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TRANSPORT RESEARCH LABORATORY

Deparlment of Transport

Contractor Report 320

POROUS CONCRETE SURFACING FOR ROADS

by J A Dalziel
(British Concrete Association)

Copyright Controller HMSO 1992. The views expressed in this publicationare not necessarilythoseof the
Department of Transport. Extracts from the text may be reproduced, except for commercial purposes,
providedthe source isacknowledged.The workdescribedin this paperforms part of a Seedcorn Research
programme conducted by the Transport Research Laboratory.

Highways Resource Centre


Transport Research Laboratory
Old Wokingham Road
Crowthorne, Berkshire RG 1 1 6AU

1992

ISSN 0266-7045
Ownership of the Transport Research
Laboratory was transferred from the
Department of Transport to a subsidiary of
the Transport Research Foundation on 1st
April 1996.

This report has been reproduced by


permission of the Controller of HMSO.
Extracts from the text may be reproduced,
except for commercial purposes, provided
the source is acknowledged.
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Porous asphalt has been successfully developed as an effective
free-draining road surfacing material that reduces spray and
splash frez! szrfzce wntor -2nd rC2d:tyra iloise, Trials have - -
been conducted at a number of sites in the United Kingdom
since 1967. In contrast, work on the development of porous
concrete for road surfaces has been limited, although it has
been used successfully for a number of years for the
construction of sports areas subject t o foot traffic only and
on a trial basis for suspended car parking decks. Over the
last few years interest in the use of porous concrete for
roads has increased in Europe, particularly in Spain, France
and the Netherlands, and experimental road sections have been
constructed.
This report describes work carried out under contract by the
British Cement Association to establish, by laboratory tests,
a suitable concrete mix for trial applications in the United
Kingdom, taking account of recent advances elsewhere in
Europe.
The major factors that determine the suitability of a concrete
for use as a porous surfacing are its strength, durability,
surface drainage and noise characteristics.
It was found that the conventional measure of strength used in
the UK, the compression strength, gave low values. Strengths
above 20N/mm2 at 2 8 days were difficult t o attain. This was
not surprising in view of the known effect of voids on
compressive strength. However, the flexural strength, which is
a more relevant property in terms of the resistance t o
cracking of road slabs, was found to be adequate provided that
the mix incorporated a polymer and the optimum quantity of a
fine graded sand. Flexural strengths of about 4N/mm2 could
then be achieved at 28 days which compared favourably with
limits of between 1.5 and 3.5N/mm2 used as the criteria for
road trafficking in parts of the USA. Overall, these
measurements of strength suggest an adequate performance for a
road material.
The strain capacity of the porous concrete was found to be
more than twice that of conventional dense concrete,
Therefore, used as a thin surfacing on a dense concrete
substrate, porous concrete is unlikely t o fail before the
underlying dense structural layer, fatigue tests on composite
beams confirmed this to be the case.
Laboratory testing for freeze-thaw durability has always
carried the reservation that these tests are poor predictors
of performance under site conditions. As porous concrete is
not a conventional material this introduces another
complicating factor to the interpretation of laboratory
results. However, the use of a reasonably realistic regime for
freeze-thaw testing in this work has given a fairly optimistic
assessment of the durability of selected porous concretes,
Weight loss over a 50 cycle test regime was virtually zero,
although a loss of stiffness indicated that some damage was
occurring. As expected, the introduction of an air-entraining
agent as well as the polymer additive had little effect. Some
doubts concerning durability will remain until full-scale
tests under actual traffic conditions can be carried out.
Recommended minimum limits for voidage and hydraulic
conductivity of porous asphalt materials are already
established as 20 per cent and 325m/day, respectively. The
porous concrete mixes had voids contents of approximately 25
per cent which produced hydraulic conductivities generally in
excess of 400m/day. Clearly with this composition, the
drainage of surface water is effective and will markedly
reduce spray and splash problems.
Alongside the ability to reduce spray, the other major benefit
of porous surfacings is to reduce road/tyre noise, the
potential for which was assessed in this work by carrying out
sound absorption tests on core samples. The results compared
very favourably with corresponding tests on porous asphalt
laid on the M 1 Motorway which provided significant reductions
in vehicle noise levels of about 5dBA, porous concrete could
possibly give greater reductions in noise levels providing the
mechanism nf tyre/surface Iloise generztior! fer this t y p e of
surface is similar to that for porous asphalt.
The findings of this report are sufficiently encouraging to
recommend that confirmation of the laboratory results,
particularly those on durability and noise properties, is
sought on a full-scale test site under traffic. Although full-
scale trials have been constructed elsewhere, the paving
process is still in an evolutionary stage and would form an
important element of future development work.
CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION
2. FACTORS GOVERNING THE PROPERTIES OF POROUS CONCRETE
2.1 Volume percentage of voids
2.2 Hydraulic flow
2.3 Compressive strength
2.4 Indirect tensile strength
2.5 Properties of the matrix material

3. THE EFFECT OF SAND GRADING,


SAND QUANTITY AND POLYMER ADDITIONS
3.1 Curing
3.2 Water content
3.3 The effect of polymer modification
3.4 The effect of sand quantity
3.5 The effect of sand grading
4. TESTS ON POROUS CONCRETE USED AS
SURFACING BONDED TO DENSE CONCRETE
4.1 Preparation
4.2 Curing
4.3 Strength, modulus and flow characteristics
of the porous concrete
4.4 Freeze-thaw durability
4.5 The stress-strain relationships for the porous concretes -
4.6 The stress-strain relationships for the porous concretes
bonded to dense concrete
4.7 The effect of fatigue cycling on the porous concretes
bonded to dense concrete
4.8 Hydraulic conductivity of the porous concretes bonded to .
dense concrete
4.9 Abrasion resistance
4.10 Sound absorption

5. ASSESSMENT OF POROUS CONCRETE FOR ROAD SURFACING


5.1 Strength
5.2 Effect of voidage
5.3 Composition of the mortar matrix
5.4 Workability and water demand
5.5 Strain capacity and fatigue resistance
5.6 Freeze-thaw resistance
6. CONCLUSIONS

7. REFERENCES

FIGURES
APPENDIX
1. INTRODUCTION

Trials with porous asphalt toppings have been conducted at a


number of sites in the United Kingdom since 1 9 6 7 including the
A38 Burton By-pass in 1984[1,2]. Apart from factors which would
affect all types of porous topping, the useful life of porous
asphalt is limited by two effects; during earlier life when the
binder is soft, the surface is liable to close up, reducing the
texture depth and permeability; with time as the binder hardens,
it becomes more brittle and susceptible to failure under traffic
loading.
Trials with the more rigid porous concrete topping have been more
limited in the United Kingdom, although it has been used
successfully for a number of years for the construction of tennis
courts and other sports areas subject to foot traffic only.
Porous concrete surfaces have been used in trials of no-fines
concrete paving for suspended parking decks, for the car park at
the British Cement Associations car park at Wexham Springs and
for a short length of minor road near Ollerton. Apart from a few
exceptions these trials did not result in durable surfaces,
porous concrete is a difficult material to use under normal site
conditions, however it is concluded that it can be laid
successfully in the right conditions if the highest standards of
workmanship are employed. One major difficulty is maintaining
the relatively narrow band of effective water content required
to achieve optimum strength during mixing, placing and curing.
Similar work in the USA is reported by Meininger[3] which broadly
confirms the experience in the UK. In excess of 600,000 m2 of
porous concrete pavement for pedestrian and lightly trafficked
areas has been placed in Japan[l]. As a country with a high
average rainfall, its prime purpose is to combat the
accumulation of surface water and has therefore been laid over
porous sub-bases. Over the last few years increased interest in
the application of porous pavements is evident with four papers
given at the 6th International Symposium on Concrete Roads in
Madrid ( 1 9 9 0 ) being devoted to some aspect of this material.
These range from a consideration of the whole life costing of
noise reducing surfaces[S] to practical applications in Spain[B],
France[7] and the Netherlands[8] : The last two papers include
some detail of qualitative testing and effects of changes in mix
design. A BRITE-EURAM[ 9 1 collaborative programme of work
designed to optimize the surface properties of roads is due to
be reported at the end of 1 9 9 3 . An experiment with porous
concrete top layer on jointed non-reinforced pavement is
described by Kellersmann and Smits[lO].
For porous road toppings, the following can be concluded from the
laboratory and field evaluations described above:
1. A maintainable surface voidage in excess of 20% will absorb
a significant amount of vehicle tyre noise.
2. For speeds in excess of 50km per hour, the optimum porous
topping depth is 40-5Om. This is also adequate for water
drainage. .For lower speeds in urban areas the optimum
1
topping depth is greater.
3. The coarser voidage obtained by using aggregate in the
range 8-12mm is less prone to clogging and is more easily
cleaned than that obtained using aggregate in the range 4-
8mm.
4. With the present unrefined laying methods, porous concrete
pavements have had surfaces which resulted in more tyre
noise being generated than that with conventional concrete
road surfaces.

2. FACTORS GOVERNING THE PROPERTIES OF POROUS CONCRETE

The conclusions drawn from the literature are based on limited


field and laboratory experience. In order to establish some of
the factors which govern the properties of porous concrete, a
series of laboratory tests were undertaken, all based on a single
size coarse aggregate, 5-1Omm Mount Sorrel crushed granite. A
broad band of voidage level was investigated using both cement
paste and cement mortar as the matrix materials, with and without
zir e r ? t r a i n i n g ar?d superplasticizing admixtures. O v e r a mcrs
limited range of voidages (20-30%), the effect of sand content,
sand grading and the use of polymer additions were studied and
from the data collected, four mixes selected for strength,
fatigue, freeze-thaw, drainage, sound absorption and abrasion
testing.
The tests covering the broad band of voidage were based on the
following combinations of total aggregate/cement ratios and
nominal water/cement ratios.
Paste matrices, no admixture
A/C 3.0 4.5 6.0 W/C 0.30 0.35 0.40

Paste matrices, air entrained


A/C 3.0 4.5 6.0 W/C 0.25 0.30 0.35
Paste matrices, superplasticized
A/C 3.0 4.5 6.0 W/C 0.22 0.25 0.30
Mortar matrices, no admixture
A/C 4.5 6.0 8.0 W/C 0.35 0.40 0.45

Mortar matrices, air entrained


A/C 5.0 6.0 8.0 W/C 0.30 0.35 0.40

Mortar matrices, superplasticized


A/C 5.0 6.0 8.0 W/C 0.25 0.30 0.35
The sand/cement ratio for the mortar mixes were maintained at
unity using the proportions 2/3 (300-600pm), 1/3 (150-300pm) sand
grading.
Details of the materials and admixtures used in this

2
investigation are given in the Appendix.
For each of the 54 mixes, lOOmm hand-tamped cubes were cast for
compressive and indirect tensile strength determinations
according to British Standard BS1881:Parts 116 & 117;1983 (with
amendments 6096, 6097 and 6720). In addition 75 x 150mm
cylinders were cast for hydraulic flow measurement and companion
40 x 40 x 160mm prisms of the matrix material for compressive and
flexural strength determination according t o the Standard EN
196,Part I. The consistency of the matrix material was also
tested by the dropping ball method according to the British
Standard for mortars and screeds, BS4551:1980. All mixes were
cured in a fog room at 2OoC for 24 hours before demoulding and
then in water at 2OoC for a further 27 days.
The results are given in Tables 1A - 6A in the Appendix.

2.1 Volume Percentase of voids

For each porous concrete mix, the volume percentage of air voids
present was measured and compared with a value derived from the
mix proportions and the component material densities.
The measured value was obtained by weighing the porous concrete
specimens in air and water at 28 days after they had drained for
f hour. By comparing the solid volume so obtained with that o-f
the moulds, the percentage of voids present was determined.
The derived value was determined by assuming that the bulk volume
of the porous concrete was that of the bulk volume of the close
packed coarse aggregate present. With a relative density of 2620
kg/m3, the 5-1Omm Mount Sorrel aggregate has a dry compacted bulk
density of 1380 kg/m3 leaving a voidage of 47.4%. However, when
lubrication is provided by the matrix material, the bulk density
rose to 1430 kg/m3 reducing the available voidage t o 45.4%. The
relative densities and the weight proportions of the components
of the matrix are used to calculate its volume and hence the
derived voidage of the porous concrete.
A plot of the measured voidage against this derived voidage for
all the mixes investigated, is shown in Figure 1. The derived
values are greater than the measured values by an average of 3.5%
f o r the porous concrete with a mortar as a matrix, 6.5% for those
with a paste matrix but only 0.6% greater with polymer modified
matrices. The plot also shows that the bulk volume of the porous
concrete was that of the coarse aggregate alone when the voidage
exceeds approximately 6%, but a proportion of the voids can be
enclosed and not interconnected with the outer surfaces.As the
measured voidage was determined from relatively small samples,
due to wall effects during casting, the values obtained were not
very consistent or necessarily representative of the material in
bulk. For this reason the calculated or derived value has been
used as the preferred variable in subsequent figures.

3
2.2 Hvdraulic flow

The TRL permeameter was used to establish the hydraulic


conductivity of the porous concrete only when bonded to a dense
concrete. These tests are described later in section 4.7. In
order t o obtain a measure of the hydraulic conductivity of the
porous concrete alone a simple laboratory measurement was made.
75 x 150mm cylinders of the porous concrete were clamped in their
moulds using thin rubber sheeting to prevent radial flow.
The rate of flow axially through each cylinder was measured under
a constant head of 25mm of water. Figure 2 shows the
relationship between the square root of the flow rate in litres
per minute and the derived value for the voidage. The plot
indicates that minimum voidage of about 15% by volume is required
t o obtain a reasonable level of drainage confirming the value
reported by Meininger[3]. Thus, in addition to voids which are
not interconnected with the surface of the porous concrete there
are others which, although open, do not interconnect through the
depth of the specimens.
Above the minimum level, the flow rate increased in proportion
to +_hp sq-llwP_ of voj&qp_ ir! p_ypp_ssQf +_hi= level.

2.3 ComDressive strenqth


The compressive strengths of the mixes made with paste and mortar
matrices are shown in Figure 3. The strengths, as determined
from l O O m m cubes, are very strongly dependent on the voidage of
the concrete and have been represented by two least square
regression lines. The equations of which can be expressed as
follows :
S = 1.97 (28.5-V), correlation coefficient 0.98
for the mixes with mortar matrices and
S = 1.98 (36.1-V), correlation coefficient 0.96
for the mixes with paste matrices
where S is the compressive strength in N/mm2 and V the percentage
voidage.
Thus, with either form of matrix, an increase of voidage of one
percentage point results in a reduction of almost 2 N/mmz in
compressive strength.
For a given voidage, the porous concretes with paste matrices had
compressive strengths approximately 15 N/mm2 higher than those
with mortar matrices. i

The compressive strength obtained by crushing laterally


unconstrained specimens is an important parameter in
characterising the quality of dense concrete. It can be closely
related t o its load bearing capacity, bending modulus and
durability in structures. However for porous concretes to be
used as a road topping, where the coarse aggregate is closely
packed and bi-axially constrained, its relevance is greatly

4
reduced.
2.4 Indirect tensile strensth
The indirect tensile strength of the mixes made with paste and
mortar matrices are shown in Figure 4. The strengths, determined
by splitting l O O m m cubes are, as the compressive strengths,
strongly dependent on the voidage of the porous concrete and have
been represented in the same way by two least squares regression
lines. The relationships can be expressed as follows:
T = 0.176 (32.6 -V), correlation coefficient 0.98
for the mixes with mortar matrices and
' T = 0.155 (40.1 -V), correlation coefficient 0.8 for the mixes
with paste matrices
where T is the indirect tensile strength and V is the percentage
voidage. With voidages up to 30%, the porous concretes with
paste matrices had indirect tensile strenqths up t o 1 N/mm2
higher than those with mortar matrices. The ratib of indirect
tensile strength to compressive strength was approximately 0.1
with both matrix types and the conclusion to the drawn is
therefore the same as those for compressive strength. The
indirect tensile strength obtained by splitting loomm cubes
assumes that an essentially uniform tensile stress distribution
occurs at right angles to the direction of compression. However,
the presence of large voids in porous concrete would cause
localized concentrations of stress such that the values obtained *
.....
may have little relation to the actual tensile strength of the
mixes.
n

2.5 Properties of the matrix material


The compressive strengths, flexural strengths and consistencies
of companion specimens made with the corresponding pastes and
mortar used in the porous concretes are given in Table 1A - 6 A .
The strengths are, as expected, inversely related to the
water/cement ratio. Where direct comparisons can be made, the
effect of air entrainment was to reduce the compressive strength
by an average of lO%, but had little effect on flexural strength.
The addition of superplasticizer increased both compressive and
flexural strength by more than 10%.
In contrast, the strengths of the porous concretes were not found
to be a direct function of water/cement ratio and hence did not
correlate with the properties of the matrix materials alone.
Although the optimum water/cement ratio appeared t o be between
0.3 and 0.4, it is probable that the water required t o coat the
coarse aggregates with matrix of the right consistency is the
dominant factor.

5
3. THE EFFECT OF SAND GRADING, SAND QUANTITY AND POLYMER
ADDITIONS

The tests reported in the previous section showed that the


compressive and indirect tensile strengths were significantly -
reduced when sand of the grading used was incorporated in the
matrix with a sand/cement ratio of unity. A series of tests were
undertaken t o investigate the effect of different sand grading
and quantity on the strength of the porous concrete.
A shorter series of tests were undertaken to investigate the
effects of different size grading of the sand addition to mortar
matrix porous concrete and the quantity of sand. In order to
improve the tensile strength, the effect of the addition of a
styrene butadiene rubber polymer was investigated, details of the
polymer and its dosage rate are given in the Appendix. The test
regime was enlarged to include the determination of flexural
strength according t o BS1881:Part 118;1983.

3.1 Curinq
-A--s
+_he p n l p - ~ _ijsed
r rpqdrp_g a p e r i o d of a i r ~l_zri?.lg
+_Q _he

activated and polymerize, the curing regime for all these tests
(whether polymer was used or not) was modified as follows: The
cast specimens were subject to 24 hours in a fog room at 2 O o C
before demoulding, then saturated and drained and stored in
polythene bags for 6 days followed by open storage in a
controlled laboratory atmosphere until tested at 28 days.

3.2 Water content

The tests described earlier showed that the quantity of water


required is not determined by controlling the water cement ratio.
The criterion used in mixing no-fines concrete is that water
should be added until the coarse aggregates during mixing just
begin to glisten. Although simple, this method was effective and
used as a criterion for the water content in the mixes for
subsequent tests.

3.3 The effect of Dolvmer modification

Two porous concretes mixes with paste and mortar matrices were
compared with two similar mixes in which a styrene butadiene
rubber (SBR) polymer emulsion (53% water) was added with the
mixing water. At the level of dosage recommended by the
manufacture of 0.2 litres per kg OPC, up to half the total water
content of the mixes resulted from that in the polymer emulsion.
Nevertheless, the polymer acted as a very effective water
reducer. The mix proportions and test results are shown in
Table 1 below.

6
TABLE 1 : Effect of polymer.addition
ALL MIXES WITH 1430 kg/m3 OF 5-1Omm MOUNT SORREL

DRAINAGE COMPRESSIVE 1ND.TENSILE FLEXURAL


FLOW STRENGTH STRENGTH STRENGTH
ltr/min N/mIlIZ N/llUn2 N/llUll2
PR1 2.3620.08 21.3k0.5 2.2820. 22 2.9
PR2 I 1.5720.04 I 20.221.0 I 2.6220.25 I 3.5
MR1 2.2020.08 24 .OfO. 6 2.81k0.17 2.9
MR2 I 1.2620.02 I 23.0k0.3 I 2.8320.19 I 3.6

Mix PR1 is essentially the same as mix 2P, the results from which
are given in Table lA, except for the different method of curing
employed described in section 3.1. The quantity of sand in the
mortar matrices was reduced compared with those described in the
previous section. The 150-300pm fraction was omitted to give a
sand/cement ratio of two-thirds. It can be seen from the table
of results that the addition of SBR polymer had little effect on
either the indirect tensile or compressive strengths but
increased the flexural strengths by more than 20%. These results
confirm the doubts expressed in section 2.4 with regard to the
indirect tensile strength test representing a measure of the
actual tensile strength of porous concrete.

3.4 The effect of sand auantitv


Table 2 shows the results obtained with mortar matrix porous
.b'
concretes with a nominal voidage of 25% in which the quantity of
sand (300-600pm) was increased progressively from 0 to 200 kg/m3.
In order to maintain the voidage at a constant level, it was
necessary to reduce the cement content as the sand content was
increased. All the mixes contained SBR polymer at the
recommended dosage and 1430 kg/m3 of Mount Sorrel coarse
aggregate.

7
CABLE 2 : Effect of sand quantity

DRAINAGE COMPRESSIVE 1ND.TENSILE FLEXURAL


FLOW STRENGTH STRENGTH STRENGTH
ltr/min N/IIUnZ N/mlll2 N/lIUn2
PR2 1.57k0.04 20.221.0 2.6120.25 3.5
I MR3 I 3.9120.15 1 17.8k0.9 I 2.1620.28 1 3 . 4 -
11
MR4 2.61k0.15 19.920.8 2.4920.10 3.2 I
MR5 1.4920.12 17.620.2 2.2320.18 3.0
MR6 1,2520.05 13.520.1 1.78k0.09 2.3

As was shown in sections 2.3 and 2.4, an increase of voidage of


one percentage point decreases the compressive strength by 1.97
N/mm2 with a mortar matrix and 1.98 N / m 2 with a paste matrix.
Similarly indirect tensile strength decreases by 0.176 N/mm2 with
a mortar matrix and 0.155 N/mm2 with a paste matrix. For
comparison purposes only, to remove the effect of voidage
differences, these strengths have been normalized in Table 3 to
that expected for a voidage of 25% by making the appropriate
corrections.

TABLE 3 : Effect of sand quantity - strengths normalized for 25%


voidage

1 MIX
SAND kg/m3
COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH N/mm2
1ND.TENSILE STRENGTH N/mm2 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.4 1.7

These results indicate that for porous concrete with a voidage


of about 25%, up to 100 kg/m3 of sand can be incorporated in the
mix without significant changes to compressive or indirect
tensile strengths, while reducing the cement content by up to
80 kg/m3.

8
As no correlation between flexural strength and voidage or
indirect tensile strength could be established, a similar
correction for flexural strength could not be made. Table 2
indicates that this strength decreases as the quantity of sand
increases, however, it can be seen from Table 1 that the use of
polymer addition had a significant effect on flexural strength.

3.5 The effect of sand aradinq

Three porous concrete mixes, containing 1430 kg/m3 of Mount


Sorrel coarse aggregate, 237 kg/m3 of OPC 47.3 ltr/m3
of polymer emulsion and 100 kg/m3 of sand are compared in
Table 4. The mix proportions are similar to that used in a Dutch
trial reported by Eerland, Grob and Onstenk[8], Two mixes
contained respectively 300-600pm, and 150-300pm single sized
sands. The third contained a fine building sand with particle
sizes predominantly in the range 75-6000pm. The analysis is
given in the appendix.
As in the previous section, the compressive and indirect tensile
strengths have been adjusted to give normalized values expected
at a voidage of 25%. The use of fine building sand rather than
single sized sand made a significant improvement t o the indirect
tensile and flexural strengths. The compressive strength, -
although not showing a significant improvement, included a single . -
low value in the calculated mean. Excluding this value increased
the normalized strength to 22.9 N/mm2.
TABLE 4 : E f f e c t of sand grading

DRAINAGE

2.61k0.15

FLEXURAL
STRENGTH

9
4. TESTS ON POROUS CONCRETE USED AS A 8URFACING BONDED TO DENSE
CONCRETE

To maximize flexural strength, the results given in section 4


indicate that the porous concrete should contain polymer and no
more than 100 kg/m of sand which should have a high proportion
of fine particles. Based on this assessment, the four mixes
shown in Table 5 were selected for more extensive tests including
some with the porous concrete bonded to dense concrete to form
a composite. All mixes contained the fine building sand
described earlier and had a target voidage of 25%. Mixes A and
B can be compared to assess the effect of sand addition, mixes
B and C the effect of polymer addition and mixes B and D the
effect of air entraining admixture.

TABLE 5 : Mix designs of porous concrete used as a surfacing

TOPPING MIX A B C D
OPC (kg/m3) 266 237 237 237

Fine building sand (kg/m3) 50 100 100 100


Polymer emulsion (1tr/m3) 53.2 47.4 0 47.4
Air entraining ( 1tr/m3) 0 0 0 0.21
agent
Measured voidage (%) 28.9 24.7 27.4 24.6
Derived voidage 28.3 26.7 27.0 26.9
Water/cement ratio 0.18 0.23 0.30 0.23

4.1 Preparation

Test specimens of the porous concrete mixes were prepared as


previously; test specimens of mixes bondedto dense concrete were
prepared as follows: Conventional G30 dense concrete was vibrated
into appropriate beam or slab moulds until they were underfilled
by exactly 40mm. After standing covered for one hour, the
remaining 40mm were filled with the appropriate porous concrete
which was lightly pressed into the base mix. After striking off,
the surface was finished by rolling a wetted hollow tube over it.
The tests with each mix were repeated after one month to assess
repeatability.

4.2 Curing
For the tests described in section 2, the porous concretes were
given a full 28 day laboratory cure, that is 24 hours in a fog

10
chamber followed by 2 7 days water cure at 2 O O C . For the tests
described in section 3 , after 2 4 hours in-a fog chamber, the
porous concrete specimens were sealing in polythene bags for 6
days followed by storage in laboratory air until tested. This
less stringent curing did not significantly affect the strength
development. For these tests the curing regime was relaxed
further.
Immediately after casting, the moulds were covered with polythene
sheet and left for 2 4 hours in the laboratory atmosphere. After
demoulding, the specimens were spray saturated and covered again
by the polythene sheeting for a further 6 days after which they
were open to the laboratory atmosphere. All the specimens were
tested at an age of 3 5 days.

4 . 3 Strenath, modulus and flow characteristics of the porous


concretes
The values obtained from unbonded specimens of the porous
concrete mixes are given in Table 6 below.

TABLE 6 : Physical characteristics of the porous


concrete used as a surfacing ._
.
.
-

MIX A B C
,
Compressive ~ 9.31 1 2 0 . 4 17.2 ' 19.3
strength ( N / m Z1 f 0.73 f 6.4 f 2.0 f 3.3 ~

Indirect tensile 1.57 2.59 1.58 2.20


strength (N/mmZ1 f 0 . 1 9 f 0.58 f 0.45 2 0.85
Flexural strength (N/mm2) 2 . 2 5 3.99 2.36 3.81
f 0.24 f 0.56 f 0.12 f 0.31
Dynamic modulus (kN/mmz) 1 2 . 5 21.2 17.5 18.2
f 1.5 f 3.2 f 0.8 f 0.9
Cylinder hydraulic 2.38 11.44 2.66 1.77
Flow (ltr/min) f 0 . 4 f 0.32 f 0.83 f 0.42

The strengths obtained with mix B can be compared with those from
similar mix MR8 subject to the earlier curing regime. Both
compressive and flexural strengths are greater despite the
reduced exposure to moist conditions during curing. However,
where the mortar was not polymer modified, mix C, the strengths
were reduced. The effect of incorporation of air entraining
admixture was to reduce the compressive and flexural strengths
by 5%.

11
4.4 Freeze-thaw durabilitv
Freeze-thaw damage to concrete can only occur when that concrete
is saturated or nearly so during a freezing cycle. The
established freeze-thaw laboratory tests in which the concrete
under test is frozen in water would not be appropriate for porous
concrete. Its free draining capacity should ensure that the
large voids are never completely water filled. For this reason,
the freeze-thaw testing regime adopted was that described by
Eerland et a1[8].
100 x 100 x 500mm prisms of the topping mixes were soaked in 3%
salt solution for 7.5 hours at 2 O o C and then allowed to drain
freely for 0.5 hours. They were then placed in a freezing
cabinet maintained at a temperature of -2OOC for 16 hours after
which they were returned to the salt solution and the cycle
repeated. Every 5 cycles, after draining, the weight loss,
dynamic modulus and ultra-sonic pulse transit times were measured
up to a total of 50 cycles or failure. For each mix, one
specimen from each replication was tested. The results are shown
in Figures 5 - 9 . Except for the specimens of mix C , with which
the +.WQ replicate-... _hp_h;rvp= differently, +,he ;rvgy=r-
1- va1
.-A---

obtained are shown.


For comparison with the results obtained by Eerland et a1[8], the
weight loss has been expressed as kg per m2 of surface. Modulus
and pulse velocity are shown as percentage changes, the latter
in terms of its reciprocal, pulse transit time.
Both replicates of mix A and one of mix C disintegrate completely
after 4 0 cycles, the surviving mix C prism suffered considerable
weight loss from one surface. However the general mode of
failure, when it occurred, was one of loss of integrity and not
loss of material from the surfaces, an observation also made by
Meininger[3] using the ASTM C 666 procedures. Both replicates
of mix A showed little weight loss until failure after 4 0 cycles
and indeed mixes B and D exhibited small weight gains. The other
measures of freeze-thaw damage employed, loss of stiffness
(modulus) and increase in pulse transit time (ultra-sonic pulse
velocity) indicate that all the mixes suffered some damage as a
result of the freeze-thaw testing. Comparing the mixes, the use
of polymer significantly improved freeze-thaw resistance,
confirming the findings of Eerland et a1[8] as did the presence
of 100 kg/m3 of fine building sand. The presence of air
entraining agent had little effect on weight loss or loss of
stiffness but resulted in a smaller increase in the ultra-sonic
pulse transit times. Photographs of the prisms after testing are t

shown in Figure 10.

4.5 The stress-strain relationshiDs for the Dorous concretes


To establish the stress-strain relationship under tension, 100
x 100 x 500mm prisms of the porous concrete mixes were subjected
to three point b.ending at an age of 35 days. The open texture
12
of the specimens made the attachment of conventional strain
gauges difficult, particularly if the characteristics of the
surface were not to be changed significantly. Consequently, the
strain resulting from the applied bending moment was monitored
by recording the deflection at the centre of the prism using
saddle mounted LVDT transducers as shown in Figure 11. The
deflection measured, however, had a component due to shear
deformation in addition to that due to bending. After
determining the former, the relationship between the maximum
fibre stress and the lateral strain on the surface due to bending
alone was calculated. Four prisms of each mix were tested and
mean values used to obtain the stress-strain curves shown in
Figure 12. The maximum lateral stress on the surface of prism
at failure is, by definition, the flexural strength of the
concrete and hence the values shown in the diagram correspond
with the flexural strengths shown in Table 6.
The stress-strain relationships are non-linear with tensile
strains at failure of the order of 700 microstrain for mix C
containing no polymer addition and over 900 microstrain for the
mixes with polymer. Normal dense concrete fails when the strain
exceeds approximately 300 microstrain increasing to approximately
400 microstrain if the concrete contains lightweight aggregate.
This high strain at failure has important implications when
porous concrete is bonded to a dense concrete base layer.

4.6 The stress-strain relationships for the porous concretes


bonded to dense concrete
Composite beams for bending and fatigue testing were prepared
using 152 x 152 x 686mm (6 x 6 x 26 in) prism moulds as described
in section 4.1 and cured as described in section 4 . 2 until tested
at an age of 35 days.
The composite beams were subjected to three point bending to
subject the porous concrete topping to tension in a similar way
to that described in the previous section but without loading to
the point of failure. To illustrate the effect of the different
porous surfacing on the stiffness of the composite beams, the
average load-deflection curves obtained are shown in Figure 13.
The effect of surfacing with mixes B and D was similar, they
increased the stiffness of the composite beams to a greater
extent than either mix A or C . In all cases, the stress-strain
curves were more linear than those obtained when testing the
porous concrete in isolation, see Figure 12,
The tensile stress and strain generated in the porous toppings
during bending depend on the position of the neutral plane in the
composite beam. Due to the differences in the non-linearity of
the-toppings and the dense concrete, this plane does not occupy
a unique position but will move as the bending moment changes.
The limits of the tensile stress and strain generated at the
surface and at the interface between the porous and dense
concrete can be determined from the load-deflection relationship
if two extremes are considered. The first assumes that the

13
porous concrete is very compliant and contributes little to the
bending resistance of the composite beam. In this case the
neutral plane of bending will be the central plane of the dense
concrete section. The second assumes that the porous concrete
has the same stress-strain characteristics as that of the dense
concrete and contributes equallytothe bending resistance ofthe
composite beam. The neutral plane of bending is then the central
plane of the composite. In practice, the neutral plane will lie
and move between these two extreme positions.
For the applied load of 15 kN, the bending moment was 1.3 kN.m.
Applying the above criteria, the calculated maximum and minimum
values for the resulting tensile stress and strains in the porous
surfacing are given in Table 7.
TABLE 7 : Calculated limits

MIX A B C D
Average thickness 32.5 26.5 37.5 39.0
(mm) -

Stress at interface 1.3-3.6 1.5-3.3 1.1-3.9 1.1-4.0


(N/mm21
Strain at interface 47-72 39-54 46-77 32-55
(PSI
Strain at surface 83-111 60-76 91-127 66-93
(PSI

A s the thickness of the surfacing increases, the strain at the


surface increases as a factor times that at the interface. For
a full 40mm of topping this factor is 1.4 and 2.1 respectively
with the two criteria used.
4.7 The effect of fatisue cvclina on the porous concretes
bonded to dense concrete
Two composite beams made with each of the porous concrete
surfacing were subjected to cyclic three point bending at an age
of 35 days. The fatigue tests, at 2.5 cycles per second, were
continued until failure occurred or 250,000 cycles had been
completed. The initial maximum load setting of 2 0 kN giving a I.

bending moment of 1.75 kN.m.resulted in fatigue failure of some


of the beams after relatively few cycles. In consequence, for
the subsequent tests the maximum load was reduced to 15 kN giving b

a bending moment of 1.31 kN.m, the results are summarized in


Table 8.
Visual examination of the composite beams after fatigue testing
revealed no loss of integrity or bond failure in the porous
concrete for any of the mixes. Where the beams had failed a
single fracture, initiated in the dense concrete had propagated
directly through the porous surfacing.

14
TABLE 8 : Fatigue tests

The composite beams which had not failed during testing were
subjected to three point bending to failure. The resulting load-
deflection curves indicated losses of modulus between 4 and 50%
as a result of the fatigue loading. Using the criteria described
earlier in section 4.6, the limits of tensile stress and strain
generated at the interface between the porous and dense concrete
at failure are given in Table 9. The corresponding limits for
the strain on the surface of the porous concrete are also shown.

TABLE 9 : Limits of tensile stress and strain at failure ^I.

1 Beam B1 c1 D1 I D2 ....-
~

I
'L*'
Tensile stress at 3.31 1.49
interface (min) logo .*n

4.65
80
interface (min)
126
Tensile strain at I158 I147 178 I245
surface (min)
(CLS (max) 188 202 251 I350

In each case, the maximum tensile strain in the porous concrete


was well below its strain capacity shown in Figure 12. (Although
these strain capacities were determined before fatigue cycling.)
With modes of pavement f lexure which subject the porous concrete
to tensile stress, the strain induced on the surface of the
porous layer is greater than that at the interface with the base.
With a modulus much less than that of the dense concrete it is
a factor (2 + 2t/T) times greater where t is the thickness of the
surfacing and T that of the base. For the beams tested with 40mm

15
of porous concrete, this factor becomes 1.7. To ensure the
porous concrete has sufficient strain capacity to avoid failure
in tension, the minimum stiffness of the base layer has to be
increased as the thickness of the surfacing increases. Reducing
the base layer to accommodate a surfacing layer could increase
the magnification level to unacceptable levels.
-_

4.8 Hydraulic conductivitv of the porous concretes bonded to


dense concrete
Half metre square specimens of the porous toppings bonded to
dense concrete were made at the same time as the corresponding
composite beams described earlier and cured in the same way. The
apparatus used was a TRL radial flow permeameter which has been
designed for the in situ assessment of the drainage
characteristics of porous road surfaces. The device is used to
determine the time taken for 2 litres of water under a
predetermined head to be dissipated through a 10Ommdiameter area
of the porous surface according to a set procedure. After
corrections are made for water temperature and the series
resistance time for the apparatus, the hydraulic conductivity is
given by the equation K/t d where I( is the apparatus PO.nStBr!t,
in this case 65.39, t is the corrected outflow time in seconds
at 2 O o C and d is the thickness of the porous surfacing in metres.
The results, derived from a mean of 5 determinations are given
in Table 10.

TABLE 10 : Hydraulic conductivity

With the exception of tests with specimen slab B1, the time I

required to dissipate 2 litres of water through the porous


toppings was less than 4 seconds to give hydraulic conductivities
in excess of 400 m/day. .

The test procedure requires that the air held by the permeater
above the porous surface is purged before each determination to
establish quasi-stable conditions. The characteristics of the
surfaces did not allow such a condition to be maintained for
sufficient time to re-prime the apparatus before a test and in
consequence this part of the procedure had to be omitted. The

16
trapped air was rapidly expelled at the start of each test except
with specimen slab B1 where it was seen toeimpede the flow of
water. In this case the derived hydraulic conductivity is
considered to be uncharacteristic of the material.
4.9 Abrasion resistance
Adequate abrasion resistance is an important requirement for the
porous concrete topping. In order to assess this quality two
test methods were used, neither of which proved to be
satisfactory.
The CtCA Accelerated Abrasion Tester[ll] was designed t o simulate
the abrasion of heavy loadedtrolley wheels on industrial floors.
The depth of abrasion is measured after approximately 2700
rotations of three 76mm uncastored steel wheels around a diameter
of 228mm. With the porous concrete toppings, the surfaces
texture resulted in the device becoming unstable at the design
rotation speed of 178 r.p.m. Lack of vertical restraint then
caused violent hammering action rather than the desired abrasion.
The second device, the CMAA Abrasion Tester[l2], was designed t o
assess the abrasion resistance of interlocking paving blocks.
The depth of penetration into the surface is measured after being
abraded by the rotation of twelve 15.8mm steel balls mounted-in .
rc
U

a loaded ball-race. With the porous toppings, the constraint of


the ball-race resulted in abrasion being confined to the surface
coarse aggregates. In consequence, identical abrasion
resistances were obtained, within experimental limits, with all
the mixes reflecting that of the coarse aggregate alone.
To assess the abrasion caused by, for example, the rims of
deflated pneumatic wheels, a more dedicated form of measurement
is required.

4.10 Sound absorgtion


Cores of nominal 100 mm diameter were cut from the composite
slabs and subjected to sound absorption tests at TRL. The tests
were carried out using the Impedance Tube method in accordance
with the recommendations of IS0 Standard ISO/CD10534 [13].
Measurements of the normal incidence absorption spectra for the
four porous mixes are shown in Figure 14. Each of the core
samples consisted of a layer of porous material mounted on top
of the base mix. The subsequent absorption spectra are therefore
typical of the surface as laid in practice. Additional
measurements on cores consisting of only the top porous layer
showed similar results indicating that the base mix acts as a
hard sound reflecting surface. The peak in the absorption
coefficients for all the mixes ranged from 0.97 to 0.99
indicating high levels of absorption for sound propagating at
normal incidence to the surface. For mixes A, B and D the peak
in the frequency spectra occurs at about 1100 Hz whereas for mix
C the peak occurs at a higher frequency of 1360 Hz. Although the
material specification of the aggregate grading were similar for

17
all the mixes the accumulation of small variations in certain
surface parameters eg layer depth, tortuosity (a measure of the
path length of the pores throughout the porous layer), could lead
to a shift in the peak frequency of the absorption spectra. More
detailed analysis of the cores would need to be carried out to
ascertain whether this is the case. However, for road traffic
noise particularly from high speed traffic the dominant noise
source is from the tyre interaction with the road surface and
covers a fairly broad frequency range of between 800 to 2000 Hz.
Therefore, all the mixes investigated in this study show good
prospects for reducing tyrelsurface noise.
Although it is not possible to estimate the reduction in traffic
noise from normal incidence absorption spectra, it is perhaps
interesting to compare the absorption spectra obtained for the
porous concrete mixes with absorption spectra obtained from cores
extracted from porous and rolled asphalt surfaces laid on the
southbound carriageway of the M1 near Wakefield prior to
trafficking, Figure 15. The rolled asphalt surface is a sealed
layer providing very low absorption compared with the porous
asphalt layer which shows maximum absorption at a frequency of
850 Hz with an absorption coefficient value of about 0.7.
Comparing the absorption spectrum of the porous asphalt with the
spectra for the porous concrete mixes shows that porous concrete
can provide higher levels of absorption and over a wider
frequency range important for controlling tyre/surface noise than
the porous asphalt surface laid on the M1.
Vehicle noise levels were taken at both the porous and hot rolled
asphalt sites approximately 2 weeks after the M 1 was opened to
traffic. The method used was developed previously at TRL for road
surface noise studies carried out by Franklin, Harland and Nelson
[ 1 4 ] and Nelson and Abbott [15]. The method, which is known as
the "statistical pass-by method" is also used by researches in
many countries and is currently being developed as an
international standard by Working Group 3 3 of the International
Standards Organisation [16].
After normalising the results from the M 1 for distance and
vehicle speed, the reduction in noise level from vehicles
travelling on the porous surface compared with the hot rolled
asphalt was about 5 dBA (171, indicating a significant reduction
in traffic noise levels comparable to reducing traffic flow by
about 70%. Providing the mechanism of tyre/surface noise
generation for vehicles travelling on porous concrete is similar
to porous asphalt then higher reductions in traffic noise levels
could possibly be expected.

5. ASSESSMENT OF POROUS CONCRETE FOR ROAD SURFACING

To be free draining and to have the ability to absorb a


significant proportion of the noise generated by vehicle tyres,
a porous concrete road surfacing requires to have a maintainable
voidage in excess of 20%. In practice, to allow for the
accumulation of detritus in the surface and the effectiveness of

18
subsequent clearing techniques, an initial voidage of
approximately 25% is necessary when first placed. At this level,
the porous concrete consists essentially of close packed coarse
aggregates with cement mortar providing interparticulate bonding
around the points of contact. Its bulk volume is determined by
that of the coarse aggregates alone.
5.1 Strensth

If laterally constrained, the bearing capacity of the surfacing


is primarily a function of the strength of the coarse aggregate
and only indirectly on the value of compressive strength obtained
from the conventional crushing of unrestrained cubes.
The ability of the surfacing to resist the stresses imposed by
braking, pavement flexure and freeze-thaw cycles depend on its
tensile strength and strain capacity; it is to maximize these
properties that the design of porous concrete mixes must be
directed.
With a voidage of 27%, the maximum flexural strength achieved in
the laboratory was between 3.5 and 4.0 N / m 2 when the mortar
matrix was polymer modified.
-I. -
-..".
..
5.2 Effect of voidase

As the bonding material is cement based, its strength in tension


is low compared to that in compression. To ensure sufficient
volume is available for it to function adequately while
maintaining the desired voidage, it is necessary to select a
coarse aggregate having a narrow size band. For practical
reasons this is in the range 5 to 1Omm. For the tests described
in this report, the coarse aggregate selected was found to occupy
approximately 55% of the bulk volume of the porous concrete.
Hence to maintain a voidage of 25%, only 20% of the volume was
available for the cement mortar to act as the bond. An increase
of one percentage point of voidage corresponds with an equal
decrease in the volume of cement mortar, which for the above
represents a decrease of 5% in absolute terms. The relationship
established between indirect tensile strength and voidage
indicates that this would result in a 14% loss of strength. To
obtain a surfacing of uniform quality, rigorous control of the
mix proportions, the mixing and the laying is therefore
essential, a considerable increase of strength would result from
a quite modest reduction in the designed voidage.

5.3 ComDosition of the mortar matrix

Mortar mixes with sand to cement ratios between 0 and 1 were


investigated together with the effect of sand grading. It was
found that this ratio could be increased up to approximately 0.45
without significantly affecting strength. This represents up to
100 kg sand per cubic metre of porous concrete with a
consequential reduction in cement content. Flexural strength was

19
increased by increasing the fineness of the sand, the highest
strength was obtained using fine building sand.
Modifying the mortar by the inclusion of a styrene butadiene
rubber as a polymer had the effect of significantly increasing
the flexural strength while superplasticizers had little effect.

5.4 Workabilitv and water demand

Freshly mixed porous concrete does not behave as a viscous fluid


but as a conglomerate of mortar coated coarse aggregates. Its
workability in conventional concrete terms has no relevance as
its placability is little affected by the quantity of water it
contains. This makes it a difficult material t o handle in the
laboratory and even more so on site. When being bonded to a sub-
base of dense concrete which is still workable, it has to be
spread to a uniform thickness and finished to give an acceptable
riding surface without exerting excessive downward pressure.
Rolling the surface with a hollow steel tube to produce a flat
surface was found to reduce the effective thickness of the
nominal 40mm topping; with one test specimen to as little as
18mm.

The water demand for porous concrete is that required to produce


an even coating of viscous mortar over the coarse aggregates.
In the absence of a better method of assessment, the criteria
recommended for no fines concrete was used. Water was added to
the mix until the coarse aggregate just began to glisten.
Being open textured, fresh porous concrete loses water rapidly
t o the atmosphere. In consequence it needs to be placed and
finished as soon as possible after mixing thereby necessitating
small batches. A 5 cu.m. batch of porous concrete provides
enough material to surface 125 sq.m. of road at a thickness of
40mm.

5.5 Strain capacity and fatiaue resistance


The effect of the high voidage is to inhibit the propagation of
cracks induced under stress. This results in porous concrete
having a very non-linear stress-strain relationship and a high
strain capacity. Providing the dense concrete base layer has
adequate rigidity for the thickness of surfacing, the fatigue
resistance of the porous concrete is good. Site experiences with
experimental porous surfacing have indicated that, where failures
have been observed, it has occurred at the expansion joints. It
is in these areas that the lateral restraint provided by the .
close packing of the coarse aggregate is reduced leading to a
reduction in bearing capacity. The high strain capacity of
porous concrete, especially when polymer modified, should enable
it t o be used as a continuous surface without expansion joints.

20
5.6 Freeze-thaw resistance
The laboratory test conducted indicates that high voidage porous
concrete having a fine sand content of 100 kg/m3 and polymer
modified has an adequate resistance t o freeze-thaw damage.

6. CONCLUSIONS
1. Porous concrete surfacing with a voidage of 25% can be
designed, with polymer modification to have compressive and
flexural strengths of the order of 20 N / m 2 and 4 N/mm2
respectively.
2. Such surfacing has good drainage characteristics and
adequate fatigue and freeze-thaw resistance.
3. Decreasing the design voidage will significantly increase
the strength but decrease the drainage and sound absorption
capacity of the porous concrete.
4. The bulk volume of the surfacing is determined solely by
that of the coarse aggregate used.
5. Scope for changes to the mix design are limited. The sand
content, which should be multisized and contain fine
material, is largely determined by the characteristics of
the coarse aggregate. The water content is that required
to produce a coating matrix of the right consistency. The
cement and additive content is then determined by the
available space and the final voidage specified.
6. The mix design found to give the highest strength and
durability with a voidage of 26% was 1430 kg/m3 of 5-1Omm
Mount Sorrel aggregate, 100 kg/m3 of fine building sand,
47.4ml/m3 of polymer emulsion, 237 kg/m3 of Portland cement
with a water/cement ratio of 0.23; the water including that
in the polymer emulsion.
7. Normal incidence sound absorption spectra for all the
porous concrete mixes with a derived void content in the
range 26.7 to 28.3% indicate good potential for reducing
noise levels from high speed traffic. Compared with a
porous asphalt surface laid on the M1 which provided
significant reductions in vehicle noise levels of about 5
dBA, porous concrete could possibly provide higher
reductions in noise levels providing the mechanism of
tyre/surface noise generation for this type of surface is
similar to that for porous asphalt.

21
7. REFERENCES
1. DAINES, M,E, Pervious macadam: Trials on trunk road A38
Burton by-pass, 1984. Department of the
Environment,Department of Transport TRRL Research Report
57, Transport and Road Research Laboratory, Crowthorne.
2. COLWILL, D.M. and DAINES, M.E. (1989) Progress in trials of
pervious macadam. Highways. pp.15-18, January 1989.

3. MEININGER, R.C. (1988) No-fines pervious concrete for


paving. Concrete International Design and Construction,
pp.20-27,V01. 10,NO.8,AUgUSt 1988. .)

4. MATSUNO, S . (1990) Experience with porous concrete


pavement. Report to PIARC Concrete road committee, Japan
Road Association,June 1990.
5. PICHLER, W. (1990) Noise reducing surface. A model for
assessment. 6th International Symposium on Concrete Roads.
Madrid, October 1990. Theme A,Vol. pp.181-187.
6. ROSELL, J.J., AGUADO A and JOSA, A. (1990) Porous concrete
for urban pavements. Ibid, Vol. pp.87-95.
7. CHRISTORY, J-P, PIPIEN, G and SAINTON, A. (1990) Porous
urban pavements in cement concrete. Ibid, Vol. pp.43-54.
8. EERLAND, D.W., GROB, TH.S. and ONSTENK, H.J.C.M. (1990)
Developments in noise reduction of concrete roads in the
Netherlands, Ibid, Vol. pp.53-64.
9. BRITE EURAM: Contract BREU-0331:Completion date 1993.
10. KELLERSMA", G.H. and SMITS, F.(1989) An experiment with
porous concrete top layer on J.C.P. 4th International
Conference on Concrete Pavement Design and Rehabilitation,
Purdue April 1989, pp.615-623
11. CHAPLIN, R.G. (1990). The influence of GGBS and PFA
additions and other factors on the abrasion resistance of
industrrial floors. BCA publication C/6.
12. CMAA (1986). Specification for concrete segmented paving
units. Concrete Masonry Asociation of Australia (MA20).
13. INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ORGANISATION (1992). Determination
of Sound Absorption Coefficient and Impedance or Admittance
by the Impedance Tube Method. ISO/CD 10 534.
14- FRANKLIN R E, D G HARLAND and P M NELSON (1979). Road
surfaces and traffic noise. TRRL Laboratory Report LR 896.
Transport and Road Research Laboratory, Crowthorne.

22
15. NELSON P M and P G ABBOTT (1987). Low noise road surfaces.
Applied Acoustics, Vol 21, pp 119-137, Elsevier Science,
Essex.
16. NELSON P M and P G ABBOTT (1992). The acoustic performance
of porous road surfaces laid on the M1, Wakefield, 1992.
TRRL Working Paper, WP/NV/07. Transport and Road Research
Laboratory, Crowthorne.
17. INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ORGANISATION (1991). Measurement
method for comparing noise on different road surfaces.IS0
TC43/SCl/WG33.

23
APPENDIX
MATERIALS
Ordinary Portland Cement Density 3140 kg/m3

Fine buildins sand Density 2670 R


Source -
Albury Pit, near Guildford
BS1200:1976 AMD 4510,1984, Classification Type G
fineness modulus 2.12
Moisture content 0.78%, SSD water content 0.26%.

2.36-1.18mm fraction 1%
1.18-0.60mm fraction 5%
0.60-0.3Omm fraction 26%
0.30-0.15mm fraction 47%
0.15-0.075mm fraction 15%
less than 0.075mm 6%
Sharp sand Density 2620 kg/m3
Source -
Leighton Buzzard
150-300pm fraction. Moisture content 0.5%,
Ccn w a t n y
-I-..-I-- --..--..-
pnntnnt 1.25%
300-600pm fraction. Moisture content 0.4%,
SSD water content 1.1%.
Mount Sorrel crushed qranite assresate
Density 2620 kg/m3
Wet packing density 1430 kg/m3
5-1Omm Moisture content 0.45%, SSD water content 0.8%

Air entraininq aqent


Cormix A.E.l Dosage 0.9ml/kg OPC
Superplasticizer
Cormix S.P.l Dosage 7.5 ml/kg OPC
Dosage 200ml/kg OPC

Ronaf ix
Styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) Suspension in water
53% water
Supplied by Ronacrete Ltd, Selinas Lane
Dagenham, Essex.

24
TABLE 1 A : PROPERTIES OF POROUS CONCRETE WITH OPC PASTE MATRIX

ALL M1 XES WITH 1430 kg/m3 of 5-10mm MOUNT SORREL


CORRESPONDING VOIDAGE % COMPRESSIVE 1ND.TENSILE FLOW
MIX MATRIX OPC SAND STRENGTH STRENGTH ltr/
NO. TEST NO. kg/m3 kg/m3 MEASURED DERIVED N/mm2 N/mIYl2 min
1P PX 1 3 0.29 477 - 8.4 16.4 42.2k4.0 3.65k0.07 0.07
2P PX 4.5 0.28 317 - 21.7 26.3 19.2k0.9 2.4750.19 1.40
3P PX 6 0.28 238 - 27.5 31.1 10.9k0.4 1.2620.17 3.94
4P PY 3 0.34 477 - 3.9 14.0 43.3f3.4 4.26k0.40 0
5P PY 4.5 0.34 317 - 17.0 24.6 20.9k1.4 2.28k0.17 1.17
6P PY 1 6 0.33 238 - 23.9 30.0 13.8k1.0 1.74k0.05 .2.88
7P PZ 1 3 0.39 477 - 4.5 11.6 41.554.5 4.06kO. 10 0
8P PZ 14.5 0.39 317 - 14.0 23.0 21.9k1.8 2.32kO. 06 0.14
9P PZ 1 6 0.38 238 - 22.1 28.8 4.4k0.9 1.78kO. 14 1.83

CORRESPONDING MATRIX TESTS


-~

MATRIX COMPRESSIVE FLEXURAL DROPPING


MIX NO STRENGTH STRENGTH BALL
N/mmz N/mIYl2 CONSISTENCE
PX - 0.30 85.9f17.4 11.7fl. 5 10.8
PY - 0.35 85.151.0 10.2k2.0 17.1
PZ - 0.40 69.4k1.9 8.9f1.0 17.7

25
TABLE 2A : PROPERTIES OF POROUS CONCRETE WITH OPC MATRIX

ALL MIXES WITH 1 4 3 0 ks/m3 of 5-10mm MOUNT SORREL


d.

CORRESPONDING VOIDAGE 9; COMPRESSIVE 1ND.TENSILE


MIX MATRIX A/C W/C OPC SAND STRENGTH STRENGTH FLOW
NO. TEST NO. kg/m3 kg / m3 N/InNP N/ln.IIP ltr/
I I 1 I I
min
I I I I 1

1M MX 4.5 0.33 408 409 3 2 . 48.553.2 5.09f0.10 0


11.8 16.0 22.4k2.3 2.81k0.13 0.35
19.7 24.6 9.ltO. 5 1.32k0.05 2.15
2.8 1. 1 . 58.4k2.7 5.4620.11 0
8.3 14.6 29.6fl. 2 3.44k0.25 0.14
19.4 23.5 12.5k1.2 1.57.fO. 0 5 1.40
0.7 -0.8 54.7k0. 3 5.05k0.43 0

9.1 13.2 28.120.9 3.52k0.38 0


9M I MZ I 8 10.42 I 204 I 204 17.8 22.5 15.9kO. 3 2.08f0.14 1.62

CORRESPONDING MATRIX TESTS


MATRIX COMPRESSIVE FLEXURAL DROPPING
MIX NO A/C W/C STRENGTH STRENGTH BALL
N/mm2 N/mm2 CONSISTENCE
78.4k2.0 10.4k0.8 8.7

76.7k1.7 10.5k1.1 16.5 -


0.44 66.7k2.7 10.0+1.0 14.6

c
TABLE 3A : PROPERTIES OF POROUS CONCRETE WITH AIR ENTRAINED PASTE MATRIX

ALL MIXES WITH 1430 ks/m3 of 5-10mm MOUNT SORREL


CORRESPONDING VOIDAGE % COMPRESSIVE 1ND.TENSILE FLOW
MIX MATRIX A/C W/C OPC STRENGTH STRENGTH ltr/
NO. TEST NO. kq/m3 N/mm2 N/lTIm2 min
1PA PAX 3 0.24 477 - I - I 18.7
2PA PAX 4.5 0.25 317 - - 27.8
INSUFFICIENT
COHESION
3 PA PAX 6 0.25 238 - - 32.3
4PA PAY 3 0.29 477 - 7.6 16.3 I 37.421.2
I
3.51f0.10
I
0.02
- 20.4 26.2 18.0f0.7
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
2.9f0.12 1.80
-1
~~

6PA PAY 6 0.28 238


I

I 9.4k1.0 1.3120.06 1 2.26


7PA PAZ 3 0.34 477 - I 5.4 I 14.0 ~ 41.6k0.2 I 4,10k0.07 I 0
I I
~

8PA PAZ 4.5 0.34 317 - 14.6 24.6


I
23.5f1.0 2.34k0.12 1.02
9PA PAZ 6 0.33 238 - I 22.5 I 29.9 12.7k0.6 1.76k0.14 2.16

CORRESPONDING MATRIX TESTS


MATRIX COMPRESSIVE FLEXURAL DROPPING AIR
MIX NO A/C W/C STRENGTH STRENGTH BALL CONTENT
N/mm2 N/mmz CONSISTENCE %
PAX - 0.25 106.6f2.5 13.9f1.7 7.5 6.6
PAY - 0.30 82.223.3 11.5fl. 3 11.8 4.6
-
~

PAZ 0.35 79.5k4.0 10.5f0.4 19.2 3.3

27

I
TABLE 4A : PROPERTIES OF POROUS CONCRETE WITH AIR ENTRAINED MORTAR MATRIX
,LL MIXES WITH 1 4 3 0 kg/m3 of 5-10mm MOUNT SORREL
CORRESPONDING VOIDAGE 9; COMPRESSIVE SPLITTING
MIX MATRIX A/C W/C OPC SAND . STRENGTH STRENGTH FLOW
NO. TEST NO. kg/m3 kg/m3 MEASURED DERIVED N / m Z N/lWlIZ ltr/
min
1MA MAX 5 0.28 358 358 10.3
INSUFFICIENT
2MA MAX 6 0.28 286 286 1'7.4 COHESION
3MA MAX 8 0.27 204 204 2!5.6
41.8f0.3 4.09k0.29 0
26.5f1.7 3.20f0.11 0.10
10.6kO. 9 1.34k0.08 1.27
47.2f2.1 4.94f0.09 0
32.8fO. 9 3.26k0.26 0.03
15.2f1.1 1.8750.06 0.99

MATRIX COMPRESSIVE FLEXURAL DROPPING


MIX NO A/C W/C STRENGTH STRENGTH BALL CONTENT
N/RUnZ N/mm2 CONSISTENC!E
1 MAX I ~
1~~~
I 0.29 I 84.4k3.1 ~~~
I 12.5f0.9 4.0 I
I
7.8
MAY 1 0.34 68.3f2.2 11.2f0.4 7.8 1 8.0
MAZ 1 0.39 62.6f2.7 10.2fl. 1 14.7 I 7.8

28
CORRESPONDING VOIDAGE % COMPRESSIVE 1ND.TENSILE FLOW
MIX MATRIX A/C W/C OPC SAND STRENGTH STRENGTH ltr/
NO. TEST NO. kg/m3 kg/m3 MEASURED DERIVED N/mm2 N/lnln2 min
1PS PSX 3 0.22 477 - 18.9 19.3 20.3f0.15 2.40f0.25 0.32
2PS PSX 4.5 0.21 317 - 27.3 28.2 9.Ok1.1 1.12f0.18 2.54
3PS PSX 6 0.21 238 - 30.9 32.6 4.6k0.3 0.69k0.08 4.46
4PS PSY 3 0.25 477 - 8.8 17.8 42.552.0 3.02k0.78 0.26
5PS PSY 4.5 0.24 317 - 21.1 27.2 16.5f0.6 2.24k0.16 1.46
6PS PSY 6 0.24 238 - 26.1 31.9 9.6k0.2 1.32k0.07 3.60
7PS PSZ 3 0.30 477 - 6.2 15.5 49.8k2.7 4.45k0.73 0
8PS PSZ 4.5 0.29 317 - 17.8 25.7 23.551.3 2.78k0.12 1.29
9PS PSZ 6 0.29 238 - 23.5 30.7 15.8k0. 9 5 1.92k0.25 2.58

CORRESPONDING MATRIX TESTS


MATRIX COMPRESSIVE FLEXURAL DROPPING
MIX NO A-C W/C STRENGTH STRENGTH BALL
N/mm2 N/mm2 CONSISTENCE
PSX - ~~
0.22 109.7k4.6 ~~ ~~
15.8k0.8 6.1
PSY - 0.25 106.5k5.9 13.9kl. 9 9.4

*
PSZ - 0.30 98.2k5.0 14.620.1 9.6
TABLE 6A : PROPERTIES OF POROUS CONCRETE WITH SUPERPLASTICIZED MORTAR MATRIX

ALL MIXES WITH 1 4 3 0 kq/m3 of 5-10mm MOUNT SORREL


CORRESPONDING VOIDAGE 9; COMPRESSIVE 1ND.TENSILE
MIX MATRIX w/c OPC SAND STRENGTH STRENGTH FLOW
NO. TEST NO. kg / m3 kg/m3 MEASURED DEFLIVED N/mmz N/IlW ltr/
min
2 1 . 5 . 13.4k0.6 1.92k0.36 0.14
2MS MSX 286 11B. 4 8.0k1.1 1.06k0.12 0.81
8 0.23 204 204 246.2 2.250.4 0.52k0.05 0.95

- 5 0.29 358 - -
358 6.8 I 91.7 I 37.354.1 I 3.91f0.33 I 0.02 11
5MS MSY . 6 0.29 286 286 14.7 1 116.9 I 18.3k0.3 I 2.46k0.13 I 0.24 1
6MS MSY 8 0.28 204 204 23.2 I 25.2 I 7.7k0.8 I 1.03f0.06 I 1.55 1
7MS MSZ -
5 0.34 358 358 5.6 1 7.9 1 50.lk2,2 1 4.88k0.23 I 0 1
8MS MSZ 6 0.33 286 286 15.5 31. l k l . 3 3.42k0.21 0.16
9MS MSZ 8 0.33 204 204 24.2 12.2t1.3 1.60k0.09 1.61
I

CORRESPONDING MATRIX TESTS


MATRIX COMPRESSIVE FLEXURAL DROPPING
MIX NO A/C W/C STRENGTH STRENGTH BALL
~

N/llUn N/IW CONSISTENCE


-
MSX 1 0.25 80.9k6.9 10.4k1.4 1.8 -
MSY 1 0.30 91.9kl. 6 13.3k1.0 7.2 -
MS 2 1 0.35 85.3k2.1 12.2k0.4 13.2

30
35
MORTAR
MATRIX

30
PASTE
MATRIX

25
m

POLYMER
I
-
MODIFIED
8
W
a
20
a_
0
>
n
W
U
=rn 15
4
P
10

I I I I I I

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

DERIVED VOIDAGE %

FIGURE 1: Relationship b e t w e e n the measured and


derived percentage voidage.
2.5
MORTAR
MATRIX
0

PASTE
2 MATRIX
8

POLYMER
E
E MODIFIED
\ A
L m A
.c.
J 1.5 . U

3
s
U,
8

U.
0
+
U
'-
U
cn

0.5 -

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

DERIVED VOIDAGE %

FIGURE 2: Relationship between the square root


of flow and derived percentage voidage.
70
MORTAR
MATRIX
4-

60
PASTE

E 50
E
\ \ 8
MATRIX
-I-

\
z
I
I-
a
z
w
40
U
I-
v)
W \
$ 30 \
v)
W
U
\
?i
0
0 20
8

10
i,
Y
\
8
\
c

1 I I 1 1 \ I
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
c

DERIVED VOIDAGE %

FIGURE 3: Relationship between compressive


strength and derived percentage voidage.
MORTAR
MATRIX
__e_

PASTE
MATRIX
\ - B -

\
m
\

I I I I I I \ ,
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

DERIVED VOIDAGE %

FIGURE 4 Relationship between indirect tensile


strength and derived percentage voidage.
FREEZE-THAW-AVERAGE FOR SPECIMENS A 1 AND A 2

120 2

-
a, i
i
.-E h
v)
WEIGHT Loas
i
I
L

.-
Y -
J
3 100
i
U) i h

C U
0 P U L S I 1hVZ U l C R E I f i
I
i E
L E -.-.- Ic I 1.5 E
Y a-
- .-mE
0
a,
U)
80 S I I F i t l i S S LOSS
v)
L
.....A ...... m
,,
3
n C n
.-C
0 x
,, 0,
n
v
60 LOSS OF U J l L G R l T Y /
1 Y
Y

E
0 In
/
L
In 4O+CYCLES I
.... E
m
-a
L
In
0,
C .A ...........A.. ,'
i
.......r: .*............A.. .-
U)

40
$
Y

.-
L
.L-

.-
C
a,
L

c
In 0.5 Y-
0
0 v)
In
m In 20 0)
0
E -v)
0 J
-c
0
8 0 0
&? d

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
Nuniber o f freeze-thaw cycles

FIGURE 5. EFFECT OF FREEZE-THAW O N MIX A.

FREEZE-THAW-AVERAGE FOR SPECIMENS B 1 AND I32

120
aJ
.-E
.- -
4-
Y

v)
S
3
3
h

U
v)

100
-
\VEICHT L O S S

?ULJE lIh1E I I 4 C C E L S E
CJ 0 1.5
4.L
. E
br .- U
80
-3 Em
v)
STIrFIIcsS LOSS
......4......
a c
.-U a 60 ......A I
0
c v
In v)
In
w w LITTLE w s i s i t
DAMAGE
I
-z --
aJ
C
Y
40
=I .-
L

C In 0.5
c
aJ 0
v)
CJ In
20
E -
In
0
-c
0
0
.'
O
0 0
a? d
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35- 40 45 50
Number of freeze-thaw cycles

FIGURE G. EFFECT OF FREEZE-THAW O N MIX B.


FREEZE-THAW FOR SPECIMEN C 1

120 i 2
i
\VEICHT LOSS I
I
_q_ i
100 h

1
PULSE 111~s
I:IC6ibJi
f
I
E
* I
i
E
0-
ao I l l F i N i S S LOSS
I
I
i v)
L
......A ...... i
i a
P
rn
GO - 1 Y
v
.

r
c.
rn
.-
-
40 a
- 5
0.5 0
ln
20 ln
0
-I

0 - 0
I I I I I . 1 1 . I 1
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
N u m b e r o f freeze - t ha w cycles

FIGURE 7. EFFECT OF FREEZE-THAW ON MIX C 1.

FREEZE-THAW FOR SPECIMEN C 2

120 --____

100

80 -
-
\;EIGHl

A-
LOSS

F U L S E TllrlC U K K E L S E
L- -.-- 1
/Il
S l l F F I i E S f LOSS
L E ..... A ......
= J c 3
a c
GO - L O S S OF ONE
IUIFACE
.....
40 -
.
.
-
a
I

......-
*............A.. I.
i
i
A....
.-./ - A - 0.5
20
-
........... ........ ..A. .+ /
- ____- .,
A
..-&. ......... . . A _ - - - - ........... - - - .- . - ...... 8.-
-.-
,-
- 0
I I I I 1 I I I I I

FIGURE 8. EFFECT OF FREEZE-THAW ON MIX C 2


FREEZE-THAW-AVERAGE FOR SPECIMENS D 7 AND-D2

120 - 2

-
al
WEIGHT L O SS

100 - h
-
E
PULLE TllAE I I I C R E A S E
1.5 E
-.-.-E.

80 - STliFNSSS LOSS L
0

401
P
m
GO - 1 Y
v

0.5 -
0
20

0
O I-
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

Nuniber o f freeze-thaw cycles

FIGURE 9. EFFECT OF FREEZE-THAW ON MIX D

.
FIGURE 10. PHOTOGRAPHS OF BEAMS AFTER FREEZE T H A W
CYCLES.
LOAD

L.V. D.T.

FIGURE 11. SADDLE TO MONITOR DEFLECTION DURING BENDING


7: E
I
0
1
I
LL
I
\I
-,r
I
I
i
\I .
-2.-
I
!.
I
I
. D
0
0
P
r

0
0
cv
r

0
0

.-0
c.
CO

0
0
(D

0
0
-3

0
0
T
o! Q! ? U? U? ? 0. "! r O N
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 d
L
'L3

0
-a,0
L

h
N

.- *
0a , z.
w +
v)
9- t
L o
a,
-
0a .-
a a
L -