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Frictional resistance of Randomly Oscillating Surfaces

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D. Myrhaug

Department ofMarine Hydrodynamics, Norwegian Institute of

Technology, N-7034 Trondheim, Norway

Abstract

assuming that the oscillatory motion is a stationary Gaussian narrow-band

random process. The approach is also based on simple explicit frictional

resistance formulas for harmonic oscillations. The probability distribution

functions of the maximum surface shear stress for laminar flow as well as

smooth turbulent and rough turbulent flow are presented. The maximum

surface shear stress follows the Rayleigh distribution for laminar flow and the

Weibull distribution for smooth turbulent and rough turbulent flow. Examples

of the friction coefficients based on the mean values of the maximum surface

shear stress for the three flow regimes are also given.

1 Introduction

point of view. A major difficulty is the prediction of the damping of the

system. This is an important part of the problem for systems that can be

excited to move near resonance, since the damping is the only mechanism that

can set any limit to the motion. Examples are roll damping of ships, as well

as damping of large-volume structures and wave-power devices. Although the

contribution from the frictional damping is small, it is important because, e.g.

for ordinary ships, the frictional damping leads to significant scale effects in

model tests (Myrhaug and Sand [1]). The frictional damping is normally

negligible for full-scale ships. However, in the case of fouling by the growth

of shells (which is a common roughness on ships that remain some days in a

harbour with warm and infected water) the frictional damping is important

even for full-scale ships (Myrhaug [2]). For large-volume structures where the

Transactions on the Built Environment vol 11, 1995 WIT Press, www.witpress.com, ISSN 1743-3509

eddies are not generated and therefore the frictional damping is negligible.

Here the friction between the wall and the water contributes to the loss of

energy. In most of these cases the flow is in the smooth turbulent flow regime.

The frictional resistance of oscillating surfaces has been treated by Myrhaug

[3], and was extended to cover the case of oscillating surfaces in steady

currents in Myrhaug and Slaattelid [4]. A rational approach to the latter

problem was presented by Myrhaug and Slaattelid [5].

This paper presents the frictional resistance of randomly oscillating

surfaces. The oscillations are described as a stationary Gaussian narrow-band

random process. Further, the approach is based on simple explicit friction

coefficient formulas for harmonic oscillations. The probability distributions of

the maximum surface shear stress for laminar flow as well as smooth turbulent

and rough turbulent flow are presented.

oscillations

p is the density of the fluid.

For laminar flow (Stokes' second problem; Schlichting [6]) the friction

coefficient is given by

/ = r Re~* (2)

where

r = 2 and s = 0.5 (3)

and

Re = ^- (4)

oscillatory displacement amplitude, and v is the kinematic viscosity of the

fluid, see Fig.l.

For smooth turbulent flow the friction coefficient can also be represented

by Eq. (2), but with other values of r and s. Jonsson [9] proposed to use

Transactions on the Built Environment vol 11, 1995 WIT Press, www.witpress.com, ISSN 1743-3509

Re,**, random

Figure 1: Friction coefficient vs. Reynolds number for laminar and smooth

turbulent flow. Laminar flow: Eqs. (2) and (3) for harmonic oscillations;

Eq. (17) for random oscillations. Smooth turbulent flow: Eqs. (2)

and (5) for harmonic oscillations; Eq. (18) for random oscillations. All the

data are for sinusoidal waves/oscillations: x Kamphuis [7]; A Jensen et al. [8].

5 -10'

Amplitude to roughness ratio, A/ZQ, sinusoidal

Q, random

Figure 2: Friction coefficient vs. amplitude to roughness ratio for rough

turbulent flow: Eq. (5) (Soulsby et al. [11]) for sinusoidal oscillations;

- - - Eq. (19) for random oscillations. All the data are for sinusoidal

waves/oscillations: + Bagnold [12]; x Kamphuis [7]; D Jonsson and Carlsen

[13]; A Sumer et al. [14]; O Sleath [15].

Transactions on the Built Environment vol 11, 1995 WIT Press, www.witpress.com, ISSN 1743-3509

r = 0.0465 and s = 0.1, but since then new data for smooth turbulent flow have

been published (Jensen et al. [8]). They also found that the flow becomes fully

turbulent after Re reaches the value of approximately 3-10^, see Fig. 1. Based

on these results Myrhaug [10] proposed to use Eq. (2) with

For rough turbulent flow Soulsby et al. [11] proposed the following friction

coefficient formula, obtained as the best fit to the data in Fig. 2,

(6)

parameter k by ZQ = k/30 (Schlichting [6]).

The basis for the present approach is that the maximum surface shear stress

for harmonic oscillations given in Eq. (1) combined with Eqs. (2) to (6), is

valid for random oscillations as well. Consequently it is assumed that each

harmonic component can be treated individually. The accuracy of this

assumption should be validated by using a full boundary layer model to

calculate the shear stress for random oscillations. However, although the

goodness of this approximation is questionable, it should be adequate as a first

approximation. Further it is assumed that the oscillatory displacement a(t) is

a stationary Gaussian narrow-band random process with zero expectation and

with the one-sided spectral density S^(co), where co is the cyclic frequency of

oscillation. Then the oscillatory velocity u(t) = da(t)/dt will also be a stationary

Gaussian narrow-band random process with zero expectation and with the one-

sided spectral density S^(co) = co^S^(co). The accuracy of the narrow-band

assumption will be discussed subsequently.

For a narrow-band process the oscillations are specified as a "harmonic"

oscillation with cyclic frequency co and with slowly varying amplitude and

phase. Then the oscillatory displacement is given as (see e.g. Sveshnikov [16])

a(t) = A(t) cos [cot + <D(et)], where e 1 is introduced to indicate that the

oscillatory displacement amplitude A and the phase 0 are slowly varying with

t. Then the oscillatory velocity is given as u(t) = coA(et)sin [cot + O(et) -n/2]

+ O(e), where the term O(e) represents terms of order e. As a first

approximation, which is consistent with the narrow-band assumption, the terms

of O(e) are neglected, and accordingly the oscillatory velocity amplitude is

related to the oscillatory displacement amplitude by U = coA, where U is

Transactions on the Built Environment vol 11, 1995 WIT Press, www.witpress.com, ISSN 1743-3509

The accuracy of the approximate relation for u(t) obtained by neglecting the

terms of O(e) is discussed in Sveshnikov [16]. A test of the accuracy is the

error in the variance of the derivative of the random function a(t). It appears

that this error is small in the case of a narrow-band spectrum. Overall some of

the main features are covered by using the narrow-band approximation.

Now A and U will both be Rayleigh-distributed. The distribution function

for a Rayleigh-distributed random variable x is given as

rms y

where x^g is the root-mean-square (rms) value of x. ^ and U^g are related

to the zeroth moments ^ and m^ of the displacement and velocity spectral

densities, respectively, or corresponding to the variances of the displacement

(O^) and the velocity (G %), by

(8)

and

(9)

From Eq. (9) it also appears that m^ = ir^, where rr^ is the second

moment of the oscillatory displacement spectral density. A reasonable choice

for co is the mean zero-crossing frequency, which is obtained from the spectral

moments of a(t) as

co = o> (10)

The probability distribution function of T^/p can now be obtained by

transformation of the variable A to T^/p. By using U = coA in Eqs. (1) to (7),

and using Eqs. (8) to (10), the probability distribution function of the

normalized maximum surface shear stress for the three flow regimes are given

by

Transactions on the Built Environment vol 11, 1995 WIT Press, www.witpress.com, ISSN 1743-3509

where

laminar: 'p = 2 ; t = ;w*,

* Li =2r ' 2/te

tlTlS [/ \ (1/2)

^,,^O I TrlS

-0.52

T_

rowg/i: p = 1.35 ; t = [/I. d4)

**/?

(15)

laminar flow, while it is Weibull-distributed for smooth turbulent and rough

turbulent flow.

The friction coefficient for random oscillations is defined in Eq. (1) as

= 2 (16)

which can be obtained when the probability distribution of the maximum

surface shear stress for random oscillations is known.

As an example the friction coefficients based on the expected (mean) value

of the maximum surface shear stress, E[T^/p], will be calculated. For a

Weibull-distributed random variable x with the distribution function P(x) = 1-

exp(-x^) where x > 0 and (3 > 0, the expected value of the random variable is

given by E[x] = F(l + 1/P), where F is the Gamma function (see e.g. Bury

[17]). Then, by representing U by U^^, the friction coefficients associated with

E[T /p] for the three flow regimes are given by

Transactions on the Built Environment vol 11, 1995 WIT Press, www.witpress.com, ISSN 1743-3509

= 1-27 rough

It should be noted that use of the rms oscillatory velocity amplitude ensures

that the variance of the displacement of sinusoidal oscillations matches that due

to the displacement spectrum for random oscillations. Thus the results in Eqs.

(17) to (19) show that the effect of random oscillations is to reduce the

maximum surface shear stress by a factor of 0.89, 0.94 and 0.91 for the three

flow regimes, respectively, compared with the results for equivalent harmonic

oscillations given in Eqs. (1) to (6). These results are shown in Figs. 1 and 2

marked as "random; rms".

Other characteristic statistical values of T^/p are given in Myrhaug [10].

However, the most appropriate statistical value of the maximum surface shear

stress to use in an actual calculation of the damping of a marine system

undergoing random oscillations is not yet clear, but will depend on the problem

dealt with. Further, the present approach should be verified with measurements

and by simulations using a full boundary layer model. However, although the

present formulas are simple, it is believed to be adequate as a first

approximation to represent the frictional resistance for random oscillations.

4 Conclusions

by assuming that (1) the oscillations are described as a stationary Gaussian

narrow-band random process, and (2) simple explicit friction coefficient

formulas for harmonic oscillations are valid for random oscillations as well.

The probability distribution functions of the maximum surface shear stress for

laminar flow as well as smooth turbulent and rough turbulent flow are

presented. The maximum surface shear stress follows the Rayleigh distribution

for laminar flow and the Weibull distribution for smooth turbulent and rough

turbulent flow. Examples of the friction coefficients based on the expected

values of the maximum surface shear stress for the three flow regimes are also

given, showing that the effect of random oscillations is to reduce the maximum

surface shear by approximately 10% compared with the results for equivalent

harmonic oscillations. Although the present formulas are simple, they should

be adequate as a first approximation to represent the frictional resistance for

random oscillations.

Transactions on the Built Environment vol 11, 1995 WIT Press, www.witpress.com, ISSN 1743-3509

References

circular cylinder, Journal of Ship Research, 1980, 24, 244-255.

2. Myrhaug, D. A note on the effect of roughness on the frictional roll

damping. International Shipbuilding Progress, 1981, 28, 128-135.

3. Myrhaug, D. On the frictional resistance of oscillating rough and smooth

surfaces. International Shipbuilding Progress, 1984, 31, 196-203.

4. Myrhaug, D. & Slaattelid, O.H. On the frictional resistance of oscillating

surfaces in steady currents, Journal of Ship Research, 1990, 34, 1-13.

5. Myrhaug, D. & Slaattelid, O.H. Frictional resistance formulas for

oscillating surfaces in currents, Proc. 4th Int. Symp. on Practical Design

of Ships and Mobile Units, Varna, Bulgaria, 1989, Vol. 1, pp. 3.1-3.10.

6. Schlichting, H. Boundary-Layer Theory, 7th Ed., McGraw-Hill, New

York, 1979.

7. Kamphuis, J.W. Friction factor under oscillatory waves, ASCE J.

Waterw., Harbors, Coastal Eng. Div., 1975, 101, 135-144.

8. Jensen, B.L., Sumer, B.M. & Freds0e, J. Transition to turbulence at high

Re-numbers in oscillating boundary layers, Progress Rep. 66, Inst.

Hydrodyn. Hydraul. Eng., Tech. Univ. Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark,

1987.

9. Jonsson, I.G. A new approach to oscillatory rough turbulent boundary

layers, Ocean Eng., 1980, 7, 109-152; 567-570.

10. Myrhaug, D. Bottom friction beneath random waves, Coastal Engi-

neering, 1995, 24, 259-273.

11. Soulsby, R.L., Davies, A.G., Freds0e, J., Huntley, D.A, Jonsson, I.G.,

Myrhaug, D., Simons, R.R., Temperville, A. & Zitman, T. Bed shear-

stresses due to combined waves and currents, Book of Abstracts, MAST-

2, GSM Coastal Morphodynamics, Overall Workshop, Grenoble, France,

September 1993, pp. 2.1-1/2.1-4.

12. Bagnold, R.A. Motion of waves in shallow water. Interaction between

waves and sand bottoms, Proc. Royal Soc., Ser. A, 1946, 187, 1-15.

13. Jonsson, I.G. & Carlsen, N.A. Experimental and theoretical investi-

gations in an oscillatory turbulent boundary layer, J. Hydraul. Res., 1976,

14, 45-60.

14. Sumer, B.M., Jensen, B.L. & Freds0e, J. Turbulence in oscillatory

boundary layers, Advances in Turbulence, eds. C. Comte-Bellot and J.

Mathieu, 1987, pp. 556-567, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

15. Sleath, J.F.A. Turbulent oscillatory flow over rough beds, J. Fluid Mech.,

1987, 182, 369-409.

16. Sveshnikov, A. A. Applied Methods in the Theory of Random Functions,

Pergamon Press, New York, 1966.

17. Bury, K.V. Statistical Models in Applied Science, John Wiley & Sons,

New York, 1975.

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