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--C- 1 -v--J 2015 -- j--- 2

- E. Pratap Varma, Bayyaram.


Q: Crocodile Physics -- --N-?-
A: -C Spoken English --C-*--C - -? -- -N--Jh-o.
Electricity, forces (-h-), motion (--L) --- -- --C-
822 *-- --A--Y -N----, ---- --- -- --.

Water plural --! Latest formal letter..


Mail your questions to
pratibhadesk@eenadu.net
- G.V. Rajeswari Devi, Shadnagar,
-- - - Latest format of a formal
Raja, Gudivada. letter (C---, u n-
Q: Sir, I studied somewhere that the words...
- D. Indira, K. Kameswara Rao and K. Q: Which one of the following two is correct? h- u--E )- --l..
Venkatesh, Hyderabad. i) No staff is working on Self Finance
material, audience, scenery, furniture, fish,
Q: Sir, when we use the word after Scheme. S ubject of the letter, you sent your brother
water are always plural forms. But some of
the books I read adding s' for these words. which tense we should use? ii) No staff are working in Self three books by Reg. post 15 days ago but
Please clarify. Present tense or Past tense? Finance Scheme. he has not received the parcel so far. Write
A: Scenery and furniture are always countable i) After I got to home, I will fin- A: When you talk of all the mem- a letter of complaint to the post master,
- that is, they don't have plurals and we ish my home work. bers of the staff, as a single unit, requesting him to look into the matter and
don't use a/ an before them. ii) After I get to home, I will fin- it is singular, so the verb is sin- see that the parcel is delivered.
Water is uncountable, as well, that is we ish my home work. gular too. n uC ! O t- O 15
never use a before it, but when we refer to M. SURESAN a) The staff (all of them taken as
- Which one is correct? V Registered post y
the water of a particular lake/ river/ sea or A: Both 'After I got to home.... I will finish one group) is very efficient. h- -. O post master
of a lake/ sea/ river in general, we use the my home work,' and, 'After I get to home, (Singular) %d C B-x h , p--j
plural form 'waters'. b) The staff are expecting a rise in their pay.
I will....' are Wrong. C -E -L.
eg: i) Water is a common liquid. (Plural)
a) In both the sentences, get to home is wrong.
ii) Water boils at 100C. Q: Sir, please let us know the meaning of
It should be 'get home'.
iii) The waters of the Ganga/ of the sea/ of would have been and could have been.
b) After I got home, I will finish my work -
the Kolleru Lake, etc.
Wrong. 'I will finish my work' refers to A: Would have been: This is imaginary past.
Fish is both singular and plural. full block form
Future and, 'After I got home' refers to the 'Would have been' expresses an imaginary C Jh --
When we refer to one fish, it is a fish. When situation (-t J-nA) (latest) l-A
Past - so this sentence is wrong (E- l.
we refer to more than one fish of the same C J C/ C ----p
kind/ species, it is singular.
x. y E Jh h
eg: The shark is a dangerous fish (singular).
?) C: 'Would have been' . M Venkatesh
a) If I had met him (= I did not meet him), I 408 Comfort Flats
Sharks are dangerous fish (Not fishes
would have been happy (I am not happy 219-13-14 Rayaji Nagar
though plural).
because I did not meet him.) Nellore 530004
Fishes, the plural of fish, refers to different
kinds of fish. Compare: b) If you had asked him, he would have been
here (y--E T (-- Jan 31 2014
a) The ocean is full of fishes (different
kinds). ) -E-\ - ( y--E
b) We had fish for dinner (one kind). The Post Master
-- d.)
Material and audience are both singular and 'Could have been' reflects ability that was
Head Post Office
plural - that is, they are both countable and not there (also, in the past).
Dargamitta
uncountable. This means.. Rx-, y E Nellore 530004
Eg: 1) Cement is a material used for building. Jh C p---:
Cement and brick are materials used for After I got home, I would finish my work Sir
building. L. Non-delivery of parcel
2) Audience - An audience of 1000 watched - * N-u p-, 'would'
the show.
. C u Indirect speech On the 12th of this month I sent by Reg
The audience were highly pleased with the
show.
--Th. Parcel a packet of three books to my broth-
Look at the following: er in Vijayawada. However, my brother
Q: In English what do we call the Telugu
I told him (that) after I got home, I would informs me that he has not received it till
word.. 'Nu-? If he had contested (
finish my home work. OR date. He needs the books very urgently and
A: No corresponding word in English for -) he could have been the win- I do not know why they have not been
'Nu-. The general term used is '-in- I am telling him (that) after I get home, I ner. (N- --L-- , -
delivered so far. I preferred postal services
laws' (plural). will finish my home work. d.) to courier services because I had always

Ex, Former --u --..?


felt that in person to person dispatches,
- K. K.Rao, Mortha. postal services are more reliable than
Q: Sir, please let me know whether we can courier services.
use 'sri' before a deceased person?
I enclose the photocopy of the Reg post
A: Usually we don't. We add 'late' before the
- B. Srinivas, Thallasankeesa. receipt. In addition I give the details
= vA-x name of a dead person. For example we
Q: Sir, please explain the usages of following
d- . below:
He is the sort of person who everybody say, Late M.S. Narayana, film actor, to
in Telugu with suitable examples. indicate that sri Narayana is dead. No Sri/
likes = d- -i uh . Date of dispatch: 12 Jan 2015
i) In view of ii) Sort of Mr/ Mrs, etc, after late.
iii) Hereby iv) Accordingly iii) Hereby = by this/ --. Reg post Receipt No: 5013, Dargamitta
I hereby make it known to everyone I am Some more examples: Late A. Nageswara
A: i) In view of = because of Post Office, Nellore 524003
giving up all my rights to the property = Rao, Late Anjali Devi, etc.
Addressed to M Jagadish, 14-15, KR
--/ v-- L-- late = C-- Road, Machavaram, Vijayawaada 520004
hoC, h Eo \ -- Q: When do we use 'Ex' and 'Former'?
, --o-E. A: Ex and former: Ex = former - Refers to a I request you to see that the books are
Hereby - Official (C--J), legal (d--- person, holding a position/ doing a job ear- delivered immediately.
i) v---x . lier
iv) Accordingly = According to what is stat- Ex/ former = @. Regards
ed above = v-. Eg: Dr APJ Abdul Kalam, Ex/ Former (Sd) M Venkatesh
In view of the high price of the car, I did The sons decided to divide the property President of India. Encl: Copy of the receipt of the Reg Post.
not buy it ( = Because of the high price of among themselves. Accordingly they divid-
the car, I did not buy it.) ed it into three equal parts = - hE '-p- --Tx- - -*- ---.. Address --Fo -Lp-
ii) Sort of = kind of () N->-------o. v- D, modern letter format for formal letters.
She is a sort of person who everybody likes Eo x --- . www.eenadupratibha.net J-Eo N- a-...
--C- 8 -v--J 2015 -- j--- 2
O -v-o- --Lq- -*--...
-p- --Tx-, -v-A- -N-,
--- u--, ---@ -t -,
--- (---), -f ->-x.
823 Email your questions to: pratibhadesk@eenadu.net

--Tx-- '--x-J --..? Q: Sir,


- Jagan Mohan Reddy; A. K. Saketh

1) What do we call the Telugu words


'illarikam' and 'illarikam alludu' in English.
Police Complaint
-j --
--?
- Lavanya, Hyderabad - Y.V. Chalapathi Rao,
2) What is "punyam" called in English?
-J we saw the model of an official let-
v
Q: Sir, Where can we use the word being Hospet, Karnataka. ter in the latest (----i) format.
3) India successfully 'test-fires' its longest
while we are talking on something? Can Q: Sir, Please explain the following meanings format Addresses , matter v
range ballistic missile. Why didn't they use
you explain me? in telugue as I have studied in 'test-fired' in that sentence?
vu E Jh . We don't find in
A: 1) Being is mostly used with the meaning Karnataka newspaper "The this format, Sub: (Short for subject - N)
A: 1) There is no corresponding
of 'To be' (). Deccan Herald" that 'CM is word / expression in English
-, N-Eo v h.
a) His being the minister is due to his brother Thanking you / --v--i T
understood to have briefted his for 'Illarikam', because there
= vA E o-x. (Salutation- Yours faithfully / Yours sincere-
cabinet colleagues about the is no such practice in England
ly / Yours truly, etc) . h Regards E
much-discussed issue of denoti- or the United States.
2) No proper word for 'Punyam' in
fication of BDA land at
v , h.

M. SURESAN English. The nearest is, 'virtue' -
Arkavathi layout'.
y - C
(Enclosures) , Encl: E , enclo-
"He is belived to have briefed 'attain virtue' (u -C--)
sures details h.
over the incident". but even these words do not accurately give
format E u
What is it's meaning in Telugu (it is an the meaning of 'punyam'.
x h . J
official letter l C -d- o
assumption or actually CM discussed). 3) News papers use simple past tense in their
b) His being here today makes me happy. = headlines, to indicate immediate past. It is
bike J* a Police Complaint.
A: CM is understood to have.... - this is the
an important aspect of journalistic language.
-E-\ o ----hC. C \ .
passive form of 'We/ they/ people under-
stand or He/ She/ The news reporter under- For example, to report a person's wedding,
stands the CM to have.... DE n, \ newspaper headlines say,
Lp N-Eo (issue of denotification Mr. so and so weds Ms. so and so or referring
of.... layout) , Cabinet --- N- to death, they say, 'so and so passes away'.
Letter of complaint to the Inspector, local
J-*--x v-----o, E. - G. Vivekananda, Secunderabad police station, about the theft of your
2) 'Being' is some times used with the mean- F - . - bike, and requesting them to trace it and
Q: Dear Sir, With reference to difference
ing of 'because'. , N-Eo vA-_ --- return it to you:
between 'ex' and 'former' discussed in the
Being clever, he always stands first in the u-vA N-J-*-x, v-h-o. This letter is in full block format, as that
above column, I may state that while 'for-
class = L-N----- x p (-j F/ vA N-J F.) is the form most in use now.
He is believed (Passive Voice) = We mer' refers to all previous persons held that
class --- h. position other than the last one, 'ex' relates
/ They / The people believe that... (Active M Ramana Rao
to the last person who held the same posi- 18-15-6 Anamika Road
Voice) = t----o N-J-*-x
tion. For example, while Rajiv Gandhi, Anada Teertha Agraharam
( C passive - - v Indira Gandhi, P.V. Narsimha Rao, etc.
) = u-vA N-J*x t--o Guntur 5220003
were all former prime ministers, only Mr. (Cell: 8664000213)
Manmohan Singh was the ex-Prime
(- -/ / vA N-J,
etc). ...
Minister of India. Similarly, a person may Feb 1 2015
It is said = People say.
have many former wives, he can have only
It is supposed = People suppose. (It is sup-
one ex-wife. This clarification needs to be The Inspector of Police
Being is used as an auxiliary verb in the posed that Tendulkar is the greatest crick-
brought to the notice of the readers please. III Town Police Station
passive form of continuous tenses: eter of all time = People suppose (
A: No standard dictionary or authorities on Guntur 5220003
ACTIVE PASSIVE
--) that Tendulkar is the greatest usage make the kind of distinction
cricketer of all time.) between, 'former' and 'ex' that you have
It is being done Sir
1. I am stated in your letter. All standard dictionar-
by me/ him/ her/ Report about the loss of my bike
He / she is ies treat the two words as the same. The
us/ you/ them.
We/ you/ point that 'ex-' refers to the immediate past On the 31st Jan, that is, yesterday, around 6
they are holder of a position, and that 'former' refers PM I parked my bike in front of Suruchi
doing it.
to all the previous persons in a position Cafe, Arundel Peta, locked it, and went in to
2. I/ he /she / It was being done
except the immediate past person is not have some snacks and coffee. Fifteen min-
it was by me/ him/ her/
supported by dictionaries or experts. For utes later, when I came out to take my bike,
We/ you/
us/ you/ them.
all practical purposes they are the same. I was shocked to find it missing. I made
they were Thanks any way for your valuable opinion. enquiries with the people around, but none
of them had any idea. I then concluded that
- M. Divya - Vijay Krishna K, Vizag the bike must have been stolen.
Q: Explain and give examples of Active Present Continuous Infinitive & Passive Infinitive
Q: Sir, can I know the difference between
(to be + past participle). It is hardly a year since I bought it. I give
Has to be and Had to be.
A: There are 4 kinds of infinitives: 1) The simple infinitive 2) The plain infinitive 3) The con- below the details of the bike:
A: 'Has to be' refers to the present / future, and
tinuous infinitive and 4) The perfect infinitive. Of these, the continuous infinitive has no
means 'must be'.
passive voice. Make: Hero Honda Splendor
He has to be here now, but he has not yet
S. No. Types of infinitives Active Voice Passive Voice come = -E-\ L p F -- Colour: Black, Model: 2013
Regn Number: AP 16 ZZ 1602
1 Simple Infinitive To do, to take, etc. To be done, to be taken etc. .
'Had to be' refers to the past. Chassis No: 888967532
Eg: He is to do it Eg: It is to be done by him.
Eg: He had to be there yesterday, but he did
Engine No: 2448096
2 Plain Infinitive Do, see, etc. Be done, be taken, etc. not go = Eo \ -LqC, F -
Eg: Let him do it Eg: Let it be done by him -\- x-. I shall be grateful if you could have the bike
'Had to be' is the past form of have to be (I/ traced and restore it to me as early as possible.
To be doing, to be taking, No Passive Voice
3 Continuous Infinitive etc. we/ you/ they) / has to be (He/ she/ it) /
Regards
should / must.
To have been done, to have M Ramana Rao
To have done, to have taken,
4 Perfect Infinitive
etc. been taken, etc. '-p- --Tx- - -*- ---.. Encl: Photocopy of the C Book
Eg: He seems to have done Eg: It seems to have been
it done by him www.eenadupratibha.net a-J J-Eo h- - l.
--C- 15 -v--J 2015 -- j--- 2
O -v-o- --Lq- -*--...
-p- --Tx-, -v-A- -N-,
--- u--, ---@ -t -,
--- (---), -f ->-x.
824 Email your questions to: pratibhadesk@eenadu.net

Foolish beliefs prevail... would - rather


- Rishita, Muralidhar Reddy.
Q: Sir, should we memorize the
list of prepositions that fol-
(= He has not completed the work)
3. Correct. No comparison here. The
sentence means, 'He has done only a
-..? - Rahamthulla, Proddatur
low the adjectives and verbs? small part of the work.'
- G. Prathap Varma, Bayyaram. G. Supraja.
If so give a list of such ones. 4. Totally incomplete - meaningless.
A: Only to some extent. The sentence can be, 'He has not Q: Sir please let me know the kinds of verbs/ Q: Sir, please explain the meaning of
Memorising prepositions is done the work.' Types of verbs. 'incumbent' in Telugu with examples.
OK, but we get a correct 5. OK. ( = He has done only a small A: There are mainly two types of verbs - A: Incumbent - More than one meaning -
knowledge of the use of part of the work). 1) Transitive verbs and 2) Intransitive verbs. i) Necessary for someone as a duty/
M. SURESAN
prepositions by reading a lot. Q: Your son is not supposed to behave responsibility = Compulsory = NC/
Transitive verbs have objects. That is, if
like that/ Your son shouldn't you put the question 'What'/ 'Whom', you get
*a- -Lq E.
- Murali Krishna G, Hyderabad. behave like that.
an answer. a) It is incumbent on the government to
Q: Sir, which is correct among the following? u u N-J---. eg: a) He is eating a mango - The verb in the ensure the health of the people = v-u
1. He has left the work more incomplete. A: Your son is not supposed to behave like
2. He has left the work incomplete. sentence is 'is eating'. Put the question vy NC/ p-E--J -Lq E.
that = Your son should not behave like 'What' to the verb. b) It is incumbent on me to take care of my
3. He has left the work mostly incomplete. that. parents in their old age = %l-j Lx--v-
He is eating what? - You get the answer 'a
4. He has left the work totally incomplete. - Sirajuddin. mango'. So it is a transitive verb. ---Lq NC C.
5. He has left the work largely incomplete. Q: Sir, please explain the below sentences. ii) Incumbent n: Person in an
b) She wrote a letter - The verb here is wrote.
A: Usually complete and incomplete do not Can we use the following sentences? official position = vh j
Put the question: She wrote what? You get
have degrees of comparison. Something is i) I don't watch time to go to market/ I don't the answer, a letter. So wrote (and so write) Ey--h-o-.
either complete or incomplete. Especially watch time to go for shopping/ I don't watch The incumbent of Rashtrapati Bhavan is
is a transitive verb.
in the case of complete, there is no such time to come online.
c) Krishna helped Rama. The verb here is, Mr Pranab Mukherjee/ The incumbent
thing as more / most complete. A: None of the three sentences have any 'helped'. Put the question, Krishna helped President (present- vh-) was earlier
1. He has left the work incomplete. 'More meaning. What do you want to say by the finance minister (vh Z-A, -
whom? You get the answer 'Rama'. So
incomplete' in the sentence above is mean- these sentences? helped (and so help) is a transitive verb. Jn vA).
ingless because there is no comparison here. j sentences n , d N sen- 2) Intransitive Verbs: Intransitive verbs do Q: Sir, how to use would rather? Please
2. He has left the work incomplete - Correct tences . O p----o-? explain.
not answer to the question, whom/ what
He goes there everyday. A: Would rather = prefer = like one thing
- S. Nehru, Vijayawada. more than another. Usually, 'would
The verb here is, goes (that is, go). Put the
'Be' is also used as a part of the verb question, go what (Eo x)/ go whom (- rather' is used to indicate a choice
forms ending with be: Shall be/ should be/ JE x) No answer. So 'go' is an intransi- between two things.
will be/ would be, etc. tive verb. I would rather have no coffee than have
'Been' is not a finite verb and is never used A good number of verbs have more than the coffee in that restaurant ( x
independently. It is a part of the 'be' form one meaning. Such verbs may be transitive - - - d-
(verbs ending with be/ been). with one meaning, and intransitive with --) = I prefer no coffee to having
Q: Sir, please explain where and how to use another meaning. coffee in that restaurant.
eg.: have/ has/ had/ should have/ would
the words 'be, been, being' with exam- eg: The verb, run. Run has more than one He would rather you go away than stay
have, etc. + been.
ples. meaning - the first one, of course, is move here = He prefers (likes more) your going
a) He would have been here if we had asked
A: 'Be' is used only in imperative sentence very fast (--h). away than staying here.
him.
that is, as a finite verb, and the subject is He runs very fast.
always you. b) We have been here for the past half an
hour. The verb is runs - Put the question, runs - Bhagawan.
eg.: a) Be here till I come back = You be here
'Being' is not a finite verb, either but is
what (Eo --h-)/ whom (-JE -- Q: Sir, I have read one sentence given in
till I come back.
only an '-ing' form.
h-?) - No answer. So with the meaning recent lesson. (1) He had to be there yes-
b) Don't be foolish = You don't be foolish. (In --h, 'run' is intransitive.
all these sentences be = stay = Being ill, he did not come ( = Because he terday but (2) he did not go there - DE
'Run' also means, managing (-/ Ey-
(y) was ill, (s x) he did not O 'Eo \ -LqC F -
Be here = come).
-). -\- x- E a. But meaning
eg: He runs a school.
\ (y);
of (1) sentence would be '--\ --
Put the question 'What?' (Eo) *aC --\ o E
- M. Sushma Sai. He runs what? - Answer: a school, so runs, ? please clarify my doubt.
Q: Sir, what is the difference between here is a transitive verb. A: 'Had to be' means, it was compulsory for
i) Called and called upon. Only transitive verbs have passive voice. him to be there, but he was/ was not
ii) Prevail and prevail upon - Please clarify. Intransitive verbs do not have passive voice, there. (--\ -LqC o
A: Called - the past tense (V2) of call = a) to except in imperative sentences (commands, C pd L-. -u
give somebody a name. requests, etc). He had to be there = --\ -LqC,
They call their child Hemanth (x Gf These are the two important kinds of o E n a.
be very common at a certain place and verbs. There are other kinds too, but to be able y He did not go there E p x
E d). time = - - j J-nA/ to write and speak good English, we need not
b) To draw somebody's attention by using Lq *a \- x- E pd---
know them.
their name. (-).
- . C.
eg: Foolish beliefs prevail in almost all coun- Q: - f Ea? -
He called me when I was going to college He should have gone there = He was
tries = --t- Eo - x
(college x-p o L.) o h-o. o - - to have gone, but did not go - sentence,
o. . Please translate this into English. He should have gone there n, x-
Call n o... b) Win = -; Justice and truth prevail in A: Please stand in front of me to hide me from
Called upon - Past tense of call upon = To the end.
Lq x- E pd n hC.
my dad.
He had to be there = --\ Lq
invite somebody to make a speech or take Prevail upon = persuade = a--p
their seat on the dais. (-u a-/ Finally I prevailed upon him to join the '-p- --Tx- - -*- ---..
*aC ( a/ a).
He should have been there = --\
C O y-E-). team = *-J--o p- d
2) Prevail = a) To be very common/ exist or -. www.eenadupratibha.net -LqC, F .