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2014 HSC MID-YEAR EXAMINATION

BIOLOGY MAPPING GRID

Exam Question Marks Syllabus/Course Content Targeted Answer


Section Outcomes Performance
Bands
Part A: 1 1 H3, H6 9.2.2.2.2 2-3 C
Multiple 2 1 H6, H11 9.2.2.3.2 5-6 A
Choice 3 1 H7 9.2.1.2.8 3 A
4 1 H7 9.2.3.2.8 2-3 C
5 1 H2, H6 9.2.2.2.3 4-5 A
6 1 H1, H6 9.2.2.2.6 4-5 B
7 1 H6 9.2.3.2.4 4 D
8 1 H6 9.2.3.3.4 4 C
9 1 H3, H6 9.2.2.3.5 4 B
10 1 H2, H9 9.3.3.2.3 5 B
11 1 H4, H7 9.3.4.2.3 2-4 D
12 1 H7, H10 9.3.1.2.3 3-4 A
13 1 H2, H9 9.3.3.2.1 3-5 D
14 1 H10 9.3.3.2.2 2-3 C
15 1 H4, H9 9.3.3.2.6 4-5 A
16 1 H2, H9 9.3.3.2.3 4 B
17 1 H4, H9 9.3.2.3.3 3-4 B
18 1 H2, H9 9.3.4.3.2 5 C
19 1 H1, H6 9.4.4.2.3 4-5 A
20 1 H6 9.4.4.2.4 4 C
21 1 H8 9.4.6.2.2 3-5 A
22 1 H4, H6 9.4.4.3.1 3-4 A
23 1 H1, H4, H8 9.4.3.3.2 2-3 B
24 1 H9 9.4.1.3.1 4 D
25 1 H8 9.4.3.2.3 4-6 C
26 1 H4, H6 9.4.3.3.3 2 C
27 1 H6, H7 9.4.3.2.2 4 B
Part B: 28 3 H2, H6 9.2.1.3.2 4-6
Free 9.2.3.2.7
Response 9.2.3.3.3
29 (a) 1 H2, H6, H13 9.2.1.3.1 2-3
29 (b) 2 H2, H6, H13 9.2.1.3.1 3-4
30 (a) 4 H6, H13 9.2.3.3.1 3-5
30 (b) 1 H6 9.2.3.2.6 4
30 (c) 1 H6 9.2.3.2.6 4
31 4 H6 9.2.1.2.3 3-5
9.2.1.2.5
32 3 H6 9.2.3.2.5 3-4

Disclaimer
Every effort has been made to prepare this Examination in accordance with the Board of Studies documents. No guarantee or warranty is
made or implied that the Examination paper mirrors in every respect the actual HSC Examination question paper in this course. This paper
does not constitute advice nor can it be construed as an authoritative interpretation of Board of Studies intentions. No liability for any
reliance use or purpose related to this paper is taken. Advice on HSC examination issues is only to be obtained from the NSW Board of
Studies. The publisher does not accept any responsibility for accuracy of papers which have been modified.
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33 7 H1, H3, H4, H6, 9.2.2.2.2 5-6
H13 9.2.2.3.3
9.2.2.3.4
9.2.2.3.5
34 3 H8, H9 9.3.3.3.2 4
35(a) 3 H4, H8, H10 9.3.1.2.1 3-5
9.3.4.3.4
35(b) 1 H12 9.1.12.4e 4
36 5 H4, H6, H7, H8, 9.3.5.2.2 4-6
H16 9.3.5.3.2
37 3 H1, H10 9.3.1.3.4 3-5
38(a) 4 H9, H13 9.3.2.3.1 3-5
38(b) 2 H9 9.3.2.2.6 2-4
39 5 H1, H5, H9, H13 9.3.5.3.1 4-6
40 3 H2, H6, H13 9.4.5.1.1 4-6
41 (a) 4 H13 9.4.6.3.2 3-5
41 (b) 1 H14 9.4.6.3.2 3
42(a) 4 H6, H8 9.4.3.2.1 3-4
42(b) 2 H4, H8, H16 9.4.3.2.1 4
43 (a) 2 H8 9.4.4.2.1 2-3
43 (b) 2 H6, H8 9.4.5.2.3 3-5
44 3 H1, H8 9.4.7.2.1 3-5
45 (a) 1 H11 9.4.2.3.1 3-5
45 (b) 4 H11, H12, H13, 9.4.2.3.1 4-5
H14

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2014 HSC MID-YEAR EXAMINATION

BIOLOGY MARKING GUIDELINES

Part A 18 marks
Questions 1-27 (1 mark each)

Question Correct Response Outcomes Assessed Targeted


Performance Bands
1 C H3, H6 2-3
2 A H6, H11 5-6
3 A H7 3
4 C H7 5
5 A H2, H6 5-6
6 B H1, H6 4-5
7 D H6 4
8 C H6 4
9 B H3, H6 3
10 B H2, H9 5
11 D H4, H7 4-6
12 A H7, H10 3-4
13 D H2, H9 3-5
14 C H10 2-3
15 A H4, H9 4-5
16 B H2, H9 4
17 B H4, H9 3-4
18 C H2, H9 5-6
19 A H1, H6 4-5
20 C H6 4
21 A H8 3-5
22 A H4, H6 3-4
23 B H1, H4, H8 2-3
24 D H9 4
25 C H8 4-6
26 C H4, H6 2
27 B H6, H7 4

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Part B 52 marks

Question 28 (3 marks)
Outcomes Assessed: H2, H6
Targeted Performance Bands: 5
Criteria Marks
Negative feedback loop drawn (indicating change in balance, release in 3
aldosterone and response to bring it back to balance)
The above drawn but not as negative feedback 2
Identification that aldosterone controls salt 1

Sample answer aldosterone released

Low salt levels in blood salt reabsorbed into blood

Correct salt levels


Question 29 (3 marks)
29 (a) (1 mark)
Outcomes Assessed: H2, H6, H13
Targeted Performance Bands: 2-3
Criteria Mark
Correct identification of graphs 1
Sample answer
First graph is effect of temperature on enzyme.
Second graph is effect of substrate concentration.

29 (b) (2 marks)
Outcomes Assessed: H2, H6, H13
Targeted Performance Bands: 3-4
Criteria Marks
Provides a cause and effect for the shape of the graph 2
States one correct cause OR effect 1
Sample answer
Graph A effect of substrate concentration: the line increases to a point from where it flattens
out. An increase in substrate concentration can no longer increase the speed of the reaction
because all of the enzyme active sites are being utilised.
OR
Graph B effect of temperature: the line increases to a point and then it declines sharply. This
is the optimal temperature above which the enzyme is denatured.

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Question 30 (6 marks)
30 (a) (4 marks)
Outcomes Assessed: H6, H13
Targeted Performance Bands: 3-5
Criteria Marks
Longitudinal diagram indicating medulla, cortex and renal pelvis 4
A diagram (but not longitudinal section) with the regions correct labelled 3
Or longitudinal diagram and 2 regions correctly labelled
A diagram (but not longitudinal section) with 2 regions correct labelled 2
Or longitudinal diagram and 1 region correctly labelled
A longitudinal diagram of kidney but no regions labelled 1

Sample answer

30 (b) (1 mark)
Outcomes Assessed: H6
Targeted Performance Bands: 4
Criteria Mark
Correct name provided 1

Sample answer
Nephron.

30 (c) (1 mark)
Outcomes Assessed: H6
Targeted Performance Bands: 4
Criteria Mark
Nephron indicated in correct position in diagram 1

Sample answer
See 30(a).

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Question 31 (4 marks)
Outcomes Assessed: H6
Targeted Performance Bands: 3-5
Criteria Marks
Two stages of homeostasis correctly identified in relation to an example, 4
and a cause and effect given of why it is important
Two stages of homeostasis correctly identified and a correct statement 3
about why it is important OR
One stage of homeostasis correctly identified and a cause and effect given
of why it is important OR
Two stages of homeostasis correctly identified and a cause and effect given
of why it is important but no example given
Two stages of homeostasis correctly identified OR 2
a cause and effect given of why it is important
One stage of homeostasis correctly identified OR 1
a correct statement about why it is important

Sample answer
Homeostasis consists of two stages: detecting the change from a stable state and then
counteracting the change. For example: when an increase in the body temperature is detected
the body responds by shivering. Homeostasis is important as an increase in temperature will
result in the enzymes not functioning at their optimal levels.

Question 32 (3 marks)
Outcomes Assessed: H6
Targeted Performance Bands: 3-4
Criteria Marks
Correct example of active transport in the kidney provided and a cause and 3
effect as to why passive transport is not viable
Correct example of active transport in the kidney provided and a statement 2
as to why passive transport is not viable
Correct example of active transport in the kidney provided 1

Sample answer
The reabsorption of ions such as potassium is an example of active transport in the kidney.
Passive transport is not viable as the potassium is moving against a concentration gradient and
as such requires energy.

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Question 33 (7 marks)
Outcomes Assessed: H1, H3, H4, H6, H13
Targeted Performance Bands: 5-6
Criteria Marks
Refers to structure (1) and function (1) of blood and makes a judgement (1) 7
of how this affected at least two technologies (2) and at least two
implications (2)
6 of the above mentioned 6
5 of the above mentioned 5
4 of the above mentioned 4
3 of the above mentioned 3
2 of the above mentioned 2
1 of the above mentioned 1

Sample answer
Our understanding that blood is made up of a number of components and that each has a
different function, such as red blood cells which transport oxygen around the body, leukocytes
(white blood cells) which attach antigens and platelets that cause blood to clot, has been
essential in development of technologies used in the health industry. An example is the blood
gas analyser that measures the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in a blood sample. This
has provided surgeons with more information about how their patient is progressing
especially during surgery. This has contributed to increasing the success of surgical
procedures.
Another technological development has the creation of artificial blood. We know that blood
has a limited shelf life and requires refrigeration that makes storage of blood in areas that it is
often needed most, such as war zones, very difficult. Artificial blood has attempted to
overcome this as it does not need to be refrigerated and therefore can be safely used to save
lives in war zones.

Question 34 (3 marks)
Outcomes Assessed: H8, H9
Targeted Performance Bands: 4
Criteria Marks
Correct genotype and phenotypes of parents in a punnet square with a key 3
Correct genotype and phenotypes of parents in a punnet square (but no key) 2
or a key explaining symbols and a punnet square appropriately used
One of the three correct 1

Sample answer
RR = red
WW = white
RW = roan

Parents: Red RR X White WW.

R R
W RW RW
W RW RW

All offspring roan RW.

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Question 35 (4 marks)
35 (a) (3 marks)
Outcomes Assessed: H4, H8, H10
Targeted Performance Bands: 3-5
Criteria Marks
Example given and clear description of Darwins key points 3
- variation in population
- environmental pressure (survival of the fittest)
- characteristics passed on by reproduction
Two of the above mentioned in relation to example OR 2
Darwins key points covered but no example given
One of Darwins points covered 1

Sample answer
Peppered Moth
The population of pepper moths show variation in that some are a slightly darker colour than
others. The environment changed with pollution making the bark of the trees where the
moths live a darker colour. Those moths that were lighter colour were more obvious to their
bird predators. As a result the darker moths survived and passed this characteristic onto their
offspring. The population began to change from lighter coloured moths to darker coloured
moths.

35 (b) (1 mark)
Outcomes Assessed: H12
Targeted Performance Bands: 4
Criteria Mark
Correct statement in relation to reliability of secondary sources 1

Sample answer
The same information was found on a number of reputable sites.

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Question 36 (5 marks)
Outcomes Assessed: H4, H6, H7, H8, H16
Targeted Performance Bands: 4-6
Criteria Marks
Demonstrates thorough knowledge of transgenic species, how they are 5
developed and used and evaluates how the image relates to this
Demonstrates sound knowledge of transgenic species, how they are 4
developed and used and evaluates how the image relates to this
Demonstrates sound knowledge of transgenic species, how they are 3
developed and used (does not link to picture)
A brief outline of transgenic species and the picture 2
A correct statement about transgenic species 1

Sample answer
A transgenic species is one that has had a gene from one species inserted into the DNA of
another species. A spidergoat is an example of this. The gene for the protein which spiders
use to spin their webs was inserted into the goat. As a result the goat produces this protein in
its milk. The protein is extracted and you now have a large supply of this very strong fibre.
The picture does not truly depict this situation as it looks like a goat with spider legs.
However in reality the goat looks like a goat as it only produces extra protein in its milk. The
picture promotes misinformation about transgenic species and does not indicate the valuable
uses of transgenic species

Question 37 (3 marks)
Outcomes Assessed: H1, H10
Targeted Performance Bands: 3-5
Criteria Marks
Clearly links how advances in technology have changed (states the before and 3
after) of a specific evolutionary relationship
Briefly links a technology to an evolutionary relationship (but does not indicate 2
how it changed)
Mentions a technology that is used to study evolutionary relationships Or 1
Mentions a change in evolutionary relationships not linking to a technology
Sample answer
We used to think we were not closely related to any of the other primates and that the gorillas,
chimps and orang-utans were closely related. However after the development of DNA
sequencing technologies it was discovered that there is a 98% similarity between us and
chimpanzees and we share a closer relationship with them and gorillas whereas the orang-utan
branched off at an earlier point.

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Question 38 (6 marks)
38 (a) (4 marks)
Outcomes Assessed: H9, H13
Targeted Performance Bands: 3-5
Criteria Marks
Pedigree has the following feature: 4
- illustrates three clear generations
- key
- correct symbols for male/female and albinism/non albinism
- accurately depicts the information given
3 of the above 3
2 of the above 2
1 of the above 1

Sample answer

Female with albinism

Female without albinism

Male with Albinism

Male without
albinism

38 (b) (2 marks)
Outcomes Assessed: H9
Targeted Performance Bands: 2-4
Criteria Marks
Provides an argument for recessive condition 2
States condition is recessive 1

Sample Answer
Albinism is recessive, as the two parents in the second generation do not show the
characteristic two of their children do. This could only happen if the parents carried the
recessive allele in their genotype.

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Question 39 (5 marks)
Outcomes Assessed: H1, H5, H9, H13
Targeted Performance Bands: 4-6
Criteria Marks
Thorough understanding of a cloning methodology illustrated in a flow 5
chart and same genotype individuals circled
Thorough understanding of a cloning methodology illustrated in a flow 4
chart OR
Good understanding of a cloning methodology in a flow chart and same
genotype individuals circled
Good understanding of a cloning methodology (but not in flow chart) and 3
same genotype individuals circled OR
Flow chart with one correct point on a cloning methodology 2
Flow chart drawn or one correct point on a cloning methodology 1

Sample answer
Tissue donor Egg donor

Nucleus from cell Denucleated egg

Nucleus inserted into egg

Embryo

Transplanted into

Clone

NOTE: shading indicates individuals with same genotype.

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Question 40 (3 marks)
Outcomes Assessed: H2, H6, H13
Targeted Performance Bands: 4-6
Criteria Marks
Three parts correctly identified and function provided 3
Two parts correctly identified and function provided 2
One part correctly identified and function provided 1

Sample answer
Part Name Description of function

X Antigen Triggers the immune system

Y Plasma Cell Produces many antibodies

Z Antibody Destroys the antigens

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Question 41 (5 marks)
41 (a) (4 marks)
Outcomes Assessed: H13
Targeted Performance Bands: 3-5
Criteria Marks
Excellently presented graph 4
- both axis labelled
- Scale linear
- Points accurate
- Curve drawn
Good presentation of graph 3
3 of the above
Standard of graph 2
2 of the above
Poor presentation of graph 1
1 of the above

Sample answer

41 (b) (1 mark)
Outcomes Assessed: H14
Targeted Performance Bands: 3
Criteria Mark
Correct relationship stated 1

Sample answer
As the mothers age increases so does her chance of having a Down Syndrome child.

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Question 42 (6 marks)
42 (a) (4 marks)
Outcomes Assessed: H6, H8
Targeted Performance Bands: 3-4
Criteria Marks
4 key steps of postulates outlined 4
- microbe is found in all animals which suffer the disease and is cultured
- microbe is injected into a healthy animal
- that animal develops the symptoms of the disease
- the microbe is found in this second animal and cultured
3 points covered 3
2 points covered 2
1 point covered 1

Sample answer
- The microbe is found in the original mouse with the symptoms of the disease, it is isolated
and grown in culture
- the microbes are injected into a healthy mouse
- the mouse develops the symptoms of the disease; in this case it is dead
- the same microbe is found in the dead mouse and this is again grown in culture

42 (b) (2 marks)
Outcomes Assessed: H4, H8, H16
Targeted Performance Bands: 4
Criteria Marks
Identifies an ethical issue and provides points for or against 2
Identifies an ethical issue 1

Sample answer
If we applied Kochs postulates as outlined above to humans it would require injecting a
healthy person with the suspected disease causing pathogen. If the symptoms are severe that
person could get very sick and even die. This of course is unacceptable.

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Question 43 (5 marks)
43 (a) (2 marks)
Outcomes Assessed: H8
Targeted Performance Bands: 2-3
Criteria Marks
Four defence barriers indicated 2
2 or 3 defence barriers indicated 1

Sample answer

Ear wax
Saliva

Nasal hairs

Skin

43 (b) (2 marks)
Outcomes Assessed: H6, H8
Targeted Performance Bands: 3-5
Criteria Marks
Clear outline of how vaccinations work 2
Brief point of how vaccinations work 1

Sample answer
A vaccine mimics the pathogen which stimulates your immune system to produce antibodies
to attack the antigens being presented. If you come across the pathogen again your
lymphocytes will attack it immediately preventing the disease from taking hold.

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Question 44 (3 marks)
Outcomes Assessed: H1, H8
Targeted Performance Bands: 3-5
Criteria Marks
Thorough discussion providing points for and/or against 3
Brief discussion providing points for and/or against 2
Mentions one point about quarantine 1

Sample answer

Australia has generally been fortunate in preventing the spread of plant and animal disease
from other parts of the world because of its geographical isolation. Quarantine seeks to
prevent the entry of harmful diseases into Australia and to stop the spread of diseases within
Australia.

These diseases cause huge financial losses to farmers in other countries. Australia is able to
sell its products to overseas markets because of the absence of diseases, like mad cow disease
and foot-and-mouth.

Australia also has declared fruit-fly free areas where the produce is sold with a guarantee of
no fruit fly. This can be done by having inspections and bins to put fruit in when entering
particular fruit growing areas

Question 45 (5 marks)
45 (a) (1 mark)
Outcomes Assessed: H11
Targeted Performance Bands: 3-5
Criteria Mark
One appropriate risk and precaution identified 1

Sample answer
The agar plates were sealed after streaking and were not opened again to prevent the spread of
the bacteria that had grown.

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45 (b) (4 marks)
Outcomes Assessed: H11, H12, H13, H14
Targeted Performance Bands: 4-5
Criteria Marks
Clear, concise, reliable and valid method 4
- reliable repeated or more than one plate per source
- control included
- valid controlled variables identifiable
- easy to follow and appropriate
Only 3 of the above 3
Only 2 of the above 2
One of the above 1

Sample answer
1. Water samples were collected in sample containers from the four different areas:
- bubblers
- bird bath
- rain water
- toilets
- distilled water (control)
2. 15 agar plates, 3 for each source, were labelled with date and water source
3. A cotton bud was dipped in the first water sample (bubbler), the lid was removed from the
agar plate and the cotton bud carefully rubbed over the surface
4. This was repeated with the other two plates labelled bubbler
5. Steps 3 and 4 were repeated for the other water sources
6. All plates were then placed in an incubator at 38 oC for 3 days
7. Microbial growth was observed (number of colonies, colour and description) and recorded

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