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Rating formats:

- Graphic rating scales

3 criteria
- Does the characteristic represent behavior
- Is the meaning of the response categories clear
- Is the assigning of the score unambiguous
- Checklist
- Weighted checklist
- Forced choice format
- Behavioral rating
- Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS)
- Based on job analysis
- Transparent & reliable design procedure
- Observable behavior
- Somewhat useful for feedback
- Time-consuming to construct good scales
- Anchors represent expected behavior
- So, usefulness for feedback not optimal
- Behavioral observation scales (BOS)

Employee comparison methods

- Simple ranking
- Paired comparison

Rating errors:
- Central tendency error
- Leniency-severity error
- Halo error
- Contrast effect
- Evaluation relative to colleges, not relative to job requirements
- First impression
- First impression determines the rating
- Similar-to-me
- Supervisor judges employees that are similar to him more positively

Training of evaluators;
- Administrative training
- General orientation on system
- More complex systems
- Psychometric training
- Makes raters aware of rating errors
- Reduces the likelihood of rating errors
- Frame-of-reference training
- Rater needs a frame of reference
- More effective than psychometric training

Sources of performance ratings:

- Direct supervisor
- Peers
- Employee himself
- Subordinates
- Clients
- Suppliers

Reliability of evaluations;
- Inter-rater reliability is low
- Different raters have different perspectives
- Combination of sources is needed to get a complete picture
Validity of evaluations
- Requires including important aspects of work behavior
- Requires good scales
- Requires training of raters

- Cognitive learning
- Skill-based learning
- Affective; attitudes and beliefs that predispose a person to behave a way

Goldstein & Ford:

Needs assessment
- Organizational analysis; where
- Task analysis; what
- Person analysis; who

Trainee readiness; does employee have the characteristics to acquire knowledge from
a training.
- Goal orientation
- Performance orientation
- Mastery orientation
- Experience level
Trainee motivation; is the employee interested in training
- Expectancy framework

Reinforcement theory
- Learning results from association between behaviors and rewards
- Positive reinforcement
- Desired behavior followed by reward
- Behavior modification
- Simple recognition, can be effective in performance increase

Social learning theory; many ways to learn including:

- Behavioral modeling
1. Observe actual job incumbents demonstrate positive modeling behaviors
2. Rehearse using role-playing
3. Recieve feedback on rehearsal
4. Try behavior on the job
- Including
1. Self-efficacy (belief in one's capability to perform)
2. Goal setting (specific goals, improve performance)
3. Feedback (knowledge of results, enhances motivation, learning and

Overlearning -> automaticity

- Physical
- Psychological

Whole learning
- Entire task practiced at once
- Effective when string relation between subtasks
Part learning
- Subtasks practised
- Effective when complex task has low organization
Massed practice
- Individuals practice without rest
Distributed practice
- Rest intervals between practice
- More efficient learning

Transfer of training climate; workplace characteristics that either inhibit or

facilitate transfer of training

- On-the-job training
- Trainees observe & learn
- Apprenticeship
- Program to teach
- Job rotation
- Move to various jobs or departments within company

- Classroom lectures
- Programmed instruction
- Linear programming
- Branching programming
- Simulators
- Controlled
- Safety
- Learning & cost

- Distance learning
- Video/audio
- Very affordable
- Computer-based training
- Allow trainees to individualize their experience
- Trainees have control over instruction

Blended learning, combination of distance and face-to-face