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CONVERTER

*E.O. Ijoga1 and Dr. B.J. Kwaha2

1

Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, 6 Edmund, Crescent Yaba, Lagos-Nigeria

2

Department of Physics, University of Jos, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria

E-mail: eo_ijoga@yahoo.com (*Corresponding Author)

Abstract: This article presents the design and construction of a transformer-typed Switch-

Mode Power Supply (SMPS) with multiple DC outputs. The developed circuit utilized the

SG3524 control circuitry at a fixed frequency to generate pulse width train. It was desired to

incorporate a transformer into the circuit so as to provide DC isolation and the desired

multiple-output voltages. The circuit was built with preferred values of components with a

DC input voltage of 12.00V. The voltages designed for the output terminals, Vo1, Vo2, Vo3,

Vo4 and Vo5 were 15.00V, 26.00V, 30.00V, 50.00V and 80.00V respectively. The overall

output power of the converter was found to be 169.7W while the total power loss in the

circuit was determined to be 20.3W with an efficiency of 89.3%. Also, the DC voltage

transfer function at the terminals: Vo1, Vo2, Vo3, Vo4 and Vo5 were found to be 1.08, 2.00,

2.33, 3.75 and 6.50 respectively. The developed circuit results in significant cost and space

savings for multiple output power supplies. This device is useful in digital systems and

electronic appliances such as TV, DVD, Cameras and Laptops which operate internally on

DC voltages.

Keywords: DC-to-DC, PWM, control circuitry, driver amplifier, power switch, rectifier.

Introduction

The term switched mode converter is used to describe a circuit which takes DC input

(unregulated) and provides single or multiple DC outputs, again of same or opposite polarity

and of a lower or higher voltage (Bakshi et al, 2010). The equipment for DC conversion can

be divided into four technologies (Fang and Hong, 2004):

i) AC/AC Transformers

ii) AC/DC Rectifiers

iii) DC/AC Inverters

iv) DC/DC Converters

DC/DC Converters

DC/DC Converters can be used to increase, decrease and/or reverse the voltage polarity at the

output. The basic equations of an ideal DC/DC converter are given as (Erickson, 1998):

557 E.O. Ijoga and Dr. B.J. Kwaha

Pin=Pout (1)

P=VI (2)

V=M(D)Vg (3)

Ig=M(D)I (4)

where Pin and Pout - input and output powers respectively, Vg - input voltage, V - output

voltage, Ig -input current, I- output current, M - conversion ratio and D is the duty cycle.

Methodology

The design of a switched mode DC/DC converter with multiple outputs is a complex

procedure due to the large number of parameters involved and the interdependence of these

circuit parameters. However, when broken down into stages, it becomes much easier to

manage. The design specifications are shown in Table 1. The choice for these specifications

was primarily driving by low power consumption of digital and electronic appliances such as:

Laptops, Televisions, e.t.c. that operate internally with low DC voltages. Also, most of the

commercially available appliances are designed with DC input voltages of 12V and 24V. The

circuit chosen is categorised into four main stages:

i) Control circuitry

ii) Driver amplifier and power switch

iii) Power transformer design (with multiple secondary windings)

iv) Rectifier and filtering capacitor

Control Circuitry

The SG3524 is a monolithic integrated circuit which incorporates all the function required for

the construction of regulating SMPS (datasheetcatalog, 2010). The rationales behind this

choice are:

i) It is a low cost device

ii) Has complete Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) control circuitry

iii) Line and load regulation of 0.2% (datasheetcatalog, 2010)

iv) Frequency of operation up to 300 kHz (datasheetcatalog, 2010)

Design and Construction of a Switch-Mode . 558

The oscillating frequency of the PWM circuit can be determined with the equation

(datasheetcatalog, 2010):

1.18

fs = (5)

RT CT

where RT and CT are Timing Resistor and Capacitor respectively, the range of practical values

specified in the manufacturers data sheet; RT is between 1.8 and 100k, while CT falls

between 1nF and 0.1 F. By choosing RT to be 24 k and CT to be 0.1 F,

1.18

fs = = 492 Hz

24, 000 (0.1 106 )

The period of oscillation, T of the PWM can be obtained from (datasheetcatalog, 2010):

T = R TC T (6)

Therefore,

T = 24000 x (0.1x10-6) = 2.4ms

Driver amplifier and power switch

Digital ICs are low power devices because they can supply only small load current (Malvino

and Bates, 2007). Therefore, there was need to amplify the pulse width train generated by the

SG3524 IC. The C1815 NPN Epitaxial Silicon Transistor is the selected transistor for the

driver amplifier stage due to its high dc current gain (hFE) linearity, high frequency

oscillation, and because, its a general purpose transistor. The Common-Emitter configuration

is the chosen connection for operating the circuit. This is because it has got high Current gain,

dc (50-300), very high Voltage gain (up to 1500) and Power gain (up to 10,000 or 40 dB)

(Akande et al, 2007).

In addition, the Voltage Divider Bias (VDB) technique is preferred for operating the

transistor. This is because it requires only a dc power supply, provides good bias stability and

operating point is almost independent of dc variation (Akande et al, 2007). The supply

voltage, VCC chosen for the design is 12V dc with 10 % tolerance. This was determined by

picking an approximate dc voltage based on the analysis of circuit limitation and availability

of 12V dc battery. The C1815 electrical characteristic table shown in Appendix B

specified collector-emitter voltage, VCE =6.0V, minimum hFE or dc =130 and collector

current, IC = 2.0mA. Let the load resistance be RL = 3K. The dc load line for the driver stage

amplifier is obtained using the equation (Akande et al, 2007):

VCE= VCC ICRC (7)

559 E.O. Ijoga and Dr. B.J. Kwaha

Parameters Values

Input voltage, Vcc 12.00V dc

Output voltage, VO1 15.00V dc

Output voltage, VO2 26.00V dc

Output voltage, VO3 30.00V dc

Output voltage, VO4 50.00V dc

Output voltage, VO5 80.00V dc

Output power, Po1 23 W

Output power, Po2 27 W

Output power, Po3 28 W

Output power, Po4 50 W

Output power, Po5 62 W

Total output power, Pts 190 W

Estimated transformer efficiency, 95%

Regulation, a 6%

Switching frequency, fs 492Hz

Diode forward drop, VF (full wave) 1.0V

Diode forward drop, VF (full bridge) 2.0V

Duty cycle, D of the integrated circuit 0.45

Core Material SiFe

Core operating flux density, Bac 1.5Tesla

12V

I C ( sat ) = = 4mA

3K

At open circuit, IC = 0, then equation (7) becomes

VCC = VCE =12V

1

Hence, at midpoint, I CQ I C ( sat ) = 2mA and VCEQ= 6V

2

where VCEQ is the collectoremitter voltage, and ICQ collector current at Q-point

The dc current gain is expressed as (Akande et al, 2007):

Design and Construction of a Switch-Mode . 560

Ic

= (8)

IB

2mA

IB = = 15 A

130

The emitter voltage, VE can be obtained as (Malvino and Bates, 2007):

VE = 0.1 VCC (9)

VE= 0.1 x 12V = 1.2V

The emitter resistor, RE can be found using the expression (Akande et al, 2007):

VE

RE = (10)

IE

IC IE

1.2V

RE = = 600 (1k preferred).

2mA

The base voltage, VBB can be obtained from the relation given by (Malvino and Bates, 2007):

VE = VBB Vbe (11)

VBB = 1.2V + 0.7V = 1.9V

where, the base-emitter voltage for Silicon transistor is , Vbe = 0.7V

A well deserved VDB circuit satisfies the stiff voltage source condition given by (Malvino

and Bates, 2007):

R2 0.01dc RE (12)

Therefore,

R2 0.01 x (130) x (1000 ) = 1.3k (1.3k preferred)

The output of a VDB circuit is expressed as (Malvino and Bates, 2007):

R2 (Vcc VBB )

R1 = (13)

VBB

1.3K (12V 1.9V )

R1 = = 6910 (6.8k preferred)

1.9V

The choice of the semiconductor technology utilized for this power switch function was

influenced by factors such as low cost, peak voltage and current, frequency of operation and

heat sinking. Hence, the IRF1010E power FET was chosen for this design due to its ultra low

on-resistance (RDS(ON)) of about 12m . Other benefits includes: fast switching and

ruggedized device, low thermal resistance, provides high power capability, and good

switching capability (SMPSRM, 2007). The selected switching topology for the design is

561 E.O. Ijoga and Dr. B.J. Kwaha

called "push-pull" Converter, because the transformer has a double primary (centre-tapped).

The centre tap is connected to the 12V DC battery. The two ends of the primary are connected

to a pair of paralleled IRF1010 E MOSFETs. Each ties the MOSFET to ground in each

conduction cycle.

Power transformer stage

The design specifications are shown in Table 1.The overall output power, Pts for the DC

converter given as 190W. The voltage across the primary winding of a centre tap transformer

is twice the input dc voltage (bcae1, 2011). Thus, Vp = 24V ac and efficiency, = 0.95. The

current through the primary winding, IP is given by (McLyman, 2004):

PCS

Ip = (14)

V p

190W

A Ip = = 8.3 A

0.95 24

And the transformer input power; Pin is calculated as (McLyman, 2004):

Pin=IPVP (15)

Pin = 8.3A x 24 =199.2 W

The apparent power, Pt is calculated as (McLyman, 2004):

Pt = Pin + Pts (16)

Pt= 199.2 W + 190 W = 389. 2 W

The transformer operating frequency, fT is determined from the switching frequency, fS by

(datasheetcatalog, 2010):

1 (17)

fT = fs

2

1

fT = x 492 =246 Hz

2

The value of fT and the design parameters in Table 1 can be used to compute the windings.

The number of turns, Np at the primary winding can be computed by (Gottlieb, 1998):

E108

Np = (18)

4 fBS A

where E is the voltage, f is the transformer frequency, Bs is the flux density and A is the core

area.

24 x108

Np = = 47.2 (48 turns preferred value)

4 x 246 x15000 x3.448

Design and Construction of a Switch-Mode . 562

PC 108

j= (19)

KBS Ku fT ACWC

where winding fill factor, Ku = 0.25 (for multiple output transformer (Erickson, 1998)), Bs =

15000 Gauss shown in Appendix F. Using the EI-750 core parameters in appendix D for core

area, AC and window area, WC,

389.2 x108

j= = 1123 Acm-2 (1.123 x107Am-2)

4 x 0.25 x15000 x 246 x3.448 x 2.723

The primary wire area Awp is given by (McLyman, 2004):

I

Aw = (20)

j

where I is current. All windings operate at the same current density, j. Therefore,

8.3

Awp = 7

= 7.39 x 10-7m-2 (0.00739cm2)

1.123 x10

Appendix G: 0.00739cm2 has the approximate gauge AWG #18 with resistance per unit

length, of the wire specified as 209 (2.09 x 10-4)

cm

The Primary resistance, Rp of a solid copper is given as (McLyman, 2004):

Rp= MLT (NP) of AWG (21)

cm

Appendix D: The, Mean Length per turn, MLT for EI-750 core is specified as 11.2cm.

Rp =11.2 x 48 x (2.09 x 10-4) = 0.11

The primary copper loss, Pp is defined as (McLyman, 2004):

Pp=Ip2Rp (22)

where Ip is the primary current

Pp = 8.32 x 0.11 = 7.6W

The secondary turn, Ns for multiple windings is expressed as (McLyman, 2004):

N pVsi a

N si = 1+ (23)

Vp 100

Nsi is secondary turns, Vsi the secondary voltage, Voi the output voltage (i= 1, 2,...N), Np the

primary turn, Vp the primary voltage, a- the voltage regulation, and VF is the diode forward

voltage drop.

563 E.O. Ijoga and Dr. B.J. Kwaha

48 x16 6

N s1 = 1+ = 33.9 (34 turns preferred)

24 100

The 2nd secondary winding: Vs2=26 + 1.0= 27V

48 x 27 6

Ns2 = 1+ = 57.2 (58 turns preferred)

24 100

The 3rd secondary winding: Vs3=30 + 1.0= 31V

48 x31 6

N s3 = 1+ = 65.7 (66 turns preferred)

24 100

The 4th secondary winding: Vs4=50 + 2.0= 52V

48 x52 6

Ns4 = 1+ = 110.2 (112 turns preferred)

24 100

The 5th secondary winding: Vs5=80+ 2.0=82V

48 x82 6

N s5 = 1+ =173.8 (172 turns preferred)

24 100

The secondary power, Ps(i) is given by (McLyman, 2004):

Ps(i) = Io(i) (Vo(i) + Vd) (25)

Psi

I s (i ) =

Vsi + Vd

where, Io(i) is output current (i=1,2,3,..) Vd is the diode forward voltage drop.

23W

I s (i ) = = 1.40A

15V + 1V

Using equation (20) with parameters in Table 1, the wire gauge for 1st secondary winding:

1.40

Awsl = 7

= 1.25 x 10-7m2 (0.00125cm2)

1.123 10

Appendix G: 0.00125cm2 has the approximate gauge AWG #26 with resistance per unit

length, of the wire specified as 1339 (1.339 x 10-3 )

cm

The secondary resistance, Rs of a solid copper is given as (McLyman, 2004):

Rs= MLT (Ns) ofAWG (26)

cm

For the 1st secondary winding: Rs(1)= 11.2 x 34 x (1.339 x 10-3) = 0.51

(Appendix D: MLT for EI-750 core is specified as 11.2cm).

The secondary copper loss, PS (oi) is defined as (McLyman, 1993):

Design and Construction of a Switch-Mode . 564

where I(0i) and Rsi are the secondary currents and resistances of the wire. (i=1, 2, 3...N)

1st secondary copper loss: Ps1 = (1.40)2 x 0.51 = 1.04W

Using equation (20), the secondary current for the 2nd winding:

27W

I s (2) = = 1.0A

16V + 1V

1.0 A

Bare wire area: 2nd secondary winding: Aws 2 =

1.123 x107

= 8.9 0x 10-8m2 (0.000890 cm2)

Appendix G: 0.000890 cm2 has the approximate gauge AWG #28 and is 2129

cm

(2.129 x 10-3 )

The resistance for the 2nd secondary winding: Rs2= 11.2 x 58 x (2.129 x 10-3) = 1.38

The Copper loss for the 2nd secondary winding: Ps2 = (1.0)2 x 1.38 = 1.38W

28W

The secondary current for the 3rd winding: I s (3) = = 0.90A

30V + 1V

0.90

Bare wire area: 3rd secondary winding: Aws 3 = = 8.01 x 108m2 (0.000801cm2)

1.123 x107

0.000801cm2 AWG #28 and the of AWG #28 = 2129 (2.129 x 10-3 )

cm

Resistance for the 3rd secondary winding: Rs3= 11.2 x 66 x (2.129 x 10-3) = 1.57

Copper loss for 3rd secondary winding: Ps3 = (0.90)2 x 1.57 = 1.27W.

50W

The current for the 4th secondary winding: I s (4) = = 0.96A

50V + 2V

0.96

Bare wire area: 4th secondary winding, Aws 4 = = 8.56 x 108m2 (0.00086 cm2)

1.123 x107

Appendix G: 0.00086 cm2 AWG #28 and the of AWG #28

cm

= 2129 (2.129 x 10-3 )

Resistance: 4th secondary winding, Rs4= 11.2 x 112 x (2.129 x 10-3) = 2.67

Copper loss: 4th winding, Ps4 = (0.96)2 x 2.67 = 2.46 W

62W

The current for the 5th secondary winding: I s (5) = = 0.76 A

80V + 2V

0.76

Bare wire area: 5th secondary winding, Aws 5 = = 6.73 x 108m2(0.000673cm2)

1.123 x107

565 E.O. Ijoga and Dr. B.J. Kwaha

Appendix G: 0.000673cm AWG #29. And of 2685 (2.685 x 10-3 )

cm

Resistance: 5th secondary winding, Rs5 = 11.2 x 188 x (2.685 x 10-3) = 5.65

The copper loss for the 5th winding: Ps5 = (0.76)2 x 5.17 = 3.0W

The total secondary copper loss (McLyman, 2004):

PSL = Ps01 + Ps02 +Ps03 + Ps04 + Ps05 (28)

PsL= 1.04W + 1.38W +1.27W + 2.46W + 3.0 = 9.15W

The total copper loss is given by (McLyman, 1993):

Pcu= Pp + PsL (29)

Pcu = 7.6 + 9.2 = 16.8W

Appendix E: Core loss equation factors for EI lamination of 14.00 mils thickness with values

of the constants: k, m and n.

Manufacturers present core loss in the form of an equation such as (McLyman, 2004):

W/Kg = K fm Bn (30)

Pfe = (W/Kg) (Wtfe) (31)

where K, m, n are core constants, f is transformer frequency, B is core magnetic flux density,

Pfe is core lose, W/Kg is the Watt/Kilogram and Wtfe is the core weight.

W/Kg = 0.0005570 x (246 Hz) 1.68 x (1.5 T) 1.86 = 12.3 W/Kg

(Appendix D: The weight of the core is 108.8g (0.109Kg)).

Pfe = 12.3 x 0.109 = 1.3W

The total power loss, P can be expressed as (McLyman, 2004):

P = Pcu + Pfe (32)

P0

P = P0 (33)

where Pcu the copper loss, Pfe the core or iron lose, Po the output power and the efficiency

P = 16.8 + 1.3 = 18.1W

Therefore, the total loss in the designed circuit is calculated as 18.1W

Rectifier circuit and filtering capacitor

There are four choices of rectifier technology: the standard recovery diodes, fast recovery

diodes, the Ultra-fast recovery diode and Schottky rectifier (SMPSRM, 2007). The two

rectifier technologies utilized in this design are the full wave rectification using MUR120

ultra fast rectifier. This was chosen due to its fast turn off and high reverse voltage capability

of up to 1000V (SMPSRM, 2007). The other rectifier technology utilized is the GBPC1508W

Design and Construction of a Switch-Mode . 566

bridge rectifier; this was chosen due to its suitability for high voltage application. The cut off

Frequency, fc of a filter is given by (Malvino and Bates, 2007):

1

fc = (34)

2 RC

where C is capacitance and R resistance.

1

R= = 0.07 (80 preferred for convenience)

2 x3.143 x 492 x 4400 F

Implementation of the switch-mode dc/dc converter:

The proposed switch-mode DC/DC boost converter has been developed and tested. The

electrical circuitry of the system is depicted in Fig. 2. The circuit was powered by a 190W DC

source. Output currents as well as voltages were measured using digital multi-meter and

different values of dc lamp (4.1 , 5.5 , 8.2 , 9.6 , 12.3 , 13.7 and 16.4 ) as load

resistors.

The power can be expressed by (Akande et al, 2007):

V2

P= (35)

R

where V is the output voltage and R is the resistance (of the dc bulb)

Using equation (35) with the measurements obtained in Table 4, the output powers from the

terminals of the developed circuit in Table 5 were computed. To determine the overall output

power of the DC converter, maximum output powers obtained from each terminal were

collated and summed using the expression (McLyman, 2004):

Po (Total) = Po1(max) + Po2(max) + Po3(max) + Po4(max) + Po5(max) (36)

Po (Total) = 19.0 + 25.0 + 20.0 + 46.8 + 58.1 = 169.7W

The efficiency of a DC converter can be expressed by (Malvino and Bates, 2007):

= x 100% (37)

where is efficiency of the dc converter, Po the output power and Pin the input . With an

input power of 190W and total output power of 169.7W, the efficiency of the DC converter

can be calculated:

= x 100% = 89. 3%

Replacing with in equation (33), the Total loss in the developed circuit:

P0

PL = P0 (38)

where the efficiency of the DC converter

567 E.O. Ijoga and Dr. B.J. Kwaha

PL = 169.7 = 20.3W

DC voltage transfer function MV(DC) is given by (Rashid, 2007):

MV(DC) = (39)

The 1st output terminal: MV1(DC) = = 1.08

FUSE

+12V DC

35A

2.0mA 2.0mA

D1

3K 3K

16V/2200F 13.0V DC

IRF10 10E

D2

100K

0.1F

24K

10K

G

6.8K G IRF1010E

D1

8 G ND

7 C

6 R

5 (-) S E N S E

4 (+ ) S E N S E

3 O sc. O ut

350K

(+ ) IN

(-) I N

16V/2200F 24.0V DC

T

D2

15K

SG3524 C1815

S H TD O W N 10

0 .3 3 F

COMP

4.0V D1

V REF

EA

CA

CB

EB

V IN

50V/4400 F 28.0V DC

9

11

12

13

14

15

16

+12V D2

D 50V/4400 F 45.0V DC

S G

G

Bridge Rectifier

6.8K

F

00 78.0V DC

44

V/

50

4.0V

C1815

20K 1.3K 1K 1K

-12V DC

Design and Construction of a Switch-Mode . 568

Results

The developed circuit was powered by a 12V DC supply (190W source). Table 2 shows

experimental measurements of output currents, Io as well as load voltages, Vload taken at the

various terminals using three different load resistances (4.1 , 5.5 and 8.2 ). Figs.3, 4 and 5

are graphical interpretation of Table 2. The readings in Table 3 compares the voltages

measured across the various output terminals of the developed circuit when there were no

loads connected and that of the designed values (Vexp). Also, Table 3 shows the voltage

transfer function (AV) and percentage errors (P.E) computed from the measurements. Table 4

is the summary of the load voltages measured at the various output terminals of the DC/DC

converter when the load resistances were varied; the dc load resistances connected ranged

from 4.1 to 16.4. Table 5 is the summary of output powers at the various terminals of the

power converter with different load resistances. These values were computed using the

measurements obtained from the various output terminals of the dc converter. Fig 6 shows

the graph of load Voltage, (Vload) ploted against Load resistance (R). The load voltages were

obained from the various output terminals of the power converter. Fig 7 shows the graph of

the output power (Po) obtained from the various terminals plotted against the Loads

resistances (R).

dc output terminal 4.1 (dc lamp) 5.5 (dc lamp) 8.2 (dc Lamp)

Vload (V) Io(A) Vload (V) Io(A) Vload (V) Io(A)

Initial reading 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

#o.1 7.30 1.79 8.86 1.61 11.48 1.40

#o.2 7.46 1.82 9.30 1.69 12.16 1.48

#o.3 8.68 2.12 10.22 1.86 12.30 1.50

#o.4 11.11 2.71 13.37 2.43 19.60 2.39

#o.5 13.00 3.16 16.50 3.00 20.50 2.50

569 E.O. Ijoga and Dr. B.J. Kwaha

Fig. 3: Graph of Vload versus Io for a load resistance of 4.1 (dc lamp)

Fig. 4: Graph of Vload versus Io for a load resistance of 5.5 (dc lamp)

Fig. 5: Graph of Vload versus Io for a load resistance of 8.2 (dc lamp)

Design and Construction of a Switch-Mode . 570

dc Output terminal Vexp (V) V(no-load) (V) AV = P.E= x 100%

#o.2 26.00 24.00 2.00 8.3 %

#o.3 30.00 28.00 2.33 7.1 %

#o.4 50.00 45.00 3.75 11.1 %

#o.5 80.00 78.00 6.50 2.6 %

Table 4: Summary of load voltages at various output terminals with load resistance

R( ) Vload1(V) Vload2 (V) Vload3(V) Vload4(V) Vload5(V)

(0utput,#o.1) (0utput,#o.2) (0utput,#o.3) (0utput,#o.4) (0utput,#o.5)

4.1 8.68 7.30 7.46 11.11 13.00

5.5 10.22 9.30 8.89 13.37 16.50

8.2 12.16 11.48 12.30 19.60 20.50

9.6 13.43 13.15 14.11 18.24 22.85

12.3 15.12 15.13 14.64 20.42 26.32

13.7 16.07 18.50 15.62 22.33 28.22

16.4 17.57 19.68 16.89 26.24 30.83

571 E.O. Ijoga and Dr. B.J. Kwaha

R () Po1(W) Po2 (W) Po3 (W) Po4 (W) Po5 (W)

(dc Lamps) (output #o.1) (0utput,#o.2) (output,#o.3) (output,#o.4) (output#o.5)

4.1 18.4 13.0 13.6 30.1 40.9

5.5 19.0 15.7 14.3 32.5 49.5

8.2 18.0 16.1 18.5 46.8 51.3

9.6 18.8 18.0 20.8 34.7 54.4

12.3 18.6 18.6 17.4 33.9 56.3

13.7 18.6 25.0 17.8 36.4 58.1

16.4 18.8 23.6 17.4 42.0 58.0

Design and Construction of a Switch-Mode . 572

Discussion

Figs 3 through 5 are characteristic linear plots for Ohmic conductor. They show voltage-

current proportionality; voltages increase with increase in currents. The gradients are

positive. In the absence of an applied potential difference, there is no current flow. Thus, the

plots pass through the origin. The slopes obtained from each of the graphs corresponded to

the values of the load resistances used for the experiment. These show that the developed

circuit obeys ohms principle. Hence, validates the circuit. Table 3 shows a strong correlation

between theory and experiment. It compares the no-load voltages measured across the

various output terminals of the developed circuit and that of the designed values (Vexp). The

voltages from the developed circuit have slight deviations from the designed values. These

were determined using the percentage error (P.E) method as shown in Table 3. The

deviations ranged from 15.3% to 2.6%. Though, it was envisaged that there may be slight

deviations. These were due to the non-ideal properties of the component utilized and losses.

The losses in the designed circuit were found to be 18.1W while the Loss from the developed

circuit was 20.3W. Electromagnetic Interference was a major issue. However, passive filters

were employed to attenuate interferences radiated from the power devices. Table 5 shows

that, as the load resistances are being increased, the output power also increase in direct

573 E.O. Ijoga and Dr. B.J. Kwaha

proportion. Maximum output power was computed from the terminals. These powers were

summed so as to obtain the overall output power of the Converter. This was found to be

169.7W. The measurements shown in Table 4 revealed that, for each output terminal of the

dc Converter, the load resistances increase in direct proportion with the load voltage. Fig 6

shows that output terminal five has the maximum load voltage of 30.83V at 16.4 while

output terminal three has the least voltage of 7.46V at 4.1. In addition, the resistance of the

dc circuit increase as voltage increase. From Fig. 5, it can also be seen that the plot for

terminal four has a shape increase and a drastic drop. This was caused by the effect of stray

and parasitic capacitances; these were unavoidable as they were the unwanted capacitance

that exists between the parts of the circuit due to component proximity to each other. Also,

all actual circuit elements such as: inductors, diodes and transistors have internal capacitance,

which can cause their behaviour to depart from that of ideal circuit elements. Closely

spaced conductors, such as wires or Printed Circuit Board (PCB) traces were also a factor.

leakages to chassis from circuit as well as temperature effect on voltage transformation were

also responsible for the sharp increase nd drop. Fig 6 shows that output terminal five has the

maximum power of 58.1W while output terminal two has the least output power of 13.0W.

In the design of this circuit, it was assumed that the circuit will be most utilized at its

maximum power output. Thus, the need for several readings at the various output terminals.

The maximum output powers obtained at the various terminals were summed so as to

compute the overall output power of the circuit. This was found to be 169.7W. Having

determined the total output power of the developed circuit, the efficiency of the DC/DC

converter was found to be 89.3% with a power loss of 20.3W. The power loss and efficiency

calculation of the converter system were utilized for the overall performance evaluation of

the converter. It can be observed that the practical results obtained from the experiments are

reasonable compared to theoretical results obtained from the design if the losses in the system

are taken into account. For safe use of DC voltage without specific insulating precautions, the

voltage must not exceed 50 V as reported by Peter (2005). Therefore, the DC voltages

obtained from terminal one through terminal four as presented in Table 3 are within the

acceptable limit, and can be tolerated in real life. However, adequate precaution should be

taken in handling the DC voltage from terminal five for safety reason. The stabilized voltages

obtained from the developed circuit can be used where high voltage fluctuations are present.

Design and Construction of a Switch-Mode . 574

Conclusion

isolated DC/DC converter were pursued in this study. The design was supported by

experimental verification yielding a satisfactory result. The developed circuit takes an input

voltage of 12.00V DC and delivers five different values of DC voltages across the various

output terminals. There are two significant achievements in the developed circuit. Firstly, the

magnitudes of the output voltages have been boosted. These amplification ranged from 1.05

to 6.50 as designed. Secondly, multiple output DC voltages have been achieved using

multiple secondary transformer windings. It was necessary to find a mitigation technique to

overcome the challenge of EMI so as to avoid failures and damages in electronic devices.

Hence, passive filters were employed to attenuate the emission from power devices.

Electromagnetic shielding was also employed to reduce the effect of EMI noise and dv/dt,

ceramic capacitors were used in place of other discrete components for high reliability, and

long operating lifetimes. The SG3524 control circuitry utilized in the circuit performs several

functions and contributed in reducing complexity in the dc/dc converter circuit. It has been

shown by this study that it is possible to combine DC/DC converter with a boost-derived

regulator to produce regulated multiple output converter. The modified digital PWM

technique allows for more efficient utilisation of the transformer capacity. Isolation

transformer design was done to minimize leakage effects. This study would contribute

immensely in reducing the energy consumption in domestic appliances by converting AC

voltages to DC voltages for devices that operate internally on low DC voltages. This also

reduces losses; by using a low voltage DC distribution network in the residence, AC to DC

conversions losses can be minimised and the use of comparatively less efficient adapters can

be discarded. Hence, there will be no power factor issues. In addition, DC distribution within

the home can probably reduce the number of appliance cords drastically and also give relief

from keeping track of which adapter belongs to which device. Also, a DC distribution

network in the residence will facilitate to reduce to reduce electricity consumption and

harmful emissions, also the line losses due to the absence of reactive power, less current will

be needed to transfer the same amount of power. Since losses for distribution of electricity

are mainly dependent on the current magnitude and the cable length. Finally, it has been

demonstrated that loads can be connected directly to the various output terminals of the DC

supply without any conversion.

575 E.O. Ijoga and Dr. B.J. Kwaha

References

[1] Akande, S.F.A., Kwaha, B.J and Alao, S.O. (2007). Fundamentals in Electronics. Jos

University Press Ltd, Jos, Nigeria

[2] Bakshi U.A., Godse, A.P. and Bakshi, A.V. (2010). Linear Integrated Circuits and

Applications -Technical Publications Pune, India

[3] Erickson, R. W. (1998). Fundamentals of Power Electronics Chapman and Hall, New

York:

[4] Fang, L. L. and Hong, Y. (2004). Advanced DC/DC converters - CRC press LLC, New

York.

[5] Fang, L.L., Hong, Y. and Rashid, H.M. (2005). Digital Power Electronics and

Applications. Elsevier. Academic Press, California, USA.

[6] Geyer, T. (2005). Low Complexity Model Predictive Control in Power Electronics and

Power Systems Cuvillier. Verlag, Nonnenstieg, Gottingen.

[7] Gottlieb, I.M. (1998). Practical Transformer Handbook. Butterworth-Heinemann,

Woburn- MA, USA

[8] Hamilton, H. and Schulz, N.N. (2007): DC Protection on the Electric Ship in IEEE

Electric Ship Technologies Symposium, 2007. ESTS '07. Pages 294 300, 21-23.

[9] Kularatna, N. (2000). Modern Component Families and Circuit Block Design.

Butterworth-Woburn, MA, USA

[10] Malvino, A. and Bates, J. D. (2007). Electronic Principle. McGraw-Hill Companies

Inc.New York, USA

[11] McLyman, W.T. (1993). Magnetic Components for High Frequency DC/DC Converters.

Kg Magnetics Inc. San Marina, Ca.

[12] McLyman, W. T. (2004). Transformer and Inductor Design Handbook. Marcel Dekker

Inc. New York.

[13] Otero M. A. R. (2008), Power Quality Issues and Feasibility Study in a DC Residential

Renewable Energy System. A thesis in the Dept of Electrical Electronics, University of

Puerto Rico Mayagez,

[14] Peter, V. (2005). Direct-Current Voltage (DC) in Households.

http://www.leonardo-energy.org/webfm_send/366

[15] Rashid, H. M. (2007). Power Electronics Handbook. Elsevier Inc. Burlington, MA,

USA.

Design and Construction of a Switch-Mode . 576

[16] Rodriguez, O. and ONeill-Carrillo, M.A. (2008). Efficient Home Appliances for a

Future DC Residence, Energy 2030 Conference, 2008. ENERGY 2008. IEEE, vol.,

no., pp.1-6.

[17] SMPSRM, (2007). Switchmode Power Supply Reference Manual, Semiconductor

Component Industries, LLC, (SCILLC), USA

[18] http://www.datasheetcatalog.org/datasheet/SGSThomsonMicroelectronics/mXyzsrqu.pdf

[19] http://www.bcae1.com/trnsfrmr.htm @ 11:55 amm Oct. 27, 2011

577 E.O. Ijoga and Dr. B.J. Kwaha

Design and Construction of a Switch-Mode . 578

579 E.O. Ijoga and Dr. B.J. Kwaha

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