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coDE 021204fi

FORM TP 2016198 MAY/JI.JNE2OI6

CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL
CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINAUONO
EF{VIROI{MENTAL SCIENCE

UMT I -Paper0l
7 hour 30 minrdes

05 MAY 2016 (a.m.)
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READ TIIE, FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFI'LLY.
l. This test consists of 45 items. You will have I hour and 30 minutes to answer them.
2. In addition to this test bookleg you should have an answ€r sheel

3 Do not be concerned that the answer sheet provides spaces for more answerc than there are items
in this tesr

4. Each item in this test has four suggested answenr lefiered (A), (B), (C), (D). Read each item
you are about to answer and decide which choice is best

5. On your answer sheet, find the number which corrcsponds to your item and shade the space
having the same letter as the answer you have chosen. Lpok at the sample item below.

Samole ltem

The interaction of plants and animals with
components such as air and water defines SampleAnsuer
(A)
(B)
a biome
a biosphere
@@o@
(c) an ecosystem
(D) an ecological niche

The best answer to this item is *an ecosystem-, so (c) has been shaded.

6. Ifyou want to change your answer, erase it completely before you fill inyour new choice.
7. When you are told to begin, turn the page and work as quickly and as carefully as you can. If
you cannot answer an item, go on to the next one. You may retum to trat item later.

8. You may use a silent, non-programmable calculator to answer ircms.
E

DO NOT TT]RN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO IX) SO.
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- Copyright @ 201 4 Caribbean E:caminations Councit
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o2t200t0tcfuPB20t6

Which of the following prooesses describes 7.25 u 0. trr c Site Species DiversitY E{ I 0. Based on the data in the table above. (A) ploneer (B) climax (c) secondary (D) ecological €t N a tr tlc ca Itern 6 refers to the followingtable.f PECP ozrz0orDlcfuPE 2016 . Which of the following is NOT a limiting zone dlat separates different ecosystems? factor in the process of photosyndresis? (A) Niche (A) Water (B) Habitat (B) OxyBen (c) Ecotone (c) Carbon dioxide (D) Bordgrs (D) Available minerals Item 2 refers to the diagram below which 5. Wliat is the name glven b the talsitioual 4. It provides wildlife habitat (D) Nafiral selection (A) I and II only (B) I and III otly (c) II and ttl only (D) I. It creates fertile soil.31 2.40 IV 0.15 The(montLs) I 0. II and llt GO ON TO THENE. (B) Speciation I Itrequirescontinualmaintenanceby humans. -2- 1. Which of the foltowing combinations BEST the ability of an organisrn to live in harmony describes a natrrral ecosYstern? or conformity wittt its environmen0 (A) Evolution I. Thecommunityformed by lichensardmosses illustracs horr the number of individuals in which initially inhabia an exposed rock a population changed with time as a resultof surface is described as external stesses and resource limitations. Which lettered portion of the curve corresponds to the carrying capacity of the 6. (C) AdaPtation IU. which ecosystem? site has the GREATESTecosystem stability? (A) P (A) I (B) a (B) tr (c) R (D) (c) III s (D) IV 3.

ow r = o - E 0 A B IIme 9. (A) I and II only (B) I and III only (C) II and III only 11. What 12. -l This rllationship is an e. The energr of Level II is 1000 kcal. it sits on a log.: 8. Item 12 refers to the following graph which shows the varition of population size with time for a population.. (D) A population of mosquitoes develops resistance to a pesticide. A population of fr. Conditions presentvary bctween two (B) Aplant loses ie leaves in a droughr (C) . Which of the followihg BEST illustratesthe f.rown as than surrounding arcas. indicating a gradual decrease in the amount of energr. II.When the crabs feed the worm comes out to share the meal.xampb of ltem 9 refers to the following pyramid : . Acertain type of marine wonn lives in shells (D) I. The period from A to B is knovm as the would be the enerry of l-evel III? (A) lag phase (A) 10 kcal (B) exponential phase (B) 100 kcal (C) aridrmetic phase (c) I 000 kcal (D) stationary phase (D) I0 000 kcal GO ON TO THENEXT PAGE 02t200t0lcAPE 20r6 .! diagram. -3- 1. an ecotone? proccss ofevohrtion? I. Which ofthe following are characteristics of 10. (A) muaralism ! J (B) parasitism According to Lindermann's ten per cent laq (c) commensalism aboutten percentoftotal energr istransmifted (D) intaspecifi c competition during enerry flow through trophic levels.ll and III occupied by hermit crabs.ogs increases as III.: adjaqent ecological systems. Contains a smaller numberofspecies (A) A lizard's colourbecomes b. Supports many species not found in more prey becomes avaihble. bordering ecosystenrs. Jcurve S curve Oecreamg o qi () rebof rl cuergrf.

of SpeciesA in ftefield is (A) 2. Garden Community Species Abundrnce I 25 Soilsuplc 2 l0 3 40 4 l5 14.2s (D) 3. A shrdent sampled the number of organisms in a garden. The mean density. in a grassy field using a lm2 quadrat' QuadratThrow 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I 9 10 I J 4 2 I 0 I 5 A 9 0 0 0 0 0 7 9 I 0 B 6 5 3 4 4 4 4 c 4 4 3 4 5 13.00 (c) 3. (c) 029 (D) 031 15.r9 :.60 (B) 3.30 Item 14 refers to the following information.03 (B) 0. which were obtained by shrdorts &-brrtioo of three species olptants. Item 15 refers to the following diagmm. 4- investigating fte density and Item 13 refers to the following resutrs. The results are shown below. The method of capturing mobile organisms shown above is called a (A) pofier (B) pitrall trap (C) lighttrap (D) tullgren funnel GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 02t200t0lcAPE2016 . What is ttre species diversity ofthe garden? Atcobol to preserYc specimen (A) 0. A" B and C. in plantVmz.

The lvlA. Which ofthe following activities is consistent (C) IIandtrI only with susainab le development? (D) I.II and III (A) Unnecessary use of paper (B) Increasing the use of enerry in- 17. Improved medical care (B) waterforwashing U. Ecological processes are importantto human (A) Migration law beings because they (B) Natural disaster (C) Family planning (A) are prcsent in the environment (D) Government policY (B) are of benefitto plans and animals (C) recycle nailral resouroes making them constantly avai lable to human 23.ow infant mortality rate (D) low gross national product x2. -5- 16. Which of the following factors cqnEibute 20. it is equally beneficial becausethis U. Which of the following is NOT a direct population contnol measure? r8.. Although flooding of a river is potentially dangerous to humans. TheTotal Fertility Rate (IFR) can be used to (A) washes away garbage downstneam (A) account for infant mortalitY (B) replanishes nutrient levels in flood (B) account for cmde death raies plains (C) predictpossible hends in population (C) provides a suPPlY of water for structure domestic purposes (D) predict possible ratios of males to (D) providesanabundantsupplyofwater females for irrigation GO ON TO THE NEXT PACE 02t200t0lcAPE 2016 . Sable political system (C) a sluree of recreation III. Higher levels of hygiene (D) communicationbetrpeensefilemen6 (A) Iandtronly (B) I and III only 2.lORreas)n many early settlements to a higher life expectancy in the developed were locded near rivers is that they provided world? (A) waler for irrigation I.. Which of the following is typical of a less efficient appliances economielly develo@ country? (C) ' Tuming offappliances when not in use (A) Low birtfr rate (D) Incinerating all used paper (B) High literacy rarc (C) [. Ifthe annual growth rate ofCountry X is 27o. beings then dre doubling time for Country X is (D) recycleman-madeproductsallowing human beingp to consume more (A) 35 years nEsoun9es (B) T0years (C) l05years (D) 140 years 19.

9 countries M (c) higher net migration rates than 55-s9 develo@ countries (D) smaller populations than developed 1}4D countries 4041 35-39 30-34 Item 28 referstothe graph below.which shows 2*29 2VA 15-19 r ' different stages related to the birdr and death rates for a typical human popu lation over time' lr14 I C' cL StegeI Stegetr StageItr StageW +9 E ratc 0*1 6! 30 10t 4202 10 EO . Which of the following is considered the (B) middle of Sage tI MAIOR envimnmental problem because it (C) beginning of Stage III aggravates dl othercnvironmental problcms? (D) end of StagoIV (A) Air polltttion (B) Globalwarming (C) Ozone dePletion (D) Human poPulation growth GO ON TO THENEXT PAGE 02l200l0lcAPE 2016 . countries because developing counties have Agc ruele [l Female (A) Iower infant mortalitY rates than 7*b developed countries (B) higlrer fertility rates than developed 65j. The rate of population grou/h starts to slow (D) 30 down atthe (A) end of Stage I 26.ntage ofpopulation for County Z.l Dathnti 10 population in Counlry Z is UNDER age l5? (A) t2 fime-> (B) 16 (c) 24 28. -6- Item 25 refers to the following histogram 27 Developed countries tend to have lower which shows age stnrchre e:qressed as a rates of population growth than developing perc€.o 6= \\ Percentegc of poPuletion €r EE \ 25. Approximately what percentage of the d EI i.

'Natural ttsoutte' is BEST ffined as Vta (A) the eardr's processes that sustain life (A) erosion (B) material that man produces for his (B) transpiration own use (c) ground \rater contamination (C) material turdenergr thatare found in (D) sedimentation of watcr bodies the environment (D) solid materials used for building strucfures such as rods 32. Which of the following terms refers to the intensivc scarch for compounds ofmedicinnl value in organisms that were not previously used for such purposes? 3t Indigenous people have been ableto manage their natural environment by utilizing (A) Biopiracy I. deforestation (B) Bioproduction n. intercropping (C) Biopersistencc m. (D) Congo has a larger proportion of elderly people than Japan. (C) lrss money spenton childcare (C) Morc people are expected to live (D) More money spent on pensions longer in theCongo. Toxic pesticides can re-enter t're fmd chain Y.II and III (B) ecotourism (c) agroforestry (D) bioprospecting GO ON TO THENEXTPAGE 02t200l0lcAPE 2016 . 31. crop rotation (D) Bioprospecting (A) I and II only 33. An example ofconsumptive use of forests is (B) I and III only (C) II and til only (A) logging (D) I. (A) Increased unernployment (B) Japan has a higheryoudt depndency (B) An even:hral deline in workforce than Congo. Which of the following may be a above population pyramids is tnte? DISADVAIITAGE of Japan having such a population strucurrc? (A) Congohasahigherfertilitylevelthan Japan. -7 - I ms 2L30 refer to tre following populatbn pyramids for Congo (1994) and Japan (1992)- Mele Femetc Age m+ 3$39 1+19 Congo G994) Jepen (1992) 29. Which of the following staternents on the 30.

(D) The volume of runoffafter rains will decrease. GO ON TO THET{EXT PAGE oztaootolc&PE 2016 . A D 37. Which of the following is MOST likely to occur in a forested region that has recently been cleared cutring? (A) The concentration of nutrients in streams nrnning through the region will increase- (B) The average depth of topsoil will increasc. iCi The wdertemperature in streams nrnning through the region will decrease. detailed research is undertaken to assess Ae likely environmental effecE ofthis project. Where would tre GREATEST biodiversity be found? (A) A (B) B (c) c (D) D by 3E. 8- 36. A country wants to construct a new airport Before fris is done. Which nanrral resouroe managcmenttool BEST describes this approach? (A) EIA (B) rucN (c) NEAP 'SPAW (D) Item 37 refers to the following diagnm vrhich shows a coasal ecosystern.

II and III I l GO ON TO TIIE NEXT. I and trt only (C) II and Itr only (D) I.trandltr Greeu eccounting 42. the death of native species m. Which of the following are rcasons for resouoe conservation? 39. Integrated development planning (B) Penatty (c) lncentive (A) Iandllonly (D) User fee (B).f t'v t' r. -9- Item 39 refers to dre pie chart which shows 40.PAGE 02t200t0lcAPE 2016 . L physioal conversion of vegetation ^" and land xDr I use of aprpropriate technologt Inceufive ru. no change in diversity of species * *. Measres used in tte conservation of natural resouroes include .II. 1nz 1. Aesthetic value II. Eftical @ncern (A) Tax u. L the dirylacernent of native spocies l0'/c II.< (A) I only * (B) III only ** *<* * * ** (C) I and II only {< *: * (D) I. Inroducing orotic species intothe ecosystem tbe economic instnrmcnts used for natural of a country may resuh in resource conservation in a country. i. stsainable yield management Ecouomic valurtion of rcsomccs Uscrfcc (A) Iandtronly (B) I and III only Tex (C) trandlllonly Penrtty (D) I. Which economic instnrment is MOSTwidely used? I. n' ^.ardItr 41.

(B) The annual marine fish production in 1990 was 50 per cent of the maximum production. lrxxlo 9txr0 a t0txl a) E C} 7000 e c 6l 60fli a o 5000 r tto .tll00 E6! 3lm 2000 1t.fl (A) The annual marinefish production forthe period 195f2000 was at iB maximum in 196. Which of the following staternents about the annual marine fish prodrction is correc. -l0- Itgms4i-44refer to dre graph below which shows tre production of marine fish in a Caribbean country overthe pcrid r950-2000. (c) In 20fl).4. the annual marine fish production was 5d0 tonnes below the annual production in 1950. tte marine fish production declined at an average rate of 2gg tonnes annually. The MOST significant positive change in fish production occurred over the period (A) 1950-1960 (B) 197G1980 (c) 19811990 (D) r990-2000 u.00 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 Amo 2010 Yeer 8. GO ON TO THENEXT PAGE 02t200t0tcAPE 2016 . (D) For the period 1980-2000.

which illustrates the overall annual monetary contribution of foU"gCr eoral-reef-associated tourism and recreation.1l - Item 45 refers to the following diagrarn. fistreries and shoreline protection services. l8 T.c % lt t0 a G il LorEgtueta o 5a 40 2a Ibuim Ebhcriec Storcfinc and Protc&n Rctrafu tourism and recreation P€r year? 45. . what is the moneary contribution of Tobago's coral-reef-associated (A) US$l0-15 million (B) US$2H0 million (c) US$5G{0 million (D) US$l0fl20 million END OFTEST ON Tms IEST' IFYOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED.'A E Htshcttutir E . CEnCI(YOURWORI( 0212001o/CAPE20t6 .