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clocks by one hour during the summer. During Daylight Saving Time, the sun appears to rise one hour later in the morning, when people are usually asleep anyway, and sets one hour later in the evening, seeming to stretch the day longer. The reason DST works is because its saves energy due to less artificial light needed during the evening hours—clocks are set one hour ahead during the spring, and one hour back to standard time in the autumn. Many countries observe DST, and many do not. Daylight saving time is the convention of advancing clocks so that afternoons have more daylight and mornings have less. Typically clocks are adjusted forward one hour near the start of spring and are adjusted backward in autumn. Modern DST was first proposed in 1895 by George Vernon Hudson, a New
Zealand entomologist. Many countries have used it since then; details vary by location and change occasionally. The practice is controversial. Adding daylight to afternoons benefits retailing, sports, and other activities that exploit sunlight after working hours, but causes problems for farming, evening entertainment and other occupations tied to the sun. Traffic fatalities are reduced when there is extra afternoon daylight; its effect on health and crime is less clear. Although an early goal of DST was to reduce evening usage of incandescent, formerly a primary use of electricity, modern heating and cooling usage patterns differ greatly, and research about how DST currently affects energy use is limited and often contradictory. DST's occasional clock shifts present other challenges. They complicate timekeeping, and can disrupt meetings, travel, billing, recordkeeping, medical devices, heavy equipment, and sleep patterns. Many computer-based systems can adjust their clocks automatically, but this can be limited and error-prone, particularly when DST rules change.
often dividing daylight into twelve equal hours regardless of day length. such as some Mount Athosmonasteries. and early to rise. This 1784 satire proposed taxing shutters. During his time as an American envoy to France. so civil time no longer varies by season. makes a man healthy.Origin of DST:Although not punctual in the modern sense. who independently conceived DST in 1905 during a pre-breakfast ride. started by modern standards at 09:02 solar time and lasted 44 minutes at the winter solstice. However. equal-length civil hours eventually supplanted unequal. anonymously published a letter suggesting that Parisians economize on candles by rising earlier to use morning sunlight. New Zealand he followed up in an 1898 paper. and Germany. "Early to bed. hora tertia. wealthy and wise". In 1895 he presented a paper to the Wellington Philosophical Society proposing a two-hour daylight-saving shift. Benjamin Franklin. After ancient times. rationing candles. and after considerable interest was expressed in Christchurch. ancient civilizations adjusted daily schedules to the sun more flexibly than modern DST does. Roman water clocks had different scales for different months of the year: at Rome's latitude the third hour from sunrise. His solution was to advance the clock during the summer months. so that each daylight hour was longer during summer. Modern DST was first proposed by the New Zealand entomologist George Vernon Hudson. a proposal he published two years later. Franklin did not propose DST. 18th-century Europe did not keep precise schedules. For example. author of the proverb. An avid golfer. Unequal hours are still used in a few traditional settings. Many publications incorrectly credit DST's invention to the prominent English builder and outdoorsman William Willett. and made him aware of the value of after-hours daylight. he also disliked cutting short his round at dusk. Willett lobbied unsuccessfully for the proposal in the UK until his death in 1915. and their occupied zones were the first European nations to use Willett's . but at the summer solstice it started at 06:58 and lasted 75 minutes. like ancient Rome. when he observed with dismay how many Londoners slept through a large part of a summer day. and waking the public by ringing church bells and firing cannons at sunrise. this soon changed as rail and communication networks came to require a standardization of time unknown in Franklin's day. its World War I allies. whose shift-work job gave him leisure time to collect insects.
the start and end dates were the first Sunday in April and the last Sunday in October. In this example. and the United States adopted it in 1918. .9 either forward to 03:00:00. almost twothirds of the year. but instead jumps from 01:59:59. most of its allies. How DST works:In a typical case where a one-hour shift occurs at 02:00 local time. as a way to conserve coal during wartime. Twenty-minute and two-hour shifts have been used in the past. Most of North America shifts at 02:00 local time. and repeals. A digital display of local time does not read 02:00 exactly. The 2007 U. repeating that hour. conversely. a location at UTC−10 during standard time is at UTC−9 during DST. adjustments. for example. Coordination strategies differ when adjacent time zones shift clocks. previously. in spring the clock jumps forward from 02:00 standard time to 03:00 DST and that day has 23 hours. at 01:00 UTC. and that day has 25 hours. for example. 1916. change was part of the Energy Policy Act of 2005. Russia and a few other countries waited until the next year. Mountain Time can be temporarily either zero or two hours ahead of Pacific Time. previously the rules were not uniform across the European Union. Australian districts go even further and do not always agree on start and end dates.S. Since 1996 European Summer Time has been observed from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October. Since then. whereas in autumn the clock jumps backward from 02:00 DST to 01:00 standard time.0 or backward to 01:00:00. so its zones do not shift at the same time. A one-hour shift is customary. and Congress retains the right to go back to the previous dates now that an energy-consumption study has been done.0. Clock shifts are usually scheduled near a weekend midnight to lessen disruption to weekday schedules. for example. and many European neutrals soon followed suit. most of the United States and Canada observe DST from the second Sunday in March to the first Sunday in November. the world has seen many enactments. from 1987 through 2006. Start and end dates vary with location and year. a location observing UTC+10 during standard time is at UTC+11 during DST. Starting in 2007.invention. Britain. The European Union shifts all at once. Eastern European Time is always one hour ahead of Central European Time. starting April 30. but Australia's Lord Howe Island uses a half-hour shift. in 2008 most DST-observing areas shifted clocks forward on October 5 but Western Australia shifted on October 26.
DST is generally not observed near the equator. southern Brazil observes it while equatorial Brazil does not. as it induces customers to shop and to participate in outdoor afternoon sports.5% of electricity in the U. formerly a primary use of electricity.S. which consumes about 3. The longer days nearer the summer solstice in high latitudes offer more room to shift daylight from morning to evening so that early morning daylight is not wasted. Advantage & Disadvantage:Willett's 1907 proposal argued that DST increases opportunities for outdoor leisure activities during afternoon sunlight hours. even for people who personally dislike the DST schedule. sporting goods makers. Although energy conservation remains an important goal. The advantages of coordination are so great that many people ignore whether DST is in effect by altering their nominal work schedules to coordinate with television broadcasts or daylight. Changing clocks and . where sunrise times do not vary enough to justify it. and other businesses benefit from extra afternoon sunlight. climate. Only a minority of the world's population uses DST because Asia and Africa generally do not observe it. and Canada. and children may need to leave for school in the dark. Electricity use is greatly affected by geography. because its mornings are darker: workers may have no sunlit leisure time. Delaying the nominal time of sunset and sunrise reduces the use of artificial light in the evening and increases it in the morning. energy usage patterns have greatly changed since then. and economics. Economic effects Retailers. General agreement about the day's layout confers so many advantages that a standard DST schedule usually outranks ad hoc efforts to get up earlier. An early goal of DST was to reduce evening usage of incandescent lighting. As Franklin's 1784 satire pointed out. and recent research is limited and reports contradictory results. Energy use DST's potential to save energy comes primarily from its effects on residential lighting. as in high-latitude summer when most people wake up well after sunrise. DST is commonly not observed during most of winter. Some countries observe it only in some regions. for example. making it hard to generalize from single studies. lighting costs are reduced if the evening reduction outweighs the morning increase.
successfully lobbied in 1985 and 2005 for U. billing systems.S. and records management is common. As more devices contain clocks. People who work across time zone boundaries need to keep track of multiple DST rules. inspecting vehicle lights. Public safety In several countries. People must remember to change their clocks. but overexposure can lead to skin cancer. travel. Disruption to meetings. chaired by blind sports magnate Gordon Gund. but DST can hurt night blindness sufferers. whether this is beneficial depends on one's location and daily schedule. . and can be expensive. particularly for mechanical clocks that cannot be moved backward safely. In societies with fixed work schedules it provides more afternoon sunlight for outdoor exercise. Similar twice-yearly tasks include reviewing and practicing fire escape and family disaster plans.DST rules has a direct economic cost. Complexity DST's clock shifts have the obvious disadvantage of complexity. Health DST has mixed effects on health. more time is spent changing them. checking storage areas for hazardous materials. The length of the day becomes variable. broadcasts. computer applications and the like. The Retinitis Pigmentosa Foundation Fighting Blindness. Sunlight strongly influences seasonal affective disorder. this consumes time. as not all locations observe DST or observe it the same way. It alters sunlight exposure. but some argue the reverse. and seasonal vaccinations. just before the heating and candle season causes an increase in home fires. fire safety officials encourage citizens to use the two annual clock shifts as reminders to replace batteries in smoke and carbon. DST extensions. as sunlight triggers vitamin D synthesis in the skin. entailing extra work to support remote meetings. reprogramming thermostats. particularly in autumn. DST may help in depression by causing individuals to rise earlier. Locations without DST can instead use the first days of spring and autumn as reminders.
as practiced in many parts of the world. especially in summer. 2009. Days are longest between Marchs to September. as the country faces acute energy shortages.DST in Bangladesh:Bangladesh is using Daylight Saving Time (DST) forwarding one hour from June 19. with the deficit standing at 800MW from 1000MW during the peak hours. with more hours of sunlight. The new timing may continue until the end of September. The government is introducing DST. The power deficit can be overcome by extending the hours of sunlight even further. . Energy consumption is increasing in our country day by day due to socio-economic development. Now the clocks in whole Bangladesh are seven hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time (UTC+7). saving consumption of artificial light. The national grid will be able to conserve power as the move means the sun will effectively set 'an hour later' on June 20. The power demand peaks to 5000-5500MW in the evenings.
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