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the cause of this motion. We will study in this chapter the position

vector, velocity and acceleration; and the relation between them

and there dependence on time.

In this section we will study the position vector of a particle, and the velocity and the

acceleration of a particle in Cartesian (or Rectangular) coordinates.

In a given Cartesian reference system, the position of a

particle can be specified by a single vector, namely, the

coordinate system. This vector is called the position

vector of the particle. In rectangular (Cartesian)

coordinates (Figure 1), the position vector is simply

r

r = x x + y y + z z

(eq 1)

The unit vector is the unit vector in the positive x direction, similarly and .

The components of the position vector of a moving particle are functions of the time (t),

namely,

x = x(t) y = y(t) z = z(t). (eq 2)

In a time interval , the particle will change its position say from

to . The

displacement vector of the particle is

=

(eq 3)

r r

Velocity. If vector r is the position vector of a moving particle then the derivative of r

with respect to time t is called the velocity, which we shall denote by :

r

r dr

v= (eq 4)

dt

Or

= + + (eq 5)

where the dots indicate differentiation with respect to time t. (This convention is standard

and is used throughout this book.). That means , , and .

r

position at time t. At a time (t+t) later, the particle will move from the position r (t) to the

r

position r (t + t). The vector displacement during the time interval t is

r r r

r (t)= r (t + t) r (t) (eq 6)

of a moving particle as the

limit of the ratio /t.

r

So the quotient ( r /t) is a vector that is parallel to the displacement. As we consider

r

r dr

smaller and smaller time intervals, the quotient ( r /t) approaches a limit , which we

dt

r

dr

call the velocity. The vector expresses both the direction of motion and the rate. This is

dt

shown graphically in Figure 2. In the time interval t, the particle moves along the path

from P to P. As t approaches zero, the point P approaches P, and the direction of the

r

vector ( r /t) approaches the direction of the tangent to the path at P. The velocity vector,

therefore, is always tangent to the path of motion. *)

Speed. The magnitude of the velocity is called the speed. In rectangular components the

speed is just

= || (eq 7)

Acceleration. The time derivative of the velocity is called the acceleration. Denoting the

acceleration with , we have

r r

r d v d2 r

a= = 2 (eq 9)

dt dt

= + + (eq 10)

d 2x

&x& and so on. Also notice that &x& = v&x = ax , &y& = v& y = a y , and &z& = v&z = az .

dt 2

4 Examples

Let us study four examples in which the position vector is given. We will derive the

velocity and the acceleration from the position vector.

Example 1

#

The position vector of a particle is given as = ! + 2 +

all in SI units.

(a) Find the velocity of particle.

(b) Find the acceleration of particle.

(c) What are the magnitude and the direction of the acceleration at time t = 3 s?

(d) What is the angle between the acceleration and the velocity at t= 3 s?

Example 2 projectile.

Let us examine the motion represented by the equation

)

$% = $&% + '( * +

This represents motion in the xy-plane, because the z component is zero.

Calculate the velocity and the acceleration.

Example 3 circular motion

Suppose the position vector of a particle is given by

= $& cos 3 % + $& sin 3 %

where b and are positive constants.

Let us analyze the motion

Example 4 Rolling Wheel

The positon vector of a particle on the rim of a rolling wheel is given by:

= ) + (eq. A)

And

) = &3 + & (eq. B)

= & sin 3 + & cos 3 (eq. C)

The first vector is the position of the center of the wheel, which moves in the parallel to

the x-axis on the line y = b

)

) = = $&3 + &%

) = &3 (eq. D)

Vector is the position of the particle with respect to the center of the wheel. It looks like

the position vector in example 3.

= = $ & sin 3 + & cos 3%

= & cos 3 3& sin 3 (eq. E)

The velocity of the particle with respect to x-y farm is

= ) + = $& + & cos 3 % 3& sin 3 (eq. F)

8 : 8

At times = 0, , , equations A, B, and C

9 9

tell us that the particle is at highest point, at =

2&. The velocities of the particle at these times are

= 23&, twice the velocity of the wheel.

8 !8 <8

At times = , , equations A, B, and C

9 9 9

tell us that the particle is at lowest point, at = 0,

and is instantaneously in contact with the ground.

The velocities of the particle at these times are = 0, twice the velocity of the wheel.

2.2 Kinematics in plane polar coordinates.

In this section we will study the position vector of a particle, and the velocity and the

acceleration of a particle in 2-dimintional plane polar coordinates.

Positon vector. It is often convenient to employ polar coordinates r, to express the

position of a particle moving in a plane. Vectorially, the position of the particle can be

written as the product of the radial distance r by a unit radial vector

Then the positon vector is

= (eq 11)

= cos = + sin = (eq 12)

and

=> = sin = + cos = (eq 13)

Velocity. As the particle moves, both and vary; thus, they are both functions of the

time. Hence, if we differentiate with respect to time t, we have

= = $ %

= + (eq. 14)

?

We want to investigate

. If we differentiate equation 11 with respect to time t, we get

= =

= sin = + cos =

@ @ B

Notice that I used the chain rule = . Now take

as a common factor,

=

= C sin = + cos = D

Compare the last equation with equation 13, we easily recognize that

=

= =>

(eq. 15 a)

= = => (eq. 15 b)

Now, substitude form 15 into 14 we get,

?

Remember that . Equation 16 describes velocity in the plane polar coordinates.

Thus, r& is the radial component of the velocity vector, and r& is the transverse

component.

? = , E B = = (eq. 17)

Acceleration. To find the acceleration vector, we take the time derivative of the velocity

r

r dv

(equation 16), i.e. a = . This gives

dt

= = F + = => G

= =>

= H + I + J = => + => + = K

(eq. 18)

?

As we see from equation 15,

=> =

=

(eq. 19)

= L + = => M + F = => + = => + = L = MG

ar = &r& r& 2 (eq 22)

a = r&& + 2r&& (eq 22)

Or we may write the transverse component as the flowing,

1

B = L = M (eq. 23)

The proof of equation 23 is lift for the student as an exercise (see problem 2). So, the

acceleration in polar coordinates can be written as

1

= L = M + O L = MP =>

(eq. 24)

The above results show, for instance, that if a particle moves on a circle of constant radius

b, so that r& = 0, then the radial component of the acceleration is of magnitude b& 2 and is

directed inward toward the center of the circular path. The transverse component in this

case is b&& . On the other hand, if the particle moves along a fixed radial line that is, if

is constantthen the radial component is just &r& and the transverse component is zero. If r

and both vary, then the general expression (eq 23) gives the acceleration.

Example 5

A honeybee hones in on its hive in a spiral path in such a way that the radial distance

decreases at a constant rate, r = b c t, while the angular speed increases at a constant

Example 6

On a horizontal turntable that is rotating at constant angular speed, a bug is crawling

outward on a radial line such that its distance from the center increases quadratically with

time: r = b t2, = t, where b and are constants.

Find the acceleration of the bug.

Problems

Q

B B

(1) Show that = (In fact this is equation 19).

1

L = M = = + 2 =

We need this, to justify equation 23.

= & + ( !

) S

Calculate the angle between the velocity and the acceleration at time = R

T

= 12.5 m/s and slow

X

down at rate '2 YZ + . When and where does it stop momentary?

(5) A car moves on a circle of constant radius R. The speed of the car increases with

time t according to the equation v = c t, where c is a positive constant. Calculate

[

the angle between the velocity and the acceleration at time = R T

(6) A particle moves on a circle of constant radius (5.6 m). The speed of the car

\

increases with time t according to the equation = '2.0 + .

]#

Calculate the angle between the velocity vector and the acceleration vector at time

t = 2.0 s.

(7) A small ball is fastened to a long rubber band and twirled around in such a way

that the ball moves in an elliptical path given by the equation

$% = ^ cos 3 + 2^ sin 3

where R and are constants. Find the speed of the ball as a function of time t. in

particular, find speed v at time t = 0 and at t= /(2), at which times the ball is,

respectively, at its minimum and maximum distances from the origin.

(8) A small ball is fastened to a long rubber band and twirled around in such a way

that the ball moves in an elliptical path given by the equation

$% = C2 cos$8` %D + C5 sin$8` %D

where all constants are in SI units.

(a) Find the speed of the ball at times t = 0, t= 7.5 s, and 16 s.

(b) Find the speed of the particle and the angle between the velocity and ,

when the angle between and x-axis is 45.

(9) A bee goes out from its hive in a spiral path given in plane polar coordinates by

r = b ekt, =ct

where b, k, and c are positive constants.

(a) Show that the angle between the velocity vector and the acceleration vector

remains constant as the bee moves outward.

(b) For b=1.0 m, k=0.5 s-1, and = 4.0 rad/s; find the angle between the velocity

vector and the acceleration vector.

(c) What is the tangential and normal acceleration at time = 2 s, in the case (b)

r r r r

(10) Prove that v a = vv& and, hence, that for a moving particle v and a are

perpendicular to each other if the speed v is constant.

r r 2

(Hint: Differentiate both sides of the equation v v = v with respect to time t. Note, v& is not the

r

same as a . It is the magnitude of the acceleration of the particle along its instantaneous direction

of motion.)

r

d r r r r r d a

(11) Prove that [r (v a )] = r v

dt dt

(12) Show that the tangential component of the acceleration of a moving particle is

given by the expression

r r

va

a =

v

and the normal component is therefore

1

r r

2 (v a )2 2

an = a

v2

r r v3

(13) Prove that v a = , where is the radius of curvature of the path of a moving

particle.

End of chapter 2

19 June 2016

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