0 views

Uploaded by BilalAzam

- Infrared Reflection–Absorption Spectrometry of Monolayer Films at the Air–Water Interface
- mini project.pptx
- Radiometry Definitions and Terms
- 12441_Physics Unit I & II
- Polarization of Light Lab
- lec19
- 2012 02 14 GC Principles
- physics polarization xc
- Midas Civil 01Getting Started & Tutorials
- Soils That Effect of External Load Are Subjected to Stress
- 1977-TAP-Char Modes Dielectrics Harrington
- 9781420050844%2Ech4
- Maplin Magazine Index
- GATE Syllabus
- LCD
- Capacitance Multiplier Power Supply.pdf
- bar64series_3
- MOTM440 User's Guide
- Children CircuitLab
- CUSAT B.Tech Degree Course – Scheme of Examinations & Syllabus 2006 EC Sem VII

You are on page 1of 15

Department of Physics

Question 1. What is polarization of light? Write down the electric eld for linear and circular

polarization. Also, show that linearly polarized light can be written as a sum of left and right

circular light?

~ = E~o exp i(kz t)

E (1.1)

Here, E~o is the polarization vector for electric eld and it moves in the z direction. Since E~o is

orthogonal to ~k, so

E~o = (Ex , Ey , 0)

where Ex and Ey are complex in nature.

Now, Eq. 1.1 can also be written as:

~ = Ex x cos(kz t + x ) + Ey y cos(kz t + y )

E (1.2)

For linear polarization, there is no phase dierence i.e. if Ey = 0 then Ex 6= 0, so Eq. 1.2 becomes

now

~ = Eo x exp i(kz t)

E

~ = Eo x cos(kz t)

E

This is linearly polarized light in x-direction.

Similarly,

~ = Eo y exp i(kz t)

E

~ = Eo y cos(kz t)

E

This is linearly polarized light in y-direction.

1

Circular Polarization

If Ex and Ey are out of phase i.e. x y =

2

then Ex = iEy , so

E~o = (Ex , Ey , 0)

E~o = (Ex , iEx , 0)

So,

~ = E~o exp i(kz t)

E

~ = (Eo exp i(kz t), iEo exp i(kz t), 0)

E

By taking only real parts, we get

~ =E

Re[E] ~ = (Eo cos(kz t), Eo sin(kz t), 0) (1.3)

This is left-handed circularly polarized light.

Similarly, by taking x y = 2 then Ex = iEy , so

E~o = (Ex , Ey , 0)

E~o = (Ex , iEx , 0)

So,

~ = E~o exp i(kz t)

E

~ = (Eo exp i(kz t), iEo exp i(kz t), 0)

E

By taking only real parts, we get

~ =E

Re[E] ~ = (Eo cos(kz t), Eo sin(kz t), 0) (1.4)

This is right-handed circularly polarized light.

By adding Eqs. 1.3 and 1.4, we get

E~o = (2Eo cos(kz t), 0, 0)

It shows that linearly polarized light is the sum of left-handed and right-handed circularly

polarized lights.

Question 2. Referring to Figure 3 what is the direction of the torque on the magnetic dipole?

~

~ = ~e B

By letting an auxiliary dimensions, in which ~e = xi + y j + z k and B

~ = Bo j , so we have

i j k

~ = x y z

0 Bo 0

~ = zBo i + xBo k

It is the required result.

2

Question 3. Write down the normalized Jones column vector for horizontally, vertically, left and

right circularly polarized light?

Eox

E(z, t) =

Eoy

cos

E(z, t) = (3.1)

sin

cos 0

E(z, t) =

sin 0

1

E(z, t) =

0

cos 90

E(z, t) =

sin 90

0

E(z, t) =

1

Jones vector for light with phase dierence between its components is

Eox

E(z, t) = (3.2)

Eoy exp(i)

2

and Eoy = Eox , so Eq. 3.2 becomes now

Eox

E(z, t) = (3.3)

Eox exp(i 2 )

Here,

exp(i ) = cos + i sin = i

2 2 2

And,

Eox

Eox = p 2 2

Eox + Eoy

1

Eox =

2

3

Eq. 3.3 becomes now !

1

2

E(z, t) =

i 12

1 1

E(z, t) =

2 i

For right-handed circularly polarized light, = 2 and Eoy = Eox , so Eq. 3.2 becomes now

Eox

E(z, t) = (3.4)

Eox exp(i 2 )

Here,

exp(i ) = cos i sin = i

2 2 2

And,

Eox

Eox = p 2 + E2

Eox oy

1

Eox =

2

Eq. 3.4 becomes now !

1

2

E(z, t) =

i 12

1 1

E(z, t) =

2 i

Question 4. Show that the transformation matrix Jh for a horizontal linear polarizer is

1 0

Jh =

0 0

cos2 sin cos

Jrot () =

sin cos sin2

cos2 0 sin 0 cos 0

Jrot () =

sin 0 cos 0 sin2 0

1 0

Jh =

0 0

It is the required result.

4

Question 5. What is Malus's law? How does a polarizer work?

The intensity of a beam of plane-polarized light after passing through a rotatable polar-

izer varies as the square of the cosine of the angle through which the polarizer is rotated

from the position that gives maximum intensity.

I cos2

If the amplitude of the light incident on the analyzer is E , then

Io = kE 2

Consider the diagram:

It is obvious from Figure 1 that E cos is transmitted and E sin is absorbed, so the intensity of

light passing through is

I = k(E cos )2

I = kE 2 cos2

I = Io cos2

where Io is proportionality constant, so

I cos2

Working of Polarizer

When polarizer is oriented at some transmission angle with respect to reference axis and light

oscillating in many planes approaches to it, the it will allow only those planes to pass which are

parallel to the transmission angle and block all other planes.

1 E. Collett, Field Guide to Polarization, SPIE Press, Bellingham, WA (2005).

5

Question 6. Show that Jrot () in Eq (26) indeed represents the Jones matrix for an analyzer

oriented at w.r.t the x-axis.

Answer. Since Jones matrix is dened on the basis of coordinate system, rotate the coordinate

system by an angle as shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2: (a) Relative angle between polarizer (P) and analyzer (A). (b) Relative angles between

polarizer (P), sample (S) and analyzer (A).

We have 0

Jrot () = R()Jrot ()R()

(6.1)

0

Jrot () = R()Jrot ()R()

where Jrot () is the Jones matrix in (x, y) coordinate system, Jrot () is the Jones matrix in (x , y )

0 0 0

coordinate system and R() is the two dimensional coordinate transformation matrix.

cos sin

R() =

sin cos

cos sin

R() =

sin cos

0 1 0

Jrot () =

0 0

So, Eq. 6.1 becomes now

cos sin 1 0 cos sin

Jrot () =

sin cos 0 0 sin cos

cos sin cos sin

Jrot () =

sin cos 0 0

6

It yields

cos2 sin cos

Jrot () = (6.2)

sin cos sin2

Eq. 6.2 is the required result.

Answer. Since

~ t) = |Ex | eix x + |Ey | eiy y ei(kzt)

E(z,

Using

|Ex |

q

A= q A |Ex |2 + |Ey |2 = |Ex |

2 2

|Ex | + |Ey |

And

|Ey |

q

B=q B |Ex |2 + |Ey |2 = |Ey |

|Ex |2 + |Ey |2

So q q

2 2 i 2 2

~ t) = A |Ex | + |Ey | e x x + B |Ex | + |Ey | e y y ei(kzt)

i

E(z,

q

~ t) = |Ex |2 + |Ey |2 eix Ax + Bei(y x ) y ei(kzt)

E(z,

~ t) = Eef f Ax + Bei y ei(kzt)

E(z,

E~ (z, t) = Eef f Ax + Bei y ei(kzt)

where = y x , since

I = E~ E

~

I = Eef f Ax + Bei y ei(kzt) Eef f Ax + Bei y ei(kzt)

I = |Eef f |2 (A2 + B 2 )

Question 8. Since, the analyzer is set at an angle w.r.t the polarizer, show that electric eld of

the light beam after emerging from the sample followed by the analyzer is

cos( ) cos

E = cos( ) sin Ao exp (kz t)

The intensity of light measured by the photodetector is,

I = M A20 [cos2 ( )]

where M represents the relationship between the intensity and the sensitivity of the detection

process. For all practical purposes, M can be considered to a scaling factor that is consistent over

various experiments.

7

Answer. The relative angle between analyzer and polarizer is in Figure 3 as:

If the sample is placed at angle with respect to polarizer then the angle between analyzer and

sample will be ( ) as shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4: Relative angles between polarizer (P), sample (S) and analyzer (A)

cos

E = sin Ao exp (kz t)

But the analyzer is at angle with respect to polarizer (P) and sample (S) is at angle ( ) with

respect to analyzer (A). So,

cos( ) cos

E = cos( ) sin Ao exp((kz t))

Answer. Since,

cos( ) cos

E = cos( ) sin Ao exp (kz t)

E = cos( ) cos cos( ) sin Ao exp((kz t))

8

Now,

1

I = hSi = n0 E E

2

1 2

cos( ) cos

I = n0 A0 cos( ) cos cos( ) sin

2 cos( ) sin

r

1 0

cos2 ( ) cos2 + cos2 ( ) sin2

I= n

2 0

By putting M = 12 n 00 and using cos2 + sin2 = 1 we get

q

I = M A20 [cos2 ( )]

It is the required result.

Question 10. Write the Jones transformation matrix for the combination of the polarizer, sample

and analyzer, placed in the same order.

Answer. With reference to Question 8 and gure (1), Jones transformation matrix is

cos( ) cos

J=

cos( ) sin

Question 11. What is the working principle of a photodetector? What does the photodetector

measure, the electric eld or the intensity?

Answer. A photodetector2 has an illuminating window with an anti-reecting coating, which ab-

sorbs the light photons. When light falls on it, electron-hole pairs are created in the depletion

region. These carriers are separated due to electric eld conductivity such that electrons mode to

the n-region and holes to the p-region. It produces photocurrent The number of carriers generated

is proportional to the intensity of incident light. The more the intensity of light, more the pho-

tocurrent3 . Its most common example is photodiode.

Photodetector can only measure the intensity of the incident light not the electric eld.

Question 12. Calculate the resonating frequency when a capacitor of 1.2 F is connected in series

with the coil? Why is the Helmholtz coil made resonating?

r

1 1

fr =

2 LC

r

1 1

fr =

2 1.2 10 15 103

6

fr = 1186.2 Hz

2 Floyd, T. (1996). Electronic devices. Englewood Clis, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

3 Guo, F., Yang, B., Yuan, Y., Xiao, Z., Dong, Q., Bi, Y. and Huang, J. (2012). A nanocomposite ultraviolet

9

Question 13. What does the reading on the lock-in amplier physically represent?

Answer. As we have used a photodetector, which converts the incident light into current, so the

reading on lock-in amplier shows the intensity of incident light.

Question 14. Plot the Faraday rotation and use the results to calculate the Verdet constant of

your sample.

Table 1: Linear relationship between current (A) and magnetic eld (B)

Current (in ampere) Magnetic Field (in gauss)

251 5.8

375 902

510 13.2

647 17.4

779 21.3

904 25

991 27.6

1025 28.6

1042 29.0

It can be plotted by using following MATLAB code:

Listing 1: MATLAB code to plot Faraday rotation

1 % Faraday Rotation

2 I = [251 375 510 647 779 904 991 1025 1042]./1125;

3 B = [5.8 9.2 13.2 17.4 21.3 25 27.6 28.6 29.0];

4 plot(B,I,'r','linewidth',2)

5 xlabel('B(G rms)');

6 ylabel('i_a_c (Ampere rms)');

7 title('Faraday Rotation (B Vs I)')

8 txt = '\diamondsuit f_r = 822 Hz (Resonance Frequency)';

9 text(B(1),I(9),txt)

10 hold on

11 % Curve fitting

12 y = lsqcurvefit(@err,[1 1],B,I)

13 plot(B,((y(1)*B)+y(2)),'ko')

photodetector based on interfacial trap-controlled charge injection. Nature Nanotechnology, 7(12), pp.798-802.

10

14 plot(B,((y(1)*B)+y(2)),'k+')

15 % Values of y

16 y =

17

18 0.0300 0.0536

It is visualized as:

Resonant frequency can be plotted by using following MATLAB code:

Listing 2: MATLAB code to plot resonant frequency

1 % Resonant Frequency

2 f = [100 : 20 : 800, 805, 810, 820, 822, 823, 824, 825, 830, 840, 860, 880, 900:

50: 1200,1400,2000];

3 I = [1.3: 0.3 : 3.1, 3.5, 3.8 4.2 4.6 5 5.5 5.9 6.4 7 7.6 8.3 9 9.8 11.07 11.7

12.8 14.1 15.6 17.3 19.4 22 25.1 29.1 34.4 41.6 52.1 68.9 99 164 187 218 259

260 259 257 255 234 181 111 77 61 38.7 28.5 27.7 19 16.4 14.4 9.9 5.2];

4 plot(f,I)

5 axis([50 2020 10 300])

6 xlabel('frequency (Hz)')

7 ylabel('Current (In Helmholtz coil)')

8 title('Faraday Effect ( Freq. Vs Current )')

11

9 txt = '\leftarrow f_r = 822 Hz';

10 text(f(40),I(40),txt)

11 legend('Signal is maintained at 1 V')

Malus law can be plotted by using following MATLAB code:

1 % Malus Law

2 clf

3 th = [0 10 20 30 40 45 50 60 70 80 90 100];

4 Rf = 5.6 * 10^6;

5 I = [2.12 4.1 5.69 6.89 7.7 7.85 7.9 7.6 6.78 5.69 3.95 2.2]./(1125*Rf);

6 I_nA = I * 10^9;

7 plot(th,I_nA,'r','LineWidth',2.5)

8 xlabel('Analyzer Angle \theta^o')

9 ylabel('Current (nA)')

12

10 title('Malus Law')

11 hold on

12 axis([10 110 0.2 1.35])

13 y = lsqcurvefit(@malus, [0 0 0], th, I) * 10^9

14 plot(th, (y(1)*th.^2 + y(2)*th + y(3)),'ko')

15 hold on

16 plot(th, (y(1)*th.^2 + y(2)*th + y(3)),'k+')

17 % Values of y

18 y =

19

20 0.0004 0.0365 0.3311

13

Table 2: Data for Verdent Constant

Voltage (in volt) Magnetic Field (in gauss)

1.20 10.3

1.70 15.2

2.20 20.2

2.80 25.2

3.30 30.2

3.80 35.6

4.70 40.1

The Verdat constant is calculated from the slope of the linear t. For this trial, the Verdat constant

is v = 14 Trad

m

.

Answer. There are type A and type B uncertainties because of uncertainties in dierent instru-

ments used as in multimeter, lock-in amplier and gauss meter.

Question 16. Can you measure idc with the help of the lock-in amplier?

14

Answer. Lock-in ampliers can be used to measure modulated (AC) signals, so we cannot measure

idcwith the help of the lock-in amplier normally. But the SR5104 has a few analogue inputs at its

backplate which can be used but only if we convert the current into voltage rst and amplify it.

15

- Infrared Reflection–Absorption Spectrometry of Monolayer Films at the Air–Water InterfaceUploaded byKing Everest
- mini project.pptxUploaded byrkpolu
- Radiometry Definitions and TermsUploaded byM A
- 12441_Physics Unit I & IIUploaded bySharad Kumar
- Polarization of Light LabUploaded bylethall1ma
- lec19Uploaded bytamizhan
- 2012 02 14 GC PrinciplesUploaded byVolker Mueller
- physics polarization xcUploaded byapi-325274340
- Midas Civil 01Getting Started & TutorialsUploaded bycxw
- Soils That Effect of External Load Are Subjected to StressUploaded bySantanu Ghosh
- 1977-TAP-Char Modes Dielectrics HarringtonUploaded byTommy BJ
- 9781420050844%2Ech4Uploaded byatifbhatt
- Maplin Magazine IndexUploaded byschmal1975
- GATE SyllabusUploaded bymorgan
- LCDUploaded byPravin Hande
- Capacitance Multiplier Power Supply.pdfUploaded byMubeen Ahmed Khan
- bar64series_3Uploaded byHood Cloud
- MOTM440 User's GuideUploaded byAnonymous vzuOQuHx3
- Children CircuitLabUploaded byNandanKumar
- CUSAT B.Tech Degree Course – Scheme of Examinations & Syllabus 2006 EC Sem VIIUploaded byajeshsv
- n5aa6151d22354Uploaded byrajkumar r
- wifi_antennameasurementUploaded byFrits Last
- Macquairie Cree Success StoryUploaded byAWR Corporation
- Service Manual Power Supply Unit Panasonic KX-TDA0104XUploaded byRicardo Rodriguez Rodriguez
- instUploaded byNAVEED
- Amp PDO 5580 DatasheetUploaded byElectromate
- RF Based Satellite Communication SystemUploaded byMaggi Goofy Curly
- 20100927113628-be_eee_3_to_8Uploaded byNitin Sood
- Crown DC300A.pdfUploaded byJLGONZALEZ7
- A Simple Capacitance Multiplier Power Supply for ClassUploaded bypctronikgarcia

- Benjamin F. Dribus Discrete Causal Theory. Emergent Spacetime and the Causal Metric HypothesisUploaded byJanou Glaeser
- Masroor Hussain 18th July 2018Uploaded byBilalAzam
- Writing ProcessUploaded byBilalAzam
- Phy501-HW4Uploaded byBilalAzam
- PHY 305 Electromagnetic Fields and Waves Quizzes.pdfUploaded byBilalAzam
- Abstract_Dowker.pdfUploaded byBilalAzam
- PHY305+Quiz+6+_With+Solution_.pdfUploaded byBilalAzam
- Andrea-Solza-Dissertation.pdfUploaded byBilalAzam
- Andrea-Solza-Dissertation.pdfUploaded byBilalAzam
- School Education in Pakistan.pdfUploaded byBilalAzam
- Hw4_2Uploaded byBilalAzam
- Phy501-HW3Uploaded byBilalAzam
- PHY 305 Electromagnetic Fields and Waves Quizzes.pdfUploaded byBilalAzam
- a1_pracUploaded byBilalAzam
- King_Notes_Density_of_States_2D1D0D.pdfUploaded byatowar
- Phy501-HW2Uploaded byBilalAzam
- Spring 2018 Class ScheduleUploaded byBilalAzam
- Tadveen by Dr. Iftikhar Shafi SbUploaded byBilalAzam
- Phy501-HW1Uploaded byBilalAzam
- Phy501-HW1Uploaded byBilalAzam
- Uncertainties Formula SheetUploaded byBilalAzam
- F1Q5 Eps Converted ToUploaded byBilalAzam
- Faraday's RotationUploaded byBilalAzam
- Mathematics 2D Geometry MCQUploaded bySoniyaKanwalG
- Richard P. Feynman by Bilal AzamUploaded byBilalAzam
- Neutron PhysicsUploaded byBilalAzam
- Mathematics-Integral-MCQ.pdfUploaded byBilalAzam
- 2.16Uploaded byBilalAzam
- 2.6 Report.pdfUploaded byBilalAzam

- cmappnotes chemical reactions powerpointUploaded byapi-264004571
- NUURSNII SUDALGAAUploaded byBayarmaa Bat-Orshikh
- Shankara BroucherUploaded byPinkys Venkat
- Organs of SpeechUploaded bySujatha Menon
- INV0002Uploaded byML Co
- The Pearl #10-(Apr, 1880)Uploaded bylokki33
- Wire-work-jewellery-e-bookJOP.pdfUploaded byEdgar Quispe Condori
- A Behavioral Management Approach to Caring for Great ApesUploaded byvaldezzz
- H2O2-MSDSUploaded byHoàng Minh Đường
- Erickson-Dale-Sue-1968-Rhodesia.pdfUploaded bythe missions network
- PV1000 ManualUploaded byannavangen
- Lecture 6Uploaded byHasif D. Müller
- Form KesrawanUploaded byHayatullah Frio Marten
- Mutants & Masterminds Above and BeyondUploaded byVonDrachenstein
- SCOGOSTOLOGY EBOOKS-1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, INTRODUCTION, Version-1, AUGUST 1, 2009Uploaded bySCOGOSTOLOGY, SGSG
- 111111Uploaded byvishcrime
- Medical Imaging of Demyelinating Diseases; With Emphasis On Multiple SclerosisUploaded byAnis Ettehadulhagh
- IB Math SL QB v4 t1Uploaded bykaka
- HLR9820 Installation Manual-Hardware InstallationUploaded byHamza Saad
- D4503Uploaded byEmil
- Pleasant TouchUploaded byshodhganga
- lolUploaded byAli Alanni
- digitalUploaded byapi-277587898
- Tractors and Related EquipmentUploaded byaula
- Vitality 4 Life Recipe BookUploaded byedusurf
- Hazardous Area BasicsUploaded byGanesh.Mahendra
- Vishnu.Sahasranama.with.the.Bhasya.of.Sankaracharya_text.pdfUploaded byArvindChahal
- Embankment Settlement Analysis Rev 26 Jan 2015Uploaded byepomacagua
- Recipes of NagalandUploaded byNamrata Hazarika
- Computer-Aided Design of Diffusers on Marine Outfall SystemUploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O