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An initiative of Group


Civil Services Main Examination 2017


An initiative of Group

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International Relations
Copyright 2017, by NEXT IAS
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First Edition: 2017

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from the publisher.
International Relations

Chapter 1 Chapter 4
Indian Foreign Policy: Indian Ocean Region............................ 16
Evolution over Years............................... 1 Significance of Indian Ocean Region................16

Foreign Policy.............................................................. 1 Indias Policy towards the Indian Ocean...........18

The Indira Gandhi years.......................................... 2 Chapter 5

LPG Reforms 1991: End of Non-Alignment....... 2 India-Japan Relationship..................... 20
1996: Nuclear Test and Shift in Indo-Japan Relations in Economic Sphere......20

Foreign Policy................................................... 3 Indo-Japan Strategic Relationship.....................21

Chapter 2 Chapter 6
India and Neighbourhood..................... 4 India-South East Asia Relationship..... 22
India-China Relations................................................ 4 India-South East Asia Relationships...................22

India-Pakistan Relations........................................... 5 Challenges in Relationships..................................23

Volatility in South East Asia...................................24
India-Bangladesh Relations.................................... 6

India-Afghanistan Relations................................... 8 Chapter 7

India-Srilanka Relations............................................ 9 India-USA Relationship........................ 25
Election of new President of USA.......................25
India-Nepal Relations..............................................10
Other issues affecting India-USA relations......26
India-Bhutan Relations...........................................11
Areas of significant cooperation between
India and USA............................................................27
Chapter 3
Visit of Indian Prime Minister to USA.................27
India-West Asia Relationship............... 12
Importance of West Asia to India........................13 Chapter 8
Important Bilateral Relations in West Asia......13 India-Russia Relationship.................... 28
A brief historical background of
Indias Other Involvements in Western Asia....15
India-Russia relationship........................................28
Other recent Developments in Western Asia.....15 Recent developments.............................................28

Chapter 9 Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO).......45
India-Europe Relationship................... 31 BIMSTEC.......................................................................47
Background of India-European Union BRICS.............................................................................49
(EU) relations .............................................................31 TPP, TTIP and RCEP...................................................53
Current Dimensions in India-Europe.................31 United Nations Convention on the Law
Recent interactions between India and of the Sea (UNCLOS)................................................55
major European countries.....................................32 United Nations Commission on
International Trade Law (UNCITRAL).................55
Chapter 10 United Nations Human Rights
India-Central Asia................................. 35 Council(UNHRC)......................................................56
The Central Asian region........................................35 United Nations Security Council (UNSC)..........57
National Security in India-Central Asia.............37 International Criminal Court (ICC)......................58
International Court of Justice..............................60
Chapter 11
South Asia Sub regional Economic
India-Africa Relationship..................... 38 Cooperation (SASEC)...............................................62
Opportunities presented by Africa ...................38
Non- Proliferation Regimes...................................64
Asia Africa Growth Corridor (AAGC) .................39 Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)...........................64

Chapter 12 Missile Technology Control

Regime (MTCR)..........................................................65
SAARC.................................................... 41
Wassenaar Arrangement and
Australia group..........................................................65
Space Diplomacy......................................................66

Indian Foreign Policy: 1
Evolution over Years
Foreign Policy By the time India achieved its independence in
the year 1947, the Cold War had already started
Foreign policy of a nation is a tool to further its and the world was being bifurcated into two hostile
legitimate interests. After Independence, there have groups, namely, American block and U.S.S.R. Block
been many inflection points in the foreign policy each jockeying for the supremacy in the globe
paradigm of India. But, the first glimpse of the foreign with conflicting ideologies. As a result, each group
policy of India was on view in 1920s and 1930s. entered into military and political alliance with
their respective supporters and followers. America
Foreign Policy before Independence
through number of alliances such as NATO, SEATO
The shaping of Indias foreign policy was largely etc., started in organizing its friends and supporters
influenced by the international development after the into American bloc. Similarly, to counter American
Second World War, the weakening of the forces of move, Russia also entered into Warsaw Pact with
imperialism and growth of the forces of democracy Communist countries that owed allegiance and
and progress. Several countries in the post war era support to USSR.
in Europe and Asia broke away from the capitalist To avoid the foreign entanglements by joining either
system to form the socialist system. There was an of the blocs, India decided to keep away from the
upsurge in the movements for national liberation power blocs aligned against one another. Indias
that resulted in the collapse of the colonial system opposition to alignment with the power blocs and
of imperialism. opposition to imperialism and colonialism gave birth
It was mainly due to Nehrus efforts that since the mid- to the concept of non-alignment. India believed that
twenties the Congress party began to take interest in the only way through which it could achieve its goal
international affairs. The Indian National Congress was to adopt a policy of nonalignment. Later on it
party had as early as 1920s adopted a resolution not only became the basic principles but also the
expressing a desire to establish cooperation with comer stone of Indias foreign policy. Perhaps, it is
the neighbouring countries. He also attended the the nonalignment, which played a historic role during
Communist International forum in 1924 in Germany. the Cold War period that helped India to identify and
After 1927 Nehru took an active part in formulating retain its power status and position in the international
the foreign policy of the Congress that was in effect arena.
its first foreign policy statement.
Wars of 1962 and 1965
Independence and Non-Alignment
The military defeat in 1962 Indo-China war marked
After gaining independence in 1947, India began nothing short of a watershed in the structure and
to evolve its own foreign policy in the light of its conduct of Indias foreign and security policies.
requirements and the prevailing international India embarked on a substantial program of military
situation. The post independent foreign policy was modernization which was very limited due to policy
formulated taking into consideration the various of Non-Alignment. However, even after Nehrus
factors such as the Congress party resolutions, demise in 1964, his successors still could not
ideology of national leaders, power politics of the formally abandon the stated adherence to a policy
Super Powers, Cold War, colonial experience, of non-alignment. Consequently, the rhetoric of
imperialism, racial discrimination etc. nonalignment remained a staple of Indian foreign
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policy. Indias foreign policy behavior, however, At a global level, in the wake of the first oil crisis of
increasingly assumed a more Realist orientation. 1973, India chose to spearhead the Group of 77, a
After the 1965 War with Pakistan, India saw many of set of developing nations seeking to fundamentally
her old friends turning their back in wake of the Cold alter the global economic order. Ironically, while it
War Politics. India was also concerned about the was a leader of this coalition it benefited little from
first Chinese nuclear test at Lop Nor in 1964. Some the global spike in oil prices and failed to obtain
within Indias parliament called for an abandonment any meaningful concessions as a resource-poor
of nonalignment and even urged that India acquire developing nation from the Organization of Petroleum
an independent nuclear weapons option. After Exporting Countries (OPEC).
considerable debate, the ruling Congress party Throughout much of the decade of the 1970s
and the new Prime Minister, Lal Bahadur Shastri, thanks to its poor record of economic growth and
reaffirmed the countrys public commitment to its diplomatic limitations India became a marginal
nonalignment and eschewed any immediate plans player in the global order. Its influence remained
to acquire nuclear weapons confined to the South Asian region.

The Indira Gandhi years LPG Reforms 1991: End of Non-

Prime Minister Gandhi authorized Indias Subterranean Alignment
Nuclear Explosions Project (SNEP) which culminated The Soviet collapse and the transformation of the
in Indias first nuclear test of May 1974. Under Indira global order forced Indias policymakers to make
Gandhi, Indias foreign policy sought to sustain two drastic changes in Indias foreign policy at multiple
competing visions of world order. On the one hand, levels. The country was also confronted with an
India still supported the cause of decolonization and unprecedented fiscal crisis partly as a consequence
continued to lead the charge on behalf of the weaker of the first Gulf War of 1991.
states in the international system. For example, it
Faced with his extraordinary crisis and also
remained a staunch opponent of the apartheid regime
confronting the loss of the vast East European
in South Africa, it was an unyielding supporter of the
market as a consequence of the Soviet collapse,
Palestinian cause and it opposed the Portuguese
Indias policymakers, most notably the then Finance
presence in Angola and Mozambique.
Minister Manmohan Singh, chose to dramatically
On the other hand, it also came to accept the alter Indias domestic and international economic
importance of defense preparedness and increasingly policies. These involved abandoning the countrys
overcame its reservations about the use of force historic commitment to import-substituting
in international politics. Not surprisingly, despite industrialization, unbundling, though fitfully at best,
Indias professed commitment to nonalignment it its vast public sector and dismantling a labyrinthine
signed a twenty-year pact of peace, friendship and set of regulations, licenses, permits and quotas
cooperation with the Soviet Union in August 1971. which had largely stifled economic growth.
With the USSR backing, India achieved a grand
In 1992, in the wake of the Oslo Accord between
victory in the 1971 war and creation of Bangladesh.
Israel and the Palestinians, India upgraded its
The Interregnum: 1971-1991 diplomatic relations with Israel to the ambassadorial
level. Simultaneously, India also directed its gaze
In the aftermath of the 1971 war, India emerged as the
toward South-East Asia after a long span of neglect.
undisputed dominant power within the subcontinent.
Now as part and parcel of the opening of its markets
Despite its new-found status, the country was
to foreign investment and seeking to develop a
unable to transcend the region. Several factors
viable export sector, the country embarked upon a
account for this failure to emerge as a power of any
Look East policy.
consequence in the global order. Most importantly,
The Narasimha Rao regime efforts continued to
thanks to its pursuit of a dubious strategy of state-led
improve relations with the PRC, a process that had
industrialization Indias economic growth remained
been initiated during the Rajiv Gandhi regime in the
late 1980s. Even though the two sides forged two
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important confidence-building measures (CBMs) in powers a key player in international peace and
1993 and 1996 designed to reduce tensions along security.
the Line of Actual Control, little or no progress was In the last two decades the Indian policy establishment
made in resolving the border dispute.A new course has been confronting multiple existential issues
of Foreign Policy was sought by the then Prime and threats: the inevitable rise of China and the
Ministers IK Gujaral known as Gujaral Doctrine intensified US-China competition in the Asia-Pacific,
the revival and reconsideration of Indias relations
1996: Nuclear Test and Shift in with Africa and the power volatility of the Middle East
Foreign Policy in the context of sustained energy supply and energy
security, expanding and consolidating relations with
The Vajpayee Government chose to exercise the
South East Asia and Japan, dealing with the nuclear
nuclear option and carried out nuclear tests in 1998
issues etc.
in Pokharan. Despite the initial burst of hostility from
the United States and the other great powers, the The Indo-US civil nuclear deal put India on the
international community grudgingly accepted India map of nuclear states recognizing its potential and
as a de facto nuclear weapons state. The Pakistani immense capabilities. India has become a member
attempts to revive Kashmir issue through its incursion of a wide array of multilateral bodies in economic
in the Kargil region led to a limited war 1999. India and other spheres. Indias participation is visible in
reclaimed all that had gone under Pakistan armys a number of such bodies like G-20, BRICS, IBSA,
possession. However, a full scale war was avoided. as well as with those fora with pronounced thrust
Indias relations with United States Improved and towards economic cooperation like ASEAN, EAS,
secured a firm footing. The Bush administration WTO, BIMSTEC etc.
helped India to get exempt India from the requirements
Shift to Realpolitik
of the NPT and also the two countries pursued a
civilian nuclear agreement, which provided a sound After the decades of Idealism, as rooted in Nehruvian
foundation for the relationship. Philosophy, India has finally moved towards
pragmatism in the foreign policy. It is evident from
Indias Foreign policy in 21st Century our warm relations with Israel, not hesitating to do
Indias foreign policy in 21st century could be Military agreements like LEMOA with the US and not
understood by explained as Indias grand strategy cowering under the Chinese Pressure.
that divides the world into three concentric circles. India wants a change in the global world order with
The first, which encompasses the immediate reforms in UNSC and IMF. It wants a rightful entry in
neighborhood where India has sought to the Nuclear Supply Group (NSG) as a responsible
consolidate its position and has attempted, though Nuclear Power. It has taken lead in environmental
in a limited manner to keep the outside powers conservation by forging International Solar Alliance.
from direct influence or interference within region. It has also secured a breakthrough by ushering text
The second encompasses the so-called extended based negotiation on comprehensive convention on
neighborhood stretching across Asia and the Indian International Terrorism in UN.
Ocean littoral, India has sought to balance the
Economic Prosperity, Energy security and protection
influence of other powers and attempted to prevent
from the hostile neighbors is the trident of Indian
them from undercutting its own national interests.
foreign policy. The Indian state has embraced
The third, which includes the entire globe, India has
realpolitik to secure these interests.
endeavored to make its place as one of the great
India and 2
India - China Relations over an area of about 10,000 sq km. All these
border disputes remain unresolved even
after several rounds of talks.
Why in news
2. Border Trespasses
China and India have been engaged in a standoff in
(a) Because of the British colonial legacy and
the Doklam area near the Bhutan tri-junction after a
contrasting understanding of the maps, both
Chinese armys construction party came to build a
countries see their borders at different points
road. While the Chinese have asked India to withdraw
on the ground and both are committed to
its troops from the area as a pre-condition for any
build infrastructure till the last mile. The
resolution, India has accused the Chinese of directly
result is seen in complaints of incursions,
violating an agreement between the two countries.
evident from the doklam plateau issue. The
matter gets complicated as the two nations
Historical Background: are militarily very strong.
The two ancient civilisation, India and China, are 3. Dalai Lamas visit to arunachal pradesh in India:
historically and culturally associated with each other (a) The visit of Dalai Lama to the tawang district
and share common attributes like huge population, of Arunachal pradesh was a religious one
rising economy, conflict with neighbours etc but but the chinese look at it as the interference
after the 1962 war China has tried to become more in their internal affairs.
assertive in the region. It is evident from the recent
4. Stapled visa to Indian citizen
standoff between India and china in doklam plateau
(a) China at many instances issue stapled
which is a tri junction area of three countries namely
visa to the residents of arunachal pradesh
India, Bhutan and China.
because china thinks that issuing a proper
Other conflicts and issues : visa would tantamount to recognizing Indias
sovereignty over arunachal pradesh but the
The two countries have several areas of conflict in
Indian position is that the issuance of stapled
recent times which are as follows :
visa dilute indias claim that Arunachal
1. Border disputes Pradesh is Indias territory.
(a) In ladakh region: There is still a conflict 5. River Water Dispute
between the two countries along the line of
(a) Brahmaputra river water sharing is the
actual control which was captured by china
major flashpoint between India and China.
in 1962 war.
China has been building dams after dams
(b) In Arunachal Pradesh: Even after the 1962 in the upper reaches of the Brahmaputra
war, when it decided to go back to McMohan which is called Tsangpo in Tibet. India has
line, China still lays claims over 90,000 sq Km objected to it but there has been no formal
of Arunachal pradesh calling it South Tibet. treaty over sharing of the Brahmaputra water.
However this region belongs exclusively to Further, China has not been forthcoming in
Indian territory sharing the details about water level in the
(c) In Uttarakhand Region: Besides the eastern Brahmaputra, which puts a large tract in the
and western sector, there is a middle sector states of Arunachal Pradesh and Assam to
in Uttarakhand where China stakes claim the risk of sudden and huge flood.
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6. Nuclear Supplier Group: They should continue to take a common stand in

India has been pushing for entry into the environmental meetings organised by the UN. It
exclusive club of nuclear supplier group but should resolve the issues by peaceful rounds of
china has been blocking the entry on the dialogue .
pretext that all other nations of the group Energy diplomacy with a focus on energy security
have ratified the Non-proliferation Treaty, is another area of cooperation which can help
which India has not signed. the two countries rebuild a peaceful region
7. China Pakistan Economic corridor Promotion of business and people centric connectivity
China is building China-Pakistan-Economic- with certain confidence building measures.
Corridor (CPEC), which passes through the Indulging in mutual data sharing and cooperation
Pakistan-occupied Kashmir to which india to deal with the problem of terrorism
has objected.India considers building of The two countries shall engage more deeply in
the CPEC as China's interference in India's the areas in areas like the tourism and climate
sovereignty. change, where there is a huge scope of
8. One Belt One Road Initiative cooperation between the two countries.
The initiative envisages the construction of a
maze of road, rail and port projects through India-Pakistan Relations
a number of countries to connect mainland
China to markets in Asia and Europe. The Why in news
main reason behind Indias opposition
Pakistan had again rejected Indias request for
towards the policy is the China-Pakistan
consular access to Kulbhushan Jadhav, a former
Economic Corridor (CPEC), which is a part
Indian naval officer who was sentenced to death
of OBOR.
for espionage and terrorism by a Pakistani military
Impact of the conflicts on India court in April this year for which the matter has been
pending in International Court of Justice in The
The region of border dispute has been
strategically important and has an immense
economic potential which makes the region
Historical background
important both for India as well as Asia.
Another impact of the conflicts are on the trade Historically the relation between India and Pakistan has
relations between the two countries with balance been bitter from the beginning of the birth of pakistan
of trade being more inclined in favour of china.
The construction of OBOR has geopolitical Other conflicts and issues
repercussions along with impact on the economy 1. Indus water treaty issue
on India. Through the OBOR initiative China tries There has been a conflict on the construction
to ensure that its companies become regional of dams for kishanganga and rattle
and global players and replace other regional hydroelectric power plants on tributaries of
jhelum and chenab river. According to the
By blocking Indias entry into NSG, china is treaty pakistan has right over the Indus,
building a case for pakistan. India remains wary
Jhelum and chenab rivers whereas india
about chinas strong strategic bilateral relation
has the right over Ravi, Beas and Sutlej. The
with Pakistan.
treaty was brokered by world bank in 1960.
Way forward 2. Cross border terrorism issue
Both countries shall make efforts to reach an The cross border terrorism has been a major
understanding on contentious issues like border challenge to indias security and sponsored
trade, border transgression and diversion of by certain groups like lashkar-e-taiba which
Brahmaputra waters, and to better coordinate is supported by Pakistan. For example the uri
their strategies in international organisations like attacks that was held in Uri in India in 2016,
the World Bank, IMF and WTO. to which India replied in a surgical strike.
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3. Balochistan issue. towards pakistan, is a matter of concern for India. For

The largest province of pakistan that is bringing peace between the two countries, proper
balochistan saw many waves of conflict dialogue and regular meeting of high level delegates
and is similar to the kashmir issue in India shall be held to resolve the issues amicably.
but unlike pakistan, India never interfered in
the internal affairs of pakistan. However in Way forward
recent times Prime Minister made reference Cooperation in sectors like cultural and sport
to atrocities on Balochistanis, which is activities with ease of movement between the two
demanding freedom from pakistan. countries to engage in more people to people
4. Jammu and Kashmir Issue contact.
It is one of the longest dispute India has been Creating an international pressure on pakistan to
facing with pakistan since Independence curb state sponsor terrorism
but in recent times it has gain different Resumption of dialogues between the two
dimension where the outside support to countries and deep engagement of the two where
the separatist leader by Pakistan in form of the chances of conflict is less and coordination is
funding to stone pelters and the their leader more. For example working together on climate
and thereby maintaining disturbance in the change, technological exchange of information
valley. etc.
5. Ceasefire violation by Pakistan
It has become a persistent issue where the India-Bangladesh Relations
pakistani army officially backed by Pakistan
breaches the ceasefire and cross the borders Why in news
which has deep impact on the Indian- Recently india and bangladesh has signed numerous
Pakistan relation. This is one of the major agreements on various sectors like defence, energy,
issue which hinder the process for creating cyber security etc on the state visit of Bangladesh
a peaceful environment in the border region. P.M. to India.

An Assessment of India-Pakistan Historical Background

India is one of the most pioneer country who
The continuous turmoil between the two countries helped the erstwhile east pakistan to become an
has roots in the history. However, despite continuous independent country in 1971 as what we call today
attempt by the two countries they are not able to have as Bangladesh. India's links with Bangladesh are
a cordial relation because of the presence of some civilisational, cultural, social and economic. There is
non-state actors like the military coup of Pakistan much that unites the two countries a shared history
and organisations like lashkar-e-taiba and tehrik-e- and common heritage, linguistic and cultural ties,
taliban, which has a major role in making pakistan a passion for music, literature and the arts. However
terrorist state and the terrorist activities by pakistan there are certain areas which are still needed to be
creates intense pressure on india to adopt more worked out to develop more cordial relation between
robust and aggressive policy. the two countries
Such activities pose more difficulties to decide on
future steps and also rule out the possibility of having Issues and conflicts
any peaceful negotiation in near future. These 1. Teesta Water issue
activities have been criticised at various international Sharing the waters of the Teesta river, which
organisations. For example the SAARC summit originates in the Himalayas and flows through
was called off so as to exclude Pakistan. However, Sikkim and West Bengal to merge with the
countries like China, which sees Pakistan as not Brahmaputra in Assam and (Jamuna in
merely an ally but a crucial partner in achieving Bangladesh), is perhaps the most contentious
success for its one belt one road initiative, and issue between two friendly neighbours, India
Russia which has in recent times a friendly inclination and Bangladesh. Bangladesh has sought an
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equitable distribution of Teesta waters from One of the transport links that the two premiers
India, on the lines of the Ganga Water Treaty remotely launched was the delivery of a diesel
of 1996 but the objection of West Bengal CM consignment, which is the harbinger of a much
is that it will obstruct the flow for north bengal closer relationship on fuel supply. India is already
and as water is a state subject the centre constructing a Indo-Bangla friendship pipeline
cannot overrule the concern of the state of from Siliguri to Parbatipur for supply of high speed
West Bengal. diesel as a grant-in-aid. Indian Oil Corporation
2. Illegal Migration and insurgency issue and Bangladesh Petroleum Corporation are also
The porous border and lack of proper fencing constructing a LPG terminal and pipeline.
along the countrys longest international Yet another area of connectivity is through
border is one of the main reason for huge Bangladesh Bhutan India Nepal (BBIN)
amount of illegal migration. These illegal corridor, which is given assistance by the Asian
migrants sometimes pose a serious threat to development Bank, will integrate the subregion
the internal security of the country. as a whole.
This porous border and the cattle haats
along the border has led to cattle smuggling
Importance of India-Bangladesh
on a large scale relations
3. Border Disputes: India and Bangladesh had a roller coaster kind of
The non-demarcation of a 6.5 km land relationship. However, despite this ups and downs
border along the Comilla Tripura makes the relation between the two countries is largely
the border question unresolved. Indias a peaceful one. The bilateral ties between two
reluctance to resolve this issue is attributed to countries have seen an exponential curve which is
the concerns of the Hindus living in the lands evident from the fact that between 2010 and now
likely to go to Bangladesh after demarcation there has been four exchanges of visits at the level of
heads of government and each one has been laced
Areas of cooperation with cordiality, and fond utterances for each other.
1. In defence sector : Bangladesh buys around However, increasing chinese presence in
80% of its defence equipment from China. To Bangladesh in the form of aid given to the country
counter the increasing military presence of for their infrastructural development is a cause of
chinese in Bangladesh India has offered a new concern for India. The Indian side has however tried
line of credit, which allows Bangladesh to buy to counter it by extending the third line of credit since
around $500 million worth of Indian defence 2010, during the recent visit of sheikh hasina to India.
equipment The other major cause of concern for the relation
2. In tackling Terrorism : The two sides had in past between the two countries is the issue of illegal
a common enemy which is known for spreading migration of bangladeshi into India which has not only
terrorism and sponsoring the terrorist. Both the created socio-economic and political turmoil in the
countries are vulnerable to terrorism and thus migrant-receiving states but also strained bilateral
should jointly cooperate each other in tackling relation. Given these challenges, the Government
the terrorism of India tried to contain illegal migration through a
3. Power and Connectivity Sector : Along with mix of laws and executive interventions aimed not
transport connectivity, India and Bangladesh only at expelling the foreigners from the country but
are also bound through power and fuel links. also deterring potential migrants to cross the border
Bangladesh already draws 600 megawatt from illegally and defer them from creating the problem of
the Indian grid, with another 500 megawatt to be insurgencies in the host country.
added through the Bheramara-Bahrampur inter-
connection. The two countries have agreed on a
Way forward
power evacuation scheme between Assam and Strong political will and bilateral resolve are
Bihar, from which Bangladesh can draw 1000 crucial in overcoming the tension-ridden, State-
MW power supply. centre relations in India
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It seems to be a good time for the industry in Importance of India- Afghanistan

India to look for opportunities for collaboration Relations
in defence, such as in military hardware, space Afghanistan is one of the most crucial partner
technology, technical assistance, exchange for India. It is important for india for its strategic
of experience, and development of sea location because a cordial relation with
infrastructure. Afghanistan will help India to have a connectivity
The renewing of the 25-year treaty of friendship with the central Asia.
and cooperation on the basis of sovereign India has invested in the infrastructure sector and
equality can help India gain trust among has lent more than $2 billion since 2001 and now
Bangladeshi people. India has promised to provide $1 billion in aid
The long pending Teesta River sharing agreement for development, reconstruction and economic
where a middle path has to be carved so that progress in september 2016 in areas such as
both countries are benefitted education, health, skill development, energy,
Efforts should be made to integrate the regions infrastructure etc.
economies with road, rail and shipping routes The salma dam has been constructed in 40 years
that can yield rich dividends. and is named as India Afghanistan Friendship
India can expand sub regional cooperation dam which symbolises the importance of India-
among BBIN countries to cover initiatives in rail Afghanistan relations
which would open opportunities in land ports India is helping Afghanistan-Iran Connectivity
and land customs stations, air connectivity where it has been building Chabahar port in Iran
Special emphasis has to be laid on promotion and has built the zaranj delaram highway. This
of exchanges in the fields of music, theatre, connectivity will help india bypass pakistan which
art, painting, books, etc. A bilateral Cultural will help India in developing trade relations with
Exchange Programme (CEP) 2009-2012 provides the central asian countries and thereby giving a
the framework for such exchanges. boost to Indian Economy
India has been closely associated with
India - Afghanistan Relations afghanistan in providing stability after the NATO
forces left the country.
Why in news The recently held Istanbul process or heart of Asia
India in December 2016 has hosted the 6th ministerial conference had focused on tackling terrorism
conference of Heart of Asia summit in Amritsar. The with an attack on pakistan to sponsor terrorism
declaration made by the conference is known as along with other issues like commitment to
Amritsar declaration. human rights, leveraging cultural ties, eliminating
non tariff barrier to trade and prevention of drug
Historical Background trafficking. This declaration is known as Amritsar
The history of India- Afghanistan relation dates Declaration
back to ancient times. India and Afghanistan India is also keen to join Afghanistan-Pakistan
have strong cultural links with each other. In Transit trade agreement (APTTA), where
recent past, Indo-Afghan relations have been Afghanistan can use Pakistans territory for transit
further strengthened by the Strategic Partnership trade while Pakistans goods can move through
Agreement signed between the two countries
Afghanistan to nations bordering Afghanistan.
in 2011. The Strategic Partnership Agreement
However, Islamabad has not agreed to allow
(SPA) between the two sides, inter alia, provides
using APTTA for goods to be transported from
for assistance to help rebuild Afghanistan's
India to Afghanistan through Pakistans territory
infrastructure and institutions, education and
(via the Wagah-Attari route ). It has been backed
technical assistance to re-build indigenous Afghan
by afghanistan.
capacity in different areas.
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Indias main export items to Afghanistan are interaction. In recent years, the relationship has
textiles, pharmaceuticals, tobacco, iron & steel been marked by close contacts at all levels. The
and electrical machinery, while its imports from nearly three-decade long armed conflict between
Afghanistan are fruits and nuts, gums and resins, Sri Lankan forces and the LTTE came to an end
coffee, tea and spices in May 2009. During the course of the conflict,
Afghanistan is also important for india for India supported the right of the Government of
its energy security. For this there is ongoing Sri Lanka to act against terrorist forces. However,
development of Turkmenistan-Afghanistan- India has consistent position on negotiated political
Pakistan-India gas pipeline project which will settlement, which is acceptable to all communities
be a trans-country natural gas pipeline from within the framework of a united Sri Lanka and which
Caspian Sea, Turkmenistan to India through is consistent with democracy, pluralism and respect
Afghanistan and Pakistan. It has been funded by for human rights.
Asian development Bank.
The importance of India for Afghanistan is evident
Importance of India- Srilanka Relations
when in 2016 the Prime Minister of India Narendra In the Energy sector India and Sri Lanka have
Modi was awarded Amir Amanullah Khan Award agreed to jointly revive a World War II era oil
which is Afghanistans highest civilian award. storage facility in the strategically located eastern
port town and build infrastructure around it
Way forward There is considerable private sector investment
There is a strong economic, politico-strategic in each others territory. The areas both of
and security component in the India-Afghanistan cooperation between both the countries are
relations. However to maintain the strong ties the petroleum, Information Technology, Financial
first important step is providing stability in the Services, Real estate, telecom, hospitals,
country and India shall not miss the opportunity tourism, banking, food processing etc.
to help afghanistan in securing stability Indian railways are offering special package for
Deeper economic engagement and minimising Sri Lankan tourists to come to India. India has
the trade barrier which shall will be a win win introduced e-visa for Sri Lanka
situation for both the countries The Cultural Cooperation Agreement signed
The two countries shall engage in more people to by the Government of India and Sri Lanka
people contact and shall promote tourism sector forms the basis for periodic Cultural Exchange
since the two countries are culturally linked to Programmes between the two countries.
each other Given the proximity of the territorial waters of
both countries, especially in the Palk Straits
India-Srilanka Relations and the Gulf of Mannar, incidents of straying of
fishermen are common. The country regularly
Why in news arrests Indian fishermen for crossing the
International Maritime Boundary Line (IMBL)
Recently Sri Lankan Prime Minister Ranil
that demarcates Indian and Sri Lankan waters.
Wickremesinghe visited India with the refreshed
India also detains Sri Lankan fishermen for the
Indo-Lanka ties that followed the regime change
illegal fishing.
in Colombo. The two prime ministers have signed
The construction of Hambantota port in sri lanka
a Memorandum of understanding on long-term
by the chinese is a cause of concern for India.
collaboration in spheres ranging from energy and
India should have deeper engagement with sri
infrastructure to special economic zones.
lanka and should build an amicable relation to
Historical background counter the presence of the chinese government.
Tourism also forms an important link between
The relationship between India and Sri Lanka is
India and Sri Lanka. Government of India also
more than 2,500 years old. Both countries have a
launched the e-Tourist Visa (eTV) scheme for Sri
legacy of intellectual, cultural, religious and linguistic
Lankan tourists in 2015.
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Another problem in the relation which needs of kinship and culture. There has been a long tradition
faster resolution is the kachchatheevu island, of free movement of people across the borders.
which was an uninhabited island that India ceded Nepal has border connectivity with five Indian States
to Sri Lanka in 1974 based on a conditional Sikkim, West Bengal, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and
agreement called Kachchativu island pact. But Uttarakhand.
the the government of Tamil Nadu is of the view The India-Nepal Treaty of Peace and Friendship of
that the sufferings of Indian Tamil fishermen is a 1950 forms the bedrock of the special relations that
direct consequence of ceding Kachchatheevu to exist between India and Nepal. Under the provisions
Sri Lanka and sacrificing the traditional fishing of this Treaty, the Nepalese citizens have enjoyed
rights enjoyed by Indian fishermen. unparalleled advantages in India, availing facilities
India is pushing for a new trade pact called the and opportunities at par with Indian citizens. Nearly
Economic and Technical cooperation Agreement 6 million Nepali citizens live and work in India.
to build closer ties with sri lanka. It will replace
the CEPA and establish an agreement on trade Conflicts in India-Nepal relations
in services and technological exchange. ETCA The major discontent in the India Nepal relation
will boost standard of goods and services, and is on the issues of the blockade by madhesis.
will be able to compete on global market and India has being criticised in nepal for having
improve opportunities for manpower training and sided with the discredited Madhesi leaders,
human resource development. and shutting its eyes to the blockade that hurt
the aam Nepali.
Way forward
According to nepalese government, another
An institutional framework shall be developed issue of conflict in recent times is on anti dumping
in which the fishermens cooperatives of both duties imposed on export of jute and have also
countries must be involved and committed imposed countervailing duty of 5% which is
with an oversight power to resolve the dispute against the spirit of the Nepal India friendship
of fishermen that has become a continuous treaty.
conflicting subject for both India and Sri lanka.
Yet another area of concern for India is the
Deeper economic involvement with Srilanka has increasing presence and influence of china by
become an imperative for India to counter chinese financing and providing aid and grants to build
presence and influence in sri lanka. Hence the their infrastructural sectors like building of roads,
trade barrier should be relaxed and promotion of energy, electricity etc.
cross border trade shall be encouraged in favour
Nepal has rejected Indias open sky offer to allow
of India.
unlimited flights between the two countries which
Geographic,strategic,economic,cultural,citizen- is important for india since India has been keen
centric international concerns warrant that India on countering Nepals recent engagement with
should actively engage with Sri-Lanka with a China on the road, railways and port connectivity.
short term targets and long-term vision through
stronger diplomacy. Areas of Cooperation
As Nepal is a himalayan country and is vulnerable
India-Nepal Relations to natural calamities, India should always be
ready for assisting and providing aid to any kind
Why in news of disaster that may take place. Also it shall help
Nepal has rejected Indias open sky offer to allow Nepal in preparing the disaster management
unlimited flights between the two countries plan in case any natural calamity takes place.
India in the past has provided substantial
Historical background financial and technical development assistance
India and Nepal share a unique relationship of to Nepal focusing on creation of infrastructure,
friendship and cooperation characterized by open health, water resources etc. It shall continue to
borders and deep-rooted people-to-people contacts do so in future.
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Both the countries have strong cultural links with The practise of Buddhism on a large scale by
each other since ancient times and the institutions Bhutan and India binds the two country culturally
like indian cultural center in Nepal shall develop to each other . This cultural tie shall be promoted
a roadmap for future cultural engagement.
by providing scholarship to student of each
India shall aid Nepal in the providing stability of
others country in the universities and promoting
the new constitution of Nepal and strengthen the
democracy in Nepal people to people ties.
Established in 2003, the India-Bhutan Foundation
India-Bhutan Relations (IBF) focuses on education, cultural exchanges
and environment preservation initiative by
Why in news Indian and Bhutan for effective bilateral cultural
Bhutan has announced that it is unable to relationship
proceed with the Motor Vehicles Agreement with The concept of Gross National Happiness
Bangladesh, India and Nepal (BBIN) project.
is being adopted by Indian state of Madhya
Historical Background pradesh to measure the happiness level of the
people of the state.
The two countries has a special bond due to its
historical and religious linkages and share a lot Hydro-electric power generated by Bhutans run-
of things in common. Bhutan was once a part of of-the river dams is the economic bedrock of the
Indian subcontinent which later seprated from India-Bhutan relationship.India has sponsored
each other. The diplomatic relations between financing the dams through a combination of aid
India and Bhutan were established in 1968 with
and loans and buys the excess electricity at very
the appointment of a resident representative
low prices
of India in Thimphu. The basic framework of
India-Bhutan bilateral relations is the Treaty of
Way Forward
Friendship and Cooperation signed in 1949
between the two countries. Mutually beneficial economic inter-linkages
between India and Bhutan shall be encouraged
Importance of India-Bhutan relations to strengthen the bilateral relations
Under the India Bhutan friendship treaty 2007, The two countries shall involve with each other in
India is to guide Bhutan for foreign and defence areas of climate change and environment prepare
policy which means that India is virtually a roadmap for tackling any kind of disaster since
responsible for protecting Bhutan from the kind the region is tectonically weak area.
of external threat.
India-West Asia 3

West Asia consists of Gulf Council countries, Yemen, Iran, Turkey, Lebanon and Syria. The strategic importance
of West Asia lies in its geography and an essential natural resource, namely petroleum. Oil-Diplomacy or Petro-
Dollars was the term used for western engagement with this region.

The region also has strong undercurrents of Shia (Led by Iran) and Sunni divide (Led by Saudi Arabia). In the
recent times, the region is also facing existential threat from the Islamic State which is trying to establish a
caliphate. There is a political crisis going on in Syria and Yemen, which makes the region highly volatile

India-West Asia Relationship

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Importance of West Asia to India crucial for India to put pressure of Pakistan
and also to project its secular image on
Energy Security (Oil & Gas): India imports world forum. It would also help in getting
almost 80% of its crude oil requirement and of this permanent membership of UNSC and IMF
about 60% is supplied from the Gulf Countries in reforms.
the Western Asia. Saudi Arabia and Iran are the
w Gateway to Central Asia & Europe: The
largest oil suppliers to India. There are also plans
Central Asian states are crucial for India due
to construct a gas pipeline from Iran, through
to their energy resources, but access to them
Oman (As Pakistan is non-cooperative) to India.
is restricted due to non-cooperative western
India has recently signed a deal with United Arab neighbor. Therefore, the development of
Emirates (UAE) to fill half (about 6 million barrels Chabahar Port in Iran, the trilateral agreement
of oil) of an underground crude oil storage facility along with Afghanistan on International North
at Mangaluru, Karnataka as part of its quest for South Transit corridor (INSTC) would help in
energy security and strategic reserve system. getting access to these regions.
Interests of Indian Diaspora: There are w Defence Procurement: Israel, has came
approximately 7.3 million Indians in West Asia. out as a significant bilateral partner for
Most of them are the blue collar workers from acquisition of state of-art defence weaponry
the southern states of Tamilnadu and Kerala. and technology. The Barak missiles and the
The Diaspora is an asset for the country as they proposed Anti-Missile system will boost
are the source of high remittances and also the offensive and defensive capabilities of
strengthens cultural ties with these nations. But, Armed forces.
in the recent times, the Indian Diaspora has to
face many challenges in West Asian Region. Important Bilateral Relations in
Some of these are: West Asia
w The Nitaqat law of Saudi Arabia has resulted
in unemployment of thousands of Indians. It India-Israel Relationship
has also resulted in starvation of hundreds of
India formally recognized Israel post independence
Indians due to non-payment of salaries.
in September 1950. However its Israel policy was
w There have been incidents of Indians working
driven by the principled stand of solidarity with the
on projects in the west Asian region captured
Palestinian cause. Israel assisted India during the
by Non-state actors such as IS. About 120+
1962, 1965, and 1971 wars, but full-fledged relations
Indian workers have been recently abducted.
were not established. It was in 1992 when India
Trade and Investments: India and the economies finally established full diplomatic relations with Israel.
of West Asia have had a natural economic
relationship defined by geographical proximity, Since 2000, the bilateral relations have shown a great
cultural linkages, stronger presence of the Indian traction and improvement. The basic dimensions of
Diaspora and economic complementarities the relationship are:
defined by Indias need for oil and West Asias Israel has emerged as the third most important
need for human capital and food products. The arms-exporter after US and Russia, and is said
Western Asia has emerged as Indias largest to be supplying arms worth about $1 billion
trading partner constituting for about 20% of a year to India. India has signed a $2 billion
Indias total trade. India hopes to attract the missile defence deal with Israel for purchasing
cash rich Sovereign Wealth Funds (SWF) of sophisticated medium-range surface-to-air
these countries for investment in India's massive missile systems (MRSAM). Israels willingness
infrastructure expansion plans. to share technical know-how would boost the
Strategic Angle: domestic manufacturing of defence products.
w Support of Islamic world: In the wake India and Israel together have implemented a
of Pakistan-Sponsored terrorism in Indian large number of cutting edge research projects in
territory, the support of Islamic world is applied areas covering Agricultural and Medical
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Biotechnology; Human Genomics; Advanced India-Iran Relationships

Materials & Nanotechnology; Imaging Sensor Iran and India have long had historical, cultural, and
& Robotics; Solar Energy; Communication & commercial ties. Indias geographical position and
Information Technology; and Lasers & Electro- proximity to Iran make it a natural customer for Irans
optics. vast oil and gas reserves. Over the past decade, their
Agriculture is one of the main pillars in India- economic ties, because of nuclear-related sanctions
Israel relations. Israel has state-of-art technical imposed on Iran by the international community,
expertise in Dry-Land Agriculture and Micro- have centered on limited energy and agricultural
Irrigation Techniques. With Indian agriculture is products.
pre-dominantly rain-fed these technologies are
Since sanctions were lifted this year after P5+1
highly required.
agreement, Iran has doubled crude exports to India
Indian Prime Minister has recently visited Israel in
and has become its third-largest supplier. Iran has
month of July on completion of 25 years of diplomatic
reserved the Farzad B gas field in the Persian Gulf
relationships. Apart from various agreements, the visit
exclusively for Indian investment. Given its history of
was significant, as this is the first visit of Indian Prime
conflict with Pakistan, India seeks an undersea gas
Minister to Israel. Also, it marks the de-hyphenation
pipeline that transports Iranian gas from Chabahar,
of Israel-Palestine relationship in Indias Diplomatic
through Oman, to the Indian port of Porbandar.
stand, as the visit to Israel was not coupled with the
visit to Palestine. Given Irans large and educated youth populations
under thirty that is technologically savvy, but limited
India-Saudi Arabia Relationship in its development due to Western sanctions, India
India and Saudi Arabia have, in recent years, shared can serve as a model in developing a bustling IT
a healthy bilateral equation based on mutual interests and pharmaceutical sector. Indias private sector,
extensive trade, energy imports, cultural contacts, banks and large corporations can offer their Iranian
and growing security cooperation. counterparts access to technology, credit facilities
and know-how.
Currently, India-Saudi relations revolve around
two important areas: 1) trade and investment and India-UAE Relationship
2) defense and security cooperation. Bilateral
trade has been rising since the mid-2000s and The UAE has a special place among the Gulf
has grown substantially in the last five years. countries due to its syncretic culture, business-
Saudi Arabia remains Indias third largest trading friendly atmosphere, willingness to invest in the
partner and the largest supplier of crude oil. Indian economy and its important role in maintaining
Saudi Arabia has shown signs of being a major peace and stability in the region.
source of investments given its large sovereign The political and diplomatic engagements with the
wealth fund. UAE have seen a substantial increase in recent
The other sector where India-Saudi relations have time. A new momentum was given to the relationship
been strengthened significantly under Modis watch in January 2017 when the two sides signed the
is defense and security specially in combating agreement on Comprehensive Strategic Partnership
terrorism and counter-radicalization with the Gulf (CSP). The landmark visit of Prime Minister Narendra
countries. The Indian Prime Minister visited Saudi Modi in August 2015 and the return visit of the crown
Arabia in 2016 and their joint statement made it prince in 2016 on republic day set the momentum
quite clear that India and Saudi Arabia are seeking for enhancing the bilateral relations to a Strategic
greater intelligence sharing to combat terror. Indias Partnership.
concerns about cracking down on illicit finance The growing engagements between India and the
rings controlled via the Gulf and preventing material UAE has to be seen within the broader contexts
support from the region to extremist groups in India of UAEs policy of engaging with Asia to improve
requires better coordination between Indian and economic prospects and Indias search for foreign
Saudi security agencies. investments to expedite economic growth and
address the threat of extremism and terrorism.
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Indias Other Involvements in attempted to seize control of several key places in

Ankara, Istanbul, and elsewhere, but failed to do
Western Asia so after forces loyal to the state defeated them. The
Council cited an erosion of secularism, elimination
Operation Rahat: of democratic rule, disregard for human rights, and
In 2015, Indian Navy conducted a rescue operation Turkey's loss of credibility in the international arena
under the name ' Operation Rahat' to evacuate as reasons for the coup.
civilians stuck in strife-torn Yemen. The crisis in
Yemen has left thousands of people homeless and Loss of Territory by IS
stranded in the country. The airports and seaports Islamic State has lost almost 1/3rd of the territory it
of Yemen. More than 4,000 people have been has held in Iraq and Syria since 2014. At the height
evacuated in the operation, including foreigners from of its power, the militant group controlled about 40
26 other countries. percent of Iraq and about 25% of Syria. This has
been possible due to the coordinated efforts of West
Position on Syrian Crisis: Led forces along with the Iraqi forces.
India's position on the Syrian crisis in adherence to the
UN charter of non-interference for a political dialogue The Qatar Crisis
and looking at the aspiration of Syrian people. India is not Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Egypt, Yemen, Libya and
directly involved in attack against ISIS but the peacekeepers UAE have suspended their diplomatic ties with
from India are working in Iraq and Syria. India is more Qatar. All the six countries have announced that they
involved in providing humanitarian assistance to the withdraw their diplomatic staff from Qatar and eject
displaced people in the conflict zone. India has also taken Qatars diplomats from their territories. They have
part in Geneva-II conference for resolution of crisis but the also planned to cut air and sea traffic.
talks eventually failed.
The countries have accused Qatar for embracing
various terrorist and sectarian groups that are aimed
Other recent Developments in at destabilizing the region such as the Muslim
Western Asia Brotherhood, alQaida, the Islamic State group and
other groups supported by Iran.
Failed Coup in Turkey Oil prices have seen a jump after the six countries
Turkey witnessed the bloodiest coup attempt in its announced suspension of diplomatic ties with Qatar
political history on July 15, 2016, when a section of as it affected some of the worlds biggest oil and gas
the Turkish military launched a coordinated operation exporters. Qatar, a gas rich nation is also the biggest
in several major cities to topple the government supplier of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and a major
and unseat President Recep Tayyip Erdogan. They seller of condensate (a low-density liquid fuel) and
refining product derived from natural gas.
Indian Ocean 4

Indian Ocean Region

Indian Ocean Region has emerged out to be the Geo-political Hot Spot of the world. The primary reason is its
strategic location, the littoral states and the presence of critical navigational routes.

Indian occupies a central and strategic location in the Indian Ocean area. Its national and economic interests
are inseparably linked up with Indian Ocean. Hence to keep the Indian Ocean as a zone of Peace free from
superpower rivalry and increasing cooperation among littoral countries in the region has always been Indias
foreign Policys goal

Significance of Indian Ocean and over 70 per cent of global container traffic
is carried through the waters of this ocean.
Region Therefore, Indian Ocean is crucial for energy
The significance of Indian Ocean Region is usually security of Nations around the world.
attributed to following three factors: Littoral States: The states surrounding the
Critical Navigational Routes: More than 60 per Indian Ocean region are marked by very high
cent of all oil and petroleum product exports population density and are home to more than
are shipped through the Indian Ocean waters 2 Billion people. This creates opportunities,
International Relations 17
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especially given the high rates of economic problems of resource scarcity and enables
growth around the Indian Ocean rim, including in sustainable development. This marine-
India, Bangladesh, Southeast Asia, and Eastern based economic development will reduce
and Southern Africa. However, the densely environmental risks and mitigate ecological
populated littoral is also vulnerable to natural challenges. New technologies are opening
or environmental disasters e.g. Cyclones and frontiers of marine resource development
Tsunami. There are also issues of terrorism and from bio-prospecting to mining of seabed
piracy in these waters. mineral resources. The sea also offers
Natural Resources: Forty per cent of the worlds vast potential for renewable blue energy
offshore oil production takes place in the Indian production from wind, wave, tidal, thermal
Ocean basin. Fishing in the Indian Ocean now and biomass sources.
accounts for almost 15 per cent of the worlds w Projection of Soft Power: As mentioned
total. Mineral resources are equally important, earlier, Indias policy is to project its soft
with nodules containing nickel, cobalt, and iron, power in the Indian Ocean region with
and massive sulphide deposits of manganese, steps such as Humanitarian and Disaster
copper, iron, zinc, silver, and gold present Relied (HADR), Anti-Piracy operations,
in sizeable quantities on the sea bed. Indian environmental conservation etc.
Ocean coastal sediments are also important
sources of titanium, zirconium, tin, zinc, and Challenges in Indian Ocean Region
copper. Additionally, various rare earth elements Non State Actors: The Indian Ocean is
are present, even if their extraction is not always surrounded by some volatile and weak nations,
commercially feasible. and thus non-state actors like pirates, smugglers
and terrorists remain a persistent threat. The 8/11
India as a KeyStone in Indian Ocean attacks in India were executed through the sea
Geographical Advantage: India has a pre- route and the Somali pirates were a grave threat
eminent position in Indian Ocean, which could to vessels until very recently.
be understood by the fact that it is the only ocean Chinas Assertiveness: As mentioned earlier
named for a country. It has more than 7500 Km that bulk of oil tankers pass through the Indian
of coastline, an exclusive economic zone of Ocean, and there are presences of choke points
2.02 lakh sq km and all the strategic Sea Lines like Straits of Malacca which can jeopardize
of Communication (SLOC) passing through the energy security of China. Hence, China is
the vicinity. India is usually the first country to increasingly trying to assume a leadership role in
respond in any case of emergency or disaster in Indian Ocean. Some of its activities are:
littoral states. In Strategic terms, India considers w Encircling India (String of Pearls): It
Indian Ocean as its sphere of Influence. refers to the network of Chinese military and
Stakes of India in Indian Ocean: The commercial facilities and relationships along
significance of Indian Ocean for India can be its sea lines of communication, which extend
understood under below mentioned points: from the Chinese mainland to Port Sudan. It
w Energy Security: India almost imports includes a facility in Gwadar and a port in
around 80% of the crude oil requirement Karachi (both in Pakistan); Construction of
from the West Asian nations. The import new facility at Colombo and construction of
is primarly across the Arabian Sea, a sub new port Hambantota (both in Sri Lanka);
branch of Indian Ocean. container facility in Chittagong (Bangladesh);
w Trade & Commerce: Almost 95% of the and ports in Myanmar.
Indias trade by volume and 68% by value, w Maritime Silk Route (Part of OBOR Project):
happens through the Indian Ocean region China has aggressively worked towards
w Blue Economy: Blue Economy is based on Infrastructure development in its Maritime
the idea to use locally available resources Silk Route project which is a component of
and employ renewable inputs to address the its ambitious One-belt, One-Road Project.
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The littoral states of Indian Ocean are been w Countering piracy, terrorism, smuggling, and
influenced by China to be a part of OBOR illegal weapons proliferation
and few of them have agreed. Though, It has w Managing international naval competition
overtly declared as commercial in nature, Blue Water Naval Capabilities: A blue-water
India believes that MSR would be used by navy is a maritime force capable of operating
China to project its Naval Power in Indian globally; essentially across the deep waters of
Ocean region. (Like docking of nuclear open oceans. India initially outlined its intentions
submarines in Sri Lanka). of developing blue-water capabilities under the
Arena of Global Conflict: The Indian Ocean is 2007 Maritime Capabilities Perspective Plan,
being considered by the experts as the principal The navy operates on single carrier task force
theatre of conflict among the worlds established centered on INS Vikramaditya and also possess
and ascendant powers. Apart from the apparent an amphibious transport dock, INS Jalashwa.
conflict between US, India, Pakistan and Chinese In addition, the Indian Navy currently operates
interests, there are some other conflicts going INS Arihant, an indigenously developed nuclear-
around eg Chagos Archipelago Dispute. powered ballistic missile submarine and also
The Chagos Archipelago is a group of seven atolls leases one Akula-class nuclear-powered attack
comprising more than 60 islands in the Indian submarine from Russia.
Ocean about 500 km south of the Maldives. It India as Net Security Provider in IOR: Indias
had been part of Mauritius since the 18th century role as a net maritime security provider in the
when the French first settled the islands. Before region is not only its responsibility as a regional
Mauritian independence, in 1965, the UK split the power, but is closely interwoven with the nations
archipelago from the territory of Mauritius to form own economic growth and prosperity. Indian
the British Indian Ocean Territory and permitted Navy's maritime strategy is to be built on strategic
the US to use it for defence purposes for 50 deterrence, maritime cooperation and capacity
years (until December 2016) followed by a 20- building. In order to achieve these goals, Indian
year optional extension. Following this US Military Navy will continue to be the 'Net Security Provider'
Base was setup in Diego Garcia, the largest of in the Indian Ocean Region and has already
the islands. In November 2016, the U.K. ruled taken several initiatives like anti-piracy operations,
out the resettlement of the islanders, who were Humanitarian Assistance & Disaster Relief, Indian
alternately settled in Mauritius and Seychelles, Ocean Naval Symposium and resource-sharing
on the grounds of feasibility, defence, security with other navies in the region.
interests and the cost. Mauritius has threatened Institutional Engagements:
to go to International Court of Justice on the w Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA): IORA
matter. is an international organization consisting of
coastal states bordering the Indian Ocean,
Indias Policy towards the Indian established in 1997 to promote cooperation
Ocean in IOR. IORA comprises 21 member states
(including India) and 7 dialogue partners
SAGAR and 5-Point Formula: Indias objectives
and is based on the principles of Open
in Indian Ocean, as outlined by Indian Prime
Regionalism for strengthening Economic
Minister in 2015 SAGAR (Security and Growth for
Cooperation particularly on Trade Facilitation
All in the Region) initiative are:
and Investment, Promotion as well as Social
w Preserving freedom of navigation for Development of the region.
commercial shipping
The Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA)
w Sustainably and equitably harnessing the Leaders Summit was recently held in Jakarta,
Indian Oceans natural resources capital of Indonesia from March 5 to 7, 2017.
w Establishing protocols for enhancing disaster The theme of the Summit was Strengthening
prevention and relief as well as search and Maritime Cooperation for a Peaceful, Stable
rescue operations and Prosperous Indian Ocean.
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Indian Ocean Naval Symposium: The

w between militaries of US and India by
Indian Ocean Naval Symposium (IONS) is creating common standards and systems.
a voluntary initiative that seeks to increase The agreement will primarily cover four
maritime co-operation among navies of the areas - port calls, joint exercises, training
littoral states of the Indian Ocean Region by and Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster
providing an open and inclusive forum for Relief. Any other requirement has to be
discussion of regionally relevant maritime agreed upon by both sides on a case-by-
issues. In the process, it endeavors to case basis.
generate a flow of information between naval w Spice Route/Project Mausam: India is
professionals that would lead to common trying to regain its lost pre-eminence in the
understanding and possibly cooperative Indian Ocean region and negate the Chinese
solutions on the way ahead. Maritime silk route policy by revitalizing its
Other Alternative Strategies: historical trade links with Arabian and African
w LEMOA: Logistics Exchange Memorandum countries through Spice Trade. Project
of Agreement (LEMOA) meant to build basic Mausam and Spice route initiative are steps
ground work and promote interoperability in that direction.
India-Japan 5
The friendship between India and Japan has a long (i) Japans ageing population (23% above 65
history rooted in spiritual affinity and strong cultural years) and Indias youthful dynamism (over
and civilization ties. Exchange between Japan and 50% below 25 years)
India is said to have begun in the 6th century when (ii) Indias rich natural and human resources
Buddhism was introduced to Japan. Indian culture, and Japans advanced technology
filtered through Buddhism, has had a great impact (iii) Indias prowess in services and Japans
on Japanese culture, and this is the source of the excellence in manufacturing
Japanese people's sense of closeness to India. Over (iv) Japans surplus capital for investments and
the years, the two countries have built upon these Indias large and growing markets and the
values and created a partnership based on both middle class.
principle and pragmatism. Today, India is the largest
Economic relations between India and Japan
democracy in Asia and Japan the most prosperous.
have vast potential for growth, given the obvious
complementarities that exist between the two
Dynamism in Relationship: Post 2000
Asian economies.
The bilateral relations between India and Japan Offshore Development Assistance (ODA):
witnessed a major transformation in the 21st century, India has been the largest recipient of Japanese
with both countries realizing the mutual benefits ODA in South Asia since 2003. In 2014, for
arising out of engagement. Some of the timelines in instance, India received 57 percent of Japans
forging of strong relationship are: South Asia ODA budget Japanese ODA
On visit of Japanese PM Yoshiko Mori to India supports Indias efforts for accelerated economic
in 2000, led to the establishment of "Global development particularly in priority areas like
Partnership between Japan and India" power, transportation, environmental projects
The annual summit meeting between India & and projects related to basic human needs.
Japan are being held since 2005. Japan is a particularly attractive source of
In 2006, Japan-India relationship was elevated investment for India because of its technological
the "Global and Strategic Partnership". expertise, long experience in implementing
In 2014, during the Prime Ministers visit for annual development projects, and commitment to timely
summit in Japan, the relationship was upgraded delivery.
to Special Strategic and Global Partnership. Some of the key projects in which Japan has
Apart from the above, Japan is the first country, invested through ODA are:
with which India has established2+2 dialogues (i) Commissioning of Delhi Metro
mechanism (Discussion on Security and External (ii) Industrial Corridors such as Delhi-Mumbai
Affairs). A Comprehensive Economic Partnership Industrial Corridor (DMIC). The key
Agreement (CEPA) has also been concluded agenda of the DMIC project involves the
between India and Japan in 2011. development of nine industrial zones; a high-
speed freight line; three ports; six airports; a
Indo-Japan Relations in six-lane intersection-free expressway; and a
4,000-megawatt power plant.
Economic Sphere (iii) For running Bullet Trains in Mumbai-
Existing Complementarities: In the economic Ahemdabad Corridor.
sphere, the complementarities between the two (iv) Japan has decided to be associated with the
countries are particularly striking e.g. development of Chennai, Ahmadabad and
Varanasi as smart cities.
International Relations 21
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CEPA & Bilateral Trade: The India-Japan Indo-Pacific Geo-politics

Comprehensive Economic Partnership The China Angle: In an increasing developing
Agreement (CEPA) came into effect on 1st multi-polar and multilateral world order, both India
August 2011 and is the most comprehensive free and Japan are concerned about the expansionist
trade agreement that India has entered into with and aggressive attitude of China. While Japan
any country. It consists of agreed measures on and China are at loggerheads on the Diaoyu/
liberalization of trade in goods, trade in services Senkaku islands in East China Sea, India & China
and investment and an agreement to implement have issues on land boundary, Chinas support
cooperation in a number of identified areas. to Pakistan and its presence in the Indian Ocean
About 94% of the tariffs between Japan and India Region. The efforts to contain China has become
will be eliminated within 10 years (about 97% by a cementing force in the Bilateral relationship
Japan and about 90% by India). with India & Japan
Trilateral Front in Asia: Along with India and
Indo-Japan Strategic Relationship Japan, United States is also a key stakeholder in
Apart from a strong economic relationship, India Indo-Pacfic region. With China being increasingly
& Japan have forged strong bilateral strategic assertive in South China Sea, Upholding of
relationship. Both the nations are part of G-4, and International laws of Sea and ensuring freedom
are co-operating on UN reforms and securing a of navigation has become very important. India-
seat in UNSC. India is also pitching for IMF reforms Japan and US are involved in trilateral summit
where Japan is a significant player. From the Japans meetings and recently Japan has resumed
point of view, the strategic relationships provide it its participation in trilateral maritime Malabar
strategic leeway in shedding its post Second World exercise.
War pacifist ideology and to play more assertive The Possible Quad: The geo-political experts
role in global arena. talk about formation of a Strategic Quadrilateral
partnership between India, Japan, US and
The recent visit of Prime Minister to Japan in Australia to contain the rise of china and further
2016 for annual summit has following significant their mutual interests in the region.
developments on strategic front:
Indo-Japan Civil Nuclear Deal: The broad Obstacles in Indo-Japan Partnership
contours of the landmark civil nuclear
Despite presence of many complementarities, some
cooperation deal that provides for collaboration
obstacles which have hindered the realization of the
between their industries was finalized during the
true potential of bilateral relations are:
PMs Visit and came into force on 20th July 2017.
The Agreement will pave the way for enhanced Bureaucratic Hurdles: Bureaucratic complexity
cooperation in energy security and clean energy is the most commonly cited problem, in fast
and it allows the US and French nuclear firms, tracking the projects and obtaining tangible
which have alliances with Japanese companies, outputs. Despite strong political will on both
to conduct nuclear commerce with India. sides, the slow-moving machineries of the two
states have yet to become intimately acquainted.
Apart from obvious benefits, the deal further
enhances the Indias standing in the global Cultural Factors: Cultural factors coupled
community as responsible nuclear nation and is with poor communication have also been a
a big step in securing the membership of Nuclear major impediment. It has been witnessed that
Supply Group (NSG). although India and Japan share a sound bilateral
relationship but still minimal people to people
Amphibious Air-Craft Deal: During the PMs Visit
contact proved to be important predicament in
India and Japan had broad level agreement on
their relationship. This results in both sides not
Sale of ShinMaywa US-2i amphibious aircraft by
fully appreciating the concerns of each other.
Japan to the Indian Navy. The aircraft will provide
Strategic Angle: Both countries have an interest
a huge boost to operational logistics in areas like
in countering Chinas rise without provoking
the far-flung but strategically critical Andaman
conflict or any form of escalation. Consequently,
and Nicobar Islands. It can also land spares and neither is willing to commit to the types of security
equipment in close proximity to warships on the cooperation that one might find in other strategic
high seas relationships like the U.S.-Japan alliance.
India-South East Asia 6

The geostrategic signifi-

cance of South East Asia
can be understood from
the following facts:
It acts as a gateway be-
tween the Indian Ocean,
South China Sea and the
Pacific Ocean and lies in
vital sea lanes of commu-
Many Countries in the re-
gion have vibrant econ-
omies and form a sig-
nificant regional trading
block (ASEAN)
The resources in the
South China Sea and is-
sue of control over them
have seen conflicts be-
tween China and rest of
the world.
India-South East Asia

India-South East Asia Indias Act East policy, upgraded from the Look
East policy in 2014, serves as a platform for
Relationships deepening and strengthening its relationship
From Look East to Act East: Initiated in with ASEAN and the East Asian economies.
1991India's Look East policy was an effort to The Objective of ''Act East Policy is to promote
cultivate extensive economic and strategic economic cooperation, cultural ties and develop
relations with the nations of Southeast Asia. strategic relationship with countries in the Asia-
India became a sectoral dialogue partner with Pacific region through continuous engagement
ASEAN in 1992 and has developed multilateral at bilateral, regional and multilateral levels
organizations such as, the Mekong-Ganga thereby providing enhanced connectivity to
Cooperation and BIMSTEC, forging extensive the States of North Eastern Region including
cooperation on environmental, economic Arunachal Pradesh with other countries in our
development, security and strategic affairs. neighborhood.
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Trilateral Highway: India-Myanmar-Thailand: integrate almost 40% of the global population

The trilateral pact between India-Myanmar- into an economic block. India has also concluded
Thailand (IMT) will provide a seamless vehicular CEPA with Singapore and is having Free Trade
movement between SAARC and ASEAN nations. agreements with various Nations. Various
The Trilateral Highway starts from Moreh emerging economies in the region are interested
(Manipur) in India up to Mae Sot in Thailand in investing into Infrastructure projects in India
through Myanmar. Construction of 130 km length (Singapore Investing in Amravati in Andhra
stretch of road connecting Moreh (India)/Tamu Pradesh) and also contributing towards Make in
(Myanmar) to Kalewa in Myanmar has already India project
been completed by Border Roads Organization Energy Security: India, in need to diversify the
of India. sources of its import of oil, is looking towards
Kaladan Multi-Modal Transit Transport Project: the hydro-carbon reserves in the Continental
The Kaladan Multi Modal Transit Transport Project Shelves of South China Sea. The recent leasing
was jointly identified by the India and Myanmar of sector to ONGC from Vietnam is a step in
to create a multi-modal mode of transport for this direction. Though, China is expressing its
shipment of cargo from the eastern ports of India opposition, the visit of President to Vietnam and
to Myanmar as well as to the North-Eastern part Cambodia in 2016, further cemented the bilateral
of India through Myanmar. This project, which relationships.
will connect Sittwe Port in Myanmar to the India-
Myanmar border, is expected to contribute to Challenges in Relationships
the economic development of the North-Eastern
Chinas Impact: Chinas bullying behavior has
States of India, by opening up the sea route for
been evident in its actions and pronouncements
the products. It also provides a strategic link to
in the South East Asia, particularly in the South
the North-East, thereby reducing pressure on the
China Sea. Indias policy towards the reason
Siliguri Corridor. In the absence of an alternate
was more towards trade and investment while
route, the development of this project not only
keeping out of the strategic tussles. But , in the
serves the economic, commercial and strategic
current context, India need to be more decisive
interests of India, but also contributes to the
in its approach towards the region as other
development of Myanmar, and its economic
countries look towards it as counter-balancing
integration with India.
Economic Relationship: South East Asia-India
Integration to APEC: Asia-Pacific Economic
economic relationship has grown remarkably
Cooperation (APEC) is a forum for 21 Pacific
starting 2002, there is immense potential to grow
Rim member economies that promotes free trade
the relationship further through both trade and
throughout the Asia-Pacific region. India should
investment and by India integrating into the Asian
work towards to push for its membership in the
value chain. The recently implemented investment
Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) for
agreement along with the Make in India initiative
better economic integration
should help such integration, targeting sectors
ASEAN-India FTA: ASEAN-India Free Trade
like electronics and pharmaceuticals. Indias
Agreement (FTA) in goods has shown some
trade advantage as an exporter of professional
incremental progress, the trade volumes remain
services and IT-related services should see
quite low as compared to that with India-China
greater exports with the implementation of the
trade. Similarly, while India hoped to address
services agreement.
some imbalances in its economic relationship
India is looking to negotiate Regional
with the ASEAN through FTA in services sector,
Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP)
that has not turned out the way India had
with the South East Asian nations so as to
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Nine-Dash Line:
The nine-dash line stretches hundreds of kilometers south and east of its southerly Hainan Island, covering
the strategic Paracel and Spratly island chains. China buttresses its claims by citing 2,000 years of history
when the two island chains were regarded as its integral parts.

Volatility in South East Asia Stand. But, China refused to obey the order
creating further tensions is region. China is also
South China Sea Dispute: involved in creation of artificial islands and reefs
There are a few hundred small islands in the in South China Sea to strengthen its position.
South China Sea, a part of the Pacific Ocean. Global Outlook Towards South China Sea
Some of the main ones are Spratly Islands, Dispute:
Paracel Islands and Scarborough Shoal the
US and the other western nations are wary of the
bone of contention between China and the
aggressive stance of the China in the South China
Philippines. China laid claim to the SCS with the
Sea. US have called for freedom of navigation in
communist party in 1949 demarcated its claims
the South China sea, and have frequently sent
with a U-shaped line made up of nine dashes on
Warships in the reason for Patrolling Purpose.
a map, covering most of the area.
India has also exhorted all the related parties
Verdict of Permanent Court of Arbitration
to develop a code of conduct for responsible
Philippines raised the matter of Scarborough behavior in the South China Sea. It has asked
Shoal in the Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) all the parties to adhere to the United Nations
and the court has rules against the Chinese Convention on laws of Sea (UNCLOS).
India-USA 7
India and USA are two major players at the international stage. The relationship between the two countries
has strengthened over time. It has seen a transformation from minimal cooperation during the Cold War days
to solid partnership from the first decade of the 21st century. Though there has been constant progress in the
relationship, certain impediments have come up time and again which threaten to de-stabilize the partnership
and counter the progress achieved.

Election of new President of USA a better deal to "some of the world's highly
polluting countries" like India and China and
Mr. Donald Trump became the 45th President of The left the US hamstrung.
United States of America in 2017. During his election w India, he said, "makes its participation
campaign Mr. Trump had caused ripples at the global contingent on receiving billions and billions
scale following the steps he proposed to take up on and billions and billions of dollars in foreign
becoming the President. His focus on America First aid, India will be allowed to double its coal
has the potential to drastically change the relations production; we're supposed to get rid of
at the international level. India is equally concerned ours".
about the upcoming world order under the Trump
w India however denounced such allegations
and asserted her commitment towards the
Impact on India following certain global effort to curb climate change and its
associated consequence.
decisions of Mr.Trump :
w India is one of the most affected country from
1. To withdraw from Trans-Pacific Partnership
climate change, and a non functional Paris
climate deal might further increase Indias
w USA was the biggest partner in the TPP vulnerability.
and with its backing out the partnership has
3. Crackdown on H1-B visas :
weakened drastically.
w Following the America First policy and
w This to some extent augurs well for India as a
ensuring that enough jobs are created for
strong TPP would have meant serious losses
the American people, there has been a
for India.
concerted effort to bring down the number
w TPP could negatively affect Indias exports, of H1-B visas allotted. This is followed by
caused issues with the patenting norms of making the regulaions for attaining such
India and could hurt Indias pharma sector. a visa stricter and increasing the fees for
w With weakening of TPP India is placed at a registration.
comparitively comfortable position. w US issues 85,000 H1-B visas every year,
2. Mr. Trumps withdrawal from the Paris Climate Deal: a sizeable chunk of the applicants are
w USA is a significant emitter of the Green Indians. Indian students migrating to the
House Gases (2nd after China) and has states for pursuing a higher degree and tech
been a major contributor to global warming. companies that send their workers on off-site
w However, Mr. Trump decided to pull out from projects will be among the most affected by
the Paris Climate Deal alleging that it gave the changes to the visa policy.
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w The effects of the Act have already been felt 2. USAs contentions against Indias patent
in the Indian markets, with share prices of regime :
major tech companies plummeting. Infosys, The US government efforts have focused on
TCS, Wipro, Tech Mahindra and HCL were ensuring that American companies receive
among those badly hit. the best treatment in markets abroad.
w The Act could also lead to a decrease in However, the economic and commercial
interest in students flocking to American barriers to US companies attempting to
universities, thereby minimising the brain operate in India have placed them at a
drain. disadvantage. Chief among those barriers
are the long-standing issues with Indias IP
About: H-1B Visa
Many of the long-standing challenges
It is an employment-based, non-immigrant
remain the same: Online and hard goods
visa category for temporary workers. For
piracy continues to plague the Indian
such a visa, an employer must offer a job and
market, undermining the economic
apply for employees H-1B visa petition with
contributions of Indias thriving film industry.
the US Immigration Department. If approved,
The biopharmaceutical industry continues to
this work permit allows the employees to
face challenges in securing and maintaining
obtain a visa stamp and work in the U.S. for
patents. Most notably, Section 3(d) of the
that employer.
Indian Patent Act, which mandates that
products must demonstrate enhanced
efficacy in order to be patentable,
Other issues affecting India-USA undermines the growth of biopharmaceutical
innovation in India
Additional complications like putting a
1. W.T.O. Dispute Between India-USA ceiling on the stent prices by NPPA and
India had lost the domestic content confusion regarding the granting of patents
requirement (DCR) case related to the solar to computer software have further flared the
cell manufacturing against U.S.A. in the disagreements between India and USA in
dispute settlement system of WTO. this regard
The Appellate Body of WTO has declared that As a testimony to this fact India ranked 43
the domestic content requirement (DCRs) out of 45 countries in the US Chamber of
in Indias Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Commerces (USCC) annual IP index, just
Mission (JNNSM) violated the provisions of above Pakistan, which was added to the
WTO trade agreement. index this year, and Venezuela. Last year,
WTO members are not supposed to insist India was placed 37 out of 38 countries.
on national content requirements that However, under Indias first National
discriminate against foreign products. Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) policy a
Governments are also required to provide number of positive administrative changes
national treatment, under which imports were included and it called for the creation of
must be treated on a par with domestically IP education programmes. But India refused
manufactured products. to budge under the US pressure to agree to
This could cause some blemished in Indias all the demands presented by USA.
shift towards renewable energy and its 3. Totalisation Pact between India and USA :
target of harnessing 100GW solar energy India had repeatedly pitched for a totalisation
by 2022. This can lead to increase in cost agreement at meetings with US officials.
of production due to increase in the import Typically, Indian workers immigrating to the
cost as compared to materials sourced from US stay in the country for a period of three
the domestic market which would have been to seven years and contribute about 15 per
comparatively cheaper. cent of their salary to the US social security
International Relations 27
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system. With no totalisation pact in place, the purpose of refuelling and replenishment.
these workers lose the entire social security There has been a reaffirmation of India's
contributions unless they complete 10 years designation as a Major Defence Partner
of mandatory contributions. Defence has emerged as a major area of
4. India has also been pushing for a greater cooperation with USA emerging as the
market access for agricultural export and better second largest supplier, after Russia, of
institutional mechanisms to improve food export sophisticated equipment to India.
Problems faced by Indian exporters of
mangoes, Basmati rice and grapes due to Visit of Indian Prime Minister to
unwarranted requirements and restrictions
were raised. USs Generic Drug User Fee
Act (GDUFA) and Food Safety Modernisation Mr. Modi completed a successful meeting with
Act have created an elaborate system the American president in June 2017 which
of inspection and high inspection fees, reaffirmed the strong partnership between the
affecting smaller exporters. two countries. It reduced the building skepticism
regarding the course that Mr. Trump was likely
Areas of significant cooperation to follow for India and clearly showed that the
partnership is expected to strengthen further.
between India and USA :
Joint Statement released at the conclusion of
1. Fight against terrorism : the meet include increased intelligence sharing,
USA declared Pakistan as a safe haven operational-level counterterrorism cooperation,
for terrorists and flaked the country for not exchange of information on known and
doing enough for controlling the menace of suspected terrorists for travel screening, respect
terrorism for sovereignty and territorial integrity, rule of
USA declared Hizbul Mujahideen chief Syed law, and environmental protection. Principles of
Salahuddin, a global terrorist. freedom of navigation, unhindered over flights,
These gave a short in the arm to Indias crusade and commerce as well as the need to resolve
against terrorism and were in line with long territorial and maritime disputes peacefully and
standing demands of India. in accordance with international law have been
2. Defence cooperation : reiterated. This reaffirms that India and USA are
on the same page with respect to dealing with the
Malabar exercise 2017: The trilateral
rapidly growing influence and presence of China
naval exercise between India-USA-Japan
in the Indian Ocean and Indo-Pacific region.
is a significant show of unity and strength
between the countries to maintain the
Way Forward:
balance of power in the Asia-Pacific region.
The technological competence of USA would The Indian foreign policy establishment can
greatly enhance the potential of Indian Navy justifiably feel upbeat with the results of the visit.
too. The sharing of best practices between Given the uncertainties in the run-up to the visit,
the Navies could further strengthen the the results have been most gratifying.
striking and operational capabilities. The real test of the commitments assumed by the
LEMOA : It stands for Logistics Exchange two countries will lie in action taken by them in
Memorandum of Agreement (LEMOA), the coming months.
a tweaked India-specific version of the The two countries have several point of
Logistics Support Agreement (LSA), which convergence and should compliment each
the U.S. has with several countries it has other. A strong partnership between the two
close military to military cooperation. enterprising democracies would be in the benefit
LEMOA gives access, to both countries, to of the entire world order.
designated military facilities on either side for
India-Russia 8
Relations with Russia are a major component of India's foreign policy. Russia has been a longstanding, all-
weather and time-tested partner of India. India-Russia ties have acquired a qualitatively new character with
enhanced levels of cooperation in almost all areas of the bilateral relationship including political, security, trade
and economy, defense, science and technology and culture.

A brief historical background of A joint venture to build Russian Kamov

helicopters in India has been signed too.
India-Russia relationship : The plan is to build at least 200 helicopters
India has always found in Russia an enterprising in India,which is part of Indias drive to build
friend supporting her in each and every a defence industrial base in India.
endeavour. Indias aircraft carrier INS Vikramaditya is
Be it in the field of equipping our defence forces is a Kiev classaircraft carrierwhich was
or industrialisation of the country or strategic commissioned by Russian Navy in 1987
support in the UN Security Council, Russia has under the name Baku. It was later renamed
always come to Indias help. asAdmiralGorshkov and last sailed in 1995
Relations between India and Russia have been in Russia, before being offered to India.
based on defence acquisition, hydrocarbons, The relation in defence sector thus is very
nuclear energy, space cooperation, trade and strong, However, it has been a long-standing
commerce, science and technology, culture and grievance of Indian armed forces that the
people to people ties. supply of critical spares and equipment
The already strong relations were up-graded from from Russia takes a long time affecting
"strategic partnership" to "special and privileged maintenance of military systems procured
strategic partnership" in 2010. from that country.
India and Russia also have been conducting
Recent developments naval military join exercise named INDRA.
2. Nuclear energy Cooperation :
1. Defence cooperation :
Russia is an important partner in peaceful uses
Russia is the largest supplier of defence
of nuclear energy and it recognizes India as
equipment to India.
a country with advanced nuclear technology
BrahMos missile-the supersonic cruise
with an impeccable nonproliferation record.
missile is a dominating example of
Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) and
cooperation between India and Russia in the
Russias Rosatom had signed the Strategic
defence sector.
Vision for strengthening cooperation in
Deal for S-400 Triumf air defence systems peaceful uses of atomic energy between
from Russia: The long-range air defence India and Russia.
missile system has the capability to destroy
Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant (KKNPP) is
incoming hostile aircraft, missiles and even
being built in India with Russian cooperation.
drones at ranges of up to 400 km
International Relations 29
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The two countries dedicated the unit two The Pakistan angle :
of Kudankulum nuclear power plant and Russia is looking at Pakistan as a potential market
witnessed foundation laying of its Unit 3 and of his arms and ammunition is a worrying factor
4. The dedication of Kudankulum 2 is an for India.
example of tangible result of India-Russia Russias supply of lethal armaments like MI 35
cooperation in the nuclear field. attack helicopters and SU 35 aircraft to Pakistan
3. Trade: have raised concerns in India as all such
Bilateral trade has continued to perform far equipment is ultimately used by Pakistan against
below potential. It is essential for private India.
business in the two countries as well as Russias military exercise with Pakistan in 2017
governments and financial institutions has also antagonized India.
to identify commodities that enjoy good
potential. Bilateral trade needs to be brought The China angle:
to a decent level of USD 30 billion by 2025 as Russia and China are gradually coming closer
against the current level of below 10 billion. owing to their compulsions against West.
4. Boost to Indias Infrastructure sector:
Moscows Russian Direct Investment Fund The USA angle :
(RDIF) and Indias National Infrastructure Russia is concerned at the rapidly expanding
Investment Fund (NIIF) would pump in $500 ties between India and USA, which started with
million each to create a Russian Indian the India-US nuclear deal in 2008.
Investment Fund. Announcements were also Also the growing defence relationship between
made to boost ties in sectors like trade and India and USA has caused tensions in the
investment, hydrocarbons, space and smart India-Russia relations. India has so far been
cities. This will help advance infrastructure heavily dependent on Russian armaments with
partnership between the two nations more than 70 per cent of its weapons being
5. India and Russia are partners in many sourced from Russia. Although in absolute terms
international organizations like BRICS, G20, Russia is still the largest supplier of defence
UN and SCO(where Indias membership was equipment to India, its share in overall imports
approved recently). has progressively declined.
The President of the Russia Mr. Putin had Most recently, Indias reported decision to sign the
visited Goa in October 2016 for attending three ''foundational'' defence Agreements with
the BRICS Summit. Moreover, he attended USA, viz., Logistics Support Agreement (LSA),
the 17th India-Russia Annual Summit along Communications Interoperability and Security
with Prime Minister of India. At the bilateral Memorandum of Agreement (CISMOA) and Basic
Summit, the leaders reviewed the entire Exchange and Cooperation Agreement (BECA)
gamut of India-Russia relations and reviewed for Geo-spatial Cooperation, has surfaced as a
the progress made since the last summit cause of serious concern for Russia.
held in Moscow in December 2015. The latter feels that India is virtually entering into
6. In 2017, India and Russia are celebrating 70 a military alliance with USA, which will severely
years of establishment of diplomatic relations restrict Russia's ability to share sophisticated
between them. defence technology with it.

However, there are certain issues that have Way forward for India-Russia relations:
recently cropped up as sources of tensions, as:
Both the countries should look to consolidate
There has been a recent shift in the geopolitical setup further the already strong ties and minimize the
with Russia clearly inclining towards Pakistan and recent blemishes.
China in the face of Indias strengthening relationship
with USA.
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Exchange of visits among reputed and established Corridor has the potential to spur ties between
Think Tanks of the two countries needs to be India and Russia as well. This opportunity must
stepped up. Collaboration between educational be capitalized upon properly.
institutions also needs to be promoted. Scholars India and Russia are natural allies. It is in
and academics have always played a critical the interest of both countries to have vibrant
role in promoting cooperation between the two relations.The leadership of the two nations
countries. represented by impactful persons as Mr. Modi and
The recent agreement of India with Iran on Mr. Putin need to strengthen bilateral ties in the
the construction of the Chabahar seaport, spheres of strategic, political, security, nuclear
associated rail-road linkages and development energy, hydrocarbons, defence procurement,
of the International North-South Transport academia and people to people relations.
The European continent is characterized by high standards of life, developed countries marked by prosperity
and affluence, presence of immense opportunities for learning and growing, strong economic credentials and
robust political institutions. In the light of this background, it becomes imperative for India to establish solid
and valuable links with the European countries. India is seen to achieve the same through her relations with
the European Union at large.

Background of India-European won by 51.9% to 48.1%. Thereafter the

process of Britain exiting from the EU has
Union (EU) relations : begun and is expected to take atleast 2
India-EU relations date to the early 1960s, with years to reach its completion.
India being amongst the first countries to establish (b) Possible Impact of Brexit on India:
diplomatic relations with the European Economic (i) The overall impact in real terms is not
Community. A cooperation agreement signed in objectively clear at present but it is likely
1994 took the bilateral relationship beyond trade to be broadly neutral as the flows
and economic cooperation. The first India-EU of trade and investment would likely
Summit took place in Lisbon in 2000 and marked a continue in the regular course.
watershed in the evolution of the relationship. Since (ii) The Indian manufacturing companies
then, thirteen annual Summits have been held with that have set a broad base in UK
the latest being held at Brussels in March 2016 might face some problems in case
adopting the India-EU Agenda 2020. This Agenda UK is slapped with tough EU terms as
lays down a road map for cooperation on a wide conditions for leaving the Union.
range of issues including nuclear cooperation, (iii) Information technology firms by Indian
investments, Internet Governance, climate change, companies in UK are also deemed to
5G communications etc. lose business as a Brexit may create
recession risks that could dent IT
Current Dimensions in India- demand further
Europe (iv) India will feel the heat through heightened
volatility in the global financial markets
Some Current Dimensions in India-Europe
due to uncertainty caused by Brexit. This
Relations can be seen as :
can also lead to depreciation of global
1. Brexit and its impact on India :
currencies making the recovery of Indian
(a) Meaning of Brexit exports more difficult.
(i) It is a word that has become used as a (v) It is likely that the UK will seek trade
shorthand way of saying the UK leaving agreements with non-EU partners,
the EU - merging the wordsBritain including India. Thereafter, for India, a
andexit to get Brexit bilateral trade agreement with the UK
(ii) A referendum was held in 2016, to might become viable as an alternate to
decide whether the UK should leave or the tough and drawn-out negotiations on
remain in the European Union. Leave the EU Free Trade Agreement.
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2. Issues regarding India-EU free trade (iii)

liberalise visa norms for Indian
agreement (FTA) : professionals.
The FTA which is known as EU-India Broad- (iv) India is apprehensive about demands
based Trade and Investment Agreement (BTIA) of EU(like further reducing tariffs on EU
has been in consideration between India and EU goods) which might hamper the growth
since 2007. But the two side have failed to arrive of domestic industries.
at a final conclusion of the deal owing to several
More recently Indias Bilateral Investment Treaties
roadblocks. These include :
(BITs) with many European countries are about to
(a) Demands by EU : expire. India thus has formulated a Model BIT to
(i) EU wants India to overhaul its financial apply to all countries which includes some clauses
sector and has requested for various unacceptable to European nations.
regulations pertaining to bank branches,
Indias Model Bilateral Investment Treaty excludes
, foreign ownership, equity ceilings,
matters relating to taxation. Also it states that foreign
voting rights and investments by state-
investors investing in India can seek the option of
owned companies in foreign banks in
international arbitration only when all domestic legal
India removed, among other changes.
routes have been exhausted. These provisions have
(ii) Further EU has asked India to cut taxes
further acted as impediments in finalizing any deal
on wines and spirits and reduce tariff
between EU and India.
on the dairy sector as well as duties on
3. Refugee crisis in Europe :
Europe has been facing huge influx of
(iii) The IPR provisions in India-EU draft FTA
refugees owing to the continuous war in
also raise concerns as they will limit the
the nearby Middle eastern countries. This
capacities of both India and the EU to use
has led to large scale problems in the
public health safeguards and flexibilities
European countries among which many
allowed in WTOs TRIPS Agreement
have put restrictions along their borders in
(iv) Apart from these EU has been imposing
order to stop refugees from coming in. on
non-tariff barriers in the form of technical
the other hand, Germany has been quite
regulations, phytosanitary measures,
supportive in helping the refugees in such
industrial standards, conformity
dire circumstances.
assessments or barriers to services
India has always been sympathetic to the
cause of refugees. India though has not
(b) Demands by India :
signed the Refugee Convention of 1951 but
(i) Indias demographic advantages have
have always put forward a helping hand for
provided it with a skilled, competitive,
refuges whther in the case of Bangladeshi,
English-speaking workforce, of which
Isreali or Rohingya refugees.
Europe will be lacking in the near
Under such circumstances India hopes that
future. Considering this, India places
the European refugee crisis is resolved at
considerable importance to Mode 4
the earliest and that the European countries
liberalisation. Mode 4 refers to the
take collective steps to deal with the issue.
delivery of a service within the territory of
a member with the service provider being
present as a natural person. In essence,
Recent interactions between India
this enables free movement of individual and major European countries :
professionals by committing to measures
such as relaxation of immigration norms. India-Germany :
(ii) India wants the EU to give it greater The Prime Minister of India Mr. Narendra Modi
market access pharmaceuticals sectors visited Germany to participate in the fourth Inter-
provide data secure nation status Governmental Consultations [IGC] between
(beneficial to Indias IT sector) and India and Germany.
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India and Germany have a Strategic Partnership against Paris summit, both nation reaffirmed
which the leaders of two countries have resolved their commitments regarding Paris Summit and
to further strengthen. criticized the decision of America.
Germany is currently also one of the leading The Leadersreiterated their strong support
foreign direct investors in India, with around for ongoing efforts aimed at defeating
1,800 German companies operating in India. terrorism.They called for dismantling of the
From April 2000 to March 2017, various German terrorist infrastructure, denying safe havens to
companies have invested about $9.7 billion in terrorists, bringing perpetrators and conspirators
India, which is about 3 percent of total FDI flows of terrorist attacks to justice.
the country has witnessed. France was the first country with which India
India and Germany also cooperate closely on entered into an agreement on Civil Nuclear
the issue of the expansion of the United Nations Cooperation. France has been a steadfast
Security Council (UNSC) within the framework of proponent and supporter of Indias candidature
G-4 with Japan and Brazil for permanent membership of a reformed UN
The India-Germany Defence Cooperation Security Council
Agreement, established in 2006, provides a India and France has collaborations in various
framework for defence cooperation. The High fields as :
Defence Committee meetings at the Defence w Defence : Rafale aircraft, Scorpene class
Secretary level take place annually and submarine under Project 75, Joint Army
atlernately in New Delhi and Berlin. exercise- EX-SHAKTI,air exercise EX-
PM Modi and Chancellor Merkel underlined their GARUDA, naval exercise EX VARUNA
common concern about the threat and global w Space : ISRO and CNES(French space
reach of terrorism and extremism. They agreed agency) had jointly developed the Satellite for
on the need to take strong measures against ARGOS and ALTIKA (SARAL), Arianespace-
all those who encourage, support and finance France has been the major provider of launch
terrorism services to Indian Geo Stationary satellites.,
Further, there are strong links between the CNES MoU on Megha Tropiques satellite has
two countries in the domain of environment been a major achievement
conservation and mitigating climate change. w Climate : International Solar Alliance has
Germany has also agreed to share its experience been formed under the leadership of India
in cleansing rivers for making Gangas flow pure and France, the Paris climate deal is also an
in nature . important source of cooperation.
The dimensions stretch in several directions
India-France : reflecting the great bond between the two
Relations between India and France are multi- countries. These dimensions point towards
faceted, close and special. further harnessing the available potential which
The Prime Minister of India in his four nation will be a win-win situation for both the countries.
official visit of Europe visited France on 2nd and
3rd June. India-Spain :
As strategic partners, India and France consult The Prime Minister of India Mr. Narendra Modi paid
and support each other on international matters in an official visit to Spain on 30th- 31st May. This was
a spirit of mutual understanding and commitment the first visit by an Indian Prime Minister to Spain in
to the benefit of the international community at almost three decades.
large. Some of the agreements signed were :
Leaders of the two countries reiterated their support MOU on Technical Cooperation in Civil Aviation.
to CoP 21 to UNFCCC at Paris and expressed MOU on Cooperation in organ transplantation
confidence that the Paris Conference is significant between India's Directorate General of Health
to fight against climate change issue for the post Services and the National Transplant Organization
2020 period. In the context of Americas decision of Spain.
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MOU on Cooperation in Cyber Security. Major agreements agreed between the two
MOU on Cooperation in Renewable Energy countries included cooperation in outer space,
At present Spain is a not a major player in Indias double taxation avoidance, nano technology,
foreign policy. This can be reversed by increasing improving cultural ties, youth and sports, higher
interactions and drawing convergences favourable education, scientific research, and setting up of
to both the countries. a Portugal-India Business Hub and an Indian
Chamber of Commerce
India-Portugal :
Way forward :
Prime Minsiter Mr.Modi visited Portugal in the
month of June. India and Europe stand to gain a lot from each
Interestingly Portuguese Prime Minister Antonio other. The relationship is particularly beneficial for
Costa traces his origin to Goaand was described India and therefore steps must be taken to resolve
by his Indian counterpart as representing the the impending issues like BTIA to fully capitalize
best of the Indian diaspora across the world. upon the partnership. The differences must be
Mr.Modi also presented the Overseas Citizen of ironed out by adopting a cooperative path by both
India card to Mr.Costa. the entities.
India has traditionally attached great importance to its relations with Central Asia. But, unfortunately, the
relationship despite close historical & cultural contacts has not progressed to the desired extent. The key
constraint India faces is the lack of direct access to Central Asia. The unstable situation in Afghanistan and a
highly problematic India-Pakistan relation have deprived India from the benefit of relations with Central Asia.

The Central Asian region : potential. Kyrgyzstan is rich in gold and

hydroelectric power.
Central Asia, central region of Asia, extends from
These essential features of the region can be highly
the Caspian Sea in the west to the border of western
beneficial in ensuring Indias Energy Security.
China in the east. It is bounded on the north by
Russiaand on the south by Iran, Afghanistan, and Connect Central Asia policy
Due to increasing presence of China, India
The region consists of the former Soviet republics formulated its Connect Central Asia Policy which
of: Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, is a broad-based approach including political,
andTurkmenistan. security, economic, and cultural connections.
The primary goal behind the Connect Central
Importance of Central Asia for India : Asia policy was re-connecting with the region
The region is richly endowed with commodities which has a long shared history with India.
such as crude oil, natural gas, cotton, gold, The key elements of this policy cover many
copper, aluminium, and iron, the increasing important issue areas, including political
importance of the regions oil and gas resources cooperation, economic cooperation, strategic
has generated new rivalries among external cooperation, regional connectivity, information
technology (IT), cooperation in education,
people-to-people contact, medical cooperation,
All Central Asian States are rich and well endowed and cooperation in regional groupings.
potentially with mineral and hydroelectric
resources. Trade and connectivity between India
Kazakhstan has the worlds second largest and Central Asia :
reserves and is the worlds largest producer Indias trade volume with Central Asia is less than
23,000 tons of uranium in 2014. It has almost USD 1 billion, compared to Chinas 50 billion and
all major minerals including iron-ore, coal, Russias 30 billion with the region.
oil, gas, gold, lead, zinc, molybdenum etc. in
Indias trade with the region accounts for a mere
commercially viable quantities.
0.11 per cent of its total trade.
Uzbekistan has large reserves of gas, uranium
Similarly, Indias share in Central Asias total trade
and gold.
is only about one per cent.
Turkmenistan is endowed with worlds fourth
This is mainly because Russia and China have
largest reserves of natural gas.
direct physical proximity as well as established
Tajikistan is blessed with huge hydroelectric transportation links with Central Asia.
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Even though Indias northern regions are closer to Central Asia than its own states in the South, Indias trade
with Central Asia has fallen short of realising its full potential because of the constraints imposed by geopolitical
factors (Pakistans non-cooperative nature in providing India passage to Central Asia),. This imbalance
suggests an obvious rationale for increasing Indias connectivity with Central Asia.Therefore, India has been
exploring different variants of realistically attainable transport connectivity with Eurasia.

Some of the efforts in this regard can be seen as :

1. International North South Corridor (INSTC) :
INSTC, is a 7200-km-long multi-modal (ship, rail and road) transportation system for connecting the Indian
Ocean and Persian Gulf to the Caspian Sea via Iran and thence to Russia and North Europe.

In the absence of viable surface transport connectivity, Indian goods to Russia and Central Asia move
either through the sea route via Rotterdam to St. Petersburg or from the Chinese port of Qingdao that takes
over 50 days.
Recent studies show that INSTC can reduce the time and cost of container delivery by 30-40 per cent.
It can compliment the Chahbahar Port being built by India in Iran and further increase Indias access to the
2. Ashgabat Agreement :
It is an international transport and transit corridor facilitating transportation of goods between Central Asia
and the Persian Gulf. The Ashgabat Agreement has Oman, Iran, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan as founding
members. Kazakhstan has also joined this arrangement subsequently.
Accession to the Agreement would enable India to utilise this existing transport and transit corridor to
facilitate trade and commercial interaction with the Eurasian region.
Further, this would synchronise with our efforts to implement the International North South Transport Corridor
(INSTC) for enhanced connectivity.
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National Security in India-Central Security and defence cooperation have emerged

as a significant area of cooperation
Asia Bilateral trade between the two countries is in
the range of USD 55 to 60 million which is much
Dimension of National Security in India- below potential
Central Asia relations :
The importance of Central Asia for peace and The China angle :
stability in the region is immense. This region In the recent past there has been deepening
if turned as a source of religious extremism and in the relations between China and Central
radical Islam may present a serious threat. Asia. China already has a much larger share
Any advance by Islamic extremist groups could of trade with the region as compared to India
invigorate similar elements active in Kashmir. and is aiming to increase it further by its efforts
Thus these activities need to be checked. to integrate the region with its Belt and Road
What is of interest to India and other nations in initiative.
this region is the volatile situation in Afghanistan. Chinas primary thrust has been to make use
Peaceful and stable Afghanistan is a perquisite of Central Asias vast mineral resources for its
for the whole regions stability. economic development to supply the much
needed consumer goods to Central Asia and to
Recent exchanges between India and protect itself against the threat of separatism,
Central Asia : extremism and terrorism from its Uyghur
Visit of Kyrgyzstans president to India: minority from Central Asian territories.
India and Kyrgyzstan agreed to cooperate in
areas like- fight against terrorism and extremism,
Way forward for India to further strengthen
defence cooperation(defence exercise Khanjar) the relationship with Central Asia:
and enhancing trade and economic exchanges India should increase the use of the
received particular attention. Both sides agreed instrumentality of soft power in Central Asia
to enhance collaboration in fighting the forces of to strengthen bilateral ties. There is immense
militarism and violence. interest in Indian classical dance, music,
Tourism was identified as an important sector in Bollywood films, yoga, literature etc. in these
which significant untapped potential exists.They countries.
agreed to work on simplifying and facilitating More energy and vigour needs to be imparted
issuance of visas. to the area of commercial and economic ties.
Six Agreements including collaboration in tourism, Indias inclusion in the Shanghai cooperation
agriculture and food industry, youth development, Organization (SCO) is deemed to provide a
training of diplomats, National Cadet Corps, major boost to India-Central Asia relations.
and broadcasting and exchange of audiovisual Strengthening of relations between India
programmes were signed. These will further and Central Asia is to the mutual benefit of
strengthen official and people-to-people linkages. all countries involved. It is not directed at
Visit of Tajikistans President to India: countering Chinas presence in the region.
What makes Tajikistan particularly significant India is interested in expanding its ties with
and attractive for India is its critical geographical the region as it will promote security, stability,
location on the northern tip of Afghanistan. economic growth and development of all
India-Africa 11
Indias relations with African countries are surging ahead in the political, economic and multilateral spheres.
To an extent, this reflects Indias recognition of the economic and political transformation of Africa in the recent
years. Africa presents a huge source of opportunities and India would surely not like to miss upon these. In this
regard India is making strides towards strengthening its partnership with African countries.

Opportunities presented by Africa Blue/Ocean Economy

In recent years African countries have
Education and skill development
experienced high economic growth. The average
Health / pharmaceutical development
annual growth rate of real output has increased
from 2.6 percent in 1990-2000 to 5.3 percent in Peace and security
the period 2000-2010.
Further according to the World Bank, seven out
The India-Africa Forum Summit :
of ten fastest growing economies in the world These summits are held between leaders of
during the last decade are from Africa. African countries and the Indian Prime Minister
Africa has a significant young population who to further strengthen the ties between the two
can act as agents of change and bring in growth entities.
of the African region provided they are sufficiently It was decided to hold the summits every three
skilled for that. years, alternately in India and Africa.
New Delhi was the venue in 2008 (first IAFS);
Development partnership between India
Addis Ababa in 2011. The third summit,
and Africa :
scheduled to be held in 2014, was postponed
India has forged a development partnership because of the Ebola outbreak and was later
with the African countries. This development held in New Delhi in 2015.
partnership is unique as it is based on a
The 3rd IAFS was a major event with the participation
consultative model and is driven by African
of all 54 countries of the African continent. It led to
several important decisions like :
The focus of the development partnership is
It reaffirmed that development cooperation was
on human resource development and capacity
the cornerstone of the India Africa partnership
building in Africa.
and offered an additional USD10 billion
New Delhi had become a vigorous provider of
concessional credit over the next five years.
lines of credit as part of its aid programme.
An offer was made of a grant assistance of $600
Domains of cooperation between India million
and Africa : which will include an India-Africa Development
Fund of
Trade and industry
$100 million and an India-Africa Health Fund of
$10 million.
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It was announced that Indias cooperation will China is a significant source offoreign direct
be in line with the objectives set by the Agenda investment in Africa; offers development
2063 initiative of the African countries loans to resource-rich nations, like Angola;
Given the African focus on education and skills invests in agriculture; and develops special
enhancement, India pledged 50,000 scholarships trade and economic cooperation zones in
for African students over the next five years. several states, including Ethiopia, Nigeria,
Finally, since security and development are and Zambia.
closely linked, he announced support for African Integration of African continent under
efforts in diverse fields such as peacekeeping the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) is also
training, counter-terrorism, maritime, space and planned at a mega scale.
cyber security. Chinas has also established its
firstpermanent naval installationoverseas
Asia Africa Growth Corridor (AAGC) at Djibouti.
However, it seems India has greater
The idea of Asia Africa Growth Corridor (AAGC)
acceptance in Africa as compared
emerged in the joint declaration issued by Prime
to China. In contrast to the economic
Minister Narendra Modi and Prime Minister Shinzo
powerhouse China, which has been
Abe in November 2016 at the conference of African
accused of exploiting the continent's
Development Bank ( AfDB). The conference was
vast mineral and energy resources, India
itself special because AfDB help its meeting in India
positioned itself as a fairer partner to a
for the first time, marking a significant confidence
continent tipped as the global economic
on India as a valued partner.
growth engine of the coming decades.
The Asia-Africa Growth Corridor highlights the
India is committed to holistic development
growing importance of Africa in Indian foreign
of Africa and ensuring the human resource
policy and also signals Indias willingness to
development rather than exploiting Africa
partner with like-minded countries, such as
for commercial purposes.
Japan, in this region.
2. Recent attacks on African nationals in
The main objective of the corridor is to enhance
India :
growth and connectivity between Asia and Africa.
African nationals have repeatedly come
The corridor will focus on four areas: Development
under attack in the recent past which has
Cooperation Projects, Quality Infrastructure
led to injuries and even deaths in some
and Institutional Connectivity, Enhancing Skills,
and People-to-People Partnership. Agriculture,
health, technology, and disaster management Most of these incidents are seen to have
have been identified as the main areas of a prejudiced bias against the African
development cooperation. nationals who are often deemed to be
involved in Drug trafficking and other anti-
Points of concern in the India-Africa social activites.
relations : Though Indian official severely criticised the
1. The China angle : violent attack but refused to acknowledge
the racism and projecting such incidents
Over the past few decades, Chinas rapid
as cases of urban violence
economic growth and expanding middle
class havefueled an unprecedented need In order to improve the situation India has
for resources. The economic powerhouse launched a series of racism sensitisation
has focused on securing the long-term programmes in neighbourhoods that had
energy supplies needed to sustain its a large African population. There is need
industrialization, searching for secure to make concerted efforts to sensitise the
access to oil supplies and other raw materials police and the public at large about how
around the globe. As part of this effort, China racism contradicts the nations past and
has turned to Africa. present ideals.
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Way forward for India-Africa relations : More recently, there has been a rise of
The journey of cooperation between India and terrorism in Africa. India has long been a
Africa has been going at a good pace in the last victim of terrorism and therefore can share its
few decades. There is all round development in experience in countering terrorism with the
the relations. Trade between the two has grown African countries if they so desire.
from $1 billion in 1990-1991 to $71 billion in Indias interaction with Africa is based on the
2014-2015 principle of bottom-up and not top-down. This
There has been a growing convergence resonates well with Africa, enabling a positive
between India and Africa on peace and understanding of India in Africa and auguring
security issues. Africa like India has a long well for India-Africa relations.
coast line and is concerned about the threats With Indias huge acceptance in Africa,
such as piracy, drug trafficking and security of India needs to further increase its presence
sea lanes. Thus the possibility of India Africa in the continent and help it to prosper into a
maritime cooperation are immense. developed entity.

SAARC To contribute to mutual trust, understanding and

appreciation of one another's problems;
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation To promote active collaboration and mutual
(SAARC) was founded in 1985, with the signing of assistance in the economic, social, cultural,
the SAARC Charter in Dhaka on 8th December 1985. technical and scientific fields;
SAARC is an intergovernmental organization and
To strengthen cooperation with other developing
geo-political union of South Asian nations.
Membership: To strengthen cooperation among themselves
in international forums on matters of common
It comprises of 8 Members: Afghanistan,
interests; and
Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal,
To cooperate with international and regional
Pakistan and Sri Lanka.
organizations with similar aims and purposes.
Observers: Australia, China, European Union,
Japan, Iran, Mauritius, Myanmar, South Korea The key principles of the association are:
and USA
Cooperation within the association will be based
Potential future members: Myanmar has on sovereign equality, territorial integrity, and
expressed interest in being upgraded from non-interference in internal affairs of other states,
observer to a full member of the grouping. political independence and mutual benefit.
Its Secretariat was set up on 17th January, 1987 at Such cooperation will not substitute, rather it
Kathmandu. would complement bilateral and multilateral
Such cooperation should not be inconsistent with
17th Summit was held in 2011 in Maldives bilateral and multilateral obligations.
18th Summit was held in 2014 in Nepal The charter stipulates that decision would be
19th Summit was to be held in 2016 in Pakistan, taken unanimously.
but it was cancelled due to 6 countries (all except
Nepal and Pakistan) pulling out of the summit in Importance of SAARC:
the aftermath of the Uri attack in India. The region represents 3% of world's area; 21% of
world's population and 3.8% of global economy.
Objectives and Principles:
11 stated areas of cooperation are: agriculture;
Objectives of the association as per the SAARC education; culture and sports; population,
Charter are: health and child welfare; environment; rural
To promote the welfare of the peoples of SOUTH development; transport; tourism; science
ASIA and to improve their quality of life; and technology; communications; prevention
To accelerate economic growth, social progress of drug trafficking and drug abuse; women
and cultural development in the region and to development.
provide all individuals the opportunity to live in All the member countries share a natural
dignity and to realize their full potentials; boundary in the form of Himalayas and the
To promote and strengthen collective self- Indian Ocean, thus they are termed as natural
reliance among the countries of SOUTH ASIA; allies.
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All the member countries have several w The members agreed towards
convergences in terms of culture and a common operationalizing SAARC Terrorist Offences
history. This makes the grouping more important, Monitoring Desk (STOMD) and SAARC
and also provides for many opportunities of Drugs Offences Monitoring Desk (SDOMD)-
cooperation. in order to strengthen the combat efforts
All the countries share common problems like against terrorism.
poverty, unemployment, ethnic and religious Mahashangarh, a 3rd century BC site in
diversities etc., and a common regional platform Bangladesh was declared the SAARC cultural
can help tackle these issues with far more vigor. capital for 2016-17. As the cultural capital, the
All the countries share borders with India, and historic place will host festivals on films, food,
a common market can easily be created among literature and dances for a year.
the members, which could give a boost to intra-
BBIN Motor Vehicle Agreement: BBIN consists of
region trade and lead to economic development.
Bangladesh, Bhutan, India and Nepal. The sub-
SAARC can develop on the lines of ASEAN, which
grouping aims to promote safe, environmentally
is one of the most successful regional grouping.
sound and economically efficient road transport
Developments: in the sub-region.

SAFTA: South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA) w Except Bhutan, the other 3 countries have
was launched in 2006. signed the agreement.
w It was envisaged as a first step towards w SAARC Motor Vehicle Agreement (MVA) was
a Customs Union, Common market and not signed during the 18th SAARC Summit
Economic Union. due to reservations from Pakistan. But the
w As per the agreement, SAARC members SAARC Declaration of the 18th summit
brought their duties down to 20% by 2009. encouraged member states to initiate sub-
SAARC exports increased from $ 206.7 regional measures to enhance connectivity,
billion in 2009 to $ 354.6 billion in 2012. and thus the BBIN MVA was pursued among
SAARC Satellite: India launched the SAARC these 4 SAARC members.
satellite, for use by SAARC members. It is a Disaster Mitigation:
navigation satellite, and the total cost of launching w SAADMEx (South Asian Annual Disaster
the satellite was met by the Indian Government. Management Exercise): It is a simulation
w Beneficiaries of the satellite will be: Nepal, exercise on disaster management in the
Bhutan, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka SAARC region, which is being led by
and Maldives (all SAARC members except India.
Pakistan). w It aimed at augmenting current levels of
w The satellite has a mission life of 12 years. preparedness (individual as well as joint)
w PM Modi hailed the satellite as an invaluable of member countries in rescue, relief and
gift from India to South Asia, and that it would response operation during disasters.
help address South Asia's economic and
developmental priorities. Analysis:
w The launch of the satellite has been hailed In more than 30 years of its formation, as
as a great step in making SAARC grouping compared to other regional organizations like
functional again. EU and ASEAN, SAARC is far behind. Multiple
2nd SAARC Anti-Terrorism Mechanism was factors have led to this state, and SAARC is
held in New Delhi in 2016: largely seen as a non-functional body.
w Delegates from all 8 members participated It has not yet delivered on its promises. Though
in the conference. SAFTA was signed, it has had limited impact
w The discussion involved key issues of on intra-region trade and has not been able to
terrorism and measures needed to strengthen achieve its potential.
SAARC anti-terrorism mechanism.
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Failure of SAARC can be clearly highlighted countries which are rich in natural resources
by the fact that in spite of being more than 30 and finance. SAARC's massive population and
years old, the grouping has failed to come up educated population could complement the
with transport linkages among its members. This needs of both the areas (East and West).
should be treated as a priority, as it could give India should address the genuine concerns of
immense boost to trade in the region. the member countries, as it is the leading and
The reasons for SAARC being retarded are: largest country of the region. It should try to
w Fear psychosis among SAARC members address the power differentials and gain trust of
viz-a-viz India's achievements in many other member countries.
spheres (military strength, economic growth, SAARC Charter should be amended, and the
technology, nuclear strength etc.). Pakistan, clause of bilateral and conflictual issue not being
Sri Lanka etc. feel dwarfed by the Indo- discussed on the forum should be removed. An
centricity of the region. effective dispute resolution mechanism could
w The success of SAARC has remained a help shrink areas of conflict and expand areas of
prisoner of Indo-Pakistan rivalry. trust and cooperation.
Member countries should change their security
w The security and political deviations among
perceptions, and aim to tackle the common
member countries over-shadows the
issues they face like: poverty, unemployment,
prospects of economic and socio-cultural
economic slowdown, decreasing sec ratio,
convergences. Conflicting issues among the
corruption, environmental threats etc.
members operate as a stumbling bloc in the
If SAARC members make sincere efforts to make
way of their cooperation.
the grouping a strong dispute settlement forum, it
w Failure of civil society organization, which is
can help make SAARC a very successful regional
present in the region, to act as a link between
organization. SAARC countries should come out
the member states has also led to slow
of the 'state-centric model' and move towards
growth and cooperation among the member
regional mindset to bring about development of
the entire region.
Inter-regional trade among SAARC members is
very as compared to ASEAN. The reasons for this ASEAN
Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN)
w Most South Asian countries are primary
was established on 8th August, 1967 in Bangkok,
producers, therefore they tend to export similar
Thailand. The Founding Fathers of ASEAN
items and thus compete with each other.
(Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and
w South Asian countries (except Sri Lanka) have
Thailand) signed the ASEAN Declaration (or Bangkok
high rate of tariff and non-tariff barriers, which
Declaration) to establish it. (2017 marks the 50th
constraints expansion of intra-regional trade.
anniversary of ASEAN).
w The region lacks transport and information
The grouping was formed to accelerate economic
linage among the members, which poses a
growth, cultural development, social progress, and
serious problem for expansion of trade in the
promote peace and security in the South East Asian
w There are political differences and a lack of
willingness to create trade complementarities Membership:
among the leaders of the member countries, It has 10 members presently.
which is contributing to low level of intra-
Members are: Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia,
regional trade.
Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore,
Way forward: Thailand and Vietnam
Observers: Papua New Guinea, East Timor
A functional SAARC can act as a bridge between
Permanent Secretariat is present in Jakarta, Indonesia
East Asia which is rich in human resources and
technology; and the West and Central Asian ASEAN is an official United Nations Observer.
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Summits: Non-interference in internal affairs of other

ASEAN Summits are held by the 10 member countries
South East Asian countries annually. Settlement of differences or disputes by peaceful
28th and 29th Summit was held in September manner
2016 in Laos. Renunciation of threat or use of force
30th Summit was held in April 2017 in Philippines Right of every state to leads it national existence
31st Summit will be held in November 2017 in from external interference or coercion
Philippines. Effective cooperation among the members
Aims and Purposes: Decisions are taken through consultation and
As per the ASEAN Declaration, the aims and consensus.
purposes of ASEAN are:
Importance of ASEAN:
To accelerate the economic growth, social
progress and cultural development in the The region has a population of approximately
region through joint endeavors in the spirit of 625 million people, covering an area of 1.7 million
equality and partnership in order to strengthen square miles (3% of the land area of the Earth),
the foundation for a prosperous and peaceful and having a combined GDP of $ 2.8 trillion. If
community of Southeast Asian Nations; ASEAN would have been a single entity, it would
Promoting regional peace and stability through have ranked as the 6th largest economy in the
abiding respect for justice and the rule of law in world.
the relationship among countries of the region The grouping promotes pan-Asianism,
and adherence to the principles of the United intergovernmental cooperation and it facilitates
Nations Charter; political, economic, military and cultural
Promoting active collaboration and mutual integration among its members and Asian
assistance on matters of common interest in the countries.
economic, social, cultural, technical, scientific Though the individual member countries of
and administrative fields; ASEAN are small, collectively they have become
Providing assistance to each other in the form of highly successful. The collectivity is seen as a
training and research facilities in the educational, string force in Asia and at the international level.
professional, technical and administrative spheres; ASEAN is an important part of Indian diplomacy,
Collaborating more effectively for the greater USA diplomacy as well as Chinese diplomacy.
utilization of their agriculture and industries, the The formation of East Asia Summit (EAS) is an
expansion of their trade, including the study of example of the importance of ASEAN for the
the problems of international commodity trade, other countries.
the improvement of their transportation and
communications facilities and the raising of the
living standards of their peoples; ASEAN Charter was adopted in 2007, which
provided the grouping with legal status. The
Promoting Southeast Asian studies; and
charter sets a blueprint for a community built on
Maintaining close and beneficial cooperation with
3 branches:
existing international and regional organizations
w ASEAN Economic Community
with similar aims and purposes, and explore all
avenues for even closer cooperation among w ASEAN Political-Security Community
themselves. w ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community
The grouping is based on the following Regional Security: ASEAN faces security
fundamental principles: challenges like border disputes, natural and
Mutual respect for independence, equality, manmade disasters, food security, human
territorial integrity, sovereignty and national trafficking, cross-border terrorism and
identify of all nations insurgencies. Regional security issues are dealt
through the following ASEAN led forums:
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w ASEAN Plus Three: ASEAN, China, Japan w Many experts have argued that the
and South Korea are its members. emphasis on consensus, not losing face,
w East Asia Summit (EAS): Its members are and voluntarism has meant that the politics of
ASEAN, Australia, China, India, Japan, New the lowest common denominator has tended
Zealand, Russia, South Korea, and USA. It to prevail, and difficult problems have been
seeks to promote security and prosperity in avoided rather than confronted.
the region. w Maritime disputes in South China Sea are
w ASEAN Regional Forum: It is a 27 member seen as the biggest irritant among the
multilateral grouping, which was formed member countries.
to facilitate cooperation on political and w ASEAN members have been divided by their
security issues, and for regional confidence ties with USA and China. The region lacks
building, and preventive diplomacy. investment, which is needed for infrastructure
development. China has moved to fill this
Analysis: void, but many members are anxious of
The end of Cold war in 1991 allowed ASEAN to becoming over-reliant and dependent on
exercise greater political independence in the China, and they are looking towards the USA
region, and it has emerged as a leading voice on for support. This rift between countries is
regional trade and security issues. also a very big issue.
w ASEAN adopted a declaration to resolve w ASEAN countries have varying economic,
disputes in the South China Sea, it promoted political and social systems. Such diversity
dialogue on regional security aspects by means that full agreement on an issue is very
establishing the ASEAN Regional Forum. difficult.
ASEAN Free Trade Area was created in 1992 by w ASEAN has failed to confront human rights
its members to reduce intra-regional tariffs and issues like that of repression in Cambodia, or
ease restrictions on foreign investment. the Rohingya refugee crisis.
ASEAN Economic Community's 4 pillars are:
Way forward:
creation of a single market with free flow of
goods, services, labour and investment; fair In the economic sphere, ASEAN is doing great
economic competition; sustainable economic and is seen as an example by other groupings
development; and integration of ASEAN into the including SAARC.
global economy. But several experts argue that ASEAN should
Economic cooperation has been highly successful relook its decision making process, and remove
for the region. As per Asian Development Bank, the condition of unanimity in decisions, which is
the bloc's economy is expected to grow by 5.3%. difficult to come about due to the huge diversities
among the countries.
USA sees ASEAN as being vital to the success of
its strategic rebalance to Asia. Its Secretariat should be strengthened, and it
should be empowered to take decisions.
ASEAN has contributed significantly towards
regional stability by building norms and fostering
a neutral environment to address shared Shanghai Cooperation
challenges. The Treaty of Amity and Cooperation Organization (SCO):
signed among its members to promote peace,
friendship and cooperation to build solidarity Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) is
is a proof of their commitment to peace and a permanent intergovernmental international
prosperity in the region. organisation, the creation ofwhich was announced
on15 June 2001 inShanghai (China).
Issues and Challenges:
w Biggest challenge the bloc faces is The founding members were China, Kazakhstan,
negotiating a unified approach to China, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.
especially in response to the widespread Except for Uzbekistan, all other countries were
maritime claims of China in the South China members of Shanghai Five group, which was
Sea. founded in 1996.
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The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Charter Main areas of cooperation:

was signed duringthe St. Petersburg SCO Heads Political and diplomatic cooperation
ofState meeting inJune 2002, and entered intoforce
Trade and economic cooperation
on19 September 2003. This is the fundamental
Cultural and humanitarian cooperation
statutory document which outlines the organizations
goals and principles, aswell asits structure and Cooperation on security: SCO is centered on its
core activities. member nation's Central Asian countries security
related concerns. The problems they face are
New members: India and Pakistan joined the SCO that of terrorism, separatism and extremism.
as full members on 9th June, 2017 during the Astana
w SCO signed the Collective Security Treaty
Summit held in Kazakhstan.
Organization (CSTO) in 2007 to broaden
the cooperation on issues such as security,
crime and drug trafficking.
SCO comprises 8 member states: India, China,
Military activities: The organization's activities
Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan,
are expanding towards increased military
Uzbekistan and Pakistan.
cooperation, intelligence sharing and counter
4 Observer states: Afghanistan, Belarus, Iran, terrorism. Member countries are also taking up
Mongolia joint military exercises.
6 dialogue partners: Azerbaijan, Armenia,
Cambodia, Nepal, Turkey and Sri Lanka. Relations of SCO with the West:
Many people are of the belief that the original
purpose of SCO was to serve as a counterbalance
2016: Tashkent, Uzbekistan of NATO, and also to avoid conflicts that would
2017: Astana, Kazakhstan give an opportunity to the USA to intervene in areas
Theme: Future Energy bordering Russia and China.

Purpose and structure: Recent developments:

SCO's main goals are: India and Pakistan were admitted as full
Strengthening mutual trust and neighborliness members in 2017 during the Astana summit. With
amongthe member states; the expansion of the grouping, the SCO will now
Promoting their effective cooperation inpolitics, represent over 40% of humanity and nearly 20%
trade, the economy, research, technology and of the global GDP.
culture, aswell asin education, energy, transport, w With the expansion, SCO has become the
tourism, environmental protection, and other world's most populous and largest regional
areas; cooperative organization, which will bring
Making joint efforts tomaintain and ensure unprecedented development capacity and
peace, security and stability inthe region; and cooperation potential.
Moving towardsthe establishment ofa SCO focused its attention in combating
democratic, fair and rational new international terrorism in Central Asia and especially at
political and economic order the borders of Xinjiang, Chinas Uygur Muslim
province where Beijing is battling against
SCO pursues its internal policy based onthe
separatist East Turkistan Islamic Movement
principles ofmutual trust, mutual benefit, equality,
mutual consultations, respect forcultural diversity,
In Astana, SCO leaders signed a convention on
and a desire forcommon development, while its
combating extremism and a declaration on joint
external policy is conducted inaccordance withthe
fight against international terrorism.
principles ofnon-alignment, non-targeting any third
China will assume the rotating presidency of the
country, and openness.
SCO after the Astana summit and will host the
Heads of the State Council is the supreme decision organizations next annual gathering in 2018.
making body in SCO.
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Benefits for India joining SCO: Way forward:

India, one of the largest energy consuming The combined population of China and India
countries in the world, is also likely to get greater makes it an international grouping covering
access to major gas and oil exploration projects largest populations.
in Central Asia as many of the SCO countries SCO is the only platform where India, China and
have huge reserves of oil and natural gas. Pakistan come together, hence the grouping
With India as its member, SCO can play a major can be used to improve the bilateral relations
role in addressing the threat of terrorism in the between these countries.
region. SCO can play a key role in stabilizing Afghanistan,
India is keen on deepening its security-related which is country of interest to almost all its
cooperation with the SCO and its Regional Anti- members.
Terrorism Structure (RATS) which specifically SCO should cooperate with United Nations and
deals with issues relating to security and defence. other international organizations to tackle issues
of security and drug trafficking from Afghanistan
Analysis: and surrounding areas.
SCO is being seen as an organization which In the face of rise of protectionism and regional
can bring about change in the world order and security, SCO should adhere to and support
international organizations due to its membership trade liberalization, and facilitate and promote
which includes of India, China and Russia. the process of economic integration.
All members of SCO are facing terrorism; hence SCO should promote security cooperation to
such a grouping can play a very great role in combat the "three forces" of terrorism, separatism
combating terrorism. The recent convention on and extremism in a more precise and efficient
combating extremism, and the declaration on manner, so as to safeguard the sovereignty and
joint fighting against international terrorism are homeland security of all members and maintain
proofs that SCO is heading towards the right and the regional peace and stability.
much needed direction. The SCO has the potential to play a strategically
Some issues that the grouping is facing are: important role in Asia given its geographical
w Lack of an economic agenda has limited the significance.
scope of Shanghai Cooperation Organization The economic relations between the countries
(SCO). need to be strengthened so that one of the
w SCO has not been able to develop a primary objectives of forming the grouping is
constructive economic agenda: attained.
s Energy cooperation (one of the key
goals of SCO) has remained dormant. BIMSTEC
Most energy cooperation between SCO
Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical
members is happening bilaterally.
and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) is a regional
s China had proposed a SCO Development organization which comprises of 7 member states
Bank in 2010, which remains a non- which are in the littoral and adjacent areas of Bay
starter till now. of Bengal, thus constituting a contiguous regional
w One of the key reasons behind the SCOs unity.
stunted growth in regional economic
Formation: Formed in 1997 through the Bangkok
and strategic matters is the complicated
Declaration. It was initially formed with 4 member
dynamics between China and Russia. states (Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka and Thailand).
Neither has been willing to concede each Myanmar became a member in 1997, followed by
other greater turf. Indias entry in the forum Nepal and Bhutan in 2004. BIMSTEC is celebrating
at this point in time would be visualized as a 20 years of its formation in 2017.
balancing factor for both.
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Membership: It is a sector driven cooperative organization,

South Asian countries: Bangladesh, Bhutan, with 14 sectors identified for cooperation. Some
India, Nepal and Sri Lanka of these sectors are: energy, transport, tourism,
counter-terrorism, environment, culture, people
2 South east countries: Myanmar and Thailand
to people contact, climate change, agriculture,
Headquarters: Dhaka, Bangladesh
poverty alleviation etc.
Summits: Founding principles of BIMSTEC are:
w Cooperation within BIMSTEC will be based on
1st Summit was held in 2004 in Bangkok, Thailand
respect for the principle of sovereign equality,
2nd Summit was held in 2008 in New Delhi, India
territorial integrity, and political independence,
3rd Summit was held in 2014 in Myanmar
no-interference in internal affairs, peaceful co-
4th Summit will be held in 2017 in Nepal existence and mutual benefit.
w Cooperation within BIMSTEC will constitute
an addition to and not be a substitute for
As per the BIMSTEC Declaration, its objectives are: bilateral, regional or multilateral cooperation
To create an enabling environment for rapid involving the Member States.
economic development through identification
and implementation of specific cooperation Importance of BIMSTEC:
projects in the sectors of trade, investment BIMSTEC countries are home to around 1.5 billion
and industry, technology, human recourse people, constituting 22% of global population,
development, tourism, agriculture, energy, and and represent a combined GDP of 2.7 trillion $.
infrastructure and transportation.
The region constitutes a bridge between
To accelerate the economic growth and South and South East Asia, and represents a
social progress in the sub-region through joint reinforcement of relations among these countries.
endeavors in a spirit of equality and partnership.
BIMSTEC has established a platform for intra-
To promote active collaboration and mutual regional cooperation between SAARC and
assistance on matters of common interest in the ASEAN members.
economic, social, technical and scientific fields.
Importance of BIMSTEC for India:
To provide assistance to each other in the form of
w India is the biggest member of BIMSTEC;
training and research facilities in the educational,
therefore India has to make BIMSTEC effective
professional and technical spheres.
to show leadership at the international level.
To cooperate more effectively in joint efforts that
w With SAARC being rendered virtually
are supportive of and complementary to national
ineffective as a bloc, largely due to non-
development plans of Member States which
cooperation from Pakistan in many areas,
result in tangible benefits to the people in raising
India is giving more importance to BIMSTEC
their living standards, including generating
in recent times.
employment and improving transportation and
w BIMSTEC is an opportunity for India to engage
communication infrastructure.
with Southeast Asian countries.
To maintain close and beneficial cooperation with
w It provides India with scope for:
existing international and regional organizations
with similar aims and purposes. s Direct connectivity with Southeast Asia
via North East India, and Myanmar
To cooperate in projects that can be dealt with
most productively on a sub-regional basis and s Potential access to alternative energy
make best use of available synergies among resources in Myanmar
BIMSTEC member countries. s Economic opportunities which are
It was formed to harness shared and accelerated available in ASEAN region
growth through mutual cooperation in different s The PM recently described BIMSTEC
areas of common interests by mitigating the as a natural platform to fulfill India's key
onslaught of globalization and by utilizing regional foreign policy priorities of 'Neighborhood
resources and geographical advantages. First' and 'Act East'.
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Connectivity projects are of importance: among its member states. This can be seen by
w Kaladan Multimodal Projects: It seeks to link the fact that so far only 4 summits have been held;
India and Myanmar, by connecting Kolkata to and it took 17 years for BIMSTEC to establish its
Sittwe port in Myanmar, and then to Mizoram permanent secretariat in Dhaka in 2014.
by river and road. Country specific criticisms are:
w Asian Trilateral Highway: It seeks to connect w Thailand and Myanmar are criticized for
India and Thailand via Myanmar. The highway ignoring BIMSTEC in favour of ASEAN.
will run from Moreh (Manipur) to Mae Sot w India (largest member in the grouping) has
(Thailand), and represents a significant step been criticized for not providing a strong
towards establishing connectivity between leadership to the grouping.
Indian and South East Asian countries. Key institutional factors which held back BIMSTEC
w BBIN (Bangladesh, Bhutan, India and were absence of a permanent secretariat for a
Nepal): The 4 countries have signed a pact long time, and lack of commitment to invest in
for movement of goods and vehicles among several priority areas.
them (Bhutan Parliament has refused to
sign it citing environmental reasons; other 3 Way forward:
members have signed it). The renewed interest among the members should
be harnessed by India by providing the grouping
Developments: a strong leadership, and taking initiatives.
BRICS-BIMSTEC Outreach summit was held The ongoing projects should be implemented
at Goa in October 2016. This highlights the efficiently, and new projects should be initiated.
importance of BIMSTEC for India. For BIMSTEC to become an enabler of regional
India has announced that it is seeking to expand cooperation, it would have to evolve as an
UDAN (Ude Desh ka Aam Nagrik) scheme to organisation that works through a bottom-up
BIMSTEC countries. rather than a top-down approach.
The grouping has identified 14 priority sectors, People centric approach might work for BIMSTEC
and has signed a Free Trade Agreement (in 2004), as it seriously lags behind ASEAN and other
and a Convention on Cooperation in Combating regional organizations in terms of people-to-
people contacts.
International Terrorism, Transnational Organized
Crime and Illicit Drug Trafficking (in 2009). The organization needs to focus on fewer priority
areas for purpose of better implementation.
India has signaled its renewed interest in the
Projects which are economically feasible and
grouping. It is already the lead country for 4 priority
result-driven should be taken up at this point.
sectors: transportation and communication,
This would make BIMSTEC more credible, and
environment and disaster management, tourism,
boos the enthusiasm of its members.
counter-terrorism and trans-national crimes.
BIMSTEC region is notable for its diversity, so
BIMSTEC is trying to sign a Convention on Mutual
its member states should build on the regional
Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters.
synergies, and work towards utilizing the
Goa declaration stated that BIMSTEC needs to available resources in the most optimal manner.
have a Coastal Shipping Agreement to allow
member states to trade feely within the sub- BRICS
Indian Cabinet has approved a proposal for The acronym BRIC was formulated by Jim O'Neill
signing a MoU with BIMSTEC member states for of Goldman Sachs in 2001, in a report on growth
establishing BIMSTEC grid inter-connections. prospects of Brazil Russia, India and China, which
together represent a significant share of the world's
Issues/Challenges: population and GDP. As per the report, these
Despite its huge potential in terms of enhancing countries would be amongst the world's largest
regional cooperation, BIMSTEC has long suffered economies in the next 50 years. BRIC converted to
from lack of resources and proper coordination BRICS with the addition of South Africa in 2010.
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All the 5 members of BRICS are leading developing BRICS is a South-South framework for
or newly industrialized countries, but they have cooperation.
distinct features like large, fast-growing economies It aims to act as a bridge between developed
having significant influence on regional affairs, and and developing countries. Example, in WTO,
all the 5 are member of G-20. BRICS countries are trying to promote a fair order
regarding the agricultural policies.
Membership: BRICS can play an increasingly important role
Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa in assisting developing countries in gaining
an advantage in trade and climate change
Summit: negotiations at the global level.
1st Summit: Russia, 2009 Creation of New Development Bank and
2nd Summit: Brazil, 2010 Contingency Reserve can increase the
3rd Summit: China, 2011 bargaining power of developing countries.
4th Summit: India, 2012 (New Delhi Summit: All these countries have a shared interest in
Proposal to create a joint BRICS Development challenging the current governance of Western
Bank was introduced) financial institutions like IMF and World Bank.
5th Summit: South Africa, 2013
6th Summit: Brazil, 2014 (Fortaleza Summit: This Principles:
summit led to creation of the New Development BRICS works on the following principles:
Bank or BRICS Bank) Full respect for the sovereignty of the member
7th Summit: Russia, 2015 states
8th Summit: India, 2016 Commitment to international law and recognition
of the central role of UN on peace, security and
The grouping was formed for mutual interest in the Bilateral relations among these countries have
economic sphere, but the agenda of BRICS has been conducted on the principles of non-
widened over the years to encompass topical global interference, equality and mutual benefit.
issues too.
Openness, sharing of information and consensus
The objectives of BRICS are: in decision making
It aims to enhance market access opportunities Recognizing the multipolar nature of global
and facilitate market inter-linkages economic and financial system
It aims to promote mutual trade and investment,
and create a business-friendly environment for Importance:
investors and entrepreneurs in all BRICS countries. The 5 countries combined represents 43% of
They aim to strengthen macro-economic policy global population, their combined GDP is 30% of
coordination, and build resilience to external global GDP, and they have a 17% share in world
economic shocks trade.
They strive for inclusive economic growth in BRICS represents Asia, Europe, Africa and Latin
order to eradicate poverty, and address issues America which gives their cooperation a trans-
of unemployment and promote social inclusion continental dimension which makes it more
Overall, the platform aims to promote peace, valuable and significant.
prosperity, security and development in a BRICS economies have been regarded as
multipolar, interconnected and globalized world. the engines of the global economic recovery,
With respect to the world, the objectives of BRICS which underscores the changing roles of these
are: countries in the contemporary world scenario.
BRICS countries act as a group to promote a In the aftermath of the recent financial crisis,
more legitimate international system, including BRICS countries were influential in shaping the
advocacy for reform of the UN Security Council. macro-economic policies in the G-20 meetings.
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In the present multipolar world, BRICS countries BRICS Bank

are helping the cause of developing countries Structure
and are key stakeholders in global decision
New Development Bank will have an initial
making involving developing countries.
subscribed capital of $50 billion which will be
With negotiations in WTO and climate change raised to $100 billion.
becoming important, the coming together
The five members will have an equal share for
of BRICS as a grouping has become more
each in the bank, so no one member dominates
the institution.
Developments: Headquarters Shanghai
Bank will have African Regional Center in South
BRICS bank or New Development Bank (NDB)
has been set up.
India has assumed the first presidency of the
BRICS agrees to set up credit rating agency: to
set up an independent rating agency based on
market oriented principles. This would further Chairman of Board of governance will be Russian
strengthen the global governance architecture. The emergency reserve fund - which was
There is proposal for establishing a BRICS announced as a "Contingency Reserve
Agriculture Research Platform, BRICS Railway Arrangement" will also have $100bn and will help
Research Network, BRICS Sports Council, and developing nations avoid short-term liquidity
various youth-centric fora; and also to fast track pressures.
the setting up of a BRICS Rating Agency based It will have $41 billion from China, $5 billion from
on market-oriented principles to further bridge South Africa and $ 18 billion from remaining
the gap in the global financial architecture. nations.
BRICS Business Council was established to Need of a BRICS bank
represent many industries and economic sectors Global financial institutions like IMF and world
of these 5 countries. bank are dominated by U.S and western
BRICS perceives power concentration in hands countries
of Bretton Woods institutions as unfair and seeks IMF and world bank follows different voting
to promote alternative models of development. power based on quota system. Though China is
They have targeted governance of IMF in every second largest economy after U.S it has fewer
summit since 2009, including Goa. They have voting rights.
asked for a new quota formula that would ensure The financial institution created by BRICS
that the increased voice of the dynamic emerging will reduce the importance of US dollar as a
and developing economies reflects their relative global currency and eventually it will increase
contributions to the world economy. importance of Yuan
BRICS agreed to intensify cooperation against IMF cash assistance program is conditional. If a
terror groups like IS in West Asia and North Africa country's foreign policy clashes with US then it
region (WANA). will be difficult to obtain a loan.
BRICS Think Tanks Council (BTTC) in 2013 was It will provide resources for infrastructure
an important milestone in the institutionalization development of developing countries.
South Africa to host BRICS office: South Africa is Analysis:
set to reinforce its position as a regional economic BRICS has been seen as a very important force
hub as it prepares to open a regional office that in the present multi-polar globalized world.
would channel funding drawn from the New They have been able to put pressure on IMF
Development Bank (NDB) of the Brazil-Russia- to bring about reforms in quota, and they are
China-India-South Africa (BRICS) grouping. The trying successfully to reform other global level
office to look at funding for South Africa and the institutions and make them more relevant as per
nearby region. the contemporary world.
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The establishment of BRICS Bank is a step in w BRICS is a loose grouping of countries

the right direction, and has created pressure that share interests in particular areas
on the global architecture to accommodate the but that play by different rules. It is not a
developing countries further. formal international alliance. This has led
But many Western commentators have already to speculation of BRICS not being very
declared its failure to sustain itself due to its effective.
inability to institutionalize and therefore implement w Security issues: They maintain a low profile
a programmatic agenda. Without commitment on security issues. BRICS will never attempt
towards institutions, multilateral forums have a to make the group into a traditional security
very slim chance of success. framework.
Overall, BRICS has been performing well, w The BRICS have little in common. The
but it has far more potential than what it has Chinese economy is 28 times the size of
accomplished till now. South Africas. Income per person in India is
There are multiple issues surrounding BRICS one-tenth that in Russia.
countries which have limited their ability to w Types of government: Brazil, India, South
perform as per expectations. They are discussed Africa are democratic countries while Russia,
below: China are authoritarian regimes
Issues: w Russia, Brazil and South Africa export
w China related issues: different commodities, while China exports
s The dominance of China in BRICS is manufactured goods and India exports
a major issue for others. The Chinese services.
economy is now not only the second w In the case of BRICS, the weakening of the
largest in the world but also larger than so-called strategic triangle between Russia,
the economies of all the BRICS together. China and India does affect its image.
s China's political aspirations are creating s Diminishing economic fortunes of
challenges that have made it difficult for Russia, Brazil and South Africa, of late,
it to make consensus. have also dented its image as a flag-
s Manipulation of its currency by China bearer of newly emerging economies.
has resulted in significant problems s Still, the idea of BRICS remains valid
for the manufacturing sectors of other though it will require hard work and skilful
emerging powers. Central banks of other diplomacy to reproduce the previous
countries have registered protest against plan, and avert a pincer move against
undervalued Yuan India by Russia and China as they move
s Chinas not so peaceful rise, alongside closer strategically and economically.
its growing economic and military muscle,
its growing strategic congruence with
Way forward:
Russia, and a further tightening of its As the BRICS grouping continues its institution-
links with Pakistan pose a pre-eminent building mission, it is important to remember
challenge for India in the competition that equity, redress and fairness should become
of influence in the region and beyond. cross-cutting ideals informing all initiatives.
It may have other graver implications as It is very likely that unless China is effectively
well. checked, BRICS (like the Shanghai Cooperation
s The One Belt, One Road initiative and Organization) will become another vehicle to
the new Maritime Silk Route/Road also advance Beijings global agenda. Against the
have the potential to bottle up India and backdrop of these developments, Indias instinct
Indian initiatives in Asia. might be to declare BRICS irrelevant and opt out
w Due to diverging interests, there is doubt (as it is doing with SAARC and the Non-Aligned
if BRICS can emerge as a unified political Movement). However, this is unlikely to serve
force. Indias long-term interests.
International Relations 53
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Opting out of existing groupings will simply

w Germany and Japan) aspirants to the UN Security
allow China a free hand (even in those Council.
organizations where it is not a member but w The group has solely focused on UNSC
has loyal proxies). Instead, it might be better till now, might be time for them to enlarge
for India to remain engaged and to counter agenda to other avenues.
China where possible. BRICS countries should now begin to work
Clearly, there is a need to revive the forgotten together on establishing Free Trade Area (FTA).
India, Brazil, South Africa group (IBSA)-perhaps BRICS, like ASEAN and SCO, can invite 'dialogue
enlarge it to include Turkey, Indonesia, South partners and observers' from various parts of the
Korea and the like to develop alternatives to globe, especially the developing countries. This
China-centric groupings. would provide them with greater responsibility of
Similarly, India also needs to invest more in the developing countries, and might give them
building groups that bridge the north-south with a much needed enthusiasm to fast track
divide. One such group is the G4 (Brazil, India, processes and institutionalization.


Full form Trans-Pacific Partnership Transatlantic Trade and Regional Comprehensive
Investment Partnership Economic Partnership

What is it TPP is an agreement among Proposed trade Proposed free trade

the Pacific ocean countries agreement between agreement between ASEAN
to deepen economic ties European Union and USA and 6 other countries.
among them.

Members 12 countries: All 28 countries of EU and 10 ASEAN countries (Brunei,

USA USA. Cambodia, Indonesia,
Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar,
Philippines, Singapore,
Australia Thailand, Vietnam) and
Peru 6 countries with which ASEAN
Malaysia has free trade agreements:
Vietnam Australia
New Zealand China
Chile India
Singapore Japan
Canada South Korea
Mexico New Zealand
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Aim Pact aims to deepen To promote trade It is viewed as an alternative
economic ties between and multilateral to TPP, and aims to promote
its member countries, economic growth in trade and economic growth
slash tariffs and foster the Trans-Atlantic for the member countries.
trade to boost growth. It countries. It is one of
may also lead to a closer the largest bilateral
relationship on economic trade agreements ever
policies and regulations. negotiated.
It could lead to creation It would liberalize one-
of a single market, like third of global trade,
the EU. and create millions of
It also aims to balance new jobs.
the trade dominance of
China and India in East

Intended It removes tariffs on As per the European It could boost the trade
benefits goods and services, sets Commission, TTIP could among the member countries,
reciprocal trade quotas, boost EU's economy by and lead to increased intra-
and removes non-tariff 120 billion Euros; it could region trade and investment.
barriers to trade. boost the US economy by
It is expected to increase 90 billion Euros and rest
exports by $ 300 billion of the world's economy by
per year by 2025. 100 billion Euros.

It has the potential to

create a huge number of

Issues Agreement regarding It has been criticized Criticized for forcing India
patents will reduce the for reducing regulatory to end its cheap supply of
availability of cheap barriers to trade for generic medications.
generics, which could businesses, which The negotiations include
have an impact on the include food safety countries which have
developing countries and laws, environment divergent interests, which
poor people. legislations etc. which is delaying the negotiation
It has been argued that can have a negative process.
Free trade agreements impact.
contribute to income It has been criticized
inequality. for being closed
It sets very stringent door discussions,
intellectual property thus making it
rights, and labour laws. undemocratic.

Present USA has withdrawn from It is being negotiated. It is being negotiated.

status the agreement; hence it has
not come into force as of
now, and might die out due
to USA withdrawal.
International Relations 55
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Impact on TPP was expected to have USA and EU account RCEP is expected to give a
India a negative impact for India for 29.6% of India's boost to Indian exports, but it
in the short term, and could exports, therefore TTIP could also lead to an increase
have led to reduction of would have a negative in dumping from China due to
exports from India to the impact on India's exports. lower tariffs.
members of TPP. Indian exporters will India is against any clause
Also, the agreement has be disadvantaged which may impact the generic
very stringent intellectual should the TTIP facilitate drug industry present in
property right rules, which the emergence of an India, and this is a point of
will impact India's trade integrated, and arguably contention till now.
with the member countries more inward-looking,
significantly. trans-Atlantic market.

United Nations Convention on exploration rights and research rights on a given

ocean area.
the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)
Why it was in news? India became a member of the UNCLOS in 1982.
United Nations Convention on the Law of the India was among the first nations to sign the
Sea (UNCLOS), also called the Law of the Sea UNCLOS.
Convention had nullified Chinese claims on India has always respected the decisions by
practically the whole of South China Sea and the UNCLOS in terms of all maritime disputes.
their right to Spartly islands. India respected the decision of UNCLOS on the
India to lose permanent membership at maritime dispute with Bangladesh.
Commission on Legal Continental Shelf part of In the recent South China Sea dispute India
UNCLOS due to failure to apply on time for the has urged China to respect the decision of the
elections. Permanent Court of Arbitration as the decision is
based on UNCLOS.
United Nations Convention on the Law of the United Nations Commission
Sea (UNCLOS) or Law of the Sea Convention
defines the right of the countries with regards
on International Trade Law
to the water bodies surrounding them and the (UNCITRAL)
distribution of marine resources among the
India hosted the 50th anniversary celebrations for
nations of the world.
UNCITRAL at New Delhi.
It acts as guideline in case of any marine disputes
and international institutions like Permanent Court Introduction
for Arbitration uses it to pronounce its judgments.
United Nations Commission on International
It became effective in 1994 and has 160 Trade Law or UNCITRAL was established in
signatories to it. 1966 by the United Nations General Assembly
The purpose of the convention was to settle the (UNGA) to promote and harmonize international
disputes arising due to the territorial claims on trade by developing an international trade
water bodies by nations. mechanism.
It sets the territorial limits, navigational limits, In international trade it is UN`s core legal body. It
transit regimes, Exclusive economic zones, specializes in commercial law.
continental shelf , sea bed mining and deep sea
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The term of membership is of 6 years and it has United Nations Human Rights
a total of 60 members. The member distribution
is 14 from Asia, 14 from Africa, 10 Latin American
and Caribbean, 8 Eastern European and 14
western European and other states.
Why it was in news?
Its prime objective is to reform, modernize and During the universal periodic review (UPR) at the UN
develop a consort for the international trade and Human Rights Council (UNHRC), the peer-based
business. By this UNICTRAL wants to achieve scrutiny of a nations human rights situations in a
faster growth, higher living standards, and new nation, New Delhi again came under fire for growing
case human rights cases in India. It has also urged
opportunities through commerce.
India to change the recent amendments to FCRA
UNICTRAL has tried to achieve this objective by
which has let to crackdown on foreign funding of
making new, relevant, equitable and harmonized
rules on business and trade transactions.
w UNICTRAL has tries to achieve its objective Introduction
by: United Nations Human Rights Counci (UNHRC)
w Universally acceptable conventions, model is an intergovernmental body that deals with
laws and rules. the promotion and the protection of Human
w It provide support in law making and has also rights based in the universal human ideals of
made model Legal and legislative guides dignity.
and recommendations for the same It is a United Nations System.
w Database is maintained by UNICTRAL for It has 47 members that are elected for 3 year
uniform commercial law and is periodically terms.
updated. UNHRC helps the nation to educate, promote
w Case laws are also updated and maintained and uphold human rights.
under CLOUT (Case Law on UNCITRAL UNHRC has four major divisions
Texts). w Research and Right to Development Division
w Knowledge sharing sessions for spreading (RRDD)which is responsible for the research
awareness about uniform commercial law are and development of the policy for the guiding
conducted at both regional and international various stakeholders and world for better
level in form of seminars human rights
w The Human Rights Treaties Division
UNCITRAL and India (HRTD)assists stakeholders in making
India from the past has been the supporter of human right related treaties
Uniform commercial law. This commitment was w The Field Operations and Technical
shown in case of it being the founder member of Cooperation Division (FOTCD) it is the
UNICTRAL. engagement team on ground of the UNHRC
India has based its major international trade which helps countries with promotion
laws on the basis of UNICTRAL laws. The and implementation of human rights and
Indian Arbitration and Conciliation act,1996; the monitor for possible violation of human
Securitization and Reconstruction of Financial rights.
Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, w The Human Rights Council and Special
2002 etc Procedures Division (HRCSPD) helps in the
Being a member of the UNICTRAL has helped in organizational support of UNHRC and sister
India put considerable influence in international institutes, meetings and procedures like
trade law. With the help of UNICTRAL it has helped the Universal Periodic Review mechanism
in trying to make business accessible to all and not and special procedures for UNHRC and its
a party to some. subsidiary institutes.
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Indian and UNHRC The unchecked power given to the permanent

India as a nation has always been committed member through veto power has been another
towards protection and promotion of human bone of contention between the nations. The
rights. In the 1947-48 India took an active part reforms to UNSC are generally blocked by the
in Drafting of the Universal Declaration of Human Veto power.
Rights. Perception problem: The UNGA has always
India was the one of founding members of seemed to be subordinated by the UNSC in
UNHRC and has one of the 47 seats at UNHRC terms of maintenance of international peace and
from its inception. security.
India has been an active member of the UNHRC
Suggestions for the issues:
and participated in the all the issues that were
raised during the Universal Periodic Reviews. Expansion of the Permanent group of UNSC:
It is a general consensus among the UNGA that
it should be expanded. The expansion should
United Nations Security Council
be done either by accepting the proposal to add
(UNSC) new permanent members or adding members
which have equal rights on a 4 year renewable
Why it was in news? basis as suggested by blueprint for Security
India is eyeing a permanent seat at the United Council reform by the United Nations Panel.
Nations Security Council through its expansion. Reforms in the veto power given to the
permanent member: The veto power should be
Introduction reformed to have a cool off period once used.
The UN charter puts the United Nations Security There should be case to review the veto power
Council (UNSC) at the center of the maintenance by the UNGA. The UNGA can also be given an
of international peace and security. overriding power over the veto.
It is the second most important unit of the The perception that UNGA is subordinated by
United Nations after its United Nations General UNSC should be done away with. There should
Assembly. be a balance of power between decisions made
It is a powerful body as in case of dispute by UNGA and UNSC. In some cases overriding
among nations it can issue ceasefire directives, should be given to UNGA for decisions made by
dispatch military observers or a United Nations the UNSC.
Peacekeeping Force(UNPKF) to help reduce
India and United Nations Security
tension, enforcement of sanctions of economic
and military in nature, sever diplomatic ties,
Council (UNSC)
put a blockade or even take collective military India has been a member of UNSC since 1950
action. and been a temporary member 7 times.
It was established in 1946 and has 15 members-5 India has always held the just UNSC positions at
Permanent (China, France, Russia, United all times.
Kingdom, United States) and 10 members India is the largest contributor of United Nations
elected for a term of two years. Peacekeeping Forces.
Indian has been bidding for permanent seat at
Issues related to UNSC UNSC table for a long time. It claims can be
There has been a clamor for need for the substantiated by:
expansion of UNSC permanent council to w India was one of the founding member of
accommodate the changing global political United Nations
scenario. The reforms are needed in the power w It is largest contributor of United Nations
sharing, structure, norms and rules of the UNSC. Peacekeeping Forces.
Lack of representation from the African and Latin w India has an image of a soft power and a non
American countries to the UNSC. aggressor which suits the mandate of UNSC.
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w It is the largest democracy of the world and Palestine has formally joined the International
has 1/6 of world`s population. Criminal Court (ICC).
w India is 3rd largest economy in terms of
Purchasing power Parity and 6th largest in Introduction:
nominal terms and such a large economic What is the International Criminal Court?
force can also not be kept out. The International Criminal Court (the ICC or
w It has support from majority of the UNGA. the Court) is a permanent international court
However its claims have been countered by established to investigate, prosecute and try
individuals accused of committing the most
w India not taking substantial leadership roles
serious crimes of concern to the international
at the global arena.
community as a whole, namely the crime of
w India`s soft power status has often been genocide, crimes against humanity, war
taken as a weakness to take hard decisions. crimes and the crime of aggression.
w China as a permanent Council member will Why was the ICC established?
leave no stone unturned to block India`s Many of these violations of international law have
entry. remained unpunished. The idea of a system of
How can India further strengthen its claims international criminal justice re-emerged after the
w India can outmaneuver China diplomatically end of the Cold War. However, while negotiations
by using its new relationships with the United on the ICC Statute were underway at the United
States, Japan, Russia, The EU, United Nations, the world was witnessing the commission
Kingdom etc. of heinous crimes in the territory of the former
w India should keep on increasing its support Yugoslavia and in Rwanda. In response to these
from the members of UNGA. atrocities, the United Nations Security Council
w India should also play the emerging nations established an ad hoc tribunal for each of these
no representation card at the UNSC and ask situations. These events undoubtedly had a most
significant impact on the decision to convene
for reforms.
the conference which established the ICC in
w India should take up more global leadership
Rome in the summer of 1998. The ICC does not
roles like the International Solar Alliance.
replace national criminal justice systems; rather,
it complements them.
International Criminal Court (ICC) What is the Rome Statute?
On 17 July 1998, a conference of 160 States
Why this was in news? established the first treaty-based permanent
Burundi, South Africa and Gambia have quit international criminal court. The treaty adopted
ICC. They justified its decision to quit theRome during that conference is known as the Rome
Statute of ICCwas due to the apparent conflict Statute of the International Criminal Court.
with its obligations to the African Union to grant Among other things, it sets out the crimes falling
immunity to serving heads of states. Partiality within the jurisdiction of the ICC, the rules of
towards African nations. The African Union has procedure and the mechanisms for States to
been persuading its member nations to withdraw cooperate with the ICC. The countries which
from the ICC over the courts alleged institutional have accepted these rules are known as States
bias against Africa and its leaders. Parties and are represented in the Assembly of
Russia withdrew from International criminal court States Parties. Over 120 countries are States
Parties and have agreed to the Rome Statute.
after published a report on Crimea`s annexation
of Russia and declared it as an occupation by The seat of the Court is in The Hague in the
Russia. Russia countered charges by saying Netherlands.
that Crimea voluntarily joined Russia after a The Court is funded by contributions from the
referendum. The report declared this as an States Parties and by voluntary contributions
occupation because according to the report the from governments, international organizations,
report the referendum was a hasty one. individuals, corporations and other entities.
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How does the ICC differ from other courts? not of an international character, when they
International Court of Justice: ICC tries are committed as part of a plan or policy or
individuals on basis of crime of genocide, on a large scale.
crimes against humanity, war crimes w Crime of aggression means the planning,
and the crime of aggression where as preparation, initiation or execution of an act
International Court of Justice tries States for of using armed force by a State against the
the settlement of disputes between States. sovereignty, territorial integrity or political
Ad Hoc Tribunals: ICC is a permanent independence of another State.
autonomous court while the ad hoc courts are
temporary. Problems with ICC:
The ICC is an independent body whose mission is Founding member nations withdrawing:
to try individuals for crimes within its jurisdiction Russia, South Africa and Burundi have recently
without the need for a special mandate from withdrawn themselves from the Rome Statute
the United Nations sighting ICC as a biased body. This has led to
ICC`s jurisdiction: The Court may exercise the loss of credibility of the nation.
its jurisdiction in situations where the alleged Inadequate jurisdiction: It does not have
perpetrator is a national of a State Party or where jurisdiction on some of powerful nations like India,
the crime was committed in the territory of a State the permanent members of UNSC, Israel etc.
Party. Also, a State not party to the Statute may Lack of enforcement agencies and
decide to accept the jurisdiction of the ICC. ICC investigation units: It was seen that
has jurisdiction only with respect to events which investigations led to flawed results as they were
occurred after the entry into force of its Statute not done properly by the ICC`s investigating
on 1 July 2002. If a State becomes a party to units. The infrastructure for punishments used by
the Statute after its entry into force, the Court the courts is the state machinery only which can
may exercise its jurisdiction only with respect to be manipulated by the culprits.
crimes committed after the entry into force of the Political prosecutions: In some cased the
Statute for that State, unless that State has made prosecutions have been found to be politically
a declaration accepting the jurisdiction of the motivated by the State parties. These cases
ICC retroactively further debase the credibility of ICC.
Structure of the ICC: The ICC is composed of Need for state`s help in the case: ICC cannot
four organs: the Presidency, the Chambers, the prosecute a case successfully without successful
Office of the Prosecutor and the Registry. state`s participation. So a convict knows if he
Crimes within the jurisdiction of the ICC becomes the head of the state he hamper the
w According to Rome Statute, Genocide ICC`s case a lot.
means any of the acts committed with
the intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a Suggestions to the above problems:
national, ethnical, racial or religious group. Increase the jurisdiction of ICC to cover all the
w According to Rome Statute ,Crimes against nations of the world.
humanity include murder, extermination, ICC should have dedicated investigative
enslavement, deportation, imprisonment, agencies with greater autonomy so that cases
torture, rape, sexual slavery, enforced can be investigated without any interference.
prostitution, form of sexual violence, The permanent members of UNSC should be
persecution against an identifiable group brought under its ambit.
on political, racial, national, ethnic, cultural, ICC should make it clear that ICC does not
religious or gender grounds, apartheid. replace national criminal justice systems; rather,
w War crimes include grave breaches of it complements them.
the Geneva Conventions and other serious ICC should develop a correct funding
violations of the laws and customs applicable mechanism which cleans its image of being a
in international armed conflict and in conflicts stooge in the hand of its funders.
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ICC should try to shun the perception of being In pursuance of powers conferred upon it by the
politically motivated while giving its judgments. Statute, the ICJ has drawn up its own Rules of
Court. It is an organ of UN with the UNSC having
India and ICC Veto powers its decisions,
India is not a member to Rome Statute the enabler It is seated in the Peace Palace in The Hague,
of ICC. The reasons o are : Netherlands.
w Since ICC does not have jurisdiction on The court settles legal disputes submitted to
major powers so it fails in its purpose as an it by states and provides advisory opinions on
international criminal court. legal questions submitted to it by duly authorized
w Terrorism and nuclear weapons usage is not international branches, agencies, and the UN
in the purview of ICC. General Assembly.
AFSPA, abuses in Naga movement, Kashmir The composition of ICJ: The ICJ is composed
conflict, atrocities in the Naxalite region would be of fifteen judges elected to nine-year terms by
some of the cases India would have to deal with the UN General Assembly and the UN Security
if it comes under ICC. Council from a list of people nominated by
the national groups in the Permanent Court of
International Court of Justice Arbitration. The ICJ could also appoint Ad hoc
judges when the parties feel they the judges may
Why this was in news? be biased for any reasons.
The Funding for ICJ is done by the United
Kulbhushan Jadhav case: Pakistan claims
is an Indian RAW agent, was found guilty and
awarded death sentence at a military court. Jurisdiction of the ICJ: It is the function of the
India claims he was allegedly kidnapped from ICJ to decide in accordance with international
Iran and says Jadhav is a businessman with no law disputes of a legal nature that are submitted
links to government of India. India had moved to it by States. Its objective is to bring about the
to International Court of Justice (ICJ) for an settlement of disputes by peaceful means and
immediate injunction against the death sentence in conformity with the principles of justice and
on the basis of for violating the Vienna international law. Only member States can
Convention on consular relations. India has be party to the cases in ICJ not individuals,
won the case and the ICJ has granted consular corporate or a group of people. A case can only
access to India. be submitted to the Court with the consent of the
States concerned. There are two types of case
Introduction: the ICJ Deals in,
Article 33 of the United Nations Charter lists the w Contentious issues: An contentious cases
following methods for the pacific settlement of (adversarial proceedings seeking to settle a
disputes between States: negotiation, enquiry, dispute); the ICJ produces a binding ruling
mediation, conciliation, arbitration, judicial between states that agree to submit to
settlement, and resort to regional agencies or the ruling of the court. Only states may be
arrangements, to which good offices should also parties in contentious cases. Individuals,
be added. corporations, parts of a federal state, NGOs,
UN organs and self-determination groups are
After the failure of the Permanent Court of
excluded from direct participation in cases
International Justice, at the end of the second
although the Court may receive information
world war the Four Powers at Dumbarton Oaks
from public international organizations.
i.e. China, the USSR, the United Kingdom and the
United States made a declaration that resulted in w Advisory opinions: Anadvisory opinionis a
the publication on 9 October 1944 of proposals function of the Court open only to specified
for the establishment of a general international United Nations bodies and agencies. On
organization, to include an international court of receiving a request, the Court decides which
justice. states and organizations might provide useful
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information and gives them an opportunity to don`t agree as their might be cases of States
present written or oral statements. Advisory using this to not participate in any cases at all.
opinions were intended as a means by which There should be provisions made that may allow
UN agencies could seek the Court's help in individuals, NGO`s and private enterprises
deciding complex legal issues that might fall could file a case in ICJ.
under their respective mandates. The ICJ should gain more autonomy and the
veto power of the UNSC permanent council
Problems with ICJ: should be done away with.
Acceptance of cases by ICJ only when both The ICJ should at least have the power to
state parties to case agree. The ICJ cannot enforce its decisions or an agency of its own to
entertain a case when one of the parties to the do the same.
case is in disagreement to go to ICJ. The overlapping jurisdiction mechanisms should
Veto by the permanent members on UNSC be done away with. There should be only one
on ICJ`s decisions. This dilutes the purpose of international justice mechanism for a given
having an international court of justice. purpose.
Only state party to the charter of ICJ can
apply for cases at ICJ. No individuals, NGO`s India and the ICJ:
and private enterprises could file a case in ICJ. India has been a member of the International
Lack of autonomy: The ICJ lacks autonomy in Court of Justice since its inception and many
choosing the judges as the seats are fixed region of the cases have been arbitrated by the
wise and have representatives of permanent International court of Justice for India.
members who are huge in number and hence w Right of Passage over Indian Territory
may influence the decisions made by the ICJ. (Portugal vs. India, 1955): In 1960, the ICJ
No enforcement agencies: There is no, agency ruled in India's favor, saying that 'Portuguese
to enforce and implement the decisions of the sovereignty over the enclaves was subject to
International Court of Justice and in needs to the regulation and control of India'.
look up to United Nations. This again dilutes w Appeal relating to the jurisdiction of 'civil
the purpose of having an international justice overfly' treaties(India vs. Pakistan, 1971)
mechanism. w Trial of Pakistani Prisoners of War(Pakistan
Overlapping jurisdictions by other vs. India, 1973)
international courts like the International w Aerial Incident of August 10, 1999(Pakistan
Criminal Court. These overlapping jurisdictions vs. India, 1999)
have led to the dilution of purpose of the
Justice Dalveer Bhandari currently serves as
International court of Justice.
permanent judge at ICJ.
Suggestions to the above problems: India has always tried to abide by the decisions
of the ICJ and helped in the smooth functioning
The ICJ could take cases even in the parties
of the international justice body.

International Court Of Justice International Criminal Court

Established 1946 2002

Headquarters Peace Palace, Hague, Netherlands Hague, Netherlands

Relationship With U.N. It comes under the United nations No relation to United Nations

Jurisdiction Only adjudicates for Member states. Can Individuals only

give advisory opinions to UN bodies.

Deals In Cases All international laws Only in crime of genocide, crimes

against humanity, war crimes and
the crime of aggression.
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International Court Of Justice International Criminal Court

Established 1946 2002

Was formed under The United nations Charter and gets its Rome statute and gets its powers
powers from the charter only from that only

Appeal mechanism Decision is binding if accepted by the Appeal mechanism is there

parties involved. No appeal mechanism

Funding mechanism United nations fund it No proper funding mechanism. The

Court is funded by contributions
from the States Parties and by volun-
tary contributions from governments,
international organizations, individu-
als, corporations and other entities.

Autonomy Permanent members of UNSC may veto Enjoys slight more autonomy than
its decisions. ICJ. Although Permanent members
of UNSC may veto its decisions.

Enforcement agency United Nations No enforcement agency. Depends

on the party states for enforcement
of the decision

South Asia Sub regional facilitation, economic corridor development

and information, communications and
Economic Cooperation (SASEC) technology sectors by the assistance of the
Asian Development Bank (ADB).
Why this was in news? In the year 1996, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India,
Myanmar becomes a member of SASEC: South and Nepal formed the South Asian Growth
Asia Sub regional Economic Cooperation (SASEC) Quadrangle (SAGQ) aimed at boosting
program of Asian Development Bank (ADB) is cooperation in environment, energy and power,
expanding towards the East with Myanmar formally trade and investment, transport, and tourism.
becoming the 7th member of SASEC in 2017. This group was formed as a subset of the South
Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
Introduction: (SAARC) and was recognized by it.
South Asia Sub regional Economic ADB serves as theSASEC Secretariat, working
Cooperation (SASEC) program is an initiative with member governments to provide capacity
of Asian Development Bank which was stated and knowledge building, provide technical
in 2001 and is headquartered at Manila, support and development partners to the
Philippines. member nations.
The participating members are Bangladesh, SASEC priority areas of cooperation:
Bhutan, India, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal and w Transport: To create and improve the
Sri Lanka. They are seven in number. regional connectivity and intraregional
TheSASEC program is a project-based connectivity through air, water and land
partnership to promote regional prosperity linkages for bolstering of trade and economic
by improving cross-border connectivity, growth.
boosting trade among member countries w Trade Facilitation: To reduce trade barriers
and strengthening regional economic like tariffs, speeding up border customs
cooperation. The various projects have been clearances and reducing the cost of trade
implemented in field of energy, transport, trade between the partners.
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w Energy: To Improve cross-border electricity There should be agreements for security

transmission connectivity through power measures in the SESAC area as this region is
trade and capacity development. SASEC susceptible to human, drug and arms trafficking.
will also increase cooperation in energy There could be more emphasis on cultural
efficiency and clean power development. contacts between the people which will act as
w Economic Corridor Development (ECD): confidence building measures and help develop
ECD will be used to promote synergies and SESAC as a common market.
linkages between economic corridors across
SASEC countries to optimize development India and SASEC:
gains. It will also help to link transport Geo Strategic benefits:
infrastructure with urban and industrial w To counter China`s influence in the
development. It will help in optimizing region: Japan and US backed ADB has
opportunities to bring innovation into public- invested heavily in this area which will help
private partnerships. India reduce Chinese influence in the region.
w The final objective of SASEC is to create a w Group may be more effective than SAARC:
common market like the EU in their region. Time and again SAARC has suffered as a
group because of hostilities between India
Problems with SESAC: and Pakista
Dependence on ADB for funds: SESAC is too w Gives India more connectivity for North
much dependent on ADB for funds which will East: With ADB support, India is presently
may lead to the group being manipulated to do developing two priority road corridors. The
projects which only serve ADB`s needs. first road corridor will connect India with
India is seen as a dominant member: This Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan through the
perception may lead to the failure of the group chicken neck area of North Bengal. The
as a whole as the other individual members may second road corridor will establish India-
lose their identity. This big brother image may Myanmar connectivity in the state of Manipur.
also lead the small members to always see India Economic benefits:
as a threat to their objectives. w Reduction in trade barriers:
There has been no emphasis on security s Motor Vehicles Agreement: India has
collaboration in the SESAC group. successfully negotiated Bangladesh
Human Trafficking: This region is notoriously Bhutan India Nepal Motor Vehicles
famous for human trafficking and with more Agreement. This will help in fast and
porous may lead to a significant increase in such easy movement of goods through the
cases. region.
Drug and Arms trafficking: This region is s Implementation of Information
notoriously famous for Drug and Arms trafficking Communication and Technology at
and with more porous may lead to a significant trade checkpoints: This has helped in
increase in such cases. The Golden Triangle falls significantly reducing the time in custom
in this region. This may also lead to terrorism clearances.
elated problems in the region. s Integrated Check Posts: Have
improved Land Customs Stations at key
Suggestions for the problems:
border points with Bangladesh, Nepal
A separate funding mechanism must be and Bhutan to ease the movement of
developed by the members of SESAC so that goods and people within the sub region.
they may fund their own projects and help in the
w East Coast Economic Corridor: This will
betterment of the region
help increasing the trade of India`s natural
India has to change the perception of being a resources like coal and iron ore and act as
dominant player in the group and make the other node for extractive and downstream value-
members realize that they are all equal partners. added industries.
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w Energy trade: India has successfully for peaceful purposes could be misused.
negotiated many agreements for trade with The NSG has 48 members and every decision
SASEC nations like Nepal, Bhutan for energy has to be unanimous. It is an informal and
trade. voluntary partnership.
w Increase tourism significantly: Through The NSG members are signatory of legally
more or less open borders between SESAC binding instruments in the field of nuclear
nations tourism has increased significantly non-proliferation like the treaty on the Non-
in members like India, Nepal, and Bhutan. Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT).
Environment benefits: The Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons
w Clean Energy: SESAC is a region with a or Non-Proliferation treaty is an international
huge potential to produce clean energy and treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread
hence will help in the conservation of nature of nuclear weapons and weapons technology,
and protection of environment. to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses
Sagarmala initiative: Sagarmala which is a of nuclear energy, and to further the goal of
major port-led development initiative will get achieving nuclear disarmament and general and
boost from SESAC as it will help in increasing the complete disarmament. India, Israel, Pakistan,
chances of trade in South East Asia. North Korea and South Sudan are non signatories
to this treaty. The treaty defines nuclear-weapon
Non- Proliferation Regimes states as those that have built and tested a
nuclear explosive device before 1 January 1967.

Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) India and NSG:

India has been trying to be a part of the NSG for a
Why this was in news? long time as being a member of NSG allows India to
Indias bid for getting into NSG was rejected after w Access to state of the art nuclear technology
China along with New Zealand, Ireland, Turkey, fromother NSG members. This will allow India
South Africa and Austria were opposed to Indias to manufacture nuclear energy equipments
admission at NSG plenary in Seoul in 2016. in India.
India is making attempts to enter the NSG by being w It will be able to buy nuclear fuel, equipments
a member to groups like the Wassenaar Agreement, and technology from any country without any
Australia Group etc problems
w India can innovate on the advanced
Introduction: transferred technology and export it also
The Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) is a group w Limit China`s growing influence in the Asian
of nuclear supplier countries that seeks to region
contribute to the non-proliferation of nuclear w Help in scaling Indias Nuclear power
weapons through the implementation of two generation and achieve energy sufficiency
sets of Guidelines for nuclear exports and
India`s bid was blocked by China on the grounds
nuclear-related exports.
that it is not a signatory to NPT rest all states that
Non-Proliferation Principle which states that blocked wanted to discuss the NPT criteria for
supplier only authorises a transfer only when entry into NSG.
satisfied that the transfer would not contribute to
the proliferation of nuclear weapons is followed What India tends to loses if it is not a
by NSG. member of NSG:
The Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) was India will not be able to access to state of the art
created following the explosion in 1974 of a nuclear technology from other members
nuclear device (Operation Smiling Buddha)
It cannot commercialize production of nuclear
by a non-nuclear-weapon State (India), which
power equipment which leads to economic
demonstrated that nuclear technology transferred
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Always depends on NSG to grant waiver for India will tend to gain a lot from entry in to the
technology transfer agreements like in the 123 MTCR club.
Agreement that was done with United States. w Technology transfers:
India cannot innovate on the advanced s It will get access to the latest state of the
transferred technology and export it art technologies.
s India can now build missile systems
Way forward for India: capable of carrying a 500 kilogram
India could diplomatically push for a waiver from the payload at least 300 kilometers and
NSG citing its commitment to Non Proliferation of even take assistance from other MTCR
nuclear technology. India has a good track record members. Like India did in increasing
in nuclear proliferation and distinction of its civilian the range of Brahmos with the help of
and military nuclear programs. India has signed a Russia.
pact with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) w Economic benefits: India can transfer
which lets IAEA inspect the civilian reactors at any technology and missiles to non-MTCR
time. India could site France case as it became a members. This has led to trade for Brahmos
member of NSG without being signatory to NPT. between India and Vietnam.
w Strategic Advantages: This has led India
Missile Technology Control to strengthen its position against China in
Regime (MTCR) the region. With MTCR in its kitty India can
now target whole of China and Pakistan
Why this was in news? through its missiles. This will create strategic
deterrence against China and Pakistan
India became the 35th member of the MTCR in June
Wassenaar Arrangement and
Introduction: Australia group
The aim of the MTCR is to restrict the proliferation
of missiles, complete rocket systems, Why this was in news?
unmanned air vehicles, and related technology India has been pitching for NSG for a long and after
for those systems capable of carrying a 500 rejection from the group it has now pitched in for
kilogram payload at least 300 kilometers, as the Wassenaar agreement and Australia group for
well as systems intended for the delivery of getting entry to help India`s case at NSG.
weapons of mass destruction (WMD).
The Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) Introduction: Wassenaar Arrangement
established in April 1987 by the group of 7 the G7 (WA)
i.e. Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the The Wassenaar Arrangement (WA) has been
United Kingdom, and the United States of America. established in order to contribute to regional and
It is an informal and voluntary partnership. international security and stability, by promoting
The category of the prohibited materials transparency and greater responsibility in
according to MTCR are transfers of conventional arms and dual-use
w MTCR Equipment goods and technologies, thus preventing
w Software and Technology Annex destabilizing accumulations. The aim is also
The MTCR led to the formation of the International to prevent the acquisition of these items by
Code of Conduct against Ballistic Missile terrorists.
Proliferation (the Hague Code of Conduct). The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls
for Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods
India and MTCR: and Technologies is a multilateral export control
India formally applied for membership to the regime (MECR). This also known as Wassenaar
group in June 2015 and got it on 27 June 2016, Arrangement (WA).
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Participating States seek to ensure that (SCOMET) which align it with the terms of
transfers of these items do not contribute to Wassenaar Arrangement (WA).
the development or enhancement of military India has tried to make itself complaint with the
capabilities which undermine these goals. This Chemical Weapons Convention and the Biological
is done through their national policies. and Toxin Weapons Conventions. India has a good
It has 41 participating states. history in non proliferation and use of Chemical
The Wassenaar Arrangement was established to and biological weapons. After its endorsement
contribute to regional and international security by the US, Australia the entry to Australia group
and stability by promoting transparency and may not be difficult. The government came out
greater responsibility in transfers of conventional with a Special Chemicals, Organisms, Materials,
arms and dual-use goods and technologies, thus Equipment and Technologies (SCOMET) which
preventing destabilizing accumulations. align it with Australia group.
It is the successor to Coordinating Committee With China out of both the groups entry to India`s
for Multilateral Export Controls, and was opposition to these groups will be minimal but it
established on 12 July 1996. will not be a cakewalk,
Every six months member countries exchange
information on deliveries of conventional arms
to non-Wassenaar members that fall under eight Advantages that may come with the membership of
broad weapons categories: battle tanks, armored Wassenaar Arrangement (WA) and the Australia group:
fighting vehicles (AFVs), large-caliber artillery, w Technology transfers:
military aircraft, military helicopters, warships, s It will get access to the latest state of the
missiles or missile systems, and small arms and art technologies
light weapons. s India can innovate and build upon the
technologies provided
Australia group
s India can develop more advance
Australia group is an informal group that seeks weapons for commercial use
to ensure that exports do not contribute to the w Economic benefits:
development of chemical or biological weapons
s India can transfer technology and
through the harmonization of export controls.
weapons to non member nations
Australia Group participants need to fulfill
s India can develop industries for the
their obligations under the Chemical Weapons
same in India boosting economy and
Convention and the Biological and Toxin Weapons
provide with job creation.
Convention to the fullest extent possible.
w Strategic Advantages:
It has 42 members including the European Union.
s This will create strategic deterrence
Australia group maintains export controls on a
against China and Pakistan.
uniform list of 54 compounds that can be used in
the manufacture of chemical weapons. s It will help in making India as a defense
and technology partner to nations.
India and Wassenaar Arrangement (WA) s India can emerge as a power to counter
and the Australia group China.
Following the debacle at the NSG India has left no
stone unturned to enter into the nuclear regimes. Space Diplomacy
India is already a member of MTCR. Now India
eyes for the Wassenaar agreement and Australia Why this was in news?
group. South Asia satellite (GSAT-9) was launched
India has already made itself compliant with the recently by ISRO. This satellite was launched in
norms of both these groups. The government 2017 and was fully funded by India. This satellite
came out with a Special Chemicals, Organisms, is for South Asian Association for Regional
Materials, Equipment and Technologies Cooperation region. Along with India Afghanistan,
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Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Nepal and Sri Navigation Satellite System(IRNSS) India can
Lanka would be the beneficiaries of the satellite. now provide accurate real-time positioning
In 2017 ISRO from PSLV successfully launched and timing services. This has helped India
the 714 kg Cartosat-2 Series Satellite along with boost its ties in the SAARC region as it
103 other satellites today morning in one go from can help the countries as it reduces the
Sriharikota. It contained satellites for USA, The dependency of these nations on the Global
Netherlands, Switzerland, Israel, Kazakhstan Positioning System owned by the US.
and UAE. w Disaster management: India has National
Remote Sensing Centre which has helped in
Introduction the prediction and mitigation of the natural
India has made giant strides in the area of space disasters. The Indian National Satellite
research and technology in the past decade. System or INSAT helps in the search and
From being an importer of space technology and rescue operations. This was used during
dependent on other countries it has now grown the Nepal disaster and has helped Indian
into a perfect place to launch satellites in space. improve its position as a soft power. India
With the cost and technology advantage ISRO shares remote sensing data with other
has become one of the pioneer space research nations under the ambit of the United Nations
institute of the world and exporter of space Platform for Space-based Information for
technology to the world. This has made India a Disaster Management and Emergency
prime force in the field of Space diplomacy. Response (UNSPIDER).
The major attraction that ISRO has is its cost w Finding mineral resources: With the remote
effectiveness in launching the space satellites. sensing data of the satellites the mineral
The 100% success rate of ISRO from 2010 till exploration has become more fruitful and
now is phenomenal. less time consuming.
These factors have led to the growth of India as w Smart agriculture: INSAT has helped in
a preferred destination for satellite launches by predicting the weather to high accuracy
various countries like USA, France, Netherlands, and has helped the government to issue
Indonesia, Singapore, Switzerland, Israel, weather related information which in turn has
Kazakhstan and UAE. helped in increasing agriculture productivity.
India has taken a step further ahead and used India can help the South Asian region in
this space technology in disaster management, countering the growing threat to agriculture
checking on the forest cover, monitoring of the in the region.
coastal, rural, urban spreads, finding mineral w Setting up of base stations in different
deposits, tracking climate change and promotion countries: India through its diplomacy has
of climate smart agriculture. setup base stations in different areas like
This has given a huge boost to space cooperation Mauritius, Brunei and Indonesia and plans to
agreements and collaboration between the world establish ground stations in Fiji. This will help
and India. India has MoU`s in space cooperation India in technology transfer and reducing the
and technology with almost all the developed cost of satellites launches.
nation of the world. Social
Space diplomacy has been done by India in w Help in creating a prosperous
following fields of geographical, social, strategic, neighborhood: With the help of the space
economical and technological. technology India can significantly improve
the standard of living not only in India but in
Some of the examples in the fields are:-
the neighboring regions also. It can help in
Geographical increasing agriculture, navigations, disaster
w Providing with Navigation data: With the management, creation of jobs and boosting
help of NAVIC (NAVigation with Indian cultural tie ups through cultural exchanges.
Constellation) or the Indian Regional
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w Solving the problems of basic needs: It s Monitoring of Indian Ocean: India by

can help achieve the SDG like no poverty, the help of NAVIC has provided good
zero hunger, clean water by solving the inputs to its own military, navies as well
problems of food and water with the help as its neighbors in the Indian Ocean. This
of space technology. Space diplomacy can has helped in monitoring and countering
hence improve the quality of life in the region. the growing Chinese incursions in the
w Economical Indian Ocean region.
w Space products services and s Setting up base station in Fiji: It will
technologies: Antrix, the commercial arm give India access to South China Sea
of ISRO and has gained a lot from the recent and would be a concern for Chinese
success of ISRO in Space products services South China Sea ambitions.
and technologies. India has made many
agreements with countries like Singapore, for The Problems with the Indian space
assisting in space technology and launching diplomacy:
satellites. Competition from China: If China succeeds
Technological in countering Indian Space diplomacy in the
w Technology Exchange: India has now neighborhood it would lead to huge impact on
become a leading power in affordable space India`s neighborhood diplomacy. India could be
technology. India has made MoU`s with many again looking at a scenario of Chinese presence
countries like UAE, Armenia, Bangladesh all across itself. This threatens India`s control
Qatar, Israel in the fields of space technology over Indian Ocean.
transfer. Competition from the Private Players:
w Gaining access to new technologies: Recently the private players like SpaceX have
India has now partnered with the leaders of launched a reusable rocket which has significant
space technology like Russia, United States reduced the cost of launching a satellite per
to gain access to new technologies. It will kilometer. This cost advantage is on what ISRO
help India to offer more efficient products banks upon. If the competitiveness is gone then
which may help India gain significantly in the the Indian space industry may die a slow death.
space diplomacy.
Suggestions for the above mentioned
w Enhanced Soft Power status: India after
its South Asia satellite launch had gained a More investment in Research and
lot more as soft power. Prior to India there Development: The main thing in Space
were not many examples of such regional technology is to provide the leading technology
cooperation in fields of Space technology. at affordable cost. This can be done by investing
This move has made India a champion of in research and development of technology.
space diplomacy in its neighborhood. Collaborations with the major advanced Space
w Countering China: research centers: Efforts should be made for more
s Increasing influence in its technology transfer agreements in the fields of
neighborhood: India used its Space Space technology from advanced space research
programme well to counter China in terms centers like NASA, Roscosmos State Corporation
of regional engagement. The method by means of collaboration and agreements.
id cost effective and very efficient. Encouraging private sector to invest in space
When China builds One Belt One Road technology: India could encourage private
(OBOR) which requires the participating investment in Space sector by liberalizing up
countries to invest in infrastructure what the space sector and promoting it by giving
India did was use its space diplomacy to concessions like subsidies or tax waivers,
counter China. providing them with infrastructure and training
the human capital.