You are on page 1of 6

THE BIRTH AND GROWTH OF THE SOCIAL SCIENCES

Learning Objectives

• Explain anthropological and sociological perspectives on culture, society and politics

• Acquire basic knowledge about origin, growth and development of the social sciences.

• Demonstrate curiosity and openness to explore the significance of the social sciences.

• Recognize the Western and colonial origins of third world social sciences and knowledge
production.

THE HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE GROWTH OF SOCIAL SCIENCES

Before the birth of
modern social sciences in the West, the study of society, culture and politics were based on
social and political philosophy .In return, social and political philosophies were informed by
theological reasoning grounded in Revelation based on the holy bible.

the father of modern philosophy for defining a starting point for existence.which prosed universal laws of motion and mechanical model of the Universe .” .The Unprecedented Growth of Science • The scientific revolution which begun with Nicolaus Copernicus refers to historical changes in thought and belief.Philosopher and mathematician.Sir Francis Bacon .who established the supremacy of reason over imagination. In Europe roughly between 1550 and 1700 with the works of Sir Isaac Newton. therefore I am. “I think. René Descartes.

and its prominent exponents include Kant. convocation. diplomatic missions. 15.one of the leading figures in modern sociology. lectures. and Adam Smith.described this process as rationalization. Max Weber . Medieval Period • During the Medieval Period. graduation.universities relied mainly on religious tradition and the bible to explain the nature of the universe and the place of human being in the grand scheme of things. The Rise of Individualism • The intensification of commerce and trade gradually replaced barter with the production of money and banking system. Locke. the Near East and Europe. chancellor. texts. 13. merchants representatives of religious circles. and they are all derived from Latin. In 1881 he received his doctorate for his thesis on Kant's philosophy of matter. Voltaire. Goethe. donations. courses. The rise of Universities • As students at a university. sophomore. and so forth. dean.Soon banking system provided merchants and capitalists the leverage to extend credit and transactions. It was heavily influenced by 17th- century philosophers such as Descartes. students. 12. The organization of this university. Trade caravans. senior. fees. laboratory. grades. dormitory. administration. 18. are continuations of a barroom brawl that took place in Paris almost 800 years ago. faculty. The Dissolution of Feudal Social Relations • With the intensification of commerce and trade in the 17th century . GEORGE SIMMEL • Simmel studied philosophy and history at the University of Berlin. junior. assignments. • The factory system and the unprecedented growth in the urban centers due to trade and commerce. and are made consciously tolerable – or even admirable and superior – by plausible means 14. and Newton. Rationalization • Rationalization or rationalisation (also known as making excuses[) is a defense mechanism in which controversial behaviors or feelings are justified and explained in a seemingly rational or logical manner to avoid the true explanation. almost unchanged from their medieval origins. professor. These are the language of the university.attracted a lot of agricultural workers and mass of rural population to migrate to urban centers. alumni association. It was a way to establish contact with the great civilizations of China.many medieval guilds or worker’s cooperative were dissolved and absorbed into the emerging factory system. classes. neither the difficult roads. you are part of a great tradition. procession. diploma. requirements. Rousseau. the modern universities started to rely on science and its method to interpret the world. 16.Enlightenment • European intellectual movement of the late 17th and 18th centuries emphasizing reason and individualism rather than tradition. its activities and its traditions. 17. Trade and Commerce • For many centuries the Great Silk Road connected a complex network of trade routes from Europe with Asia. India. a part of which was subsequently published as "The Nature of Matter According to Kant's Physical Monadology" . nor the waterless deserts. Consider the words you use: campus. warriors – millions people have passed on this road through time with nothing frightening these brave travelers. dervishes. examinations. tuition. prerequisites. commencement.

wage slaves. social scientist. is without a doubt the most influential socialist thinker to emerge in the 19th century. Max Weber • Karl Emil Maximilian "Max" Weber was a German sociologist. Franz Boas • Franz Uri Boas was a German. with Émile Durkheim and Karl Marx. Although he was largely ignored by scholars in his own lifetime.[1] April 15. He was a founder of the discipline of sociology and of the doctrine of positivism. economic and political ideas gained rapid acceptance in the socialist movement after his death in 1883. philosopher. social psychologist and philosopher. jurist. Martineau was a self-taught expert in political economic theory. 1858 – November 15.social groups and institutions . 22. however. Karl Marx. He is sometimes regarded as the first philosopher of science in the modern sense of the term 21. economics. This very success. historian and revolutionary. She was fiercely critical of the inequality and injustice faced by girls and women. one of the earliest Western sociologists. his social. 1917) was a French sociologist. Karl Marx • The philosopher. Until quite recently almost half the population of the world lived under regimes that claim to be Marxist. slaves. He formally established the academic discipline and— with Karl Marx and Max Weber—is commonly cited as the principal architect of modern social science and father of sociology 24. past and present.Weber is often cited. Auguste Comte • better known as Auguste Comte was a French philosopher.American anthropologist and a pioneer of modern anthropology who has been called the "Father of American Anthropology” His work is associated with the movement of anthropological historicism . has meant that the original ideas of Marx have often been modified and his meanings adapted to a great variety of political circumstances. In addition. as among the three founders of sociology 25. 23. Anthropology • Anthropology is the study of humans. England. anthropology draws and builds upon knowledge from the social and biological sciences as well as the humanities and physical sciences. and social life throughout her career. was born in 1802 in Norwich. but it only does so in relation larger social structures and processes 20. The birth of Social Sciences as a Response to the Social Turmoil of the MODERN PERIOD • Sociology is a branch of the social sciences that deals with the scientific study of human interactions .whole societies and the human world as such. 26. and wrote prolifically about the relations between politics. and political economist whose ideas profoundly influenced social theory and social research.Of course Sociology also addresses the problem of the constitution of the self and the individual. the fact that Marx delayed publication of many of his writings meant that is been only recently that scholars had the opportunity to appreciate Marx's intellectual stature. Emile Durkleim • David Émile Durkheim (French: [emil dyʁkɛm] or [dyʁkajm].19. Harriet Martineau • Harriet Martineau. To understand the full sweep and complexity of cultures across all of human history. morals. and the working poor. Her intellectual work was centered by a staunchly moral perspective that stemmed from her Unitarian faith.

Bronislaw Kasper Malinowski • was a Polish anthropologist. It deals extensively with the theory and practice ofpolitics which is commonly thought of as determining of the distribution of power and resources 30. in ways that are comparable to the transformation in recent years of a monetary economy to a system in which local and global developments are coupled by almost instantaneous interactions. its durability and its fragility. focusing on means rather than ends. offering immediate worldwide . 33. becomes more understandable 36.an anthropologist advocated for the indigenization of social sciences. Against the background of such a historical definition of science. New potentials for the globalization of knowledge have emerged.a psychologist Zeus Salazar. The Colonial Origin of the Social Sciences 32.Social Sciences spread from the center to the peripheries of the of the world .the image created by the Social Scientists around the 18th century carried a very European view of non Western world. • Knowledge is globalized when it is in principle globally available and accessible. and the analysis of political activity and political behavior. through its tradition and concentrating on certain goals. and critiquing media and democracy in his newspaper column and several books 31. reporter.27. and political commentator famous for being among the first to introduce the concept of Cold War. such as the global system of science and the World Wide Web. occurs in a certain autonomy from the specific applications also given with this culture. He has also been referred to as a sociologist and ethnographer. Alfred Reginald Radcliffe -Brown • was an English social anthropologist who developed the theory of structural functionalism and coadaptation.Most of their observations . Antonio de Morga 35. the remarkable dual character it possesses. one of the most important 20th- century anthropologists. This exploration.social sciences after World War II simply perpetuated colonial knowledge production from American social sciences.mainly from anthropology were clothed in the cultural beliefs and attitudes of the Fair European. but all of these forms of the human acquisition of knowledge share a general nature that lies in their exploration of the potential for innovation embodied in a given material culture.a historian and Prospero Covar. coining the term "stereotype" in the modern psychological meaning. Walter Lippmann • was an American writer. Social Sciences in the Era of Globalization • Science may take on completely different forms in various cultural and historical contexts. Political Science • Political science is a social science discipline that deals with systems of government. 29. 34.Many Filipino social scientists such as Virgilio Enriquez. The Clamor for Decolonization of Social Sciences • As discussed above. Indigenization of Social Sciences in the Philippines • In the Philippines. The globalization of knowledge today has reached a new stage: it has transformed the economy of knowledge radically. 28.

Due to the increased mobility of people and things. anthropology and political science. research hubs and the human resources of science have become global assets. but rather by global social patterns 37. anthropological hiring practices. The rise and rapid growth of the natural sciences influenced the direction of the social sciences.access to the knowledge produced within this system. it has developed its own subsection of the American Anthropological Association – the Association for Feminist Anthropology – and its own publication. Feminist Anthropology • that seeks to transform research findings. Summary • The social Sciences namely. Simultaneously. developed as result of the development of modern society. . While feminists practiced cultural anthropology since its inception (see Margaret Mead and Hortense Powdermaker). it was not until the 1970s that feminist anthropology was formally[citation needed] recognized as a subdiscipline of anthropology. 38. feminist anthropology challenges essentialist feminist theories developed in Europe and America. Since then. Themigration of scientific knowledge is no longer characterized by the trajectories of individuals or by the dynamics of fellow traveling. sociology. and the scholarly production of knowledge. using insights from feminist theory.