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DEPARTEMENT OF LEATHER ENGINEERING

HOSTING COMPANY:

Project title; UTILIZATION OF PRE-TANNING SOLID WASTE AS

PROTEIN SOURCE OF ANIMAL FOOD

LEATHER ENGINEERING 4 TH YEAR INTERNSHIP REPORT

Prepared by: ALEM MEHARI

ID NO: 0500246

Academic Advisor: Mr.shumet Tilahun

Company advisor- Mr.Huluf Brhan

October, 2016
DECLARATION
I, Alem Mehari a fourth year Leather Engineering student have undertaken my
internship Experience in Sheba leather industry from a period of February to June 2016
under the guidance of Mr. Shumet Tilahun (Academic Advisor) and Mr. Huluf Brhane
(company advisors).

I, the undersigned, declare that this Project is my original work and compiled according
to the internship report writing guideline given by the Institute-Industry Linkage office
of the Institute.

As the students academic advisor, I certify that the internship report written by the
student is his original work and compiled according to the guideline provided by the
institutes office as far as my knowledge is concerned.

Mr.Shumet Tilahun ___________


Name of the Academic Advisor Signature Date
ALEM MEHARI ___________

Name of the student Signature Date


I
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INTERNSHEP REPORT 2016

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

First let me start my thanks and glory to my almighty GOD for providing me hope,
strength and courage throughout my life. I am deeply indebted to my friends and family
for their support and guidance throughout the course of my studies & research.
Secondly, I would like to thank my company monitor Mr.Huluf Brhane for his
continuous support, guidance, through correction and effort in doing this project.
Especial thanks to my academic advisor Mr.shumet for his unreserved assistance in
developing my project & Ms. Aregash G/Michael for her laboratory support. Finally I
would like to express my appreciation and thanks to Sheba Leather Industry Private Limited
Company top Managements and company workers for their support in the internship time
and project work.

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
This final internship report covers my four months stay in Sheba leather factory from February
up to June, 2016.

The contents of the report have been divided into four chapters and the topics covered
include the company background, my overall internship experience, and the benefits I
gained from the program, my conclusions and recommendations for the company. To
help anyone reading this report better understands the discussed topics and ideas,
figurative illustrations and samples of works and different report formats which are
attached at the middle of the topics.

Generally, this internship practice enlightened me with different theoretical and


practical know-hows. Chapter one is about background of my hoisting company. Here
brief history of the company; its vision, Mission, main products of the company
suppliers, customers, machineries and utilities and other important information of the
company are included.

Chapter two discusses about a project work which I have done on utilization UN tanned
tannery waste as protein source of animal feed on the hide production (beam house)
department of the factory. The project contains project title, project statement, objective
of the project, methodology, identified problems and their solutions, result

&dissociation, Conclusion and recommendations.


Chapter three presents about my experience and my work tasks I performed during the
four month internship program. There are points which has been facing when I am
performing my work tasks what measures I have taken to those problems and benefits I
have gained from my internship program. The benefits are explained briefly in this

chapter. & references I used are written at the end of this project report.

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Contents
DECLARATION.................................................................................................... I
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .................................................................................... II
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ................................................................................ III
List of Figures ........................................................................................................................ VI

List of tables......................................................................................................................... VII

List of Appendix .................................................................................................................. VIII

List of Abbreviations ............................................................................................................. IX


CHAPTER ONE
1.Introduction
1.1 Background of the Company .......................................................................... 1
1.2 Mission of the company .............................................................................................. 2

1.3 Vision of the company ................................................................................................. 2

1.4 Objectives of the company .......................................................................................... 2

1.5 Suppliers and Customers ............................................................................................. 3

1.6 Main Raw Materials of the company .......................................................................... 4

1.7 THE OVERALL ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF THE COMPANY .............................. 5

1.8 PRODUCTION SYSTEM IN SIDE SHEBA FACTORY ......................................................... 6

1.9 ENVIRONMENT ...................................................................................................... 14

1.10 Social Activities ........................................................................................................ 14

CHAPTER TWO ................................................................................................. 15

2. UTILIZATION OF PRE-TANNING (Chromium free) SOLID WASTE AS PROTEIN SOURCE


OF ANIMAL FOOD 15

2.1. Introduction .............................................................................................................. 15

2.3 PROBLEM STATEMENT .............................................................................................. 16

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2.4 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY ................................................................................. 16

2.4.3 Research Questions ................................................................................................ 16

2.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY .................................................................................... 17

2.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY.................................................................... 17


2.7 LITERATURE REVIEW .................................................................................................. 17

2.8 METHODOLOGY ......................................................................................................... 24

2.8.1 DATA COLLECTION .................................................................................................. 24

2.8.2 MATERIALS AND EQUPMENTS ....................................................................... 24

2.8.3 Method ................................................................................................................... 26

2.9 Data analysis and presentation .................................................................................. 29

2.10 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION .................................................................................. 32

2.11 Cost analyses ........................................................................................................... 35

2.12 Challenges during the Internship Time ....................................................................... 36


2.12.1 Measures I take to overcame the challenges......................................................... 36

13. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION ....................................................................... 36


13.1 CONCLUSION ........................................................................................................... 36

13.2 RECOMMENDATION ................................................................................................ 37

CHAPTER - THREE ........................................................................................... 38

3. THE OVERALL BENEFITS GAINEDFROM THE INTERNSHIP ............................................... 38


Introduction ..................................................................................................................... 38

3.1 Basic Practical Skills I Improved ................................................................................. 38

3.2 Benefits In Terms of Up Grading Theoretical Knowledge ......................................... 39

3.3 Benefits In Terms Of Improving Interpersonal Communication Skills ...................... 40

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3.4 Benefits In Terms Of Improving Team Playing Skills ................................................. 41

3.5 Benefits In Terms Of Improving Leadership Skills ..................................................... 43

3.6 Benefits in terms of understanding about work ethics ............................................. 43

3.7 Benefits In Terms Of Developing Entrepreneurship Skills ......................................... 45

APPENDIX ........................................................................................................... 47 List of Figures

Figure 1.1 Over view inside Sheba factory....2


Figure 1.2 General Organizational Workflow of the Company.5
Figure 1.3 Activities in tanning workstation......7
Figure 1.4 Some products of tannery ....9
Figure 1.5 Shoe product having different styles...12
Figure 1.6 Shoe finishing and packing section.....12
Figure 2.1 Structure of hides and skins....19

Figure 2.3 Some of un tanned wastes..........23


Figure 2.2 Laboratory instruments...29
Figure 2.4 Pelt before and after dray oven ......33
Figure 2.5 The final product in the form of powder.....34

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List of tables
Table 1.1 Machine list of tannery plant....10

Table 1.2 Machines used on shoe production..13 Table


2.1 Composition of hide/skin.....18

Table 2.2 Percentage compositions of solid wastes generated in tanneries.....21


Table 2.3 Quantities of raw hide trimming......25
Table 2.4 Quantities of hide lime trimming & lime fleshing ......26
Table 2.5 Moisture content determination...32
Table 2.6 Determination of nitrogen content...33

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List of Appendix
1.1 Appendix ...........................47
1.2 Appendix ...........................48 1.3
Appendix ...........................49

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List of Abbreviations
1. FSU-Finished sheep upper
2. FGU- Finished goat upper
3. FHU - Finished hide upper
4.FSL-finished sheep lining
5. H/S-Hides and skins
6. Tig-tigray
7. WSH-wait salted hide

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CHAPTER ONE
1.Introduction
1.1 Background of the Company
Sheba Leather Industry plc. Is located on the northern part of Ethiopia, Tigray region,
Wukro wereda around 825 km far apart from Addis Ababa. It had established in
1993G.C in accordance with the commercial cod of Ethiopia; with initial capital of 94
million birr under Endowment Fund for Rehabilitation of Tigray (EFFORT) and it has
total production area of 1720m2. Firstly, this company starts with one plant that is called
tannery production. At this time the factory worked by producing leather product and
exports only crust (semi-finished leather) products. But by build up its capacity the end
product lasts until completely finished leather with different size and color.

Since, this past seven years Sheba factory extended by establishing another plant which
called foot wear production (shoe production) plant. Through these two plants it vast its
market locally and externally. During this ten year the company has become one of the
leading leather and footwear production in Ethiopia by efficiently use of resource,
getting export currency and preventing global warming.

It is furnished with new, state of threat production equipment and machines acquired
from the most respected companies/factories in the world wide leather industry. The
flexible and superior technological capacity they have, coupled with their highly
committed work force, gives them leverage to achieve their objectives and successfully
compete in the global market. This factory is on the out skirts of leather, ideally situated
for national and international communication. This web site allows them to deliver our
goods on time to local and international customers.

The special things about the company from other company are:
Used moderate equipment and machine in both plants which makes the working
condition so easy and to get required product with minimum defects. And also helps for
the workers to update their knowledge and scale with this new technology.

It works to have global attention for its product

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Tannery plant feeds to its foot wear plant, its main row material leather (in leather type
or in glove type).

1.2 Mission of the company


To provide best leather products to the international market through maximum utilization
of the countrys raw materials with continuous generation of wealth to the shareholders
thereby contribute its share to the regional & national economy.

1.3 Vision of the company


To brand foot wear and glove to the international market until 2019&20.
To become an exemplary organization in both the local and international leather &leather
production (shoe) market.

Exemplary in the sense that Sheba leather industry will be noted for;
High quality products and services
Value in return for money invested
On time deliver
Integrity
Respect and dignity for employees Profitability etc.

Fig1.1 over view inside Sheba factory

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1.4 Objectives of the company


To improve the type, quality and quantity of product
To produce shoe and finished leather with quality within country as well as export in to
Europe & other customers

To increase profitability
To satisfy customers
To be competitor in the market etc.

1.4.1 Value statement


Treating its internal and external customers the way that, they would want to be required
for their product.

Safety of employee to its first priority task. Because, workers are working on an area with
different chemicals and machines that can be harmful for their healthy.

1.4.2 Strategy
Develop one step, shop marketing
Continuously engage in employee and product development
Invest continuously on advanced technology where practical and economical
In calculate cost consciousness without compromising product excellence
Give priority to understand customers needs and meet their specific requirements

Develop team spirit and sense of ownership


Embrace open lines of company-wide communication

1.4.3 Core Values


Customer first
Loyalty
Learning culture
Commitment

1.5 Suppliers and Customers

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1.5.1 Suppliers
Because the company has two plants the supply and marketing department tries to fulfilling their
different inputs and searching market places for their output. For tannery plant the company
collects the row material skin and hides from different region of the country. Almost all leather
chemical such as sulfuric acid common salt available in local market. And for shoe plant the
company collects its row materials like outsole by importing currently from Italy and other
necessary material can get from local market. But the main source for producing shoe, leather
can get from local market.

1.5.2 Main Customers (end users)


The company has a production capacity of 25, 600 square feet of skin 11,200 square feet
of finished hide and 800 pair shoe per day. Currently the company is producing 600 pair
of shoe per day considering the long term commitment and Ethiopian government
policy, the company is designed leather for local and international market. About 80%
of the total production is exported to international market in the form of finished leather
and foot wear the major destination countries for the products are Italy, China, Russian,
Indian, France, Belgium, Sweden, Turkey and others. Some of local customers of the
company:-Local customer of tannery plant: Ramsey shoe industry, Tikur Abay Shoe,
Anbesa shoe industry etc

Local customer of shoe plant: Guna trading plc, Addis Ababa agent -Addis Ababa, Different
banks of Ethiopia; such as commercial bank, wegagen bank etc.

1.6 Main Raw Materials of the company


The raw materials that are used by tannery production plant are:-
Liquids such as: chemicals, cool water and steam water
Solids such as : chemicals, raw hides and skins Accessories and miscellaneous etc.

The raw materials that are used by shoe production plant are:-
Finished leather
Outsole

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Insole
Shank board
Shoelace
Accessory etc.

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1.7 THE
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1.8 PRODUCTION SYSTEM IN SIDE SHEBA FACTORY


All the production system chains performed in this factory are interconnected internally with
each other and externally with their supplier and customer. These processes cross each function
or department in the organization that contributes to achieving customer requirements.

The production system processed two major products firstly finished leather
product and this product passes into second phase which is production of different
shoe based on their style. Having those two productions we can see them as
tannery & shoe production plant.

1.8.1Tannery Production System


Leather processing in general comprises scores of unit operations. Well defined process
control parameters for each unit operation which would influences the quality of the
leather should be monitored and supervised with necessary attention. Proper control
measures are essential to achieve consistent quality, delivery schedule and customer
satisfaction. Close supervision of each unit operation. Any deviation from the
established protocol may harmfully affect the quality of the final product. Hence, this
leather process needed workforces that have basic knowledge about process and
manufacturing, developed machines and technology in general. Moreover of this
process is concerned about the quality because the row material (hide and skin) affected
and defected naturally or during process. That way inspection while the row material is
on store. Hence, this tannery production system starts right from warehouse.

Tannery operation, as seen in the above it concerned with processing row stock into
final leather hiving defined process planning and control parameter. Depending on its
row material, work flow and treatment required for its product the tannery plant flows
two major paths in producing skin (sheep, goat) leather and hide leather. Commonly
these two processes cover six main work areas, namely storage, beam house, tanning,
wet finishing, finishing and warehouse. Let see in detail of these basic terms:-

Storage: - it primarily used as storage room. It also take care activities like
receiving row materials from different suppliers, inspecting incoming row
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material in meeting their specification as their requirement, making the skin and
hide soft as they were by using bacterias

Beam house:- is the next workstation Cleaning and conditioning hides and skins
by beam house operations like soaking, liming, Un haring, DE liming and bating
represent the biggest part of the effluent load of tanneries.

Tanning: - it processed like tanning, DE-liming, bating, Re-tanning, splitting,


and Sam-setting. The purpose of tanning is to bring about irreversible of the skin
substance that is prone to putrefaction.

Finishing: - it process two major stages which is known as wet finishing and last
finishing process. In wet finishing process different drying system activity using
machine like Sam-setting, vacuum, overhead and vibratory stoking is
participated for drying skin and hide. In Last finishing includes spraying,
buffing, selection (its grade and size), inspection and area measurements are
among that activity participated.

Fig.1.3 Activities in tanning workstation

1.8.1.1Chemical Use-
While producing leather product different chemicals used as treatment process before
tanning, during tanning process or after tanning. Chemical treatment process of

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preparation for tanning can be classified into four stages: - Un-hearing, liming,
Deliming, and bating pickling.

UN hearing process is treated by alkali (sodium or calcium hydroxide) by


dissolved hair root and removing hair part.
Liming process is completing the removal of the hair and to alter the properties
of the skin protein (collagen) by immersing the hairless skin in a solution of alkali
and sulfide.

De-liming and bating process is a process of further treatment skin structure by


treatment with enzymes and further unwanted removal material is removed.

Pickling process treated the skin with acid to preserve them for up to two year.
After preparation process is finished it goes tanning or stabilizing process,
Tanning is the most chemically complex step. During tanning, the skin structure
is stabilized in its open from by replacing same of collagen with complex ions of
chromium. Depending on the compounds used the color and texture of leather
changes. When leather has been tanned it is able to breathe and to withstand 100
c boiling water, as well as being much more flexible than an untreated dead skin.
After tanning, leather must be neutralized (neutralization process) to remove
unwanted acids to prevent deterioration during the drying process. It carried out
using mild alkali's which have same effect on the chromium. Next is dying, using
a variety of dyestuff types it gives different colors. Finally, Fat liquoring is
processed which tanned fibers are treated with reactive oils, which attach
themselves to the fibrous structure, and lubricate them so that they can move
readily in relation to one on the, producing a soft, supple leather.

1.8.1.2 MAIN PRODUCTES OF TANNERY PRODUCTION


In tannery production there are sheeps, goats Hides products.

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Sheeps product:- FSU iron

FSU Napa soft


FSU Pluton(black)
FSU Joive(black)
FSU Aniline
FSU Pigment (smooth)
FSL Napa soft
FSL Pluton
FSL Joive
FS glove
Goats product:-those are
also like that:
FGU military
FGU Coral
FGU Suede
FGL local
FGL export
FGL coral
FGL milled are some of them.

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The hides products are also listed as follow.


The HF upper
HF Lining
HF Suede
HF Military
N Split
N Suede
Corrected grain AND
Glove are all most of them.

Fig1.4 some products of tannery


In tannery production plan different kind of machine used in each stages setting based on
their performances. Here are same list of machines

No Stage Machines used

1 Beam house section Drum and Flashing machine

Drum machines(for tanning and re-tanning), Samsetting,


splitting machine
2 Tanning section

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Buffing ,Rotary stacking, Vibrate stacking ,Overhead


Crust preparation conveyer and Vacuum drier machine
section
3

Spray, Area measuring and Ironing machine


4 Finishing section
Table.1.1 Machine list of tannery plant

1.8.2 SHOE PRODUCTION SYSTEM


In this production process the main product is the shoe having different size and style
by using leather as the major input (in which it produced in its own tannery plant) and
other row material like outsole and shank board. Beside shoe production glove is also
produced and like that of shoe production the main sources of its row material is from
tannery plant.

Fig 1.5 shoe product having different styles

Inside this production system different operation are activated. These are cutting
operation, preparation for stitching, stitching operation, bottom operation, assembly
and finishing. Let see in detail of each activity:-

(A)Cutting operation: - it cuts


Upper and lining leather
Synthetic materials
Reinforcements
Insoles using dies and patterns
(B)Upper preparation

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Long stomping
Ironing (use to assembly of textiles and upper through heating)
Skiving, marking and Conditioning (C)Stitching operation

Stitching
Folding and perforating Jewelry attaching and buckle attaching, Top puff
ironing and cementing.

Lining trimming
Toe performing and vamp crimping

(D)Bottom operation

Mould back and front part of upper shoe


Shank board ,Attaching vamp lining and upper
Roughing inside front vamp
Preparing shoe lace
Cleaning the upper
Preparing insole and Attaching insole
Skive, shank board, mould and trimming.
(E)Assembly (Lasting) operation

Attaching in sole with last


Attaching upper with last after gluing the upper Toe last, Side last,
E last

Heat setter, removal nail

upper smoothing

polishing and rough


marking attaching upper with sole

cooling and De-last


(F)Finishing operation

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Inspection
Thread burning
Shoe cleaning, inserting
shoe lace, inserting paper
creaming, inserting the caver sole
Shoe spraying with fillers and packing.

Fig; 1.6 shoe finishing and packing section

In shoe production plant different kind of machine used in each stages setting based on
their performances. Here are same list of machines used on shoe production

No Stage Machine used

1 Manually using knife ,Cutting press arm &


Cutting section Overhead machine

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2 Upper preparation

section Skiving ,Stamping ,Ironing & Marking machine

3 Toe puff attaching, Hammering, Sewing


machine( flat bed, post bed, single needle, double
Stitching section needle, zigzag) & Folding machine

4 Bottom section Molding ,Skiving ,Overhead ,Roughing ,Trim


round
& Gluing machine

5 Assembly Toe last, Cooling chamfer ,Vibrate smoothing ,


(lasting)section Rough machine & Sole Press machine

6 Finishing section Thread burner ,Conveyer, Polishing Spring &


Stamping machine

Table.1.2 Machines used on shoe production

1.8.2.1 Products of the Shoe Plant


In the shoe plant a numbers of fashioned products are introduced. Some of them
are such the:-

Lady Ballerinas, winter boots, sandals, classics and fashion casuals


for both winter and summer seasons

Men formal shoes, winter boots, sandals, trendy casuals &


moccasins for both winter and summer seasons

Industrial gloves and men and women working shoes


Men & women dress belts, wallets and purses
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1.9.ENVIRONMENT

The Company has equipped with modern effluent treatment plant with the aim to do
business both sensibly and responsibly it has primary & secondary waste water
treatment plant.

1.9.1 Type of liquid wastes


Saline waste It is the first wash of socking which has Baume meter reading
greater than one (>1).this waste screened by bar screen which retains hair and
extraneous materials.

General waste It contains the third or fourth wash of socking (Be<1).Tanning


waste except chrome and pickle spillage, Lime bath that is spilled on flour,
Fleshing spillage ,Shower and toilet wastes Retaining wastes except chrome
spillage, Finishing liquid wastes.

Lime waste the spent liming liquors contain about 100% of the total sulphide
and alkalinity, and 50-60% of the total suspended solids, BOD and COD
generated by the tannery effluent the spent liming and first successive washing
waters are collected and sent outside the tannery to the effluent treatment plant
by a separate piping line

Chrome waste it consists of tanning waste and Retaining during re-chroming spillage.

1.10 Social Activities

This Company participates in the following social activities.

Sport: it has its own sport club.


Participates in different infrastructure.

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CHAPTER TWO
2. UTILIZATION OF PRE-TANNING (Chromium free) SOLID WASTE AS
PROTEIN SOURCE OF ANIMAL FOOD

2.1. Introduction
The leather industry generally uses hides and skins as raw materials, which are the byproducts
of meat and meat products processing industry. In this respect, the leather industry could
have easily been distinguished as an environmentally friendly industry, since it processes
waste products from meat production. However, the leather industry has commonly been
regarded as a polluting industry due to the bad smell, organic and inorganic wastes and high
water consumption caused during traditional manufacturing processes.

The leather can generally be processed in three steps. The first step is removal of the
unwanted components, hair, adipose tissue, fats, etc., leaving a network of fibers of hide
protein. The second step involves reacting of this network with tanning materials to
produce a stabilized fiber structure. The third step is to build onto the tanned fibers
characteristics of fullness, color, softness and lubrication and finish the fibers surface to
produce a useful product.

Leather industry which plays a crucial role in the countrys economy, contributes to
environmental pollution by dumping the solid wastes into the land and the water bodies.
Even though disposal methods such as landfill disposal, thermal incineration and
anaerobic digestion are available, they again contribute to pollution and cause additional
economic burden to the tanners. Solid wastes generated in leather industries contribute
mainly skin trimmings, keratin wastes, fleshing wastes, chrome shaving wastes and
buffing wastes that constitute the highest collagen protein content as the main
component. In this present study, a protein containing solid waste obtained from Un
tanned hides has been focused, as this contributes about 60-70% of the wastes generated
from pre-tanning (chrome free) operations in tanneries and currently being wasted in
the open areas, thus creating the solid waste disposal problem in tanneries Instead of

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disposing them, it would be better to recycle them and reuse them as a raw material for
another industry such as animal food industry.
2.3 PROBLEM STATEMENT
The sustainability of the leather industry crucially depends on how well it manages the liquid
and solid wastes. Solid waste management is becoming critical the global leather industry has
gained a negative image in the society not only because of pollution causing potency but also of
its dirty nature due to the generation of huge amount of solid waste. The protein containing tannery
solid waste dumped without any effective usage and becomes a source of pollution (serious
problem) for the Sheba leather industry, In addition to lose money.

2.4 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

2.4.1 General Objective


The primary objective of this research study is production of animal feed from the wastes
generated by the industry, so as to find an effective utilization solid waste.

2.4.2 Specific objectives


To Produce clean environment
To Use as a Source of food (protein) for animals such as dog chew, poultry feed, fish feed,
pat feed etc.

To gain income, revenue.

2.4.3 Research Questions


How Mach amount of waste generated by the tannery?
How Mach amount of protein content are their?

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2.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY


Animal feed production from tannery solid waste has economic and environmental advantages for
the country and the tanning sector. Some of these are;

Environmental pollution due to tannery solid waste will be solved and the tanning
sector bad public image will be reduced since one of the very polluting wastes
is used as a feed Stock for animal feed production.

Solid waste as source of animal feed-protein can be used directly or by blending


with anther supplements (nutrients) In order to prepare the most economical
mixed feed, it is essential to use the cheapest Available ingredients with the
highest feeding values.

The tanning industry can sell the solid waste and get extra profit and also save the
money invested to dispose of the solid waste.

Producing feed from such kind of industry wastes promotes Green Technology and
Benefit the country from Clean Development Mechanism (CDM).

The result of this project work used as a base line for other researchers who further
study on this area beyond the scope of this project work.

2.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY


The scope for the present study is to identify and develop a viable methodology for the
utilization of tannery wastes generated in Sheba leather industry for applications of
animal feed, leading to cost saving in terms of waste management. The scope is limited
to untanned solid hide wastes alone and does not cover other wastes such as hair or
tanned wastes.

The present study is aimed to effective use of tannery solid waste, utilizing and
optimization of waste usage in tannery and preparation for animal feed.

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2.7 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.7.1 Hides and skins


Hides and skins are defined according to the British standards that, the hide is the raw
skin of mature or fully-grown animal of large kinds such as cattle, horses and camels.
And the Skin is raw skin of mature or fully-grown animal of smaller kinds, such as
sheep, goat, reptiles, birds and fishes, or the immature animals of larger species, e.g.
calves and colts, H/s are raw material of leather. They are tissues of animals body made
up of living cells and their products [3].

2.7.2 Chemistry of Hides and Skins:

2.7.2.1 Chemical constituents:


Hides and skins consist of water, protein, fatty materials and some mineral salts. Of
these the most important for leather making is protein. It consists of many types. The
important ones are collagen, which, on tanning, gives leather the approximate
composition of hide is as follow [3].

0.3% 29% 2% 1% 0.7%


Table 2.1: composition of hide/skin

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All h/s are made up of the above constituents, but the figure of keratin varies widely depending
on the amount of hair present, and the figure of fat is also varying.
2.7.2.2 ILLUSTRATION OF THE STRUCTURE OF HIDES AND SKINS

Fig2.1 Structure of hides and skins

2.7.3 Proteins of animal skins


The main constituent of hides and skins is protein which is the leather forming substance, there
are two types of protein:-

(i) Globular protein as albumins, globulins, and various protein mucins and melamine
(Removed in beam house operation).

(ii) Fibrous protein as keratin (epidermis, Hair), collagen, elastin, and reticulins. (Structural
protein substance for leather-making)

The above-mentioned Proteins other than collagen are mostly taken from hides and skin,
so only collagen remains for conversion into leather. Hides have more protein content
than of goat and sheep skin [3].

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2.7.4 Histology of animal skins/hides


The natural structure of animal skin or hide is very important in the ultimate leather which
can be made from the structure, most hides and skins consist of three parts,

such as
(i) Epidermis (ii) Corium or true skin and (iii) Hypodermic or adipose tissue.
The epidermis is a comparatively thin layer which forms the upper boundary of the
skin. This layer measures only 1% the total thickness of the skin and serves to protect
the corium which is the most important part of the hide & skins.

The corium is a much thicker layer of connective and other tissues which constitute the
true leather forming substance of the h/s. The corium is divided into two distinct layers:

(a) Corium minor or grain layer: - is the top of the Corium constitute about 1/5 of the total
thickness of corium & differs structurally from the main part.

(b) Corium major or reticular layer: - This is the main part of corium appearing
As net like fibers of connective tissues. The entire corium is an interwoven structure
consisting of several fibers grasped together. In practice, the corium or true skin is that
portion of the h/s. Which is called pelt, and from which the hair has been removed.

The adipose tissue is the tissue left adhering to the flash side of the h/s. It Consist chiefly
of fat cells, containing tallow like fats, with a few scattered fibers. There is also some
muscular tissue. All these structures are removed in the flashing operating.

2.7.5 Introduction to solid waste in leather manufacturing process


Tanneries create highly polluting solid and liquid wastes during leather processing at
different stages such as fleshing, shavings, tanning, finishing etc. Approximately, 250
kg of finished leather product is obtained from 1 ton of raw salted hide while other
protein goes into wastes [4]

2.7.5.1 UN tanned waste generated in hides &skins processing

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Un tanned wastes from tanneries are generated in the pre-tanning process and contains
the highest protein content and currently being wasted in the open areas, thus creating
the solid waste disposal problem in tanneries [4]. The quantification of waste generated
during leather processing at different stage of leather manufacturing process have been
quantified and provided in the following.

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No Type of solid waste Discharge percentage (%)

1 Raw trimming 5-7


2 Fleshing 50- 60
3 Trimming 2-7
4 Chrome shaving, chrome splits and 35-40
buffing dust

Table 2.2: Percentage compositions of solid wastes generated in tanneries

2.7.5.1.1 RAW TRIMMING WASTE


Cured hides and skins arriving at a tannery are trimmed to remove the nostril parts
including ear holes, extra fore & hind shanks, any tail part and loose parts of belly are
trimmed off ,it Depends on correct location of ripping cuts & judicious trimming other
perimeter areas which do not go into the making of good leather. Trimmed hides are
sorted for size and weight and formed into batches. The trimmed hides and skins are
then ready to undergo the next treatment Soaking.

2.7.5.1.2 LIME FLESHING WASTE


During leather processing, high amount of solid waste are generated. Fleshing waste is
one of them. Substantial quantities of fleshing waste in the form of green fleshing,
Lime fleshing, lime splitting and trimmings are generated from the tanning industry.
For instance, every 150 ton per day of processed leather generates 200-300 kg as wet

limed 12 Fleshing (LFs) in addition to other wastes.


Limed fleshing: - This is obtained while scraping out the limed hides and skins either by
hand or by machines. The fleshing is protein rich comprising of coetaneous muscle
layers and subcutaneous adhering tissues, which are undesirable in the subsequent
operations of leather manufacturing. The flesh is composed of varying amounts of fatty
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adipose tissue, blood, vessels, nerves, and voluntary muscles. It is possible to recycle
these products and even use them as raw materials for different industries.
The limed fleshing are currently collected by the glue, adhesives, and gelatin
manufacturers and also by animal feed manufacturers.
Over the past several years, researchers have developed processes for recovering
collagen, protein and fat fraction from this material .It has been reported that the
fleshing contains 4-18% fat, 5-7% proteins, 1-2% sodium chloride and 2-4% sodium
supplied in addition to 62-80% water [4].

2.7.5.1.3 Limed trimmings:


After the fleshing operation, the h/s are trimmed to remove the rugged and torn edges.
These trimmings are also protein rich in nature & found to be good raw material for
glue, technical gelatin, & animal feed. The limed trimmings are 27% on the wet weight
of the hides. Un-tanned trimmings can be a good source for production of

collagen.

Pakistan's Leather Industry sale there solid tannery waste to local poultry feed
manufactures; they manufacture the feed in traditional way in clouding the chromium
contending solid waste.

2.7.6 Animal feed

2.7.6.1 Introduction
In order to prepare the most economical mixed feed, it is essential to use the cheapest
Available ingredients with the highest feeding values. Several aspects and limitations
are to be taken into account, such as: maximum allowances of certain ingredients, toxic
substances, and fat content. Prices of individual feeds should be compared on basis of
their feeding Characteristics, in which energy and protein are most important.

2.7.6.2 Animal Nutrition, Feed and Feeding

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There are seven major classes of nutrients that are needed by animals thus are
proteins, fat, vitamins, carbohydrate, minerals and water.
Sources of proteins -Animal & plant, Proteins Compared to plant proteins, animal
proteins are higher in quality because of a better balance of essential amino acids.
The solid wastes from pre-tanning operations are highest in protein content &
comprehensive review of the possible alternative protein sources for farmed tilapia has
been reported by [5].

Proteins are complex organic macromolecules containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen,


nitrogen, and usually sulfur. They consist of one or more chains of amino acids. Proteins
are fundamental components of all body cells and include many bio

chemicals (such as enzymes, hormones, and antibodies).


Every animal must have a constant supply of protein in Order to remain healthy.

2.7.6.3 Formulating diets for animals


A feeds nutritive value and digestibility vary within the different classes of animal;
however, producers can access dependable guides to assist them in matching feeds to
animal needs. Nutritionists have developed feeding standards for determining daily
nutritive requirements of the animals.

It is important to know and match the protein requirements and the amino acid
requirements of each animal species reared. For example Protein levels in aquaculture
feeds generally average 18-20% for marine shrimp, 28-32% for catfish, 32-38% for
tilapia, 38-42% for hybrid striped bass. Most fish farmers use complete diets, those
containing all the required protein 18-50% [6].

And Poultry generally for Laying Hen Diets Age from 0-17 + weeks needs Energy 2850
kcal/kg, Protein 16-18% & for Broiler and Turkeys Diets Age from 0-7 weeks energy
3000-3200 kcal/kg & Protein18-28%. [7].

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The Protein requirements for different animals are differ depending on the animal
species; age, Protein requirements also vary with rearing environment, temperature &
living condition (water/land), as well as the genetic composition & feeding rates of the
animal. [7].
2.8 METHODOLOGY
To complete this project report data collection methods like direct observation,
interview, experiments and reviewing documentation are used. Observation is done
within the beam house section. Then I have identified the problems which is waste
during the process of leather making.

Another way informal interview (oral interview) are done for some responsible persons
who are engaged in the processing part .They are operators who perform the activities,
supervisors who supervises the operators and peoples in the management position.

2.8.1 DATA COLLECTION


During the internship program I collected datas which related with this project by two
main methods;

I. Primary data collection


Interview
Observation
experiments

II. Secondary data collection

Internet access
Text book

2.8.2 MATERIALS AND EQUPMENTS

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In this the raw materials, chemical and reagent required for these project and the
experimental procedures followed, the instruments, characteristics and illustration
depicting the experimental setup.

2.8.2.1.1Raw Materials

Lime trimming: trimming after the fleshing is completed

Lime Fleshing: - waste during the fleshing operation


Hide trimming: trimming of the hide before soaking

2.8.2.1.2 Chemicals

All the chemicals used like-sulfuric acid; sulfuric acid is strong acid, chemicals for
nitrogen & protein content determination.

2.8.2.2 Apparatus used in Laboratory instruments


Apparatus used in Laboratory instruments

10 ml, 250 ml, 500 ml glass beaker, Standard Measuring Flask, Round bottom
flask, Burettes, Micropipettes, Heating mantle, Dropper, Scissor.

Refrigerator, drying Oven, Magnetic stirrer, Analytical weighing balance, dish,


knife (cutter), phonolaphtalin and litmus paper and Grinder.

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Fig 2.2 Laboratory instruments

2.8.3 Method

2.8.3.1 Sample Collection and Sample Pre-treatment


Enough amounts of hide trimming, lime fleshing, and lime trimming waste was
collected from the hide production section of Sheba. Three types of samples were
collected from hide trimming, lime fleshing and lime trimming, was washed with
copious amount of water and taken for hydrolysis. Those wastes have lime and sodium
sulfide. Hence, the limed fleshing and trimming was washed with water and de-limed
with sulfuric acid and taken for further processing. The pH of the flesh trimming before
washing was greater than 12.8, after washing 8-8.5 and after neutralization 6.8-7.2 and
stored at 4 C in refrigerator.

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Figure 2.3: pre tanning wastes left to right hide trimming, lime fleshing liming trimmings.

2.8.3.2 General Process Descriptions:


First Calculated quantities of raw trimming are taken to soaked & limed in small testing
dram then drain out lime fleshed waste where collected after the fleshing operation &
lime trimmed waste after the fleshing operation was finished taken from hide. Those
waste samples was washed properly (de-limed) for 2-3 hours first with pure water and
then with diluted sulfuric acid wash (neutralize) repeatedly to remove all chemicals
inside the pelt (waste) then check the removal of the chemicals using phnoliphtalin by
cutting.
The color of the pelt became color less meaning no chemical is inside & the PH of the
liquor was measured using the Litmus paper initially the PH of the sample waste was
12.8 after de liming and repeated washing the PH of the fleshing waste was found
around 7.2 and then cut in to small pieces using knife to the smallest possible size, The
treated waste were dried inside the oven to remove the moisture content. Dread using
san dray or using drier Grind using grinder or manually the powder we found the powder
taken to check & measure the amount of nitrogen & protein content using the Kjeldhal
method.

2.8.4 Methods of Determination


The first step in the sample preparation was de-limed and washing then to reduce the size
by cutting, the wet sampled.

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PH: The samples pH was checked using pH paper.

Phonalptalin to check the removal of the chemicals

2.8.4.1 Moisture Content


Weigh moisture sample immediately and record as wet weight of each sample. A set
of three samples from each raw material waste weighing approximately in grams were
placed in a dish (weight of the dishes already noted) and dried at a temperature not
exceeding 102 C in an electric oven for 4 hours. After that cool and measured and
placed again inside the hot air oven for 1hr until to get a constant weight. Allow the
sample to cool. Weigh the cooled sample again, and record as the dry weight of
samples The moisture content of the samples is calculated using the following equation
[8].

W% = A-B*100
A
Where: %W = Percentage of moisture in the sample,

A = Weight of wet sample (grams),


B= Weight of dry sample (grams)

2.8.4.2 Nitrogen and protein content


To determine the total nitrogen & protein content of the sample a Kjeldhal method was
used [8]. The sample was first digested in sulfuric acid using NH3and CuSO4 as catalyst
at 450 0c for 2 hours converting all N to NH3and ammonia was then distilled and
titrated against 1.0N HCL. The appearance of violet color was found to be the end point.
Using the recorded titration value and the relation below the % of nitrogen was then
calculated.

%Total Nitrogen = Burette reading* Normality of HCL*1.4007

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Weight of the sample (grams)

To determine the protein content

%P=%N*6.25

Where: %P = percentage of protein %N= percentage of Nitrogen

2.9 Data analysis and presentation

No Date Type Origin


Number of Trimming
hide waste/kg

1 19/09/08 10pcs 11 WSH A.A

2 19/09/08 10pcs 16 WSH Abergele

3 22/09/08 10pcs 14 WSH Tig

4 22/09/08 10pcs 18 WSH A.A

5 23/09/08 10pcs 17 WSH A.A

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6 Total 50pcs 76

Table 2.3 quantities of raw hide trimming

The average quantity of hide trimming per pc is then:

Average= Qi/N

Where, Qi=individual quantities of trimming =76kg

N=No of trials=50pcs then Average = 76kg/50pcs =1.52kg/pc

Wet salted hide: 100% of the total purchase

Production capacity of the company: 600 hide/day

Then 1pc=1.52kg

600pcs=? Kg=912kg/day raw hide trimming

Hide
Date Size No of Quantity(pc) Lime Quantity of
S/N Drum Trimming hide lime Type Origin
quantity/Kg fleshing /kg of hide

1 24/09/08 XL,L 2 500 237 715 WSH Tig

2 25/09/08 XL,L,M 3 750 356.7 1074.1 WSH Tig

3 26/09/08 XL,L 2 500 238 718 WSH Tig

4 29/09/08 XL 3 750 361 1083 WSH Tig

5 30/09/08 XL,L,M 2 500 229.07 687.21 WSH Tig

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6 1/10/08 XL, 3 750 352.6 1057.8 WSH Tig

7 2/10/08 XL,L,M 2 500 235.8 706.46 WSH Tig

8 3/10/08 XL,L,M 3 750 359.12 1078.6 WSH Tig

9 7/10/08 XL,L,M 3 750 322 967.93 WSH Tig

10 8/10/08 M ,S 2 500 212.65 636 WSH Tig

11 Total 25 6250 2903.94 8724.1

12 Average 116.1576 kg 837.5136kg

Table 2.4 quantities of hide lime trimming &lime fleshing

The average quantity of hide lime trimming per drum is then:

Average= Qi/N

Where, Qi=individual quantities =2903.94kg

N=No of trials=25 =116.1576 kg/250pc for lime trimming & 837.5136kg for lime
fleshing

The 250pc=116.1556kg

600pcs=? Kg

600pc116.1556kg/250pcs =278.77824kg/day

Thus the weight of lime trimming per pc is then (unit weight)

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Wt=278.7782kg/600pcs

= 0.4646304kg/1pc

The 250pc=348.964 kg

600pcs=? Kg

600pc348.964 kg /250pcs =837.5136kg/day

Thus the weight of lime fleshing per pc is then (unit weight)

Wt=837.5136kg /600pcs

= 1.395855kg/1pc

There for the company generates 278.7782 & 837.5136 kilograms per day, lime trimming
& lime fleshing waste respectively this is only from hide production.

2.10 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

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Sample Type of Pelt Wight Wight Moisture


no waste after oven content(M
C) %
1 Lime 67.7555g 26.6957g 60.6
trimmings

2 61.82118g 21.9465g 64.5

3 55.5125g 20.5125g 63.0


Average 62.7%

1 Lime 71.3555 g 16.7685g 76.5


Flashing
2 76.8211 g 23.0463g 70.0

3 62.3445 g 22.8854g 66.5


Average 71%

1 hide 69.5555 g 18.0844g 74


trimmings
2 after liming 69.3211 g 21.0043g 69.7
process
3 58.9285 g 22.3928g 62

Average 68.56667%
Table.2. 5 Moisture content determination

As we have observed from the above tables and analysis the hide production section have
high amount of moisture content.

Moisture content determination listed in Table 2.5. The average moisture content of the
wastes from raw hide trimming, lime flashings & lime trimmings was found to be

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68.56667%, 71% and 62.7% respectively. The lime flashing has higher Moisture content.

Fig.2.4 Pelt before and after dray oven


Nitrogen content the nitrogen content of the sample for each sample (dry based) were
determined and shown in Table 4.2. The hide lime trimming had the maximum nitrogen
content of 12.59% when compared with other samples types.

Description Weight of sample (grams) Nitrogen content


NO
(%)
1
Raw trimming 2.0010 11.4598
2
Lime fleshing 2.0016 10.3945
3
Lime trimming 2.0086 13.2496

Average 2.0037 11.7013

Table 2.6 determination of nitrogen content

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The % nitrogen content was used to calculate the protein content present in samples.
From the results obtained, the protein content of the lime trimming, lime flashing and
raw hide trimming was calculated to be around 82.81, 64.96 and 71.6%, respectively.
Hence, it could be observed that the Untanned waste from hides have more protein
content.

Fig.2.5 the final product in the form of powder


From the result the Sheba leather industry can get match amount of many from the
waste, out of 2228.2918kg/day waste 700kg of animal feed is prepared in the form of
dray powder this leads to cost saving and environmentally friend, 650661.206kg/year
of waste will be saved from disposal, this is from hide section only.

From the above result and discussion I have set the solution by avoiding the causes of the
problem. To increase the utilization waste of the hide production section the following
action must be perform.

the un tanned solid wastes collected from the different process like hide
trimming, lime fleshing, lime trimming,

the hide trimming is going to soak and limed then after the wastes together wash
& neutralizing with acid then pressure cooking at high temperature then dray it

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then after grind the powder then having rich in protein content send to the animal
feed manufacturers for blending with other supplement nutrients.

If the above solutions or points are satisfied, there will be good product will find and
working environment in the factory became cline. So the company gains the following
advantages:-

Reduce environmentally problems Such as venomous smells & foul of odor.


Gates revenue, money, gets extra profit and also save the money invested to dispose
the solid waste.

2.11 Cost analyses


If the company sale this by product to the animal feed manufacturers (framings) per
1kg by 4.50 birr.

Then 68.56667% as I explained in [Table2.5] then 31.4333 is dray.

Total UN tanned waste=raw trimming + lime trimming + lime fleshing

= 912kg+ 278.7782kg+837.5136kg =2228.2918kg/day

2228.2918kg 31.433/100 =700.43kg is dray

1kg=4.50birr

700.43kg =?

700.43kg 4.50birr =3151.935birr

3151.935birr per day

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That is 26 working days per month then

3151.935birr26=81,950.31birr per month. This cost is total cost with all so the total cost
gained (profit) is calculated as

Profit =total cost-cost of lost during work

=81,950.31birr-32531.64=49,418.67Birr

There are 292 working days in year so the company can gain 555,009.679 Birr revenue
annually.

2.12 Challenges during the Internship Time


Lack of related information with the title that I choice
Shortage of time and accessories to detailed with the problem
Lack laboratory equipments such as chemicals, near inferred spectroscope
Lack of computer service & internet serves.
Miss understanding of the internship program by some of company workers.

2.12.1 Measures I take to overcame the challenges


Using different library and reading books related to the title to have enough
information about the problem In order to prepare the problem in good manner
I work day and night including summer.

Having good situation to do the problem, I take the measure by communicating


with relative person working on the company, for gathering information by
asking a questions. What are the source of the problem, what are the reasonable
solutions

Select best direction for all challenges.

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Healthful relationship with the society of the company & other

13. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

13.1 CONCLUSION
Preparing feed from leather pre-tanning waste by processing the wastes to nutrients
form or protein, animal feed manufactured from leather industry waste, it is good source
of protein & Contend 64.96 -82.81% protein, which is digested by animals like meat-
meal protein (89.9%) as well as good alternative source for preparation of animal feed.

Animal feed production from tannery solid waste has economic and environmental
advantages for the country and the tanning sector, it needs law investment, is cheapest
Available ingredients with the highest feeding values. Can sell the solid waste and get
extra profit and also save the money invested to dispose of the solid waste.
Promotes Green Technology, The result of this project work used as a base line for other
researchers who further study on this area beyond the scope of this project work. From
the result the Sheba leather industry can get match amount of many from the waste, out
of 2228.2918kg/day waste 700kg of animal feed is prepared in the form of dray powder
this leads to cost saving and environmentally friend, 650661.206kg/year of waste will
be saved from disposal.

13.2 RECOMMENDATION

I recommended to concerned bodes

The tanner can consider converting the waste in to a usable product, as given in
this project report. Even the animal feed manufacturers in Ethiopia could avail
the opportunity and try to produce indigenous feed, which can be used by the
animal reproducers (framings) By doing this the tanner can reduce the cost of
elimination of solid un tanned wastes dump and create jobs opportunity,

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minimize the load of environmental regulation agent and reduce the cost of
animal feed, thereby making savings in foreign exchange.

Applying my project the factory can get profit of 555,009.679 Birr revenue annually
in pre -tanning hide waste

The company should assign person (expert) of solid waste manager in its
organizational structure so as to effectively work or manage the solid waste of the
industry.

The company have to use hide lime splitting rather than hide wait blue splitting this
is important in

Saving an amount of chemical in the process of like de liming, bating, pickling


and tanning.

good penetration of chemical with in short time


Saving the under splitting waste for production of animal feed because it rich
in protein content currently damped without usage.
CHAPTER - THREE
3. THE OVERALL BENEFITS GAINEDFROM THE INTERNSHIP

Introduction
During this internship program I gained a lot of significant things, not only in
academically states but also in social life. Thus important four months help me to
improving my practical skill by observing the maters, machine, and other technical
instrument and also raw materials that are usable in production process and the way how
to perform and yield the output.

The most important thing is this internship program creates a good image about our
future life i.e. the work we will do, challenges that will face, benefits I gained help me
to develop problem solving skill Benefits in terms of improving practical skill. During

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this intern ship I gained a lot of practical skill this program enables to evaluate out
practical skill and communication skill here are some method I used to improve my
practical skill

By giving special attention to the practice


By giving guest ions
By trying to know the environment
By benign alert to get information
By exchanging information
By repeating other and keeping the rule and regulation of factory

3.1 Basic Practical Skills I Improved


I learn how to set & operate the machines with different parameters.
I learn to attend safety precaution to produce products and also to be safe
from hazards.

I learn how to use proper fool handling


I know the basic elements and there functions of different machine with
their adjustment.

I learn how to manage waste in the industry and proper utilization.


I learn how to prepare dyeing solutions and how to check the quality of
finished leather.

I learn How to measure physical testing and the quality (quality inspection)
of leather.

I become to know how cut, sewing and assemble is performed in the leather
garment section.

3.2 Benefits In Terms of Up Grading Theoretical Knowledge

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During the formal learning process when I was in university I gained a vast theories and
other scientific ideas but offer I began the internship in Sheba leather industry I work
closely with my partners, I always think deeply about the issue and eager of find evidence
from different sources and prove it including the opinions of experts on the subject Walter.
During this intern ship program I realigned that the knowledge I had was not enough.
From that day I began to search out basic concepts.

The Basic Benefits I up Grades my Theoretical Knowledge


I gained basic knowledge about leather chemistry, tanning, leather
characteristics, dying of the leather with different colors etc.

I learn how to handle materials starting from raw to finished out put product
of the company

I learn how quality of raw materials is checked and the fundamental


requirements

I learn the different types of defects and the causes in beam house, dyeing
and finishing section.

I improved how to set and adjust different machines and their effect on to
the production.

Basic knowledge of shoe production process etc.


General knowledge of laws, codes, regulations, and procedures governing
the Sheba leather industry.
3.3 Benefits In Terms Of Improving Interpersonal Communication
Skills
I precisely improve my interpersonal communication skills in this practical section with
the employees of Sheba. Important parts to be fulfilled in interpersonal communication
include:-

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Greeting and responding to greetings


Giving thanks and responding to thanks
Asking for and giving permission

Responsible to others by acting ethically, legally and morally and by communicating


my feelings, thoughts, and needs etc. appropriately. I am responsible to my work
colleagues to perform my task effectively and in a manner that supports our joint
activities. In our relationships at work there are opportunities to strengthen our sense of
power by taking responsibility for ourselves, leaving others to be responsible for them.
I also improve a skill how to listen others to create good relationships for example by
prating the skills of session, i.e. eye contact, body language, silences and verbal
encourages ( by saying yes, you are right good etc.) I have taken measures to improve
my interpersonal communication and to create healthful relationships within my
colleagues.

These are:-

Knowing my self
Understanding others
Creating healthful relation ships
Understanding the environment etc.

I observe that each person has a different sense of personal honesty. It is better to be
honest and clear as much as possible for good communication. In real life every one
creates an impression. Each persons clothing her style, way of walking vocal quality
etc. contribute to creating the impression so for good interpersonal communication we
need to have a positive feeling for such impression inter personal communication helps
to improve self-worth and self-confidence and establish greater recognition that the
employee can contribute in a meaningful way. In my practical section I also improve to

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accept the idea of others, to encourage others and the desire to bend and shape others
behavior comes from good intentions as we want them to be.

Following are the ways that benefits me for creating meaning full relationships and helps
to improve my interpersonal communication skill from the internship. These are

To be good listener and speaker


Be polite
Attack ideas not people
Think legally
Avoid faulty generalization
Avoid confusing
Respect others e t c.

I have concluded that, the practice will be more helpful if you really care about for inter
personal communication

3.4 Benefits In Terms Of Improving Team Playing Skills


I have been improving my team playing skills in Sheba leather factory by practicing
team work I really understand team work is important to strength the effort to
accomplish the task. Ideas that are raised in team work help me to see one thing in
different angles and to be a multi directional thinker for elaborating my knowledge
regarding the given issue. In my observation and doing the following are necessary
when we are involved in team work activity:-

Making discussion of ideas

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Coordinate the team


Directing the discussion in terms of the team goals
Rising questions reminds and redirects the direction of the discussion
Rejecting ideas
Making decision
Go through implementing

If we follow and practice the points that are maintained in the above, the team work
will be successful. Fair integration of a team work has an advantage not only for
production but also for each and every individual of the team members by improving
different kinds of skills. I have got and improved a lot of things that are essential for my
future life span especially in the stream of work situation.

The benefits that are gained by team playing are:-

Improving skills
Progressing speaking ability
Improving self-confidences
Developing social interaction
Understanding my potential relatively
Up grading my potential and also individual members
Doing better work
Creating conditions, methods, techniques

When people come together in group we have to expect disagreements. The


disagreements are as a result of difference in opinions and views in issue. It may be
helpful if the team realizes the disagreement positively for good and becomes agreed
otherwise it may be lead to poor team interaction and hence task failure or poor
performance.

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There are a lot of non-functional factors in team work that creates poor performance.
Non helpful, on functional roles in team work are

Interfering with group process


Criticizing or blaming others
Giving attention to the self by excessive talking and boasting
Becoming in different or passive
3.5 Benefits In Terms Of Improving Leadership Skills
Generally, what I observed is that making tasks in can establish a remarkable working
media for the overall duties of the factory, it improves the skill of each and every
individual members of the team and it has a great role for the development and
transformation of our country.

I have got a practical skill that leadership can influence others to work towards the
achievement of objects and it is of the functions of management which includes
planning organizing, staffing leading, and controlling. From the internship I also
improve skills regarding transformational leader ship. Some of the characteristics of
transformation leaders include:

They see themselves as change agents


They are courageous individuals who take risks
They believe in people and motivate them
They are value driven
They are lifelong learners
The ability to deal with complexity, ambiguity and uncertainty They
are visionaries

When you take a part as a leader, you must not make it personal and dont in for personal
attack. In the other hand you have to change or modify your own position when you

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find other persons idea is better and more convincing. Gathering facts of figures
obtained from experiments or surveys and use for making conclusions and decisions are
duties of a good leader.

3.6 Benefits in terms of understanding about work ethics


Work being necessary for the survival of the human race for civilization and it is the
main concern of human beings. Work ethics is a sort of guideline which enables workers
to differentiate the right way of conduct from the wrong way of conduct has developed.
Ethical work conduct thus enables works to posses proper behavior and so as to develop
proper relationship with other workers and help they create good industrial
environment.

Common Ethical Rules of conduct for workers are

Punctuality

A worker is said to be punctual not only when he/she comes to work place on the time
set for work, but also when he/she meets deadlines and he/she is always available during
working hours so I have seen and practice throughout the time since I have been
assigned as team member in Sheba leather industry plc.

Proper Utilization of instrument of labor

A worker should handle the instruments in a way that she/he can use the instrument for
longer time; this includes developing habits like putting off the light when leaving the
office making sure that the lap is turned off, clean table etc. Possible I was trying to
develop this habit.

Working in Cooperation with colleagues

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This is one of the most very important conducts for any worker. A worker should make
sure that she/he has a good relationship with the other workers. The main rationale being
this rule is to create good industrial atmosphere conductivity for cooperation and better
productivity.

In effect work discipline results in increase quality and quantity of production and service.
A worker with a right conduct or good ethical standard

Shall not be absent from work unless for sufficient reason


Not to be late
Shall not involve in corruption
Shall have a good relations with the factory administration and the employees
Shall be competent
Similarly there are quite a lot of professional ethical rules by which members of a
profession are governed. Just like social norms, these rules inform the worker that
the type of conduct normally considered as acceptable or right in the profession.

Lack of good working ethics or misbehaving may lead the employee to a lot of
problems such as

Become boring and frustrating and he/she may hates his/her job
Staying in the same position for a long time Lack
of success etc.

3.7 Benefits In Terms Of Developing Entrepreneurship Skills


I am able to develop the most important entrepreneurship characteristics and skills that I
never has before those are as follows:

Need for achievement

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Willingness to take risk


Self confidence
Innovation
Total commitment
All rounder

Some important skills are

1. Oral and written communication skills


2. Basics of finance and accounting
3. Team work
4. Creativity and opportunity evaluation
5. Real time strategy and decision making
6. Comfort with change and chaos

REFERANCES
1. company Documents
2. Handouts of leather bio-technology & leather micro-biology
3. Preparation of leather Fat liquor cum filler from fleshing waste for Re tanning process in
leather manufacture By: Wintana Kassahun Athesis submitted to the School of Graduate
Studies of Addis Ababa University in partial fulfilment of the Degree of

Master of Technology in Leather Technology under Chemical Engineering Sep, 2014


4. Nutritional evaluation of animal fleshing as fish meal replacer in labeorohita c sumathi
and g.sekeran journal of aquaculture feed science and nutriation2 (2-4)610,2010.

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5. Understanding Fish Nutrition, Feeds, and Feeding -Steven Craig, Extension Specialist,
Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech ,Louis A. Helfrich,
Extension, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences.

6. Poultry Science Manual, 6th edition


7. Society of Leather Technologists and Chemists, Official Methods of Analysis 1996,SLC
304 (SLO 1/5 )

APPENDIX
Annex 1

Date Recipe for raw trimming

Material-raw trimming operational weight

Process % Chemical name Time Remark

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Socking 200 % water 2 hr. 3 time operational weight


(washing) Wetting agent based on raw
weight

20 % Water
Lime
Liming 8-10 % Sodium sulphlied Run over night

1.5 -2 %

Drain

De liming 150 % Water

Neutralization 2% Sulfuric acid 3 10+30

100%
Check removal of alkali chemicals phenolphthalein
PH=6.8-7.2

I-1 Recipe for raw trimming


Annex 2

Date

Recipe for lime trimming

Material-L.T.W

Process % Chemical name T0 Weight Remark

Washing 300% Water Operational weight


based on pelt weight
Socking

De liming 50% Water


1.4%
Neutralization Sulfuric acid

50%(1:20)

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Check removal of chemicals 100 % phenolphthalein


PH=6.8-7.2

II-1 Recipe for lime trimming Annex 3

III-1 solid waste disposal area inside Sheba leather industry

III-2 wet blue splitting waste

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III-3 in my work area

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