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Centre Number

Student Number

2011
YEAR 12 MID-YEAR EXAMINATION

Biology
Total marks - 70
General Instructions
This paper has two parts, Part A and Part B

Reading time 5 minutes Part A 14 marks


14 multiple choice questions to be completed
Working time 2 hours of a possible 21 (pages 3 11)
Write using black or blue pen Attempt either questions
1 7 Maintaining a Balance and/or
Draw diagrams using pencil 8 14 Blueprint of life and/or
Use the multiple-choice answer sheet 15 21 Search for Better Health
provided Allow about 30 minutes for this part

Write your Centre Number and Student Part B 56 marks (28 marks per topic)
Number at the top of this page, page 12 (Pages 12 26)
and on the multiple-choice answer sheet Attempt two of:
22 27 Maintaining a Balance (28 marks)
and/or
28 33 Search for a Better Health
(28 marks)
and/or
34 39 Search for Better Health (28 marks)
Allow about 1 hour and 30 minutes for this
part

Disclaimer
Every effort has been made to prepare this Examination in accordance with the Board of Studies documents. No guarantee or warranty is made or
implied that the Examination paper mirrors in every respect the actual HSC Examination question paper in this course. This paper does not constitute
advice nor can it be construed as an authoritative interpretation of Board of Studies intentions. No liability for any reliance, use or purpose related to
this paper is taken. Advice on HSC examination issues is only to be obtained from the NSW Board of Studies. The publisher does not accept any
responsibility for accuracy of papers which have been modified.
MYBIO11_EXAM 1
BLANK PAGE

MYBIO11_EXAM 2
1
2011 YEAR 12 MID-YEAR EXAMINATION
BIOLOGY

Part A 21 marks
Attempt Questions 1-21 (your teacher will advise which questions to choose)
Allow about 25 minutes for this part

Use the multiple-choice answer sheet provided for Questions 1-21

Select the alternative A, B, C or D that best answers the question. Fill in the response oval
completely.
Sample 2 + 4 = (A) 2 (B) 6 (C) 8 (D) 9
A B C D
If you think you have made a mistake, put a cross through the incorrect answer and fill in the
new answer.
A B C D
If you have changed your mind and have crossed out what you consider to be the correct answer,
then indicate this by writing the word correct and drawing an arrow as follows:
correct

A B C D

1 What name is given to the biological process which ensures that an organism maintains
a relatively stable internal environment?

(A) Enantiostasis
(B) Diffusion
(C) Equilibrium
(D) Homeostasis

MYBIO11_EXAM 3
2 What does the graph below represent?

(A) Changes in enzyme activity


(B) A nerve impulse
(C) A feedback mechanism
(D) The immune response

3 Which of the following would be a response found in plants to cope with high ambient
temperatures?

(A) An extensive root system


(B) Storing salt in leaves
(C) Shedding of leaves
(D) Increasing the size of the leaves

4 What is the main adaptive advantage of having haemoglobin in our blood?

(A) Haemoglobin increases the amount of oxygen the blood can carry
(B) Haemoglobin increases the bloods ability to respond and fight off pathogens
(C) Haemoglobin helps to ensure blood clots after injury
(D) Haemoglobin increases the amount of glucose that the blood can carry

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MYBIO11_EXAM 5
5 How would the composition of the blood leaving the lungs compare with the
composition of blood entering the lungs?

Oxygen Carbon dioxide Glucose


Concentration concentration concentration
(A) Increased Increased Decreased
(B) Increased Decreased Decreased
(C) Increased Decreased Increased
(D) Decreased Decreased Increased

6 Scientists are currently researching ways to develop artificial blood substitutes.


Products such as PFC (Perfluorocarbon) and Hemopure are now being tested for
potential use in humans.
What is a disadvantage of these blood substitutes?

(A) They are more likely to carry infection than normal blood
(B) They would only ever be available in small amounts
(C) They cannot be stored as long as normal blood
(D) They are only able to carry out one of the functions of the blood

MYBIO11_EXAM 6
7 Examine the diagram of the human kidney.

X Z

What are the correct labels for the diagram of the kidney shown above?
(A) X = Medulla Y = Cortex Z = Ureter
(B) X = Ureter Y = Cortex Z = Medulla
(C) X = Ureter Y = Medulla Z = Cortex
(D) X = Urethra Y = Cortex Z = Medulla

8 Which scientist (or scientists) were recognised for their development of the chromosomal
theory of inheritance?

(A) Boveri and Sutton


(B) Watson and Crick
(C) Morgan
(D) Mendel

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9 The diagram below represents a model of DNA.

What are the correct labels for this diagram?

M N P Q
(A) Sugar Phosphate Guanine Thymine
(B) Phosphate Sugar Adenine Thymine
(C) Sugar Phosphate Adenine Thymine
(D) Phosphate Sugar Adenine Guanine

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10 The process of DNA replication results in the formation of two new DNA strands.
Why is it important that the DNA is accurately replicated?

(A) To reduce the risk of mutations


(B) So that different proteins can be made
(C) To avoid changes to the genetic code
(D) To provide for variations so that evolution can take place

11 Which of the following examples can be explained by divergent evolution?

(A) Similar shaped fins or flippers in sharks (fish) and whales (mammals)
(B) Different shaped beaks of finches living on the different Galapagos islands
(C) Both the Australian Sugar Glider and the flying squirrel in North America have
an extended flap of skin allowing them to glide from tree to tree
(D) Long protective spines in the European Hedgehog and the Echidna in Australia

12 Permethrin and Deltamethrin are two insecticides that have been used to kill
mosquitoes as a way of trying to control malaria.
Recent studies in the African country of Chad show that the mosquito populations are
now largely resistant to these two insecticides.
What is the best explanation of these results?

(A) The insecticides can cause variations in the mosquitos, leading to increased
resistance
(B) The introduction of these insecticides into the environment can act as a
selecting agent on the mosquito
(C) The insecticides will eventually kill all the mosquitoes
(D) The mosquitoes can change and can develop a resistance to the insecticides

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13 What is the best description of a transgenic organism?

(A) An organism in which a part of the body has been replaced by a part from
another species
(B) An organism produced by transferring a nucleus from one species into an egg
cell from a different species
(C) An organism produced by mating parents from different species
(D) An organism that contains some genes from a different species

14 Australian farmers decide to plant and grow just a single variety of wheat.
What impact will this have on the genetic diversity of wheat?

(A) There will be no change to genetic diversity


(B) Genetic diversity will increase
(C) Genetic diversity will decrease
(D) The genetic diversity will change depending on the environmental conditions

15 Which of the following processes assist the body in maintaining its health?

(A) Mitosis and meiosis


(B) Mitosis and cell differentiation
(C) Mitosis and mutation
(D) Mutation and cell differentiation

16 A cattle breeder discovers that several of his cattle are showing similar symptoms for a
disease. Testing of blood samples from these cattle show a particular virus is present in
all samples.
What would need to be done next to confirm that it is the virus which is causing the
disease?
(A) Inject infected blood into healthy cattle and see if they also develop the same
symptoms
(B) Use the virus to produce a vaccine
(C) Remove the viruses from the blood and see if the animals recover
(D) Inject a pure culture of the virus into healthy cattle and see if they develop the
same symptoms

MYBIO11_EXAM 10
17 What is an antigen?
(A) A chemical that triggers the production of specific antibodies
(B) A chemical produced in response to a pathogen
(C) A chemical released by B cells in the body
(D) A chemical found on the surface of cells which prevents the immune response

18 Smallpox is a disease which, in the 1800s, affected all parts of the planet and killed
millions of people world-wide. A global vaccination program against Smallpox was
started by the World Health Organisation (WHO) in the 1960s.
How effective has this campaign been?

(A) Smallpox now only occurs in very isolated areas


(B) Smallpox is now under control through a continued vaccination program
(C) Smallpox is no longer considered to exist on this planet
(D) Smallpox vaccinations are still needed, but only in some countries

19 What is the main purpose of epidemiology?

(A) To identify information on the occurrence, causes and spread of diseases


(B) To study epidemics
(C) To study how diseases evolve
(D) To examine skin-related diseases

20 Scientists talk about treatment and prevention of diseases.


Which of the following is a treatment for Malaria?

(A) Spraying insecticides to kill mosquitoes


(B) Taking anti-malarial medication (e.g. chloroquine)
(C) Using mosquito nets and screens
(D) Using insect repellent and wearing protective clothing

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21 What is the primary role of quarantine in Australia?

(A) To improve our treatment of individuals with diseases


(B) To find ways of developing disease-resistant species
(C) To keep healthy and diseased animals separate
(D) To try and prevent the entry into Australia of harmful diseases or to stop the
spread of diseases within Australia

MYBIO11_EXAM 12
2011 YEAR 12 MID-YEAR EXAMINATION
BIOLOGY

Centre Number

Student Number

Part B 56 marks
Attempt Questions 22-27 Maintaining a Balance (28 marks) AND/OR
28-33 Blueprint of Life (28 marks) AND/OR
34-39 Search for Better Health (28 marks)
Allow about 1 hour and 35 minutes for this part

Answer the questions in the spaces provided.


Show all relevant working in questions involving calculations.

Question 22 (3 marks) Marks

Identify the role of the kidney in the excretory systems of fish and mammals. 3

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Question 23 (4 marks) Marks

(a) Identify the forms in which lipids are carried in the blood. 1

(b) Explain why the removal of carbon dioxide from cells is essential. 3

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Question 24 (4 marks) Marks

Compare the responses of a named Australian endotherm and a named Australian 4


ectotherm to an increase in the ambient temperature and explain how these responses
assist temperature regulation.

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Question 25 (5 marks)

Describe the effects of temperature on the activity of enzymes and use your knowledge 5
of the chemical composition of enzymes to explain these effects.

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Question 26 (5 marks) Marks

Both plants and animals need a system to transport materials around their body.
(a) Compare one aspect of the structure of arteries and veins in relation to their 2
function.

(b) Draw a labelled diagram of the longitudinal section of the tissues responsible for 3
transport in plants.

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Question 27 (7 marks) Marks

(a) Distinguish between the processes of active and passive transport, using examples 4
from the processes occurring in the mammalian kidney to support your answer.

(b) Kidney function depends on various hormones. 3


Outline the role that ADH (vasopressin) plays in the kidney.

MYBIO11_EXAM 17
Question 28 (3 marks) Marks

Use an example to distinguish between an allele and a gene. 3

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Question 29 (4 marks)

(a) In one of Mendels experiments he crossed two tall pea plants and the resulting 2
offspring contained a mixture of tall and short pea plants.
Explain how this could occur.

(b) Mendels work was not recognised until some years after his death. Outline 2
reasons why this might have happened.

MYBIO11_EXAM 18
Question 30 (4 marks) Marks

Use a labelled flow chart to outline the process by which DNA controls polypeptide 4
production.

MYBIO11_EXAM 19
Question 31 (5 marks) Marks

Different theories about evolution have been developed, particularly over the last two 5
hundred years.
Assess how political and social factors have influenced the development of these
theories.

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Question 32 (5 marks) Marks

(a) Outline an investigation you have conducted which demonstrates the effect that 3
the environment can have on the phenotype of an organism.

(b) How did you ensure that your investigation was both valid and reliable? 2

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Question 33 (7 marks) Marks

Variation is essential for the process of natural selection. 7


Explain how variation comes about and assess how a current reproductive technology
may affect variation in a population.

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Question 34 (3 marks) Marks

The data below contains information about the total number of deaths in Australia in 3
2005 from various internal cancers.

Type of cancer Male deaths Female deaths


Lung 4711 2716
Bowel 2322 1843
Prostate 2949 -
Breast - 2707

Present this data using an appropriate graph.

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Question 35 (4 marks) Marks

A student wrote the following description of a pathogen:

The pathogen was single-celled and I could clearly see a nucleus. The cell did not
seem to have a cell wall.

(a) Identify what type of pathogen the student was describing and give an example of 2
a disease caused by this type of pathogen.

(b) Explain the role antibiotics would play in the treatment of the disease identified
in (a). 2

Question 36 (4 marks)

When a pathogen has got past the human bodys outer defence barriers, such as the 4
skin, it encounters several non-specific defence adaptations.
Describe how TWO of these adaptations work to reduce the spread of the pathogen
through the body.

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Question 37 (5 marks) Marks

Describe the role that T cells and B cells play in the vaccination process. 5

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Question 38 (4 marks) Marks

Natural disasters, such as flooding, raise concerns about the health of people and the
spread of diseases in the areas affected.

(a) Discuss a problem that is encountered when trying to define health and 2`
disease.

(b) Explain why the provision of clean water assists in control of disease. 2

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Question 39 (7 marks) Marks

During the course you have studied a non-infectious disease.

(a) Complete the table below. 4

Name of non-
infectious disease
Symptoms

Occurrence

Cause

(b) Describe the main features of the epidemiological studies that would have been 3
carried out to gather the information presented in the table above.

MYBIO11_EXAM 27
Centre Number Student Number
2011 YEAR 12 MID-YEAR EXAMINATION

BIOLOGY MULTIPLE CHOICE ANSWER SHEET


14 Questions to be attempted
Question 1 A B C D

2 A B C D

3 A B C D

4 A B C D

5 A B C D

6 A B C D

7 A B C D

8 A B C D

9 A B C D

10 A B C D

11 A B C D

12 A B C D

13 A B C D

14 A B C D

15 A B C D

16 A B C D

17 A B C D

18 A B C D

19 A B C D

20 A B C D

21 A B C D

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