This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Epictetus' Enchiridion. Translation and minimalist notes by Julien Villeneuve (j(at)methexis(dot)org) (c) 2005 Julien Villeneuve, for personal use only. Reproduction is strictly forbidden without prior consent. I Among existing things, some are up to us, and others are not up to us. Up to us is conception, impulse, desire, aversion, and in a word, everything which is our business; not up to us is our body, property, fame, office, and in a word, everything which is not our business. The things which are up to us are by nature free, unhindered, unimpeded, while the things which are not up to us are weak, slavish, subject to hindrance and belong to another. Remember, therefore, that if you think that the things which are slavish by nature are free and that those who belong to another are your own, you will be hindered, you will lament, you will be confused and you will blame both gods and men, but if you think that only the things which are your own are your own, and that those which belong to another belong, as they in fact do, to another, no one will ever coerce you, no one will hinder you, you will blame no one, you will indict no one, you will not do a single thing unwillingly, you will have no enemy, no one will deceive you, for you will not be swayed by any harmful thing. Therefore, having set your sights on such great deeds, remember that to lay hold of them you must not set yourself in motion moderately, but must give up some things entirely, and set aside others in regards to present circumstances. If you also want these, e.g. office and wealth, perhaps you will not obtain these latter things, because you also aim at the former, and at any rate you will fail to get the former things altogether, the sole deeds from which freedom and happiness proceed. Hence straightaway practice to tell every harsh representation: "You are a representation and not at all what you appear to be." Afterwards examine it and test it by these rules which you have, and this is most assuredly the first: whether these representations are about these things which are up to us, or about those which are not up to us; and if it is about some thing which is not up to us, have at hand that answer: "It is nothing to me." II Remember that the promise of desire is to attain what you desire, the promise of aversion is not to fall into that which is avoided, and that he who fails in his desire is without luck, while he who falls into what he avoids is ill-fortuned. If, therefore, you only avoid the things which, among those which are up to you, are against nature, you will never fall into these things which you avoid. But if you seek to avoid sickness, death and poverty, you will be ill-fortuned. Therefore, take away your aversion from all of the things which are not up to us and transfer it to the things which are, among those which are up to us, against nature. Yet at present time abolish desire altogether. For if you desire one of the things which are not up to us, you will necessarily be without luck, and yet
you will have [this thought] at hand: "But I did not only want this [viz. however the judgment. but preemptively recognizes that. this is what is dreadful. remember to think about what kind of thing it is. hard to render in translation. 1. If you are going out to bathe. only with the choice itself. we should never blame another. viz. For when it dies. since it would have also seemed thus to Socrates. For thus if something happens as a hindrance to your bathing. his/her intentions might be thwarted by nature. but [only] one's judgments about these things. remind yourself of what kind is this task. Therefore." And likewise for every task. insofar as it is fine to desire them. put before your mind2 the things which [usually] happen at a public bath. our judgments. with reserve. and at any rate use them lightly.1 III In the presence of each of the things which allure you. That is. beginning with the littlest things. It is the business of an uneducated person to blame another.2 none of the things which are up to us. after something wicked happens to him. IV Whenever you are about to begin some task. think that you are kissing a human. Death. think “I am fond of a jug”. at any given moment. 2. which provide advantage or of which you are fond. 'guarding') confirm that Epictetus intends this doubleentendre.people splashing about. Later uses of the verb 'THRE/W' (to 'keep'. Instead solely use choice and refusal. but ourselves. [it is the business] of one who has begun to be educated [to blame] himself. and in an unconcerned manner. whenever we are hindered or troubled or sad. And thus you will begin your task more securely. This follows from the 'reserve clause' just mentioned. without being concerned by the consequence of your choice once it is made. railing at one another. I shall not keep it [thus]. The verb 'PROBA/LLW' also has a 'defensive' connotation in this context. that it is dreadful. for should it break you will not be troubled. if I am angry at what happens. If you are fond of a jug. which the Stoic ought to include in any decision with regard to action: the Stoic chooses to act. is nothing dreadful. if you tell yourself straightaway: "I wish to bathe and [at the same time] to keep my deliberate conduct in line with nature. in the sense of 'watching'. you will not be troubled. stealing from one another. concerning death. The Stoic puts the thought in front of his/her mind to protect himself against erroneous judgments as a hoplite puts a shield in front of himself to guard oneself against being injured. to bathe]. will be offered to you. . If you kiss your own child or wife. bumping into each other. and [it is the business] of one who has been educated [to blame] neither another nor himself. but also to keep my deliberate conduct in line with nature. for instance." V The things themselves do not trouble men.
at this time be elated. lest it [viz. having been called. if toil is imposed upon you. but must keep your mind aimed at the ship and unceasingly turn toward it. and Epictetus merely observed: "Did I not tell you that it would break?" 5.3 IX Disease is an impediment to the body. Therefore. By putting one's desires in line with the natural order of things. thus it is also in life: if you are given. the Stoic will be unimpeded in his/her movements. For then you will be elated at some good of yours. deliberate conduct] consents. but will for whatever happens [to happen] as it happens. [you must] give up all these things. remember to turn your attention to yourself so as to inquire what faculty you have for making use of that situation. EUROH/SEIS: lit. a little wife or a child. Say this also for each event which befalls you. if you take off to get water. on a voyage. who is quoting Celcus: One day. X Before each event which befalls you. whenever you are in line with nature in the use of your representations. Epictetus said quietly: "You will break my leg. as a stream following its course. Lameness is an impediment to the legs4. Thus. The story comes from Origen." A few moments later. but you. lest the helmsman should call. when your ship has been brought into harbor. If you see an attractive man or woman. lest you are dumped in the ship all bound-up like the sheep. it would be bearable. if verbal 3. spent the rest of his life crippled in one leg after a fateful run-in with his master. But if the Helmsman should call. whenever you say in your elation: "I have a beautiful horse". you will find self-control [to be] the faculty you have upon that situation. Should the horse. KARTERI/AN is usually translated 'endurance'. you will find the faculty to bear patiently5. know that you are elated at the good of a horse. and should he call. but not to deliberate conduct. 4. in his elation. 'you will flow well'. but not to deliberate conduct. VII Just as. you may besides pick up a small shell-fish or some tiny bulb. what is yours? The use of representations. instead of a tiny bulb or small shell-fish. VIII Do not seek for whatever happens to happen as you will. And if you are an old man. you might be left behind. but not to you. when Epaphroditus was twisting Epictetus' leg particularly hard (perhaps after the former felt some appointed task had been mis-managed). which is fine as long as one keeps in mind that what is . for you will discover it [to be] some impediment to something else. and you will live well. say: "I am beautiful". Epictetus. it broke. Epaphroditus. a former slave.3 VI You should be elated at no advantage which is another's. you will not be hindered. do not go too far from the ship lest. drop all these things and run to the ship without looking back.
you are silly. For you are willing for matters who are not up to you to be up to you. but anyone who is caring about one of these [viz. cheap wine gets stolen. Similarly. Begin. It is the flip side to ANEXI/KAKOS ('forbearing'. 7. forbearing. at such a price. Your wife has died? She has been given back. or externals] must necessarily neglect the other.4 abuse. and for what is another’s to be yours. let go of such reasonings: "If I neglect my affairs. dare to seem thoughtless and silly regarding external things. And having habituated yourself thus. you are stupid. XIII If you want to make progress. But he is not in such a happy state that it depends upon him that you are not disturbed. either keeping conduct in line. For it is better to die by hunger. an aptitude to endure psychological abuse. but the context seems to suggest the interpretation I have adopted. with small matters. "My estate has been taken away. For you are willing for wickedness not to be wickedness. When you summon your slave-boy. XI Never say about anything: "I have lost it". 8. TO\N PAI=DA could also mean ‘my child’. being disturbed. your representations will not carry you away. in the next sentence). XIV If you will that your children and wife and friends always live. that he will not do what you wish. I will have no sustenance". "If I do not punish my slave-boy6. For the Stoic the only wickedness is that which results of an improper orientation of one’s own . as those who have just arrived there [care for] their inn. peace of mind. being without grief and fear. but something else. therefore. care for it as something which is another's. through whom the Giver asked it back? As long as He gives it. but "I have given it back". and should someone think that you are somebody important7. XII If you want to make progress. ‘a somebody’. and. For conceed that it is not easy to hold your deliberate conduct in line with nature and also to maintain external things. Lit.8 But if you meant is not a physical aptitude (like perhaps 'fortitude') but a wholly conative ability to 'endure' physical abuse. if he listens. he will become worthless". Cheap oil gets spilled. And it is better for your slave-boy to be wicked than for you to be unhappy. distrust yourself. 6. if you will that your slave-boy never errs." Well then. following most editors. "But the person who took it is wicked!" What does it matter to you." Nothing is acquired freely. take to heart that it is possible that he will not listen. it has also been given back. Your child has died? She has been given back. than to live in plentifulness. Tell yourself: "At such a price is bought freedom from disturbance. do not wish to seem erudite.
this is in your power. but their colleague. partake of it moderately. then you will not only be the drinkingfellow of the Gods. that which is in your power. . therefore. Be mindful. let him not will anything nor run away from anything which is up to others. Whoever. but wait until it happens to arrive at you. XV Remember that you must dwell [in this life] as in a banquet. For in so doing. whether because a child has gone abroad or because he has become separated from his possessions. "[remember] to act even this role adroitly". XVIII deliberate conduct (PROAI/RESIS).9 And this is such [whether your role is that] of a cripple. even when it has been set in front of you." Still do not shrink from accommodating him as far as words go. it is long. Oldfather relates this I(/NA clause with ME/MNHSO. or of a layman. thus concerning wealth. wishes to be free. thus concerning offices.5 will not to miss what you are reaching at. XVII Remember that you are an actor in a play of such a sort as the playwright wishes. [Act] thus concerning children. therefore. It seems to me that E. It goes by. even to groan together with him. But should you not partake of it [at all]. do not halt it. but to pick out that part is another's. be mindful that the representation that he is the midst of external evils does not carry you away. The master of each man is he who holds power over what that man wishes or has in aversion. regarding both their acquisition or their privation. however. It is therefore to fundamentally misunderstand the nature of wickedness to will for unpleasant events which are ultimately dependent on either nature or the deliberate conduct of others to be under one’s control. For it is your task to play finely the part given to you. and therefore I prefer to simply understand an omitted E)/STI to make it into a regular purpose clause. if long. it is short. not to groan within [yourself]. if he does not do this. would have then used O(/TI. but straightaway have at hand the answer that: "It is not what happened which afflicts him (since it does not affect another [to whom the same thing has happened]). It has not come yet. but his judgment about it. having stretched out your hand. 9. Some treat being passed around arrives at you. do not project your desire far off. and at some point you will be a worthy drinking-fellow of the Gods. if he wishes it to be short. Exercise. [it is] in order that you play gracefully even this role. Diogenes and Heraclitus and the like became both worthily divine and deservedly so called. If he wishes that you play a beggar. and if it so happens. but instead look over it. thus concerning wife. of a ruler. XVI Whenever you see someone lamenting in grief. he is necessarily a slave.
11.6 Whenever a crow croaks in a foreboding manner. For whatever results from them. For if once you should gain time and delay. you are carried away by your representations. Most likely the remainder is meant as a consequence of the practice of the former clause. lest seeing someone honored above you or with great power. to divide the representation from what 'it promises'. That is. but a factor of his/her own judgment on that representation." and "Wither comes to us this high brow?" But you. or some other which you have pronounced happy on account of his good repute. neither ill-will nor jealousy has a place. XXII If you set your heart upon philosophy. you will rule over yourself more easily. For if the nature of the good is among these things which are up to us. and [then]11 you will neither lay to heart base thoughts nor will you desire something too much. every [omen] bodes well. to have many people mock you. throughout the day. And you yourself will not wish to be a general. but either for my paltry body. to be told "A philosopher has returned to us. or a consul. do not keep a high brow. but your judgment that these things are outrages. be sure that it is your opinion which has irritated you. as if you were ordered by God to 10. but death most of all. my paltry opinion. first endeavor not to be carried away by representations. Therefore. And there is one path to this. Accordingly. but [only] a free man. The Stoic must operate this division to recognize that the latter part is not in the representation itself. whenever someone irritates you. prepare yourself at once to be ridiculed. all of a sudden. death and exile and every terrible representation. simply hold to these things which appear best to you. to derive benefit from it is up to me. XXI Hold before your [mind's] eyes. XX Remember that it is neither he who reviles you or strikes you that outrages you. As for me. XIX It is possible to be invincible. Look out. but straightaway divide [it] in your mind10 and say: "These [omens] are not for me. do not let the representation carry you away. if I will it to. my paltry possessions. . or a prytane. and consequently within the control of the Stoic. to look down upon the things which are not up to us. if you do not land yourself into contests whose victory is not up to you. but it could almost just as well be a further listing of precepts. my children or my wife.
Nic. Once for having started on the path of philosophy. you for whom it is necessary to be somebody only in these things that are up to you. faithfulness. "so that we ourselves can have [some]. 13. appear [as such] to yourself and it will be enough. you will be ridiculed two-folds." he says. of course is the same: steadfastness in the pursuit of philosophy. and it seemed unfortunate to lose the flavor. But if you expect me to abandon the goods which are mine in order that you may acquire things which are not goods. For the Stoics. For each person (and a fortirori for a philosopher. but if you should be defeated by them. modesty. anymore than [to be] ashamed. they say.7 keep this post. concerning which things it is possible for you to be of the highest worth? But your friends will be helpless? What do you mean by 'helpless'? They will not get small change from you. And if 12. 14. what do you wish the most? Money.12 And remember that if you should cleave to [this post]13. it is not possible for you to be in evil on account of another. MEGALO/PHRONA.17 "But my homeland. And also. Apology 30e).15 Therefore isn't it not your task to gain office or to be invited at a feast? Surely it isn't. the very ones who formerly ridiculed you will later be amazed. And why is this [a problem]? For it neither has shoes on account of the blacksmith. 15. and if you also wish to be seen as one. nor will you make them citizens of Rome. show me the way and I shall acquire it. consequently.14 XXIII If it should ever happen that you turn toward external [goods] with a view to be pleasing to someone. 17. which is always up to us." Again.g. The main idea. and do not expect me to do these [deeds]. and once for not carrying through with it." For if the lack of honor is an evil. Enchiridion 17). "will be helpless. There is surely here a reminiscence of Socrates' own divinely-appointed station in Athens (e. XXIV Do not let these considerations distress you: "I shall live without honor and be nobody anywhere. insofar as it is up to me." If it is possible to acquire it while keeping myself modest and faithful and high-minded16. IV. Oldfather translates "if you abide [by the same principles]" but it seems to me that the clause ties rather naturally with the previous one. . 18. nor armament on account of the shoemaker. in all things to be a philosopher. PATRI/S (homeland) is feminine. terminology perhaps inspired by Aristotelian MEGALOPSYCHI/A (magnanimity) (cf. see for yourself how unfair and senseless you are. Be satisfied. be certain that you have trashed your way of life.3). or a faithful and modest friend? Therefore assist me to this end. nor public baths. rather than the affairs of another? And who can give to another that which he himself does not have? "Then acquire [some money]". while honor and shame aren't. what kind of help would this even be? She18 will not have colonnades by your account. 16. viz.. So how could this still be lack of honor? And how could you be 'nobody anywhere'. It is rather enough if each should fulfill his own task. each person is brought into existence in order to fulfill a specific role (cf. As the only evil is moral evil. [But] then who told you that these are things which are up to us. who should be in a better position than anyone else to understand this) to shy away from one's role (into another) or to perform it badly is tantamount to sacrilege against Nature. through which I would abandon these [qualities]. Eth.
for you did not have to commend the man you did not want to commend. of what profit would you be to her. but if [these things] are evil. [since you are] not doing [what is done by] he who obtains these things which are not up to us. Thus adopt [the same attitude] towards matters of greater importance. you want to take the latter for free. XXVI The will of nature is to be learned thoroughly from the ways in which we do not differ from one another. 19. Now. it is straightaway at hand to say: "It is something that happens. For instance. But if. For how is it possible that he who does not roam about someone's door19 have the same as he who is roaming? For one who does not escort [to have the same] as he who escorts? For he who does not praise [to have the same] as he who praises? Therefore. not having paid an obol. whenever another's slave-boy breaks a wine-cup. or in a public notice. one's principles. wishing to help her. would you not be helping her? "Yes. it is necessary that you act in the same way as when [the wine-cup] of another gets broken. To beg for favors. 21. viz. Therefore should one who has paid an obol get his lettuce. while you. if you have turned out to be shameless and unfaithful?" XXV Has someone been honored above you at a banquet. And surely here it is the same. But if you both wish not to give it [viz. you throw away these [qualities]. 20." Consequently you yourself would not be useless to her. you cannot expect [to obtain] the same things. you are insatiable and a good-fornothing. if. or in being received by one for a consultation? If these things are good. as it may. the price at which he sells his meal.8 you have furnished her with another faithful and humble citizen. not giving over these things20 at which price those21 are sold. You have not been summoned to some banquet? It is because you have not paid. "what position shall I hold in the state?" Whatever [position] you can [hold] while preserving the faithful and humble man [that it is your task to be]. at which price heads of lettuce are sold? An obol. whenever your own [wine-cup] also gets broken. or his wife. Then give him the price at which it is sold. "Then. There is nobody that will not say: "It [viz. do not take yourself to be worse off than he who got his lettuce. straightaway [one hears] "Ah! I am wretched!" One must remember [at that time] how we feel hearing about the same [predicament] concerning another person. externals. death] is suited to mankind. do not be vexed that you did not happen upon them. nor did you have to endure [the insults] of his doormen." Therefore it stands to reason that. And he sells it for commendation. . Remember that. For just as he has his lettuce. he sells it for flattery. the thing which you think profits you]." But one of one's own dies. you have the obol which you have not given. you ought to rejoice that he happened upon them. do not get it. if it profits you. the price asked] over and to have that [viz. viz. Do you then have nothing instead of the meal? Surely you have." he says. you would be unjust and insatiable. to he who summons. The child of another has died.
a 'jack-ofall trades'. now a gladiator. they wish to philosophize themselves. so that. at a regular time. you will be turning back like children do. now play the trumpet and now act a tragedy.9 XXVII Just as a target is not set up for the missing [shot]22. Then. if you can bear it. Moral evil does not occur because people actively 'aim' at performing evil acts. as he spoke?). If you do not do this. nor wine whenever you happen upon it. you imitate whatever you see. then a philosopher. first set your attention upon the nature of the deed.)"] somewhat misses the point of this imagery drawn from archery. Man. it is agitated and disturbed. then also observe well your own nature. no independent 'principle' of evil needs to be postulated.. and one thing after another is pleasing to you. are you not ashamed of that? XXIX Concerning each task consider that which precedes it and that which follows it. keep off cakes and train under compulsion. This failure of judgment concerning the use of representations exhaustively explains the occurrence of evil. go compete. but as an ape. your thighs. nor after having gone around it. Rather. thus a 'nature of evil' does not occur in the world-order. then a orator. if you still desire it. But that you commit your own mind to anyone who chances upon you. during the contest. sometimes take a beating and besides all of this be vanquished. when some have seen a philosopher and heard someone speaking thus. Do you desire to win at Olympia? Me too. follow a strict diet. observe 22. 23.. sometimes break your hand. Epictetus is perhaps repeating the contrast established a few lines earlier between one who tries to do everything (the five exercises of the pentathlon) and one who wishes to do only one thing and to do it . you would be vexed. like Euphrates spoke (but who. swallow much sand. who now play wrestlers. you must not drink cold water. can speak thus. PE/NTATHLOS could also mean in common parlance 'one who tries his hand at everything. For you have never striven for something after having given it much consideration. after some difficulties have cropped up. and in light of these approach the task itself. You must be well-disciplined. Thus you also are now an athlete. you must dig against your opponent. Having reflected upon these things. looking at everything. inasmuch as you have never taken to heart any of the things next to it. by the Gods! For it is a neat achievement! But consider that which precedes it and that which follows it and in light of these undertake the task. at first you will readily come to it. but only at random and according to an indifferent heart. in the burning heat or in winter. everyone acts with a view to the good [everybody 'aims' at the same (abstract) target] yet are often misled as to what constitutes this good. but later. Do you wish to be one who practices the pentathlon23 or a wrestler? Look at your arms. Bywater's translation ["Just as a mark is not set up in order to be missed (. yet you are nothing with your whole soul. In the same manner. indeed. you will desert it shamefully. you must commit yourself to your manager absolutely as to a physician. XXVIII If someone was committing your body to any person who meets you. now gladiators. If you fail to do this. twist your ankle. if he abuses you.
be ridiculed by those you encounter.e. do not consider that which he does. These occupations do not harmonize. freedom. [thinking] thus. For it is the nature of every living thing to flee and turn away from hurtful representations and their causes. He is a father. you will blame and hate those who are the causes of this. For no one harms you. you will never once blame the Gods nor accuse them of neglecting you. either good or bad. and are administering the whole finely and justly. For one is born for one thing. if you do not wish it. in court. Examine these matters. to play the role of a philosopher. then an orator. i. be inferior in everything: in honor. XXXI In reverence toward the Gods. work hard. whenever you fail to happen upon that which you want and fall into that which you do not want. do not come forward.e. If you are not. later a tax-gatherer. you must love to practice either the craft of the inner man or that of outer things. One is led [by this role] to take care of him. in every little thing. of a citizen and of a general. And that is because. if you accustom yourself to the contemplation of social roles. in office." Well then. be hard to please as you are now? You must be watchful. Therefore it is impossible for one thinking that he is being hurt to rejoice in that which he believes is hurting him. You must be one person. also to have set yourself to obey them and to yield to everything that happens and to go along with it willingly as its fulfilling proceeds from the best intelligence. to withdraw when he rails at you or strikes you. 'philosophizing'] you can eat the same way. doing this [i. "My brother does me wrong. It is not possible for this to happen in any other way. you must cultivate either your ruling-principle or externals. "But my father is wicked". not like a child. if you conceive of these former things as being good or evil. calm. know that the supreme thing is this: to hold the right conceptions about them. Whenever you accept to be harmed. Have you. at that time you have been harmed. you will discover the duty of a neighbor.10 your loins. Do you think that. been placed by nature upon the abode of a good father? No. lest you lift [your conceptions of] good and evil away from the things which are not up to us and put them solely among those things which are up to is. XXX Our duties are generally measured by our social roles. desire in such a way. or that of a laymen. drink the same way. but that which you will do if your deliberate choice is to be held in accordance with nature. then. to give way to him in every matter. and to stay among and admire helpful representations and their causes. be looked down upon by a paltry slave. it is absolutely necessary that. therefore. then a procurator of Caesar. withdraw from your own people. For. keep your disposition toward him. for instance that they exist. just as one is incapable of rejoicing in the pain itself. but upon that of a father.now a philosopher. whether you are willing to exchange these things for tranquility. If such fashion. . another for another thing. and thinking kingly power to be good is what made well. Consequently [it is necessary that] even a father is reviled by his son whenever he does not give the son a share in the things that are believed [by the son] to be good.
indeed. you shall remain mostly silent or chatter [only] the necessary remarks. or the mutilation of some part of the body. On account of this. as well. Therefore. but that you have come so as to learn this from the diviner himself. whoever cares to desire and avoid as one must. in a niggardly way. do not bring to the diviner desire or aversion nor approach him in trembling but. and [these] in few words. . Therefore take heed. you will be able to utilize it finely and no one will hinder this.11 Polyneices and Eteocles enemies of each other. lead your words. and to offer these purely and not in a slovenly or negligent manner nor. It is no accident that we often refer to a person's 'character' when we wish to discuss his or her moral worth. For if it is amongst the things which are not up to us. on account of this those who have lost their wives and children. nor beyond our capacity. not about athletes. along with 24. and then. to the greatest of the diviners. But [all of this] seldomly. you have come [to him] [already] knowing it. when one must incur danger along with [one's] friend or fatherland. a type of coin is distinguished from another. praising or comparing people. Therefore. if it is like this. cares about piety at the same time. when the occasion requires you to talk. XXXII When you venture into divination. Also. there is also the piety. yet what this is like. Thus. do not divine whether to share this danger. not about horse-races. the Pythian25. 25. The CHARAKTH/R is the distinctive mark through which.these topics that crop up everywhere. Go to divination just as Socrates deemed proper. then clearly it is death that is indicated. to sacrifice and to offer the first fruits according to the ways of our fathers. whenever some advice has been given you. having [first] determined that everything that will turn out is indifferent and nothing to you and [secondly] that. Apollo. remember that you do not know how it will turn out. if it is possible. XXXIII Straightaway stamp on yourself some character and type26 which you shall keep whether you are by yourself or meeting with people. not about food or beverages. in particular. But [it is appropriate] as well to make libations. remember who you have taken as advisors and who you will be disobeying if you take no heed. if you are a philosopher. who threw out of the temple he who did not assist his friend while he was being killed. Therefore. 26. indeed. the farmer reviles the Gods. For where the profit is. but above all not about blaming. Thus. E)/MPOROS could also mean 'merchant'. but reason makes away even with these things to stand besides the friend and incur danger alongside one's fatherland. confidently go to the Gods as you would go toward advisors. it is absolutely necessary that it will be neither good nor bad. then talk but about no ordinary topic: not about gladiators. or exile. in cases when the entire inquiry is [undertaken] with a view to the outcome and the starting point to [one's] acquaintance with the matter at hand is neither given neither through reason nor through some other craft. on account of this the sailor. For if the diviner tells you that the omens of things to come are bad. on account of this the traveler24.
a garment. taking account of these things. exert your attention lest you once slip into the trivial. partake [only] of what is lawful. there should be an opportune moment. that you will be barred [from entry].e. to attend spectacles. wish that happens only what does happen. the sexual urge]. And if. A)NEPACHQE\S. but once you are present. that he will not pay attention to you. even if he himself happens to be clean. that the doors will be slammed in your face. do not talk much about what happened.: TOU\S SOU\S LO/GOUS. like food. Stay away from exterior festivities and private parties. After you have departed. do not speak in your defence against that which has been said. it is proper that you go. do not mention often that you do not indulge in it yourself. else he would not have spoken only about these. above all one of those which is held to be eminent. remain pure before marriage insofar as it is possible. And as for shouting. For from such behavior it is revealed that you have been amazed by the spectacle. those who rub against him must necessarily also get soiled. bracket out everything that is oriented towards fame or luxury. put forward to yourself. Obtain leave from [every] oath." It is not necessary. . "What would Socrates or Zeno have done in this regard?" and you will not be without resources to make proper use of the situation you have fallen into. drink. 28. keep your dignity and firmness while not making yourself burdensome. become neither oppressive nor reproving of those who indulge in it. if you can. Concerning bodily matters only take the bare necessities. Do not attend people's public readings at a venture. entirely. nor readily. If. But if you have [already] been grasped by it [i. for in that way you will not be hindered. show (yourself) anxious for none but yourself. as much as possible. and that wins only he who does win. keep silence. nor at many things. For know that if one's companion is stained. nor carelessly. Accepting MSS C un. Whenever you go toward one of great power. But. If you happen to be left alone among foreigners. Moreover. but if not.28 Whenever you intend to meet someone. as you are going bear what happens and never tell 27. surely. but if an opportune moment ever comes. avoid it altogether. [but] only as much as bears upon your own improvement. If somebody reports to you that so-and-so is bad-mouthing you. in general. toward a befitting topic. put forward to yourself that you will not find him at home. Or 'while not taking offense'. that is. however. laughing at anyone or getting all riled-up. Concerning your sex-life.12 those of your companions27. but reply: "Surely he did not know about the other evils which cleave to me. however. Do not laugh much. a house and servants.
Then call to mind both times. recall not only the value for the body of that which you are seeing lying before you. that at which you will enjoy the pleasure. be attentive. In your associations. never shrink from being seen doing it. Therefore whenever you are eating together with another. and that at which after having enjoyed it you will repent and reproach your very self. lest you be carried away by it. but also to preserve modesty toward your host. by maintaining silence and blushing and frowning. why do you fear those that will chastise you wrongly? XXXVI Like the sentences "it is day" and "it is night" are of much value when separated30.e. lest you will be defeated by its pleasantness. 30. for the layman also lays the blame on externals. shrink from the deed itself29. XXXIV Whenever you receive some impression of pleasure. it is not so pleasant for others to hear about what happened. By a disjunction. For. but worthless if combined31. But if [it is] not [opportune] clearly show. for this slippery behavior slides into vulgarity and at once suffices to cause the shame of your neighbors upon you. that you are disgusted by these words. set against these how much better it is to know about yourself that you have conquered this victory against it. XXXV Whenever you do something. if it is opportune. 31. even rebuke he who has thus indulged. even if the multitude should be likely to assume that it is not such a good act. having discerned that it is to be done. but it is worthless for the preservation of the social attitudes which are proper in the context of a banquet. And set against these the manner in which you will rejoice and commend yourself if you abstain. For if what you are doing is not right. keep away from mentioning at great length and excessively any of your own deeds or ventures. . "it is day and it is night". as it is pleasant for you to mention your ventures. Avoid causing laughter as well. "It was not [worth] so much [inconvenience]". just as in the case of other [impressions]. XXXVII 29.e. its sweetness and its allure. But if an opportune moment reveals itself for you to undertake the deed.13 yourself. but if it is right. and grant yourself some delay. not only the impression]. It is also dangerous to proceed into foul language. As opposed to merely being seen doing it. thus also to pick up the greater part [of a meal] is of value for the body. I. but let yourself entertain the thing itself [i. Therefore whenever such a thing happens. guard yourself.
you are attentive lest you should set foot on a nail or sprain your foot. you will be gentle toward the man who reviles you. If. in walking about. XXXIX The body of each person is the measure of one's possessions. so that if things appear wrongly for him. For if somebody supposes a true composite judgement to be false. you will be carried off.14 If you assume a role which is beyond your powers. just as [it is] also [the case] for your shoe -if you go beyond the foot. they begin to beautify [themselves] and in this hold all of their hopes. and neglect that one which you would have been able to fulfill. much excreting and copulating. remember that he acts or speaks [in this manner] because he thinks it appropriate." [Oldfather] . therefore. you stand firm by this rule. thus be attentive. should be adjusted to a man's actual bodily needs. property."' 32. by the rest. which is of use only for the body. but he who has been deceived. there is no limit. are called "ladies" my men. Seeing. then a purple one. let all of your attention be turned towards the mind. as in much exercise. therefore. XLI It is the sign of a lack of faculties to dwell upon the things which concern the body. XLII Whenever someone does you ill or bad-mouths you. it is not the composite judgement who is hurt. that man is hurt. XXXVIII Just as. XL Women. just as a show is (or at least should be) adjusted to the actual needs of a man's foot. Starting from these considerations. Therefore it is worthwhile to dedicate oneself [to the task] that they learn that they are honoured for no other reason than appearing orderly and modest. Therefore it is impossible for him to follow the way things appear to you. These things are to be done in a secondary fashion. you will preserve the measure. that nothing belongs to them but [only] to sleep with men. straightaway from the age of fourteen. just as is anyone who has been deceived. "That is. then an embroidered one. much eating. as the foot [is the measure] of a shoe32. but if you go beyond it. you both disgrace yourself in this one. but [only the way things appear] to him. For you ought to utter in each case: "It seemed so to him. as if down a precipice. we shall undertake the deed in a safer manner. For once you have gone beyond the measure. And should we keep close watch on this in every deed. much drinking. lest you should also sprain your ruling faculty. you will acquire a gilded shoe.
'that he is bathing/drinking badly'. 35. And whenever somebody tells you that you know nothing. and he used to lead them [to these philosophers].". do not grab the matter by this handle: that he is unjust (for this is the handle by which it is not to be borne). Since even sheep do not. "I am more eloquent than you. 'that he is drinking much'. Someone is drinking much wine. show them how much they have eaten. but that [he is drinking] much [wine]. and you are not stung [with vexation]. therefore I am superior to you". Viz. but they digest their food inside and bear wool and milk on the outside. but that [he bathes] hastily. nor your speaking style. therefore my possessions are superior to yours. 34. at a banquet. that you were brought up together. 'that he is bathing hastily'. "I am more eloquent than you. For until the judgment [which prompts his action] has been discerned. how can it be that you know whether it is [done] badly? Thus it may not result that you receive direct representations of certain matters34. but give your assent to others. but eat as one ought to. In this context. therefore I am superior to you". but these expressions have better coherence: "I am richer than you. so that people came to him when they wished to be introduced to philosophers by him. do not say that [he is drinking] badly. do not say how one ought to eat." For you are neither your possessions. the Stoic seeks to harmonize the propositions he gives his assent to with his direct representations. but [instead] do what follows from these theories. If your brother is unjust toward you. Epictetus is playing with the double meaning of the verbal adjective φορητός : that which is (physically) carried. in other contexts. usually keep silent. do not say that [he bathes] badly. the other by which it cannot. For [you must] remember that Socrates had set aside every kind of ostentation. to avoid fear ('there is much rain and lightning' as opposed to 'this is a storm which will sink my ship'. XLIV These expressions are incoherent: "I am richer than you.15 XLIII Every matter has two handles. therefore my speaking style is superior to yours. Through the discipline of his judgment. and you will grab it by that [handle] which can bear it. then know that you have begun your work. To such an extant was he content to be overlooked. as for you. this is to avoid falsely attributing motives. having brought their grass to the shepherds. Viz. For instance. 33. philosophical principles] which you have not digested. one by which it can be borne33. it might serve e.35 XLVI Never call yourself a philosopher nor usually chat about [your philosophical] theories with laymen. but rather from that handle: that he is your brother.g. or that which is (emotionally) endured. And if some discussion concerning [philosophical] theories arises among laymen. for there is great danger that you will vomit that [viz. XLV Somebody is bathing hastily.) .
[viz. he accuses himself. And if someone praises him. he laughs inside at he who is complimenting him. But when I find the interpreter. he keeps close guard on himself as [if he was] an enemy and a traitor. L Whatever [principles] you have taken upon yourself. [train] by yourself and not for those who are unconcerned in the matter. And as for these actions. if you drink water. do not hug statues. Whenever he is hampered or thwarted. accuses no one. pay no attention to it.16 therefore. then spit it out and tell nobody. he thinks nothing of it. whenever someone tells me "Read me Chrysippus". XLVIII Signs of one making progress: He censures no one. He goes about just as convalescents do. and if he is censured. this man would have nothing about which to be proud. do not make a show out of it nor. for it is not up to you. but when you are excessively thirsty. draw cold water [into your mouth]. Therefore I should rather blush. He has extracted from himself every desire. but once they have been digested [show] the actions that proceed from them. tell yourself: "If Chrysippus had not written so obscurely. If he seems foolish or ignorant. therefore I seek an interpreter [of Chrysippus]. abide in them as into laws. it is necessary to leave behind the prescriptions [and apply them]: this is the only thing to be proud about. But I do not understand his writings. And if you ever wish to train against pain. he does not defend himself. even so far. But if I should be amazed at the interpretation itself. say on every occasion that you drink water. says nothing about himself as if he was somebody [important] or knew something. He sets his impulse in reference to everything which has been sent forth. do not show off your [philosophical] theories. indeed.] wary of moving any one part which is getting better before it is fixed. and his aversion he has transfered only toward the things which." But as for me. . among those which are up to us. are contrary to nature. that I interpret Chrysippus rather than Homer. XLVII When you have become adapted to the frugal life insofar as the body is concerned. what do I want? To examine closely nature and to follow her. praises no one. what [has happened] but [that] I have turned into a grammarian rather than a philosopher? Except. as if you would become impious should you transgress them. is someone to interpret her. since I have not made my way into actions such as could be shown to harmonize with his words. there is nothing to be proud about. Whatever somebody says about you. In a word. therefore. I go to him. What I seek. XLIX Whenever someone is proud because he can understand and interpret the books of Chrysippus. and having heard that Chrysippus [is such a person].
that it is no longer possible to delay it and that whether progress is destroyed or saved hangs on a single day. and transgress in no wise the distinctions [established] by reason? You have received the [philosophical] principles to which you must agree. what a contradiction. on a single act. the first we neglect altogether. in life and death both. Yet we do the opposite. . Even if you are not yet a Socrates. and the second on account of the first. if. Therefore what kind of a teacher are you still expecting. I shall not follow [anything] lesser.17 LI How long still will you put off being yourself worthy of the best things. always build procrastination upon [prior] procrastination. having become wicked. So that I shall follow without hesitation. what a consequence. by taking directions from none of the things that came upon him but [only] from reason. but the most necessary and the one upon which we ought to settle [our attention] is the first. what truth. Therefore. LIII At any time we ought to have these [sayings] at hand [viz. Or perhaps "came to be worshipped" (ἀπετελέσθη) 37. and mark out one day and then another. what falsehood? Therefore. for we waste time on the third topic and all of our efforts are concerning this. after which you will devote [yourself] to yourself. but the actual application of it which consists in not lying. in mind]: "But lead me. the third topic is necessary on account of the second. And make everything which seems the best to you an inviolable law. but you will keep being a layman. such as: "From whence does it come that this is a demonstration?" For what is a demonstration. so that up to this time you should delay your own improvement? You are no longer a boy. O Zeus. but we have at hand how it is demonstrated that one ought not to lie. LII The first and most necessary topic in philosophy concerns the application of the principles. at any rate. indeed. And if you should approach something either toilsome or sweet. and you have agreed [to them]. such as: "From whence does it come that we must not lie?" The third [topic] confirms and explains these [demonstrations]. Thus Socrates made himself36. still you ought to live as one who desires to be a Socrates. 38. Therefore we lie. you will not notice that you have not improved. such as 'not to lie'. but already a grown man. remember that now is the contest. From a poem by the Stoic Cleanthes. I should not want to. highly esteemed or without any repute. slack off work. that the Olympic games are presently under way. Not the simple maxim. If now you are careless. already think yourself worthy to live as a mature man and one who is improving. and you Destiny.37 The second [topic] concerns demonstrations. To where I have been assigned by you both."38 36.
30c-d. so be it!"40 "Anytus and Meletus can kill me. Apology."41 39. . and versed in divine things. From Euripides. but they cannot harm me.18 "Anyone who has finely assented to necessity. From Plato. 965 (Nauck) 40. is wise according to us. 43d. 41. if this is pleasing to the gods."39 "But. frg. Crito. Crito. From Plato.
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