a foot per year. As a working
though cracked by temperature cycles, protects guide to the behavior of concrete, it can be con-
the structural integrity of the concrete below it. sidered that mass concrete gives up water with
5.l.5-The above statements about the effect great reluctance, but accepts it at a free surface
of variations in surface temperature on cracking fairly easily. Thus at a surface exposed to air,
explain how injudicious form stripping at time the surface is quite capable of drying out, while
of extreme contrast between internal and outside the concrete behind that surface has lost little
temperatures will inevitably result in surface if any, of its moisture content. This leads directl;
cracking. This phenomenon has been termed to surface shinkage cracking in mass concrete in
"thermal shock" and will occur when forms that two ways. The most common cause of surface
act as insulators are removed on an extremely shrinkage cracking is due to drying at the surface.
cold day. Modern steel forms that allow the It can be seen in the table of properties that the
surface temperature of the concrete to more concrete exhibiting the minimum shrinkage had
nearly correspond to that of the air reduce this a volume change of roughly 300 millionths, and
differential temperature somewhat. However, if this can be considered completely restrained
they are open to the objection that the thermal by interior concrete with all its moisture intact
shock may be felt from extremes of temperature and therefore with no shrinkage, surface stresses
right through the form into the concrete. Either greater than 1000 psi (70 kg/cm~) are a natural
a dead airspace or insulation should be provided result. Actually, concrete can withstand nowhere
to protect concrete surfaces where steel forms are near that tensile stress, and the result is an ex-
used. Insulation requirements and the age for tensive pattern of surface cracking. Exactly as in
form stripping to avoid cracking the surface de- the case of thermal cracking at the surface, these
pend on the air temperature and the strength of cracks will extend inward a short distance and
concrete. For protection requirements see ACI disappear in the region of moisture equilibrium.
306-66. 44 5.2.2-Whenever a flat surface of mass concrete
5.l.6-For an average concrete, 1 percent of the is finished as in a dam roadway, a spillway apron
annual temperature cycle will be felt 50 ft (15 m) surface, or a powerplant floor, care must be taken
from the surface. Thus for a high arch dam 100 to avoid the conditions causing "plastic shrink-
ft (30 m) thick, all of the mass will respond to age cracks." This cracking occurs under extreme
the annual variation of temperature in different drying conditions, when water evaporates from
degrees. Considering that any change in tempera- the upper surface of the concrete faster than it
ture will cause corresponding change in stress, reaches the surface by water gain. Even as the
it can be seen that the entire thickness of this concrete is setting, wide cracks appear, in the
dam will undergo stress and volume change. same pattern as found on a drying mud flat,
Stresses at any particular part of the dam will making ugly scars across the entire finished sur-
be the sum of two superimposed types of stress: face. These can be prevented in extreme drying
the structural stress due to the average tempera- weather by shading the area of finishing opera-
ture rise of the entire cross section and the local tions, by providing barriers against the move-

ment of the air, by fog spraying, by surface seal- greatly modified, particularly in the early ages.
ing, or by any other means available to prevent While the effects of pozzolans differ greatly, de-
surface evaporation. pending on the composition and fineness of the
pozzolan and cement used in combination, a rule
5.3 -Heat generation
of thumb that has worked fairly well on prelimi-
5.3.1-Since the outstanding problem of mass
nary computations has been to assume that pozzo-
concrete construction is the necessity for con-
Ian gives off about 50 percent as much heat as the
trolling the heat entrapped within it as the ce-
cement that it replaces.
ment hydrates, a short statement will be given
here of the thermal properties and mathematical 5.3.3-In general, the effects of water-reducing
relationships that enable the engineer to esti- retarders in concrete are felt only during the
mate rapidly the degree of temperature control first few hours after mixing and can be neglected
needed for a particular application. in preliminary computations using these curves.
Both the rate and the total adiabatic tempera- However, in studies involving millions of cubic
ture rise differ among the various types of ce- yards of concrete, as in a dam, the above remarks
ment. Fig. 5.3.1 shows adiabatic temperature rise should be applied only to preliminary computa-
curves for mass concretes containing 376 Ib per tions, and the adiabatic temperature rise of the
cu yd (223 kg/m:l) of various types of cement exact mix to be used in the mass concrete start-
with a 4% in. (114 mm) maximum size aggre- ing at the initial temperature contemplated
gate. Values shown are averaged from a number should be determined.
of tests; individual cements of the same type 5.3.4-The characteristic that determines the
will vary considerably from the average for that relative ability of heat to flow through a par-
type. As might be expected, high-early-strength ticular concrete is its thermal diffusivity which
cement, Type III, is the fastest heat generator and is defined/as:
gives the highest adiabatic temperature rise. h2_~
Type IV, or low-heat cement, is not only the - Cp
slowest heat generator, but gives the lowest total where
temperature rise. Since the cement is the active h2 =
diffusivity, sq ft per hr (m2/hr)
heat producer in a concrete mix, the temperature K = conductivity, Btu/ft/hr/deg F (Kcal/m/hr/
rise of concretes with cement contents differing deg C)
from 376 Ib per cu yd (223 kg/m:l) can be esti- C = specific heat, Btu/lb/deg F (Kcal/kg/deg
mated closely by multiplying the values shown p = density of the concrete, lb per cu ft (kg/
on the curves by a factor representing the propor- m 3)
tion of cement.
The value of diffusivity is largely affected by
5.3.2-When a portion of the cement is replaced
the rock type used in the concrete. Table 5.3.4
by a pozzolan, the temperature rise curves are
shows diffusivities for concrete made of a number
of rock types.


TYPE 3 Diffusivity of concrete,
~ Coarse aggregate sq ft per day (m2/day)
V --
40 Quartzite 1.39 (0.129)
Limestone 1.22 (0.113)

7 -nI :..---

1 // V
(f) Rhyolite 0.84 (0.078)
V - 30 (f)
0:: Basalt 0.77 (0.072)
1// /
~ V The higher the value of diffusivity, the more

I- 40
V readily heat will move through the concrete. If
CL 30
V -
the rock type is not known, an average value of

:;: diffusivity can be taken as 1.00 sq ft per day
(0.093 m2/day) although as can be seen from the
-I o table the value of diffusivity varies substantially
10 from this average value.
5.3.5-Another source of heat in mass concrete
I 14 28 90 180 365
0 is the variation of external temperature. G2 If the
external temperature variation can be considered
to be expressed as a sine wave, and if, as in a
Figure 5.3.1 - Temperature rise of mass concrete dam, the body of concrete is sufficiently thick so

METERS (NOMINAL) cooling of bridge piers. The following five ex-

o 30 6 I 9 I 122 15 2
1.0 amples are typical concrete cooling problems
which can be solved by use of Fig. 5.4.1. In these
1\ examples and Fig. 5.4.1, the following notation is
0:: <t
0.8 \ followed:
U CJ) 0.7 \ ' 1.0 FT2/DAY
= time in days
= diffusivity, sq ft per day
~ ~ 0.6
\ D
= thickness of concrete section, ft
initial temperature difference between
W W 0 5
,\ 8m =
concrete and ambient material
final temperature difference between con-
<t <t
0.4 \ ,.....---ANNUAL CYCL E crete and ambient material


~ ~ 0 3
\ Example 1
At a certain elevation an arch dam is 70 ft thick and
'\ has a mean temperature of 100 F. If exposed to air at
'2 0 2
65 F, how long will it take to cool to 70 F? Assume

0:: V?AILY ,CYCLEI "'"
~ h 2 = 1.20 sq t per day.

--- -
o I
Initial temperature difference, 00 = 100 - 65 = 35 F
\ 10 20 30 40 50
Final temperature difference, Om = 70 - 65 = 5 F
The portion of the original heat remaining is

8m = ~ = 0.142
Fig. 5.3.5 - Temperature variation with depth 80 35

From Fig. 5.4.1, using the slab curve

that the temperature variation is negligible op-
posite to the exposed face, the range of tempera- h2t = 018
DZ .
ture variation any distance in from the surface
can be computed from Then

R _ e- xV-7T"/h"'y t = 0.18D2 0.18(70)2 735 days

_ x_
Ro - h2 1.20

where Example 2
Rx is the range at distance x from the surface, A mass concrete bridge pier has a cross section of
Ro is the range at the surface (x = 0) 25 X 50 ft, and is at a mean temperature of 80 F. De-
h 2 is the diffusion constant termine the mean temperature at various times up to
'Y is the period of the cycle of temperature
variation in days 200 days if the pier is exposed to water at 40 F and if
the diffusivity is 0.90 sq ft per day. For a prismatic
For an average concrete with a diffusivity of body such as this pier, the part of original heat re-
1 sq ft per day (0.093 m 2 / day) the penetration of maining may be computed by finding the part remain-
the daily and the annual temperature cycles is as ing in two slabs of respective thickness equal to the
shown in Fig. 5.3.5. dimensions of the pier, and multiplying the two quanti-
ties so obtained to get the total heat remaining in the
pier. For this two-dimensional use, it is better to find
5.4 - Heat dissipation for various times the heat losses associated with each
direction and then combine them to find the total heat
5A.I-Studies of the dissipation of heat from loss of the pier.
bodies of mass concrete can be accomplished by Initial temperature difference, 00 = 80 - 40 = 40 F
the use of charts and graphs, or by direct com- For the 25-ft dimension
0.90 X t
When the body to be analyzed can be readily (25)2 = 0.00144t
approximated by a known geometrical shape,
and for the 50-ft dimension
charts are available for the direct determination
of heat losses. For instance, Fig. 5.4.1 can be 0.90 X t = 0.00036t
used to determine the loss of heat in hollow and (50P
solid cylinders, slabs with one or two faces ex- Then calculate numerical values of O.00144t and 0.00036t
posed, or solid spheres. The application of the for times from 10 to 200 days. See Table 5.4.1. These
values can be used with Fig. 5.4.1 to obtain the Om/O"
values found on these graphs can easily be made ratios for both 25-ft and 50-ft slabs. The product of
to a wide variety of problems such as the cooling these ratios indicates the heat remaining in the pier,
of dams or thick slabs of concrete, the cooling of and can be used to calculate the final temperature dif-
ference 0",. II", values are added to the temperature of
concrete aggregates, artificial cooling of mass surrounding water to obtain mean pier temperatures at
concrete by use of embedded pipes, and the various times up to 200 days.


days 0.00144t 0.00036t
( ~~ ) 25 (~)
50 (II:
0"') pIer
. (JIll Temperature,

10 0.0144 0.0036 0.73 0.87 0.64 26 66

20 0.0288 0.0072 0.61 0.80 0.49 20 60
30 0.0432 0.010B 0.53 0.77 0.41 16 56
40 0.0576 0.0144 0.46 0.73 0.34 14 54
60 0.0864 0.0216 0.35 0.67 0.23 9 49
100 0.144 0.036 0.19 0.57 0.11 4 44
200 0.288 0.072 0.05 0.40 0.02 1 41


0.2 /
y.o\~p /j

'/ ~\~
V / I
.06 / /' /' /
I /' " /
J / / ./

" 7
/' ~\~


I /' I~
~I~ .01
.008 /
/ /
/ /

I / /
I /
i7 V~V
I 7/
II /
I J /