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Materials Research Innovations

ISSN: 1432-8917 (Print) 1433-075X (Online) Journal homepage: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/ymri20

Mix design for thermal insulation concrete using


waste coal gangue as aggregate

Y. Zhang, G. Ma, Y. Liu & Z. Li

To cite this article: Y. Zhang, G. Ma, Y. Liu & Z. Li (2015) Mix design for thermal insulation
concrete using waste coal gangue as aggregate, Materials Research Innovations, 19:sup5,
S5-878-S5-884, DOI: 10.1179/1432891714Z.0000000001212

To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/1432891714Z.0000000001212

Published online: 30 May 2015.

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Download by: [University of California, San Diego] Date: 21 April 2016, At: 00:34
Mix design for thermal insulation concrete
using waste coal gangue as aggregate
Y. Zhang, G. Ma, Y. Liu and Z. Li*
The purpose of this paper is to prepare a new type of thermal insulation concrete (TIC) which
possesses good bearing capacity with excellent thermal insulation. An orthogonal experimental
design method was used in this paper to study the influence of the substitution ratio of CG and
the contents of GHB, NS and UFS on the compressive strength of concrete, thermal conductivity
coefficient, construction performance, and dry density. Test results show that the comprehensive
strength of concrete reaches the optimal when the substitution ratio of CG is 30%, the GHB
content is 134 kg/m3, the proportions of NS and UFS are 0.4% and 5% of binding material
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amount, respectively. For the optimal mix proportion, the thermal conductivity coefficient and
compressive strength of the concrete are 0.41 W m1 k1 and 37.7 MPa, respectively.
Keywords: Thermal insulation concrete, Glazed hollow bead, Coal gangue, Nano-silica, Orthogonal experimental design method

Introduction (NA), and found that CG, within a certain range, does
not reduce the compressive strength of concrete. Also,
Compared with normal concrete, lightweight aggregate the interface structure of high-quality CG aggregate is
concrete has the advantages reduced mass one1,2 and similar to that of ordinary aggregate. Li et al. 8 found
heat preservation.3 It can reduce weight of the structure, that the drying shrinkage of CG concrete tends to be
reduce the foundation load and improve the efficiency stable at the later stage of hydration. Yang and Yu9
of transportation, loading and construction. The achieved 49 MPa compressive strength for lightweight
reduced mass can significantly increase the overall econ- concrete made with spontaneous combustion CG.
omic efficiency of the structure. Thus, it can be seen that the preparation of concrete by
Zhang et al.s4 study showed that glazed hollow bead using CG has some promising qualities. Coal gangue has
(GHB), if mixed in appropriate proportion, can fill the the characteristics of light weight and high strength. It can
voids between cement, coarse aggregate and fine aggre- be mixed in concrete as aggregate through simple crush-
gate so that pore structure of concrete is evenly distribu- ing. The method of using CG as the coarse aggregate is
ted. Owing to the closed surface of GHB, a large more fully understood and economically viable method
number of cavities are formed, which block the heat con- of using CG in concrete. However, previous research
duction channels in concrete to improve the thermal has mainly focussed on the normal concrete mixed with
resistance of concrete and reduce the density of concrete. CG. Very few studies exist about applying CG to high-
In recent years, China has done much research and performance concrete.
development work in coal gangue (CG) utilization. This research utilised CG to replace natural coarse
However, CG has not been widely realised as a natural aggregate partially in TIC, and nano-silica (NS) and
resource yet. Some studies have focussed on the use of ultra-fine slag (UFS) to improve mechanically and con-
CG as a natural resource. Some researchers focussed on struction performances of coal gangue thermal insulation
the comprehensive utilization of CG, and in turn, some concrete (CGTIC). Coal gangue thermal insulation con-
progress has been made in the development of new- crete can utilise CG waste as much as possible under
concrete materials by using CG. the premise of not affecting the performance of concrete.
Chen5 mixed multiple sets of concrete with different
mix designs by using CG without screening, tested con-
crete at different ages, and discussed strength evolution
and failure mechanism. Zhang et al. 6 showed that Materials and experimental methods
sprayed concrete made with fine CG particles has good
mechanical properties and workability. Zhang et al. 7 Materials
used certain content of CG to replace natural aggregate CG as aggregate
Different types of CG in this study are from Jincheng
open-pit mine in Shanxi Province, China. The prep-
College of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Taiyuan University of aration of CG coarse aggregate was prepared through
Technology, PR China crushing, sieving and grading processes. The properties
*Corresponding author, email 215215zy@163.com of CG are shown in Table 1.

W. S. Maney & Son Ltd 2015


Received 20 October 2014; accepted 18 December 2014
S5-878 DOI 10.1179/1432891714Z.0000000001212 Materials Research Innovations 2015 VOL 19 SUPPL 5
Zhang et al. Mix design for thermal insulation concrete using waste coal gangue as aggregate

Table 1 The properties of CG

Item CG

Chemical characteristic Silica (SiO2) 3506%


Alumina (Al2O3) 1677%
Ferric oxide (Fe2O3) 2729%
Calcium oxide (CaO) 382%
Magnesium oxide (MgO) 160%
Sulphuric anhydride (SO3) 30%
Loss on ignition (LOI) 083%
Physical property Particle size distribution range 510 mm:1015 mm:1520 mm = 7:23:70
Apparent density (kg m3) 26888
24 h water absorption (%) 114
Crushing index (%) 181
Bulk density (kg m3) 12007
Tight bulk density (kg m3) 13995

Thermal insulation particles Experimental design


Glazed hollow bead is a kind of irregular spherical inor- As shown in Table 4, this research selected mixture pro-
ganic particle material with vitrified closed surface and portion of C40 grade normal concrete as the basic formu-
porous internal structure. It is made of glass lava ore
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lation. Intended to study TIC mixed with CG, CG


after expanding and vitrifying. Glazed hollow bead can substitution ratio was chosen as one of the evaluation
serve as hollow sand and as solid air-entraining agent in indices. Nano-silica and UFS are chemical activators of
the building materials. Thermal insulation concrete with CG and cement. The amount of NS, UFS and GHB
the excellent performance of light, thermal insulation were chosen as three evaluation indexes. Each index has
and fire prevention can be created by adding GHB in con- four levels presented in the form of an orthogonal
crete. The detailed indicators of GHB are shown in factor level table as shown in Table 5.
Table 2.

Production and casting


Nano-silica In order to enhance the fluidity of TIC mixed with CG,
The NS in this study was produced and supplied by the measure of pre-wetting was adopted for GHB.
Nanjing TANSAIL Advanced Material Co. Ltd. Its Slump test of concrete mixture was executed as per
main technical indicators are shown in Table 3. GB50164-2011.10 Strength test was executed according
to GB/T50107-2010.11 Mixing started by first mixing
pre-wet GHB and half of the mixing water for 30 s in a
Other concrete mix ingredients concrete mixer. All the other materials were then mixed
Gravel with particle size between 5 and 20 mm was used together in the mixer for 25 min. After testing for
as coarse aggregate. Hard, clean and graded medium- slump, concrete cube specimens of size 100 mm were
coarse sand with particle size between 035 and 05 mm cast for compressive strength test, and concrete blocks
was chosen as fine aggregate. The packing density of of size 300 300 30 mm were cast to test thermal con-
sand was 1630 kg m3, absorption was 25% and fineness ductivity coefficient. Concrete specimens were cured for
modulus was 30. Cement (C) used in this study was 28 days in a standard curing room. The cross-sectional
ordinary Portland cement with 28-day compressive configuration of CGTIC is shown in Fig. 1.
strength of 425 MPa. Fly ash (FA) used was class II
type as produced by Taiyuan thermal power plant in
Shanxi Province. The UFS produced by Bastian New Results and discussions
Building Materials Co. Ltd., Shanghai, was chosen as
active admixture. Its specific surface area was Results
450 m2kg1. Polycarbonate superplastic was used as the Test plan, the slump, 7-day compressive strength, 28-day
water reducing agent (WRA). compressive strength and thermal conductivity of CGTIC

Table 2 Physical properties of glazed hollow bead

Item Color Granularity (mm) Density (kg m3) Thermal conductivity (W m1 K1) Absorptivity (%)

Property White 0215 80130 00280045 2050

Table 3 Main technical indicators of NS

Particle size Specific surface area


Item Appearance (nm) Purity (%) pH (m2 g1) Bulk density (g cm3) Surface property

Nano- White 20 >995 47 300 010 Hydrophilic


silica powder

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Zhang et al. Mix design for thermal insulation concrete using waste coal gangue as aggregate

Table 4 The basic formulation of CGTIC Table 7 Range analysis of orthogonal experiment, the result
of slump
NA S C FA Water-cement WRA/
(kg) (kg) (kg) (kg) ratio C Slump
No. A B C D Blank column
1160 580 450 50 045 003
1
K 170 191 191 178 178
2
K 180 182 191 178 178
3
K 188 175 175 180 180
Table 5 L16(45) orthogonal factor level table
4
K 178 167 157 177 177
Factor R 18 24 34 3 3
Lever A B C D

NS/C GHB/dry matter CG/CA UFS/C


1 02% 6% 0% 0% Analysis of test results
2 04% 8% 30% 3%
3 06% 10% 50% 5%
The problem can be described more intuitively by using
4 08% 12% 70% 7% range-method of analysing orthogonal test data. In
Tables 7 and 911, K1 is the sum of the four test results
for the first level of a certain factor, K  1 = K1 /4; K2 is
the sum of the four test results for the second level of
the factor, K  2 = K2 /4; K3 is the sum of the four test
 3 = K3 /4; K4 is
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results for the third level of the factor, K


the sum of the four test results for the fourth level of
the factor, K  4 = K4 /4. The ranges of every column
are the difference between the maximum and the
minimum values among four numbers K1, K2, K3, K4
in each column, namely R = max.{K  1, K
 2, K
 3, K
 4 }
min.{K  1, K
 2, K 3, K
 4 }.
Variance analysis can make up for the inadequacy of
the range analysis. It discriminates the differences
between the experimental results caused by level change
of a factor from the difference between the test results
caused by the fluctuation of error. The general fluctuation
and error square sum of test data is decomposed into two
parts by variance analysis, namely error square sum of
factor and error square sum of deviation. Error square
sum of factor Si (i = A, B, C, D) reflects the fluctuation
caused by level changes of factor. The smaller the error
square sum is, the more is the concentration of the
1 The cross-sectional configuration of CGTIC group data. Error square sum of deviation Se reflects
the fluctuations caused by experiment error. The
average error square sum Si = Si /3 can compare dis-
are shown in Table 6 according to the orthogonal table of persion and concentration of two data groups, which
L16(45). are made up of different numbers. The specific

Table 6 Orthogonal experimental design and experiment result of CGTIC

Compressive
strength (MPa)
(A) NS (B) GHB (C ) CG (D) UFS Blank Thermal conductivity Slump Dry density
No. (%) (%) (%) (%) column 7 days 28 days (W m1 k1) (mm) (kg m3)

T1 02 6 0 0 1 278 384 043 195 2200


T2 02 8 30 3 2 262 362 037 185 2050
T3 02 10 50 5 3 234 325 034 165 1950
T4 02 12 70 7 4 194 272 032 135 1800
T5 04 6 30 5 4 303 377 041 205 2100
T6 04 8 0 7 3 314 392 039 195 2130
T7 04 10 70 0 2 237 289 033 155 1890
T8 04 12 50 3 1 286 354 031 165 1910
T9 06 6 50 7 2 281 361 039 195 1930
T10 06 8 70 5 1 244 312 036 170 1905
T11 06 10 0 3 4 311 401 036 195 2105
T12 06 12 30 0 3 297 382 034 190 2080
T13 08 6 70 3 3 184 252 038 170 1921
T14 08 8 50 0 4 223 303 037 175 1966
T15 08 10 30 7 1 246 334 035 185 2000
T16 08 12 0 5 2 255 347 033 180 2090

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Zhang et al. Mix design for thermal insulation concrete using waste coal gangue as aggregate

Table 8 Variance analysis of orthogonal experiment, the result of slump

Factor Si n1 i
S F Significance Critical value

A 625 3 208 52 ** F001(3,3) = 2946


B 12125 3 404 101 ** F005(3,3) = 928
C 31125 3 778 1945 ** F010(3,3) = 536
D 125 3 4 1
e 125 3 4

Table 9 Range analysis of orthogonal experiment, the result Table 11 Range analysis of orthogonal experiment, the
of 7-day compressive strength result of 28-day compressive strength

7-day compressive strength 28-day compressive strength


No. A B C D Blank column No. A B C Blank column

1
K 242 262 290 258 263 1
K 336 344 381 346
2
K 285 261 277 260 269 2
K 353 342 364 339
3
K 283 257 256 259 257 3
K 364 337 336 337
4
K 227 258 215 258 248 4
K 309 339 281 338
R 58 05 75 02 21 R 55 07 10 09
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calculation method is shown in equations (1) and (2). GHB did not absorb moisture from the slurry.
Therefore, the influence of GHB content on the initial
1 slump of CGTIC had reduced. Despite the relatively
P= (x1 + x2 + + x16 )2 (1)
16 small amount of NS, its dispersive effect has a great
role in promoting a fluidity of concrete. In the early
1 4
hydration of cement particles, some ions and groups are
Si = (K i )2 P (2)
4 j=1 j electrically polarised because of their precipitation, and
flocculation structure is produced to make part of water
In this paper, F = S e, S
 i /S  e = Se /3, and compare with a wrapped inside. For CGTIC including NS, part of the
certain critical value Fa (a = 001,005,010) to judge nanoparticles are adsorbed on the surface of cement par-
whether the influence of a factor is significant. When ticles to remove flocculation structure and release the
F > F001 , a strong influence is expressed by using **. parcel of moisture. This part of released water improves
When F001 > F > F005 , the significant influence is the fluidity of CGTIC. Slump began to decline with an
expressed by using *. When F005 F > F010 , a notice- increase in NS content. This is because of the increased
able influence is expressed by using . When F < F01 , amount of NS leading to an increase in total specific
the least influence is expressed by using . surface area of gel material, which needed more water
to increase its liquidity.
The analysis of influence of various factors on slump The analysis of variance for orthogonal experiment
Table 7 shows that the optimal mixing proportion of results on the slump of CGTIC is shown in Table 8. It
CGTIC on slump is either A3&B1&C1&D3 or can be seen from Table 8 that the factors affecting
A3&B1&C2&D3. Figure 2 shows that the influences of slump are prioritised as C > B > A > D, which is consist-
various factors on the slump of CGTIC are ordered in ent with the result from range analysis. Contents of CG,
the sequence of the importance as CG > GHB > NS > GHB and NS have marked an influence on the slump
UFS. while the UFS content has little influence.
Coal gangue is in a loose state, it has large specific
surface area and more internal pores. Thus, CGTIC
needs more water to wet the larger surface area and to Influence of various factors on the 7-day compressive
fill the abundant pores.12 Consequently, the fluidity of strength
CGTIC decreases, resulting in increased water demand. Table 9 shows that the optimal mix design for 7-day com-
The higher the CG amount, the greater is the water pressive strength of CGTIC is A2&B1&C1&D2. Figure 3
demand. Although the water absorption of GHB is shows that the factors affecting 7-day compressive
around 30%, because of the pre-wetting technology strength of CGTIC are prioritised as CG > NS >
adopted in the mixing process of CGTIC, the pre-wet GHB > UFS.

Table 10 Variance analysis of orthogonal experiment, the result of 7-day compressive strength

Factor Si n1 Si F Significance Critical value

A 1039 3 346 576 ** F001(3,3) = 2946


B 14 3 04 06 F005(3,3) = 928
C 1297 3 432 72 ** F010(3,3) = 536
D 09 3 03 05
e 18 3 06

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Zhang et al. Mix design for thermal insulation concrete using waste coal gangue as aggregate

and its bond strength with cement is poor. Owing to


lack of enough water for cement hydration and poor
internal curing condition, an increase in early strength
of CGTIC is slow. As the time passed, GHB gradually
released water that became available for cement
hydration. This internal curing effect accelerated the
strength gain of CGTIC at the later age. Because the
internal water was adequate for cement hydration
during the later stage, cement hydration was so complete
that cement paste of CGTIC was dense with less porosity.
Table 10 is variance analysis of orthogonal experiment
result on 7-day compressive strength of CGTIC and it can
be seen from Table 10 that the factors affecting 7-day
compressive strength are prioritised as C > A > B > D,
which is consistent with the range analysis results.
Contents of CG and NS have marked an effect on 7-
2 The influence of various factors on slump
day compressive strength. Contents of GHB and UFS
have little effect on 7-day compressive strength.
Nano-silica served as a filler to fill pores inside CGTIC
such that internal structure of CGTIC became more Influence of various factors on 28-day compressive
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compact and interfacial transition zone (ITZ) between strength


aggregate and cement paste was improved. Table 11 shows that the optimal mixture ratio scheme for
Furthermore, because NS has high activity, it quickly 28-day compressive strength of CGTIC is
underwent secondary reaction with Ca(OH)2, one of the A3&B1&C1&D1. Figure 4 shows that the factors affecting
cement hydration products, to form CSH gel, thus 28-day compressive strength of CGTIC are prioritised as
enhancing the early-age compressive strength of CG > NS > GHB > UFS.
CGTIC. When internal relative humidity of CGTIC The strength of CG is lower than that of NA. Cube
reached a critical value, the hydration reaction would compressive strength of CGTIC is lower than that of
stop. The specific surface area of NS was particularly normal concrete. Also, the higher the substitutive ratio
large, and there was a large quantity of adsorptive water of CG in the coarse aggregate, the steeper is the descent
in the NS surface after mixing with cement. This effect of cube compressive strength of CGTIC. The surface of
led to a decrease in water participating in hydration. CG is rough and porous. The improvement of CGTIC
This phenomenon is particularly serious especially in con- strength is harmful as this is associated with a high bibu-
crete with low water-cement ratio. Thus, hydration degree lous rate. However, compared with NA, CG has several
of cement is reduced. advantages. First, the cement hydration products can
With the increase in GHB content, the 7-day compres- partly infiltrate into the surface pore of CG coarse aggre-
sive strength of CGTIC reduced significantly, even gate to increase bond strength between aggregate and
though it had a little effect on the 28-day compressive interface. Second, the micro pump effect makes cement
strength. It is because of the improved interfacial paste nearby CG in the state of local low water-cement
bond strength between aggregate and cement mortar. ratio. Thus, the water sac under the aggregate is
Bond strength is directly related to the hydration degree reduced, the interface bond strength between aggregate
of cement; the greater the hydration degree and bond and cement is improved. Third, surface of CG has a
interface, the higher the CGTIC strength. The pre-wet certain activity. This is because surface of CG adheres
GHB absorbed a large amount of mixing water, the many CG powders the process of breaking during pro-
water-cement ratio in the ITZ of light aggregate is large, duction. The active surface material can react with

3 The influence of various factors on 7-day compressive 4 Influence of various factors on 28-day compressive
strength strength

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Zhang et al. Mix design for thermal insulation concrete using waste coal gangue as aggregate

Table 12 Variance analysis of orthogonal experiment, the result of 28-day compressive strength

Factor Si n1 i
S F Significance Critical value

A 695 3 231 288 * F001(3,3) = 2946


B 16 3 05 06 F005(3,3) = 928
C 2291 3 76 95 ** F010(3,3) = 536
D 08 3 03 04
e 23 3 08

Ca(OH)2 in cement, and the desired effect of interface- A4)&B4&(C3 or C4)&D2. Figure 5 shows that the
enhancement is achieved. factors affecting thermal conductivity of CGTIC are
Dangling bonds are formed because of the lack of adja- prioritised as GHB > CG > UFS > NS.
cent atoms around the surface of nanomaterial. With a The internal pores of GHB are spherical and closed to
great desaturation, they are easy to combine with other each other. The air in pores has no heat convection; these
atoms. In addition, the surface of nanomaterial has solid pores can block heat transfer channels to reduce the
atoms with a lot more atomic number than of those in thermal conductivity coefficient of CGTIC. Unlike the
material with ordinary size. Thus, nanomaterial has normal bubbles introduced by foaming agent and air-
very high surface energy and chemical activity. Nano- entraining agent, the bubbles introduced by GHB
silica has small particles, high surface energy, low cannot be decomposed and reduced in the cement with
polymerization degree of [SiO4]4 ion and very high ash
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high alkali solid and high calcium. Bubbles in GHB


activity with easy-to-dissolve surface structure. The have good stability and closed stomata with good elas-
deployed ionic group of [SiO4]4 dissolve in solution ticity; the holes are not easy to collapse and disappear
and generate pozzolanic reaction with Ca(OH)2 to form in the process of mixing and pumping. Hence, the
secondary CSH gels with low Ca/Si ratio. This effect thermal conductivity coefficient of CGTIC can be effi-
reduces the amount of Ca(OH)2, promotes the cement ciently reduced.
hydration and increases the strength of CGTIC. Thermal conductivity coefficient of concrete can be
A large number of tiny GHB with the particle size of reduced by using CG with low thermal conductivity coef-
15 mm evenly and densely distribute in CGTIC, so the ficient instead of normal aggregate.
surface area between GHB vitrified surface and gel Although NS has low thermal conductivity coefficient,
material is not easy to form micro-cracks and stress concen- the influence of NS on heat conduction in CGTIC is still
tration. As a solid skeleton, GHB contains a variety of small for its less mixing amount and nanoscale particle
compactly spherical holes with micron grade to play a size.
similar role of solid bubbles. Interface between GHB and Table 14 is the variance analysis of orthogonal exper-
cement bonds tightly, there is no micro-fracture similar to iment result on thermal conductivity coefficient of
that exist around normal air bubble. Introduction of CGTIC. It can be seen from Table 14 that the factors
these solid bubbles will minimise the influence of them affecting thermal conductivity coefficient are prioritised
on concrete strength to make CGTIC combine good as B > C > D > A, which is consistent with the range
bearing capacity with thermal insulation performance. analysis results. The content of GHB has marked an
Table 12 is variance analysis of orthogonal experiment, effect on the thermal conductivity coefficient. The
the result of the 28-day compressive strength of CGTIC. content of CG has comparatively significant effect on
It can be seen from Table 12 that the factors affecting the thermal conductivity coefficient while the contents
28-day compressive strength are prioritised as C > A > of NS and UFS have little effect on thermal conductivity
B > D, which is consistent with the range analysis coefficient.
results. The content of CG has marked an effect on 28-
day compressive strength. While the content of NS has
comparatively significant effect on 28-day compressive
strength, contents of GHB and UFS have little effect on
28-day compressive strength.

Influence of various factors on coefficient


Table 13 shows that the optimal mixture ratio scheme
for thermal conductivity coefficient of CGTIC is (A2 or

Table 13 Range analysis of orthogonal experiment, the


result of thermal conductivity coefficient

Thermal conductivity coefficient


No. A B C D Blank column

1
K 037 040 038 037 036
2
K 036 037 037 035 035
3
K 037 035 035 036 036
4
K 036 033 035 036 036 5 Influence of various factors on thermal conductivity
R 001 007 003 002 001
coefficient

Materials Research Innovations 2015 VOL 19 SUPPL 5 S5-883


Zhang et al. Mix design for thermal insulation concrete using waste coal gangue as aggregate

Table 14 Variance analysis of orthogonal experiment, the result of thermal conductivity coefficient

Factor Si n1 i
S F Significance Critical value

A 0000125 3 000004 06 F001(3,3) = 2946


B 0013625 3 000454 648 ** F005(3,3) = 928
C 0002275 3 000076 108 * F010(3,3) = 536
D 0000325 3 000011 16
e 0000225 3 000007

Table 15 The optimal mix proportion

Material usage
NA (kg) CG (kg) Sand (kg) C (kg) GHB (kg) FA (kg) UFS (kg) NS (kg) Water (kg) WRA (kg)

812 348 580 425 1344 50 232 18 2025 127

Conclusion the optimal mix proportion in table 15, thermal


insulation property of concrete was improved
The following findings and conclusions can be drawn
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while still maintaining the requirement of compres-


from this study: sive strength.
(i) The thermal conductivity coefficient of the concrete
decreased when glazed hollow bead and coal
gangue was added by volume. As the glazed
hollow bead and coal gangue level increased in
the concrete, its compressive strength decreased. References
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9. L. H. Yang, and S. C. Yu: Mixing proportion design of lightweight
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