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# 2.

## Muhammad Bilal Azam and Ahsan Javed

Department of Physics

## 24, 26 October, 2017

Question 1. What is polarization of light? Write down the electric eld for linear and circular
polarization. Also, show that linearly polarized light can be written as a sum of left and right
circular light?

## Answer. Plane wave solution of electric eld by Maxwell's equations is:

~ = E~o exp i(kz t)
E (1.1)

Here, E~o is the polarization vector for electric eld and it moves in the z direction. Since E~o is
orthogonal to ~k, so
E~o = (Ex , Ey , 0)
where Ex and Ey are complex in nature.
Now, Eq. 1.1 can also be written as:
~ = Ex x cos(kz t + x ) + Ey y cos(kz t + y )
E (1.2)
For linear polarization, there is no phase dierence i.e. if Ey = 0 then Ex 6= 0, so Eq. 1.2 becomes
now
~ = Eo x exp i(kz t)
E
~ = Eo x cos(kz t)
E
This is linearly polarized light in x-direction.
Similarly,
~ = Eo y exp i(kz t)
E
~ = Eo y cos(kz t)
E
This is linearly polarized light in y-direction.

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Circular Polarization
If Ex and Ey are out of phase i.e. x y =
2
then Ex = iEy , so
E~o = (Ex , Ey , 0)
E~o = (Ex , iEx , 0)
So,
~ = E~o exp i(kz t)
E
~ = (Eo exp i(kz t), iEo exp i(kz t), 0)
E
By taking only real parts, we get
~ =E
Re[E] ~ = (Eo cos(kz t), Eo sin(kz t), 0) (1.3)
This is left-handed circularly polarized light.
Similarly, by taking x y = 2 then Ex = iEy , so
E~o = (Ex , Ey , 0)
E~o = (Ex , iEx , 0)
So,
~ = E~o exp i(kz t)
E
~ = (Eo exp i(kz t), iEo exp i(kz t), 0)
E
By taking only real parts, we get
~ =E
Re[E] ~ = (Eo cos(kz t), Eo sin(kz t), 0) (1.4)
This is right-handed circularly polarized light.
By adding Eqs. 1.3 and 1.4, we get
E~o = (2Eo cos(kz t), 0, 0)
It shows that linearly polarized light is the sum of left-handed and right-handed circularly
polarized lights.

Question 2. Referring to Figure 3 what is the direction of the torque on the magnetic dipole?

~
~ = ~e B
By letting an auxiliary dimensions, in which ~e = xi + y j + z k and B
~ = Bo j , so we have

i j k

~ = x y z
0 Bo 0

~ = zBo i + xBo k
It is the required result.

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Question 3. Write down the normalized Jones column vector for horizontally, vertically, left and
right circularly polarized light?

 
Eox
E(z, t) =
Eoy

 
cos
E(z, t) = (3.1)
sin

 
cos 0
E(z, t) =
sin 0
 
1
E(z, t) =
0

## For vertically polarized light, = 90, Eq. 3.1 becomes

 
cos 90
E(z, t) =
sin 90
 
0
E(z, t) =
1

Jones vector for light with phase dierence between its components is
 
Eox
E(z, t) = (3.2)
Eoy exp(i)

## For left-handed circularly polarized light, =

2
and Eoy = Eox , so Eq. 3.2 becomes now
 
Eox
E(z, t) = (3.3)
Eox exp(i 2 )

Here,

exp(i ) = cos + i sin = i
2 2 2
And,
Eox
Eox = p 2 2
Eox + Eoy
1
Eox =
2

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Eq. 3.3 becomes now !
1
2
E(z, t) =
i 12
 
1 1
E(z, t) =
2 i
For right-handed circularly polarized light, = 2 and Eoy = Eox , so Eq. 3.2 becomes now
 
Eox
E(z, t) = (3.4)
Eox exp(i 2 )

Here,

exp(i ) = cos i sin = i
2 2 2
And,
Eox
Eox = p 2 + E2
Eox oy
1
Eox =
2
Eq. 3.4 becomes now !
1
2
E(z, t) =
i 12
 
1 1
E(z, t) =
2 i

Question 4. Show that the transformation matrix Jh for a horizontal linear polarizer is
 
1 0
Jh =
0 0

 
cos2 sin cos
Jrot () =
sin cos sin2

## For a horizontal linear polarizer, = 0, so

 
cos2 0 sin 0 cos 0
Jrot () =
sin 0 cos 0 sin2 0
 
1 0
Jh =
0 0
It is the required result.

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Question 5. What is Malus's law? How does a polarizer work?

## Answer. Malus law1 states that:

The intensity of a beam of plane-polarized light after passing through a rotatable polar-
izer varies as the square of the cosine of the angle through which the polarizer is rotated
from the position that gives maximum intensity.
I cos2

## Proof of Malus Law

If the amplitude of the light incident on the analyzer is E , then
Io = kE 2
Consider the diagram:

## Figure 1: Resolution of electric eld vectors

It is obvious from Figure 1 that E cos is transmitted and E sin is absorbed, so the intensity of
light passing through is
I = k(E cos )2
I = kE 2 cos2
I = Io cos2
where Io is proportionality constant, so
I cos2

Working of Polarizer
When polarizer is oriented at some transmission angle with respect to reference axis and light
oscillating in many planes approaches to it, the it will allow only those planes to pass which are
parallel to the transmission angle and block all other planes.
1 E. Collett, Field Guide to Polarization, SPIE Press, Bellingham, WA (2005).

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Question 6. Show that Jrot () in Eq (26) indeed represents the Jones matrix for an analyzer
oriented at w.r.t the x-axis.

Answer. Since Jones matrix is dened on the basis of coordinate system, rotate the coordinate
system by an angle as shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2: (a) Relative angle between polarizer (P) and analyzer (A). (b) Relative angles between
polarizer (P), sample (S) and analyzer (A).

We have 0
Jrot () = R()Jrot ()R()
(6.1)
0
Jrot () = R()Jrot ()R()
where Jrot () is the Jones matrix in (x, y) coordinate system, Jrot () is the Jones matrix in (x , y )
0 0 0

coordinate system and R() is the two dimensional coordinate transformation matrix.
 
cos sin
R() =
sin cos
 
cos sin
R() =
sin cos
 
0 1 0
Jrot () =
0 0
So, Eq. 6.1 becomes now
   
cos sin 1 0 cos sin
Jrot () =
sin cos 0 0 sin cos
  
cos sin cos sin
Jrot () =
sin cos 0 0

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It yields  
cos2 sin cos
Jrot () = (6.2)
sin cos sin2
Eq. 6.2 is the required result.

## Question 7. Find the output intensity after an analyzer oriented at an angle .

~ t) = |Ex | eix x + |Ey | eiy y ei(kzt)

E(z,
Using
|Ex |
q
A= q A |Ex |2 + |Ey |2 = |Ex |
2 2
|Ex | + |Ey |
And
|Ey |
q
B=q B |Ex |2 + |Ey |2 = |Ey |
|Ex |2 + |Ey |2
So  q q 
2 2 i 2 2
~ t) = A |Ex | + |Ey | e x x + B |Ex | + |Ey | e y y ei(kzt)
i
E(z,
q
~ t) = |Ex |2 + |Ey |2 eix Ax + Bei(y x ) y ei(kzt)

E(z,
~ t) = Eef f Ax + Bei y ei(kzt)

E(z,
E~ (z, t) = Eef f Ax + Bei y ei(kzt)


where = y x , since
I = E~ E
~
I = Eef f Ax + Bei y ei(kzt) Eef f Ax + Bei y ei(kzt)
   

I = |Eef f |2 (A2 + B 2 )

## where A and B are non-negative dimensionless real numbers with A2 + B 2 = 1.

Question 8. Since, the analyzer is set at an angle w.r.t the polarizer, show that electric eld of
the light beam after emerging from the sample followed by the analyzer is
 
cos( ) cos
E = cos( ) sin Ao exp (kz t)
The intensity of light measured by the photodetector is,
I = M A20 [cos2 ( )]
where M represents the relationship between the intensity and the sensitivity of the detection
process. For all practical purposes, M can be considered to a scaling factor that is consistent over
various experiments.

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Answer. The relative angle between analyzer and polarizer is in Figure 3 as:

## Figure 3: Relative angle between polarizer (P) and analyzer (A)

If the sample is placed at angle with respect to polarizer then the angle between analyzer and
sample will be ( ) as shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4: Relative angles between polarizer (P), sample (S) and analyzer (A)

## After rotating the plane of polarization by an angle , we get

 
cos
E = sin Ao exp (kz t)

But the analyzer is at angle with respect to polarizer (P) and sample (S) is at angle ( ) with
respect to analyzer (A). So,
 
cos( ) cos
E = cos( ) sin Ao exp((kz t))

## Question 9. Derive the expression (30).

 
cos( ) cos
E = cos( ) sin Ao exp (kz t)
E = cos( ) cos cos( ) sin Ao exp((kz t))


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Now,
1
I = hSi = n0 E E
2  
1 2
 cos( ) cos
I = n0 A0 cos( ) cos cos( ) sin
2 cos( ) sin
r
1 0
cos2 ( ) cos2 + cos2 ( ) sin2

I= n
2 0
By putting M = 12 n 00 and using cos2 + sin2 = 1 we get
q

I = M A20 [cos2 ( )]
It is the required result.

Question 10. Write the Jones transformation matrix for the combination of the polarizer, sample
and analyzer, placed in the same order.

Answer. With reference to Question 8 and gure (1), Jones transformation matrix is
 
cos( ) cos
J=
cos( ) sin

Question 11. What is the working principle of a photodetector? What does the photodetector
measure, the electric eld or the intensity?

Answer. A photodetector2 has an illuminating window with an anti-reecting coating, which ab-
sorbs the light photons. When light falls on it, electron-hole pairs are created in the depletion
region. These carriers are separated due to electric eld conductivity such that electrons mode to
the n-region and holes to the p-region. It produces photocurrent The number of carriers generated
is proportional to the intensity of incident light. The more the intensity of light, more the pho-
tocurrent3 . Its most common example is photodiode.
Photodetector can only measure the intensity of the incident light not the electric eld.

Question 12. Calculate the resonating frequency when a capacitor of 1.2 F is connected in series
with the coil? Why is the Helmholtz coil made resonating?

## Answer. Since C = 1.2 =1.2 106 F and L = 15 mH=15 103 H, so by using

r
1 1
fr =
2 LC
r
1 1
fr =
2 1.2 10 15 103
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fr = 1186.2 Hz
2 Floyd, T. (1996). Electronic devices. Englewood Clis, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
3 Guo, F., Yang, B., Yuan, Y., Xiao, Z., Dong, Q., Bi, Y. and Huang, J. (2012). A nanocomposite ultraviolet

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Question 13. What does the reading on the lock-in amplier physically represent?

Answer. As we have used a photodetector, which converts the incident light into current, so the
reading on lock-in amplier shows the intensity of incident light.

Question 14. Plot the Faraday rotation and use the results to calculate the Verdet constant of

Table 1: Linear relationship between current (A) and magnetic eld (B)
Current (in ampere) Magnetic Field (in gauss)
251 5.8
375 902
510 13.2
647 17.4
779 21.3
904 25
991 27.6
1025 28.6
1042 29.0

## Measuring the magnetic eld produced by the Helmholtz coil

It can be plotted by using following MATLAB code:
Listing 1: MATLAB code to plot Faraday rotation
2 I = [251 375 510 647 779 904 991 1025 1042]./1125;
3 B = [5.8 9.2 13.2 17.4 21.3 25 27.6 28.6 29.0];
4 plot(B,I,'r','linewidth',2)
5 xlabel('B(G rms)');
6 ylabel('i_a_c (Ampere rms)');
7 title('Faraday Rotation (B Vs I)')
8 txt = '\diamondsuit f_r = 822 Hz (Resonance Frequency)';
9 text(B(1),I(9),txt)
10 hold on
11 % Curve fitting
12 y = lsqcurvefit(@err,[1 1],B,I)
13 plot(B,((y(1)*B)+y(2)),'ko')

photodetector based on interfacial trap-controlled charge injection. Nature Nanotechnology, 7(12), pp.798-802.

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14 plot(B,((y(1)*B)+y(2)),'k+')
15 % Values of y
16 y =
17
18 0.0300 0.0536

It is visualized as:

## Finding the resonant frequency of the Helmholtz coil

Resonant frequency can be plotted by using following MATLAB code:
Listing 2: MATLAB code to plot resonant frequency
1 % Resonant Frequency
2 f = [100 : 20 : 800, 805, 810, 820, 822, 823, 824, 825, 830, 840, 860, 880, 900:
50: 1200,1400,2000];
3 I = [1.3: 0.3 : 3.1, 3.5, 3.8 4.2 4.6 5 5.5 5.9 6.4 7 7.6 8.3 9 9.8 11.07 11.7
12.8 14.1 15.6 17.3 19.4 22 25.1 29.1 34.4 41.6 52.1 68.9 99 164 187 218 259
260 259 257 255 234 181 111 77 61 38.7 28.5 27.7 19 16.4 14.4 9.9 5.2];
4 plot(f,I)
5 axis([50 2020 10 300])
6 xlabel('frequency (Hz)')
7 ylabel('Current (In Helmholtz coil)')
8 title('Faraday Effect ( Freq. Vs Current )')

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9 txt = '\leftarrow f_r = 822 Hz';
10 text(f(40),I(40),txt)
11 legend('Signal is maintained at 1 V')

## Verifying Malus's Law

Malus law can be plotted by using following MATLAB code:

## Listing 3: MATLAB code to plot Malus law

1 % Malus Law
2 clf
3 th = [0 10 20 30 40 45 50 60 70 80 90 100];
4 Rf = 5.6 * 10^6;
5 I = [2.12 4.1 5.69 6.89 7.7 7.85 7.9 7.6 6.78 5.69 3.95 2.2]./(1125*Rf);
6 I_nA = I * 10^9;
7 plot(th,I_nA,'r','LineWidth',2.5)
8 xlabel('Analyzer Angle \theta^o')
9 ylabel('Current (nA)')

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10 title('Malus Law')
11 hold on
12 axis([10 110 0.2 1.35])
13 y = lsqcurvefit(@malus, [0 0 0], th, I) * 10^9
14 plot(th, (y(1)*th.^2 + y(2)*th + y(3)),'ko')
15 hold on
16 plot(th, (y(1)*th.^2 + y(2)*th + y(3)),'k+')
17 % Values of y
18 y =
19
20 0.0004 0.0365 0.3311

## Calculation of Verdent Constant

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Table 2: Data for Verdent Constant
Voltage (in volt) Magnetic Field (in gauss)
1.20 10.3
1.70 15.2
2.20 20.2
2.80 25.2
3.30 30.2
3.80 35.6
4.70 40.1

## Figure 8: Verdent Constant

The Verdat constant is calculated from the slope of the linear t. For this trial, the Verdat constant
m
.

## Question 15. Clearly quantify your uncertainties.

Answer. There are type A and type B uncertainties because of uncertainties in dierent instru-
ments used as in multimeter, lock-in amplier and gauss meter.

Question 16. Can you measure idc with the help of the lock-in amplier?

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Answer. Lock-in ampliers can be used to measure modulated (AC) signals, so we cannot measure
idcwith the help of the lock-in amplier normally. But the SR5104 has a few analogue inputs at its
backplate which can be used but only if we convert the current into voltage rst and amplify it.

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