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portunities of playing a concerto or sonata with piano, the soapbox prophets at Hyde Park in London

should cajole his accompanist into taping the piano part David Ben-Gurion's permission, I taped every yJQ
for him. The student can then play the piece with piano our memorable meeting at his house in Tel-Aviv
as often as he wishes, and the procedure is especially some background commentary from Mrs. Ben-1
satisfactory if he amplifies the sound through his speak- a unique personality in her own right. In Bangkok*'
ers at home. All that is required for this purpose is a corded the sounds of Oriental music so vividly th' *
patch cord, a matter of minimal cost. smells of the floating market seem to emanate froi
For purposes of this article, I have of course only ex- tape recorder whenever I play the tape. Perhap
plored the music possibilities of the tape recorder. But most vivid of all the tape-recorded experiences we
I cannot conclude without confessing that I use mine for wild, rhythmical dances of the natives in red
the further purpose of dictating every single word that skirts, by candlelight, in the unspoiled Yasawa Is
appears in print. On my trip around the world two years north of the Fijis. Do you see why I am partial tol
ago I surreptitiously recorded the inimitable oratory of tape recorder?


AND BASS TROMBONES Paul Tanner and Kenneth Sawl

During a recent visit to Hawaii, Professor Paul Tanner

and one of his students from UCLA, bass trombonist
Kenneth Sawhill, presented a series of trombone clin-
ics for the Oahu Band Directors' Association in connec-
tion with concert appearances. One of the works pro-
grammed on the concerts was the "Concert Duo for
Tenor and Bass Trombone," written by Mr. Tanner and
performed with the University of Hawaii Concert Band
under the direction of Professor Richard Lum.
The advent of such extensive use of the bass trom-
bone caused considerable inquiry concerning the new
importance of the bass trombone. One of the clinics led
to the following discussion:
Question: Professor Tanner, the performance of your Tanner: The bass trombone has surely come into
composition was the first time we have witnessed such own and I feel it will continue to gain in imports
extensive use of the bass trombone. Is this a coming When I go on a studio call in Hollywood now, if
trend? are three trombones, one is surely a bass. I am sure
soon, wherever there are two trombones used, one
Paul Tanner is a member of the faculty of UCLA and a na- be a bass. This is not just in studio work; Ken and I '
tionally known concert performer and clinician. He received the
B.A. and M.A. degrees at UCLA and in completing his doc- this more and more in all kinds of music around
torate. He has been first trombonist with the American Broad- country, and of course this includes school bands.
casting Company since 1951 and is in constant demand for Saichill: Could we put in a plea now that you dont JD
motion picture and television work, as well as recording and
solo concert appearances. Mr. Tanner has written a number of put your least competent player on bass trombon|
books on music and is also the author of a book on the bass Choose one of your best players; he should notion
trombone. Bass trombonist Kenneth Sawhill is a student of
Mr. Tanner's at the university and is the son of Clarence Saw- want to play the bass, but should be as talented a J
hill, well-known director of bands at UCLA, as anyone else in the section.
"Well, what's the difference between the piece must be large enough to operate with ease be-
ad the bass trombone?" tween low B\) and pedal F and even lower. It should be
There really is a great deal of confusion, not large enough to allow the player to have quick response
nong band and orchestra directors, and not only and maneuverability in this area. Never sacrifice the
dealers and manufacturers, but also among low tones for an easier upper register. A Bach 1%G or
Sfonists. 2G, or their equivalents, would be my suggestion.
We honestly consider them as two separate in- Tanner: Even on the tenor, we don't feel that a player
ents and the playing of each one is an art within should sacrifice his lower register for the upper. On ten-
|/Some fellows, at least for a while, were doubling or, start a young player with a middle of the road
pth; but playing the bass trombone has become mouthpiecenot too flat a rim so that the edge will be
art of its own now; doubling isn't really very sharp, not too wide a rim where it will cost him flexibil-
actory, anyway. I am sure Paul agrees with me ity, and a deep enough cup for good round sounds. I
I say that we have a tendency to frown on dou- only know Bach numbers, so I can suggest a 7,11,12, or
15, or their equivalents, for tenor trombones.
Yes. The approach is really quite different. I Question: I understand that both of those trombones
the primary difference is the sound. One of the are the same length; would you speak then about the
important aspects affecting the quality of the different ranges you should expect players to play in?
gd is the size of the bore. A typical tenor bore is Tanner: It's true, they are the same length, and the
ad .500, although you can find them as small as length actually determines the pitch of an instrument.
.or so. The typical bass trombone bore is around However, the larger bore and larger mouthpiece on the
and over. bass trombone make it easier to play low and harder to
tion: What is the bore size of your two trombones? play high. Ken, why don't you go first?
er: Mine is .500. Sawhill: Well, in the first place, we think of developing
hill: Mine is .562the biggest made by some man- range in just the opposite way than the tenor trombone
rers. Where a lot of the confusion comes is that players. We think of developing range downward, we
e manufacturers call their horns tenor trombones start in a comfortable area and work down. The bass
Ifen the bore is as large as .547; yet they will have a trombone must operate comfortably as far down as ped-
' trombone the same size. Some other manufacturer al E. He should be able to sound tones all the way down
' have an instrument they call a bass trombone and to pedal Bt).
(Xmld be only .545 or even smaller. Iv 2v 3v l>4v $6v b?v \>7- E valve
'mer: Naturally, the larger the bore, the more ten-
Icy there is to consider the instrument a bass trom-
|e, but there are actually instruments called tenor
nbones which have larger bores than some called
is trombones. Of course it depends on the individual, but if I were
phill: Therefore, because of this overlapping, the going to generalize, I would say that high school play-
Ire size cannot be the only determining factor. This is ers should be expected to play down to a pedal E. Also,
ly we say that the sound must be the main difference for all practical purposes, the upper register shouldn't
tween the two instruments and that this is not deter- be ignored, the bass trombone player should be able to
[pned by the bore size alone. get up to at least a high B\>.
anner: Manufacturers have a tendency to make the
iger bore horns from thicker metal.
estion: What does this do?
inner: Well, the thinner the metal thickness, the
lighter the sound. Now, by this I don't mean the hard- I/
ss or softness of the metalbut the thickness.
l: Three other important technical considerations One of the biggest practicing fallacies is that bass
the production of sound are the mouthpiece, the trombone players don't seem to practice much in the
eader pipe, and the size of the bell. Of course, on the real bass trombone register. They should spend most of
ass trombone all three of these are larger than on the their practice time from low B\j on down, emphasizing
trombone. those notes played with the trigger.
Question: Would you each comment on your mouth- 1 6 or Iv 2v 3v \>4v fev Vlv \>1 - Ev
?o.whill: I think that as far as the bass trombone is con-
aed, the first consideration should be that the mouth-
Tanner: Now that the alto trombone is almost extinct, sixth position can now be played in first with the 1
the tenor trombonist covers not only tenor parts, but depressed. However, sixth and seventh positions'
also alto parts as well. There are reference books that should not be neglected.
show you that the top of the tenor trombone is B\) or C 1 lv 1 2 2v 2 1 Ivl 2 2v2 ] lv 9
or D. ' 1- j!,;_i 'r
*):, ! 1 1 fi'~^
J \>j * J t1 b * W^V- W \ rW

Question: Mr. Tanner, with these obvious advan

bo " why don't you have an F attachment on your
Tanner: Well, I think if I had it all to do over ae
Actually, there really is no top, it is entirely up to the probably would. If I used it now, it would be mer
individual, and even this varies, depending upon how stay out of sixth and seventh positions. I have
the individual feels at the moment. Personally, I keep a ing those positions now for over 30 years and
useable, workable G available. Now, nobody needs that comfortable in them. The long arms help some. I j
G at all, but by having it, I then cut out the possibility have to also work on matching the sound with and!
of problems a fourth or a fifth lower, where I simply out the trigger. This is a facet too often overlook^
cannot afford to have any problems. If the C were my players who use the trigger. But actually, I do thin
top note, I'd be working terribly hard most of the time. a good thing on tenors. There are plenty of advant]
The other problem is that too often a conductor see
F attachment and puts the player on bass tror
parts, whereas he may not have either the sound,
ter, or technique for the low parts. His horn may :
ly be too small for the bottom parts. Of course we>
Going the other direction, reference books will show
see it happening the other way around too; players|
that without the F attachment, we are not supposed to
pretty big horns are sometimes really laboring to|
have any tones between low E and pedal B. However,
first trombone parts that go up quite high.
we do practice in this area, it helps open up the sound
Sawhill: This brings us around to the only other
all over the horn, so these notes can be sounded. Then
ence I think we should mention, that is the diffe
we go on down from pedal J5|j to at least pedal E; some
in repertoire.
of us practice on down below that, I practice down to Tanner: Let me speak of the tenor repertoire first, i
pedal C. I think you should expect your high school because most people know about this pretty well's
players to play at least up to C above middle C, higher old thought of trombones just playing bravura
for college players, and down to a pedal F. parts has long ago departed. We are now expect^
also play very lightly and delicate!}' all over our
I would like to make one big pitch for the need fon
players who can play very legatowe know that
both possible and logical, it just takes a lot of
work. Now, Ken, people really don't know a great <
Question: There has been mention about the trigger, about bass trombone literature.
the F attachment; is this another real difference be- Sawhill: In the past, bass trombone has been mainl|
tween the tenor and bass? orchestral instrument playing more or less glorified <3
Tanner: Not really, not any more. There are now plenty parts. However, this is certainly not the case at all- _
of trombones, called tenors by manufacturers, which day. Contemporary symphonic parts call for much rflj
have the F attachment. finesse than ever before. Certain individuals have
Sawhill: The standard, not the only by any means, but larized the instrument in other fields to the point
the standard instrument today that is called a bass a tremendous amount of flexibility and control is
trombone is built in B\) like the tenor, and it has an at- pected. Not only has the aspect of maneuverability I
tachment which lowers it a fourth into F and one means expanded, but also we are expected to play in a me
or another of getting it down another half a step into E. way and in a delicate manner beyond the
The biggest advantage is that the area between low E concepts of the instrument, Bass trombonists
and pedal B\> is clear and strongand this, of course, is vanced to the point now where this instrumenta"
a very important register for the bass trombone. It also whole new resource for composers and arrangers,
helps us to go on down below pedal E with the feasible added another unique dimension, another unique
length of tubing for this register. There are other advan- to the whole world of music in general. .
tages too when you consider that anything played in Tanner: We would like to emphasize very strongly.
pie who write music should become increasing- they challenge us, the more we will extend ourselves,
>e of the bass trombone and of the differences thereby benefiting the entire music spectrum.
i the tenor and bass trombones. Author's Note: The clinic continued on with discussions
would like these musicians to take advan- of the E pull, breathing, vibrato, methods of developing
this new development, realizing that the more flexibility, range, etc.


al years ago I attended a World Accordian Con- around the world. Funds could be gathered from many
hat was held in Toronto and was completely flab- sources, such as arts councils and art foundations, etc.
sted by the entire event. To begin with, the pro- 2. Performances and recording of new repertoire by
; that were presented over a period of several days saxophone soloists and ensembles from around the
^attended by overflowing and exuberant audiences world, accompanied by leading music ensembles.
over the world, dedicated to the accordian as a 3. Establishment of a bulletin that would provide infor-
leal instrument. I was amazed at the planning, ded- mation on new repertoire, material, and events of inter-
jon, and extremely high musical standards that I est to saxophonists and educators.
land heard and immediately envied the accordian 4. Presentation of awards for special merit.
for its devotion to an instrument which is en- 5. Recital programs and clinics.
l in the same uphill struggle in the world of music 6. Election of a committee to prepare for future pro-
i which the saxophone is involved. The accordianists grams as well as to stimulate attention to the saxophone.
i had a brilliant approach to elevating world inter- A World Saxophone Congress would no doubt have a
their instrument, and these meetings which take wide appeal to students, teachers, performers, music
|i every few years are something to behold. educators, and enthusiasts for the instrument from
pnce that time, at every opportunity, I have dis- throughout the world. These are but a few ideas which
1 the idea of holding a World Saxophone Congress might be looked into and I am sure there are many
leading saxophone teachers and performers in others worthy of study.
ope, Canada, and the United States. I have been de- I would like to suggest that now would be a good
|ted to learn that everyone feels as I do, that it would time to start the ball rolling towards the day when the
|a marvelous idea and if a program like this could first World Saxophone Congress will be held. In order
place it would be of great benefit to the future of to discuss the many problems and aspects which must
^instrument. be considered, I would like to suggest an informal meet-
|jam perhaps being too optimistic, but I think the ing of anyone who is interested in being involved in this